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Pharmacotherapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423192/systematic-review-of-the-safety-and-efficacy-of-palivizumab-among-infants-and-young-children-with-cystic-fibrosis
#1
Kok Pim Kua, Shaun Wen Huey Lee
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common pathogen in infants with cystic fibrosis (CF). The use of palivizumab prophylaxis for RSV infection as the standard of care for infants with CF remains controversial. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of palivizumab in reducing the incidence of RSV hospitalization in children with CF who are younger than 2 years of age. METHODS: Four electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and CENTRAL) were searched from inception until January 31, 2017 for clinical studies investigating the use of palivizumab in infants with CF aged less than 2 years...
April 19, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417479/accp-template-for-evaluating-a-clinical-pharmacist
#2
Mary Lee, Melissa E Badowski, Nicole M Acquisto, Douglas F Covey, Brian D Fox, Sarah M Gaffney, Stuart T Haines, Michelle L Hilaire, Alexandre Raymond, Marissa C Salvo, Kyle Turner
ACCP is committed to ensuring that clinical pharmacists possess the competencies necessary to deliver comprehensive medication management in team-based, direct patient care environments. These competencies are divided into six essential domains: direct patient care, pharmacotherapy knowledge, systems-based care and population health, communication, professionalism, and continuing professional development. The 2016 ACCP Clinical Practice Affairs Committee has developed an evaluation tool that includes the assessable tasks of today's clinical pharmacists that fall within each domain...
April 17, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394465/integrating-new-pharmacologic-agents-into-heart-failure-care-role-of-heart-failure-practice-guidelines-in-meeting-this-challenge
#3
Kirkwood F Adams, Erika M Giblin, Natalie Pearce, J Herbert Patterson
Heart failure is well recognized as a major public health concern not only due to severe and frequent adverse health outcomes but also related to the major financial burden this syndrome presents with advancing age in Western societies. Despite the dire need for more efficacious therapies and better application of existing advances, treatment gaps persist, and outcomes in heart failure remain poor, with continually high mortality and morbidity. Treatment guidelines provide one strategy for advancing quality of care in patients with heart failure...
April 10, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394433/outcomes-associated-with-reducing-the-urine-alkalinization-threshold-in-patients-receiving-high-dose-methotrexate
#4
Sarah A Drost, Jason R Wentzell, Pierre Giguere, Darcy L McLurg, Mitchell Sabloff, Salmaan Kanji, Tiffany T Nguyen
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Urine alkalinization increases methotrexate solubility and reduces the risk of nephrotoxicity. The objectives of this study were to determine whether a reduction in the urine pH threshold from 8 to 7 in patients receiving high-dose methotrexate (HDMTX) results in a shorter length of hospital stay, delayed methotrexate clearance, or higher rates of nephrotoxicity; and to determine whether specific factors were associated with prolonged methotrexate clearance. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study...
April 10, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374965/closing-the-gap-the-challenges-of-treating-hepatitis-c-virus-genotype-3-infection
#5
Michelle T Martin, Paulina Deming
The efficacy of hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment has increased over the last 5 years to nearly 100% for many patient groups. Patients with genotype (GT) 3 HCV infection, however, and specifically cirrhotic or treatment-experienced patients, have lower sustained virologic response (SVR) rates than patients with other GTs. As GT 3 presents more clinical challenges than other GTs, this review will focus on the evolution and efficacy of direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment options for HCV GT 3 infection after the historical standard of care with pegylated interferon and ribavirin...
April 4, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370228/pharmacologic-treatment-of-cannabinoid-hyperemesis-syndrome-a-systematic-review
#6
John R Richards, Brent K Gordon, Aaron R Danielson, Aimee K Moulin
OBJECTIVE: Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) has become more prevalent with increasing cannabis use. CHS is often resistant to standard antiemetics. The objective of this study is to review the current evidence for pharmacologic treatment of CHS. METHODS: MEDLINE, PsycINFO, DARE, OpenGrey, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Library were searched from inception to February 2017. Articles were selected and reviewed independently. Evidence was graded using Oxford CEBM guidelines...
March 31, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370075/cancer-incidence-after-initiation-of-antimuscarinic-medications-for-overactive-bladder-in-the-united-kingdom-evidence-for-protopathic-bias
#7
James A Kaye, Andrea V Margulis, Joan Fortuny, Lisa J McQuay, Estel Plana, Jennifer L Bartsch, Christine L Bui, Susana Perez-Gutthann, Alejandro Arana
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence of 10 common cancers among patients treated with antimuscarinic medications for overactive bladder (AMOAB). DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. DATA SOURCE: United Kingdom's Clinical Practice Research Datalink. PATIENTS: A total of 119,912 adults with no previous cancer diagnosis who were new users of AMOABs-darifenacin, fesoterodine, oxybutynin, solifenacin, tolterodine, or trospium-between January 2004 and December 2012...
March 31, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349590/benzalkonium-chloride-a-bronchoconstricting-preservative-in-continuous-albuterol-nebulizer-solutions
#8
Sreekala Prabhakaran, Mutasim Abu-Hasan, Leslie Hendeles
BACKGROUND: For convenience, many pediatric hospitals are preparing solutions for continuous nebulized albuterol (CNA) using the 0.5% 20 mL multi-dose albuterol dropper bottle. This product contains benzalkonium chloride (BAC) which, by itself, produces bronchospasm that is dose-dependent and cumulative. The bronchoconstrictive effects of BA are greater in patients with more severe airway obstruction and increased airway responsiveness. CONCERNS: Use of BAC-containing albuterol during severe acute asthma exacerbations may antagonize the bronchodilator response to albuterol, prolong treatment, and increase the risk of albuterol-related systemic adverse effects...
March 28, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349575/low-dose-naloxone-for-prophylaxis-of-postoperative-nausea-and-vomiting-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
Robert W Barrons, J Andrew Woods
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine whether postoperative administration of low-dose intravenous naloxone decreases the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and its impact on postoperative opioid requirements and pain scores. DESIGN: Meta-analysis of nine randomized controlled trials. PATIENTS: A total of 946 adult and pediatric patients who received low-dose intravenous naloxone for 24 hours after various surgeries. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Systemic literature searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials, Evidence Based Medicine reviews, PubMed, and Ovid MEDLINE databases were conducted...
March 28, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316087/influence-of-abcc2-cyp2c8-and-cyp2j2-polymorphisms-on-tacrolimus-and-mycophenolate-sodium-based-treatment-in-brazilian-kidney-transplant-recipients
#10
Fabiana D V Genvigir, Alvaro M Nishikawa, Claudia R Felipe, Helio Tedesco-Silva, Nagilla Oliveira, Antony B C Salazar, Jose O Medina-Pestana, Sonia Q Doi, Mario H Hirata, Rosario D C Hirata
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes encoding metabolizing enzymes (CYP2C8, CYP2J2, and UGT2B7) and transporters (ABCC2 and ABCG2) on dose and/or dose-adjusted trough blood concentrations (C/D ratio), clinical outcomes, and occurrence of adverse events of tacrolimus and mycophenolate sodium in Brazilian kidney transplant recipients. DESIGN: Pharmacogenetic analysis of patients enrolled in a previously published study...
March 17, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295447/effectiveness-and-tolerability-of-conivaptan-and-tolvaptan-for-the-treatment-of-hyponatremia-in-neurocritically-ill-patients
#11
Caroline Der-Nigoghossian, Christine Lesch, Karen Berger
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To describe the effectiveness and tolerability of conivaptan and tolvaptan for the correction of hyponatremia in neurocritically ill patients. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Neurointensive care units at two academic medical centers. PATIENTS: Thirty-six adults admitted to the neurocritical care unit who received at least one dose of conivaptan (5 patients) or tolvaptan (31 patients) between June 2012 and May 2013...
March 12, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295443/risk-of-incident-antidepressant-treated-depression-associated-with-use-of-5-%C3%AE-reductase-inhibitors-compared-with-use-of-%C3%AE-blockers-in-men-with-benign-prostatic-hyperplasia-a-population-based-study-using-the-clinical-practice-research-datalink
#12
Katrina Wilcox Hagberg, Hozefa A Divan, J Curtis Nickel, Susan S Jick
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To estimate the risk of incident antidepressant-treated depression in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) who were prescribed 5-α-reductase inhibitors (5ARIs) compared with those prescribed an active comparator, α-blockers (ABs). DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study with a nested case-control analysis. DATA SOURCE: United Kingdom's Clinical Practice Research Datalink. PATIENTS: A total of 77,732 men with a diagnosis of BPH who received a prescription for a 5ARI only and/or ABs between January 1, 1992, and December 31, 2013...
March 12, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295441/fosfomycin-for-the-treatment-of-cystitis-in-the-abdominal-solid-organ-transplant-population
#13
Ashley A Loethen, Luiza Kerstenetzky, Jillian L Descourouez, Glen E Leverson, Jeannina A Smith, Margaret R Jorgenson
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the use of fosfomycin (FOS) at the single-dose regimen approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration as well as off-label multidose regimens for the treatment of cystitis after abdominal solid organ transplant (aSOT). DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Tertiary academic medical center. PATIENTS: Adult inpatients with history of aSOT receiving FOS between January 1, 2009, and April 30, 2015, for the treatment of cystitis...
March 12, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273381/role-of-combination-antimicrobial-therapy-for-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-infections-review-of-the-current-evidence
#14
Juwon Yim, Jordan R Smith, Michael J Rybak
Enterococcus species are the second most common cause of nosocomial infections in the United States and are particularly concerning in critically ill patients with preexisting comorbid conditions. Rising resistance to antimicrobials that were historically used as front-line agents for treatment of enterococcal infections, such as ampicillin, vancomycin, and aminoglycosides, further complicates the treatment of these infections. Of particular concern are Enterococcus faecium strains that are associated with the highest rate of vancomycin resistance...
March 8, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273373/acute-care-management-of-the-hiv-infected-patient-a-report-from-the-hiv-practice-and-research-network-of-the-american-college-of-clinical-pharmacy
#15
Spencer H Durham, Melissa E Badowski, Michelle D Liedtke, R Chris Rathbun, Patricia Pecora Fulco
OBJECTIVE: HIV-infected patients admitted to the hospital have complex antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens with an increased medication error rate upon admission. This report is intended to provide a resource for clinicians managing HIV-infected patients and ART in the inpatient setting. METHODS: A survey of the authors was conducted to evaluate common issues that arise during an acute hospitalization for HIV-infected patients. After a group consensus, a review of the medical literature was performed to determine the supporting evidence for the following HIV associated hospital queries: admission/discharge orders, antiretroviral hospital formularies, laboratory monitoring, altered hepatic/renal function, drug-drug interactions (DDIs), enteral administration, and therapeutic drug monitoring...
March 8, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258648/effectiveness-of-sleep-based-interventions-for-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-meta-synthesis
#16
Belinda M Cuomo, Sharmila Vaz, Elinda Ai Lim Lee, Craig Thompson, Jessica M Rogerson, Torbjorn Falkmer
Sleep problems are common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This meta-synthesis collated eight previously published systematic reviews examining the efficacy of sleep interventions in children with ASD in an attempt to present a clear analysis of trialed interventions. The collated reviews consider five major groups of sleep interventions for children with ASD: melatonin therapy, pharmacologic treatments other than melatonin, behavioral interventions, parent education/education programs, and alternative therapies (massage therapy, aromatherapy, and multivitamin and iron supplementation)...
March 4, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247517/hematology-oncology-pharmacy-association-entry-level-competencies-task-force-response-statement-to-the-2016-american-college-of-clinical-pharmacy-pharmacotherapy-didactic-curriculum-toolkit
#17
Ginah Nightingale, Ila M Saunders, Jill M Comeau, Karen Fancher, Tim Miller, Cindy O'Bryant, Jason Yeh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247443/acute-kidney-injury-in-patients-treated-with-iv-beta-lactam-beta-lactamase-inhibitor-combinations
#18
W Cliff Rutter, David S Burgess
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Increased acute kidney injury (AKI) incidence has been reported in patients receiving piperacillin-tazobactam (PTZ) therapy compared with other β-lactams. The authors sought to determine if the addition of β-lactamase inhibitors impacts AKI incidence by comparing patients treated with PTZ or ampicillin-sulbactam (SAM). DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Large academic tertiary care hospital. PATIENTS: Overall, 2448 patients received PTZ (n=1836) or SAM (n=612) for at least 48 hours between September 1, 2007, and September 30, 2015...
March 1, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235141/quantitation-of-targetable-somatic-mutations-among-patients-evaluated-by-a-personalized-medicine-clinical-service-considerations-for-off-label-drug-use
#19
Cory M Vela, Todd C Knepper, Nancy K Gillis, Christine M Walko, Howard L McLeod, J Kevin Hicks
INTRODUCTION: Moffitt Cancer Center's Personalized Medicine Clinical Service (PMCS) reviews somatic next-generation sequencing (NGS) assay results, provides interpretations, and identifies potential therapeutic options. The number of individuals reviewed by our clinical service who are eligible for on-label or off-label drug therapy based on genetic test results has previously not been quantitated. We determined the number of patients harboring an actionable mutation that would qualify a patient for an on-label drug or consideration for off-label drug treatment...
February 24, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226400/population-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamic-target-attainment-of-ampicillin-in-neonates-with-hypoxemic-ischemic-encephalopathy-in-the-setting-of-controlled-hypothermia
#20
Jeffrey J Cies, Keri N Fugarolas, Wayne S Moore, Robert W Mason, Ogechukwu R Menkiti
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To describe the population pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic target attainment of ampicillin in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) undergoing controlled hypothermia (CH). DESIGN: Prospective, open-label pharmacokinetic study. SETTING: A 189-bed, freestanding children's tertiary care teaching hospital. PATIENTS: Thirteen neonates (three females and 10 males) with HIE encephalopathy receiving CH and ampicillin 100 mg/kg/dose intravenously every 8 hours who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit between May 2013 and June 2014...
February 22, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
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