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Annals of Pharmacotherapy

Matej Stuhec, Petar Lukić, Igor Locatelli
OBJECTIVE: Psychostimulants are the first-line treatment in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the efficacy, acceptability, and tolerability of lisdexamfetamine (LDX), mixed amphetamine salts (MASs), modafinil (MDF), and methylphenidate (MPH) in comparison with placebo. DATA SOURCES: We systematically searched PubMed/MEDLINE and in May 2016, along with CENTRAL and EU Clinical Trials Register in February 2016, for the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group clinical trials conducted on adults diagnosed with ADHD...
August 17, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Jenna W Bartlett, Elizabeth Renner, Erin Mouland, Geoffrey D Barnes, Liane Kuo, Nghi B Ha
BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether diltiazem, a moderate cytochrome P450 enzyme (CYP3A4) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor, increases the incidence of bleeding events in combination with rivaroxaban, a CYP3A4 and P-gp substrate. OBJECTIVE: To assess major and clinically relevant nonmajor (CRNM) bleeding outcomes in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) on rivaroxaban with concomitant diltiazem in a real-world setting. METHODS: This retrospective case-cohort study included adult patients with NVAF prescribed both rivaroxaban and diltiazem for at least 30 days...
August 13, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Jessica J Tilton, Mansi G Edakkunnathu, Kellyn M Moran, Anna Markel Vaysman, Jessica L DaPisa, Brianna M Goen, Daniel R Touchette
BACKGROUND: Medication therapy management is widely promoted to improve care. However, few well-controlled studies have evaluated its impact. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated whether enrollment in a comprehensive medication therapy management clinic (MTMC) was associated with improved 12-month outcomes. METHODS: This institutional review board approved study was a retrospective controlled cohort study in an academic health center serving low-income, African American and Latino populations...
August 13, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Alison Palumbo, Gary Lau, Megan Saraceni
OBJECTIVE: To review the pharmacology, efficacy, and safety of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor, abemaciclib, in the treatment of advanced or metastatic breast cancer (MBC). DATA SOURCES: Relevant information was identified through a MEDLINE/PubMed (January 2000 to June 2018) literature search. The new drug application, prescribing information, and abstracts and posters from scientific meetings were also reviewed. STUDY SELECTION/DATA EXTRACTION: The literature search was limited to human studies published in the English language...
August 13, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Elise Riquin, Laurine Egreteau, Léna Le Verger, Laurence Lagarce
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 10, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Kendra Morotti, Julio Lopez, Vanessa Vaupel, Arthur Swislocki, David Siegel
BACKGROUND: A relative cardiovascular risk reduction of 25% to 35% has been reported in patients starting a statin for elevated cholesterol; yet many patients fail to consistently take these medications as directed. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate factors affecting adherence and persistence with statin therapy. METHODS: This retrospective study analyzed data from a Veterans Affairs database of facilities west of the Rocky Mountains. Patient demographics, co-morbidities, and prescription information was collected for individuals newly prescribed a statin between July 1, 2007, and December 31, 2012...
August 7, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Alexandra L Bixby, Amy VandenBerg, Jolene R Bostwick
OBJECTIVE: This nonsystematic review describes risk of bleeding in treatment with serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) and provide recommendations for the management of patients at risk of bleeding. DATA SOURCES: Articles were identified by English-language MEDLINE search published prior to June 2018 using the terms SRI, serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors, OR antidepressive agents, AND hemorrhage OR stroke. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: Meta-analyses were utilized to identify information regarding risk of bleeding with antidepressants...
August 6, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Keith A Hecht, Christopher Selby
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the existing literature regarding the use of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4/6 inhibitors in the treatment of hormone receptor-positive advanced breast cancer (ABC). DATA SOURCES: A search of the medical literature was performed using PubMed (2014 to June 2018). Search terms included cyclin-dependent kinase, CDK, breast cancer, palbociclib, ribociclib, abemaciclib, PD0332991, LEE011, and LY2835219. was also searched. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: Trials with clinical efficacy outcomes evaluating CDK 4/6 inhibitors in the treatment of advanced hormone-positive breast cancer were considered...
August 6, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Jamielynn C Sebaaly, Denise Kelley
OBJECTIVE: To review the pharmacokinetics, safety, common drug-drug interactions (DDIs), and advantages and disadvantages of new single-tablet regimens (STRs) approved since September 2016 for HIV-1 infection. DATA SOURCES: A search using PubMed was conducted (2004 through May 2018) using the following keywords: single tablet regimen AND HIV. Additionally, a PubMed search was conducted for each individual STR using the generic names of the agents. For specific STRs, additional search terms were added to narrow results...
August 3, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Wubshet H Tesfaye, Gregory M Peterson, Ronald L Castelino, Charlotte McKercher, Matthew D Jose, Barbara C Wimmer, Syed Tabish R Zaidi
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by high rates of hospital admissions and readmissions. However, there is a scarcity of research into medication-related factors predicting such outcomes in this patient group. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of medication regimen complexity at hospital discharge on subsequent readmissions and their timing in older adults with CKD. METHODS: This was a 12-month retrospective cohort study of 204 older (⩾65 years) CKD patients in an Australian tertiary care hospital...
August 2, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Taylor Chuich, Christopher Lewis Cropsey, Yaping Shi, Daniel Johnson, Matthew S Shotwell, Christopher Patrick Henson
BACKGROUND: Sedative agents used during cardiac surgery can influence the patient's time to extubation, intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital length of stay, and incidence of delirium. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates the effects of the intraoperative and postoperative use of dexmedetomidine versus propofol infusions. METHODS: This 19-month retrospective observational study at an academic medical center included 278 patients 18 years of age or older who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), valve replacement surgery, or combined CABG plus valve surgery, who received either a dexmedetomidine or propofol infusion in addition to general anesthesia intraoperatively...
August 1, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Karen Kruzer, Will Garner, Kord Honda, Clifford D Packer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Brett A Faine, Nicholas Mohr, Priyanka Vakkalanka, Ari S Gao, Stephen Y Liang
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance remains a significant obstacle for clinicians when treating patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with urinary tract infections. OBJECTIVE: The goal of the proposed study was to validate a previously developed clinical decision rule identifying risk factors for multidrug-resistant (MDR) urinary pathogens. METHODS: We conducted a validation study of a previously published clinical decision rule to identify patients with MDR urinary pathogens using a cohort from an urban academic center ED with annual census over 80 000...
August 1, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
John A Dougherty
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 30, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Eric G Sahloff, Joan M Duggan
BACKGROUND: Limited data exist on the use of a boosted protease inhibitor plus <2 active nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors without use of additional classes of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy in treatment-experienced patients with background resistance. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinical outcomes in HIV-infected patients harboring single- or multiclass resistant virus and receiving once-daily tenofovir/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) plus darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r) administered for >24 weeks...
July 26, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Charles W Powell, Carley Borrelli, William White, Thaddeus Carson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Amy Barton Pai, Holly Divine, Macary Marciniak, Anthony Morreale, Joseph J Saseen, Kenneth Say, Alissa R Segal, Jenna M Norton, Andrew S Narva
Millions of Americans use over-the-counter analgesics on a daily basis, and nearly 100 million nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) prescriptions are filled per year. In high-risk patients, these medications can disrupt kidney hemodynamics and precipitate community-acquired acute kidney injury (CA-AKI). The risk of NSAID-associated CA-AKI increases 3- to 5-fold in patients taking renin-angiotensin system inhibitors and diuretics concurrently. CA-AKI increases the risk of developing chronic kidney disease (CKD) or accelerating progression of pre-existing CKD...
July 1, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Ola Mashni, Lama Nazer, Jennifer Le
OBJECTIVE: To review the clinical data on the effectiveness and safety of double carbapenem therapy (DCT) in patients infected with carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (CP-Kp). DATA SOURCES: A literature search was performed utilizing PubMed and EMBASE (from 1966 to May 2018); bibliographies of the retrieved articles were also searched. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: Articles were included if they evaluated patients with infections caused by CP-Kp and were treated with DCT...
July 1, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Jeremy S Stultz, Perry Taylor, Sean McKenna
BACKGROUND: Indication-specific medication dosing support is needed to improve pediatric dosing support. OBJECTIVE: To compare the sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) of different meningitis dosing alert triggers and dosing error rates between antimicrobials with and without meningitis order sentences. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 4-months of pediatric orders for antimicrobials with meningitis-specific dosing. At the time of the order, it was determined if the antimicrobial was for meningitis management, if a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture was ordered, and if a natural language processing (NLP) system could detect "meningitis" in clinical notes...
July 1, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Melanie K Claborn, Debra L Stevens, Cheri K Walker, Brooke L Gildon
OBJECTIVE: To review the efficacy and safety of nusinersen (Spinraza) in the treatment of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). DATA SOURCES: An English-language literature search of PubMed and MEDLINE (1946 to June 2018) was performed using the terms nusinersen, ISIS-SMN (Rx), and spinal muscular atrophy. Manufacturer prescribing information, abstracts, article bibliographies, and data were incorporated for additional materials. STUDY SELECTION/DATA EXTRACTION: All clinical trials of nusinersen were identified and analyzed in the review...
July 1, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
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