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Annals of Pharmacotherapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205455/commentary
#1
Christopher A Droege, Neil E Ernst
Obesity presents a growing challenge in critically ill patients because of variable medication pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Vasopressors used in the treatment of septic shock, including norepinephrine, are dosed using weight-based (WB) or non-weight-based (NWB) strategies. Retrospective research has evaluated the effect of total body weight and body mass index on vasopressor requirements, consequently finding that obese patients require less total vasopressor per kilogram to obtain clinical end points such as mean arterial pressure...
February 1, 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193102/identification-of-predictors-for-treatment-failure-in-hepatitis-c-virus-patients-treated-with-ledipasvir-and-sofosbuvir
#2
Jeffrey W Jansen, Gillian M Powderly, Travis W Linneman
BACKGROUND: New hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapies report cure rates of ~90% but are expensive. Identification of predictors for treatment failure could help decrease health care costs, limit unnecessary drug exposure and adverse events, and prevent drug-drug interactions. Failure to achieve rapid viral response (RVR), defined as detectable viral load at 4 weeks, has previously been identified as a predictor of treatment failure with some previous HCV therapies. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate RVR, and other potential variables, as predictors of treatment failure in patients treated with ledipasvir and sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF)...
February 1, 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176529/biosimilars
#3
James G Stevenson, Robert Popovian, Ira Jacobs, Susan Hurst, Lesley G Shane
OBJECTIVE: To review the scientific and regulatory aspects of biosimilar development and practical considerations for the use of biosimilars that are relevant to pharmacists. DATA SOURCES: Literature searches of PubMed and congress abstracts for publications pertaining to biosimilars were conducted from January 2016 to January 2017. Individual drug company web pages and governmental, regulatory, and other agency websites were also reviewed. STUDY SELECTION/DATA EXTRACTION: Published articles, regulatory guidelines, and other sources covering biologic/biosimilar development and approval, reporting results of biosimilar studies or survey research, and/or identifying biosimilars in development or approved for use in Europe or the United States were reviewed and included...
February 1, 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166656/combination-of-ceftriaxone-and-ampicillin-for-the-treatment-of-enterococcal-endocarditis
#4
Shaylee C Peterson, Tim T Y Lau, Mary H H Ensom
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review is to review all human trials assessing the efficacy and safety of ampicillin and ceftriaxone for enterococcal endocarditis and to discuss the clinical implications of the findings. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE (1946-), EMBASE (1974-), CENTRAL, Google Scholar, and the World Health Organization Clinical Trials Registry Platform were searched through January 2017 using the search terms ampicillin, penicillin, ceftriaxone, cephalosporin, enterococ*, and endocarditis...
February 1, 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166651/dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitor-associated-risk-of-bleeding
#5
Md Motiur Rahman, Michael J Scalese, Richard A Hansen
BACKGROUND: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors improve glycemic control, and sitagliptin has been associated with a reduction in cardiovascular events. In vivo data suggest reduced platelet activation, and aggregation may play a role, and therefore, increased bleeding risk is possible. OBJECTIVE: Comparatively assess bleeding risks associated with DPP-4 inhibitors against standard treatment. METHODS: Exploratory analyses of adverse event reports (AERs) from the US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) database (2004-2012 periods) were conducted...
February 1, 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161972/antiretroviral-therapy-combo-pills-in-hiv-kidney-transplant-recipients
#6
Jose F Camargo, Nafeesa Chin-Beckford
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152605/feasibility-benefits-and-limitations-of-a-penicillin-allergy-skin-testing-service
#7
Prasanna P Narayanan, Meghan N Jeffres
OBJECTIVE: To critically examine the feasibility, benefits, and limitations of an inpatient penicillin skin testing service and how pharmacists can be utilized. DATA SOURCES: A PubMed search was performed from July 2016 through September 2016 using the following search terms: penicillin skin testing, penicillin allergy, β-lactam allergy. Additional references were identified from a review of literature citations. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: All English-language studies assessing the use of penicillin skin testing as well as management and clinical outcomes of patients with a β-lactam allergy were evaluated...
February 1, 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133970/lixisenatide
#8
Delilah McCarty, Megan Coleman, Cassie L Boland
OBJECTIVE: To review the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA), lixisenatide, in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. DATA SOURCES: A PubMed (1966-2016) search was conducted using the following keywords: lixisenatide, AVE0010, glucagon-like peptide-1 agonist, and type 2 diabetes. References were reviewed to identify additional sources. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: Articles written in English were included if they evaluated the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, or safety of lixisenatide in human subjects...
January 1, 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132524/comment
#9
Matthew Fagnan, Joseph E Cruz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114796/filtering-out-use-of-doacs-in-hemodialysis
#10
William E Dager, Jin A Lee
Published data exploring the best approach to initiating and maintaining anticoagulation in the setting of renal support therapy are scarce, as these patients were excluded in clinical trials. When developing an anticoagulation regimen in this setting, it is important to assess thrombosis risk, identify the unique drivers for thrombosis and bleeding, and recognize the limitations of supporting evidence behind approved prescribing indications for renal impairment. Available literature and considerations for using direct acting oral anticoagulants in the setting of renal support are reviewed...
January 1, 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100063/evaluation-of-a-potential-interaction-between-new-regimens-to-treat-hepatitis-c-and-warfarin
#11
Douglas D DeCarolis, Yi-Chieh Chen, Anders D Westanmo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092986/a-review-of-the-treatment-of-primary-orthostatic-hypotension
#12
Genevieve M Hale, Jose Valdes, Michael Brenner
OBJECTIVE: To review the efficacy and safety of pharmacological and nonpharmacological strategies used to treat primary orthostatic hypotension (OH). DATA SOURCES: A literature review using PubMed and MEDLINE databases searching hypotension, non-pharmacological therapy, midodrine, droxidopa, pyridostigmine, fludrocortisone, atomoxetine, pseudoephedrine, and octreotide was performed. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: Randomized or observational studies, cohorts, case series, or case reports written in English between January 1970 and November 2016 that assessed primary OH treatment in adult patients were evaluated...
January 1, 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068783/clinical-pharmacist-management-of-bacteremia-in-a-community-hospital-emergency-department
#13
C Dustin Waters, Bryce J Bitton, Annie Torosyan, Kevin P Myers
BACKGROUND: Bacteremia is a serious condition that leads to high morbidity and mortality. Data describing pharmacist involvement in the management of bacteremia in the emergency department are lacking. OBJECTIVE: To determine if pharmacist involvement in the management of bacteremia in the emergency department (ED) led to an increase in appropriate treatment of bacteremia as well as improvements in patient outcomes. METHODS: The primary outcome of this retrospective cohort study was the rate of appropriate treatment of bacteremia...
January 1, 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064514/statistics-myth-busters
#14
Simon W Lam, Seth R Bauer, Wei Yang, Todd A Miano
Proficiency in research design and statistical analysis is crucial to the success of a clinical pharmacist. However, new pharmacy graduates and residents may not have received adequate training and education in these areas. During the authors' tenure as clinical pharmacists, several statistical "myths" were consistently maintained by residents and new clinical practitioners. The purpose of this narrative review is to discuss and dispel several of these statistical fallacies. The myths discussed involve 3 common areas of consideration when evaluating any clinical study: assessing the risk of bias from confounding (propensity score analysis and multivariable modeling), interpretation of the main study findings ( P values and hypothesis testing), and secondary evaluations (subgroup analyses)...
January 1, 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058865/impact-of-pharmacist-intervention-to-increase-compliance-with-guideline-directed-statin-therapy-during-an-acute-coronary-syndrome-hospitalization
#15
Robert K Tunney, Daniel C Johnson, Li Wang, Zachary L Cox
BACKGROUND: Despite evidence on poor adherence to guideline-directed statin therapy (GDST) following an acute coronary syndrome (ACS), little information has been published on pharmacist-led statin pilot programs for secondary prevention. OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate the impact of a pharmacist intervention (PI) on GDST during an ACS hospitalization. METHODS: A historical control (HC) group consisting of 125 ACS hospitalizations was retrospectively identified, with prospective data of 113 patients captured over 6 months in the PI group...
January 1, 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927795/recommendations-for-evaluating-practice-related-activities-of-pharmacy-faculty-a-delphi-consensus
#16
Stuart T Haines, Seena L Haines, Eric J MacLaughlin, Jenny A Van Amburgh
OBJECTIVE: To develop definitions of who pharmacy practice faculty and partners are, identify indicators to measure practice-related activities, and provide guidance for evaluating pharmacy practice faculty. METHODS: A 4-round, online Delphi was conducted. Panelists with experience evaluating pharmacy practice faculty were invited. Consensus was achieved when there was agreement by at least 70% of panelists. Round 1: Panelists were asked to identify the essential distinguishing characteristics of pharmacy practice faculty and practice partners as well as metrics that could be used to measure practice productivity and quality...
December 6, 2016: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920336/reasons-for-discontinuation-and-adverse-effects-of-tnf%C3%AE-inhibitors-in-a-cohort-of-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-and-ankylosing-spondylitis
#17
María Henar García-Lagunar, María Rocío Gutiérrez-Cívicos, María Sergia García-Simón, Pablo Conesa-Zamora, Enrique Jimenez-Santos, Pedro Cano-Vivar, Andrés García-Márquez, Iris Muñoz-García, Alice Charlotte Viney
BACKGROUND: The introduction of anti-tumor necrosis factor α (anti-TNFα) drugs has improved the clinical outcomes in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS). However, these drugs may cause adverse effects that motivate a change in or discontinuation of the treatment. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the causes of discontinuation or changes in the dosage regimen in a cohort of patients with RA and AS treated with infliximab, adalimumab, etanercept, and golimumab under clinical practice conditions...
December 5, 2016: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064508/assessing-the-effect-of-pharmacist-care-on-diabetes-related-outcomes-in-a-rural-outpatient-clinic
#18
Cynthia Moreau, Karen R Sando, Daniel H Zambrano
BACKGROUND: The care of diabetic patients in rural areas is complicated by factors such as poor health literacy, cultural barriers, and primary care provider (PCP) shortages. Integrating pharmacist care in diabetes management in these settings may increase access to care and improve patient outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate differences in diabetes-related outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) managed by a pharmacist diabetes clinic compared with patients only managed by PCPs in a rural family medicine clinic...
December 1, 2016: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056525/venetoclax
#19
Amber C King, Tim J Peterson, Troy Z Horvat, Mabel Rodriguez, Laura A Tang
OBJECTIVE: To review the pharmacology, efficacy, and safety of venetoclax for treatment of lymphoid malignancies. DATA SOURCES: A literature search was performed of PubMed and MEDLINE databases (2005 to September 2016), abstracts from the American Society of Hematology and the American Society of Clinical Oncology, and ongoing studies from clinicaltrials.gov. Searches were performed utilizing the following key terms: venetoclax, ABT-199, GDC-199, obatoclax, GX15-070, BCL-2 inhibitor, navitoclax, ABT-263, and Venclexta...
December 1, 2016: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056524/venous-thromboembolism-requiring-extended-anticoagulation-among-hiv-infected-patients-in-a-rural-resource-constrained-setting-in-western-kenya
#20
John Kanyi, Rakhi Karwa, Sonak Dinesh Pastakia, Imran Manji, Simon Manyara, Collins Saina
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected patients are at an increased risk of developing venous thromboembolism (VTE), and minimal data are available to describe the need for extended treatment. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the frequency of and determine predictive risk factors for extended anticoagulation of VTE in HIV-infected patients in rural, western Kenya. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted at the Anticoagulation Monitoring Service affiliated with Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital and the Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare...
December 1, 2016: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
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