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Annals of Pharmacotherapy

Quyen T Vo, Dennis F Thompson
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this article is to review the current literature on drug-induced thrombocytosis with the goal of critically assessing causality and providing a comprehensive review of the topic. Thrombopoietic growth factors, such as thrombopoietin-receptor agonists (romiplostim and eltrombopag) and erythropoietin are not included in our review. DATA SOURCES: The literature search included published articles limited to the English language and humans in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases...
December 10, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
James A G Crispo, Dylan P Thibault, Allison W Willis
BACKGROUND: Adverse drug events (ADEs) are common; however, there are limited data on the impact of ADEs on post-discharge outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To identify ADEs responsible for readmission within 6 months of hospital discharge in the United States. Secondary objectives were to examine whether demographic, clinical, and hospital characteristics were associated with ADE readmission. METHODS: We identified all adults hospitalized between January and June using the 2014 Nationwide Readmission Database...
December 10, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Kaitlin Rascon, Goran Flajc, Carmine De Angelis, Xinli Liu, Meghana V Trivedi, Ekim Ekinci
OBJECTIVE: To review the chemistry, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy of ribociclib (LEE011, Kisqali) in hormone receptor-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor-2-negative (HR+/HER2-) metastatic breast cancer. DATA SOURCES: A PubMed search was performed using the terms 'Ribociclib', 'Kisqali', and 'LEE011' between May 2018 and November 2018. References of published articles and reviews were also assessed for additional information. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: English-language preclinical and clinical studies on the chemistry, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy of ribociclib were evaluated...
December 7, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Jason Powell, Scott G Garland
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to review the pharmacological aspects of ertugliflozin and its clinical trials, which led to Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). DATA SOURCES: A MEDLINE/PubMed (May 2013 to October 2018) search was conducted using the following keywords: ertugliflozin, sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, SGLT2 inhibitor, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hyperglycemia. Study Selection and Data Extraction Quantify: We included English-language articles evaluating ertugliflozin pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety in humans for blood glucose reduction in human subjects...
December 7, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Ryan DasGupta, Cesar Alaniz, Danielle Burghardt
BACKGROUND: Recommended loading doses (LDs) of phenytoin and fosphenytoin range from 10 to 25 mg/kg. Few studies have examined the LD requirements in male versus female patients and in patients who are obese. OBJECTIVES: To examine the influence of obesity and sex on phenytoin LDs. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study comparing free phenytoin or fosphenytoin serum concentrations following LDs in male versus female and nonobese versus obese patients...
December 7, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Judy W M Cheng, Vincent J Colucci, James S Kalus, Sarah A Spinler
OBJECTIVE: While improving glycemic control with antihyperglycemics has been demonstrated to reduce microvascular complications, the benefits of reduction in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have not been demonstrated with older agents. This article reviews current evidence of the CV outcomes of newer antihyperglycemics approved since 2008. DATA SOURCES: Peer-reviewed articles were identified from MEDLINE (1966 to October 31, 2018) using search terms exenatide, liraglutide, lixisenatide, dulaglutide, semaglutide, alogliptin, linagliptin, saxagliptin, sitagliptin, canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, empagliflozin, mortality, myocardial infarction (MI), heart failure (HF), and stroke...
December 5, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Deonne A Dersch-Mills, Heidi L Banasch, Kamran Yusuf, Alixe Howlett
BACKGROUND: Continuous infusions of dexmedetomidine are increasingly used for sedation in critically ill pediatric patients. Emerging data suggest potential benefits when used for sedation in neonates, including reduced sedative requirements and earlier enteral feeds. OBJECTIVE: To describe the use, adverse effects, and signs of withdrawal in a cohort of neonates receiving dexmedetomidine, the majority of whom were receiving concomitant opioids. METHODS: This was a retrospective, descriptive review of 38 neonates receiving dexmedetomidine in a medical surgical neonatal intensive care unit, including data on duration of use, dose, adverse effects, weaning, and signs of withdrawal...
December 3, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
B Jordan James, Mark A Gales, Barry J Gales
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinical trials using bumetanide in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) treatment. DATA SOURCES: PubMed and Ovid MEDLINE (1946 to October 2018) were searched using terms bumetanide and autism. Bibliographies were reviewed for other relevant trials. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: English language, randomized, controlled, clinical trials in humans were evaluated. Three trials met all inclusion criteria. DATA SYNTHESIS: Oral bumetanide was studied in 208 patients, 2 to 18 years old, with ASD...
December 2, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Diana Isaacs, Stephanie Yager, Marcie Parker, Lauren Wolfe, Jennifer Luxenburg, Sanela Lekic
OBJECTIVE: People with type 1 diabetes often have suboptimal glycemic control. The gold standard of treatment is basal-bolus insulin or subcutaneous insulin infusion via insulin pump. Although insulin therapy improves glycemic control, weight gain and hypoglycemia often limit achievement of hemoglobin A1C (A1C) goals. The number of people with type 1 diabetes who are overweight or obese is increasing, and there are many similarities between what was historically called type 1 and type 2 diabetes...
November 30, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Alex J Adams, Shane Desselle, Zubin Austin, Tess Fenn
Studies have found that expanded pharmacy technician roles can help "free up" pharmacist time, leading to role optimization. However, these studies and the positions taken by many are quite pharmacist-centric. We seem to have underestimated the importance of support staff in pharmacy operations. If research demonstrates that technicians can perform a function safely and effectively, that alone should compel the function's allowance in practice. Freeing up pharmacist time for higher-order care is a positive corollary to technician advancement, but it need not be a precondition for it...
November 19, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Mary-Haston Leary, Kathryn Morbitzer, Bobbi Jo Walston, Stephen Clark, Jenna Kaplan, Kayla Waldron, John Valgus, Chris Falato, Lindsey Amerine
BACKGROUND: Despite widespread recognition of the need for innovative pharmacy practice approaches, the development and implementation of value-based outcomes remains difficult to achieve. Furthermore, gaps in the literature persist because the majority of available literature is retrospective in nature and describes only the clinical impact of pharmacists' interventions. OBJECTIVE: Length of stay (LOS) is a clinical outcome metric used to represent efficiency in health care...
November 18, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Amanda Gerberich, Samantha Spencer, Heather Ipema
In July 2018, the National Guideline Clearinghouse lost funding, leaving fewer freely available online guideline collections. Based on the authors' experience of the 3 major guideline-focused databases that are currently available (Guidelines International Network, the Turning Research into Practice database, and Guideline Central) an easy to use resource with stringent inclusion criteria is currently lacking, though new resources are in development. These 3 resources vary in scope, and none stood out as an all-encompassing favorite...
November 18, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Dawn Battise, Cassie L Boland, Donald S Nuzum
DATA SOURCES: A PubMed (1966 to October 2018) search was conducted using the following keywords: nebivolol, valsartan, and hypertension (HTN). Additional sources were identified by references. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: Articles written in English were included if they evaluated the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, safety, or place in therapy of nebivolol/valsartan in human subjects. DATA SYNTHESIS: Most patients with HTN require combination therapy; however, β-adrenergic antagonists and AII type 1 receptor blockers have been considered less effective because of overlapping mechanisms of action...
November 18, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Chase C Brown, Melanie M Manis, Nicole M Bohm, Scott R Curry
OBJECTIVE: To summarize and critically appraise the evidence regarding oral vancomycin prophylaxis (OVP) to prevent recurrent Clostridium difficile infections (RCDIs), identify potential consequences of this emerging practice, and highlight future directions of study. DATA SOURCES: A MEDLINE literature search of English-language publications from 1947 through September 2018 was performed using the search terms vancomycin and C difficile and prophylaxis. Clinical trials were identified on the National Library of Medicine clinical trials registry...
November 17, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Victoria Rotshild, Laurent Azoulay, Ilan Feldhamer, Amichai Perlman, Mendel Glazer, Mordechai Muszkat, Ilan Matok
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that calcium channel blockers (CCBs) may increase the risk of lung cancer; however, current evidence is conflicting and limited. OBJECTIVE: Investigate the associations between CCB use and lung cancer. METHODS: We conducted a population-based nested case-control study. A cohort was formed of patients prescribed their first antihypertensive agent from 2000 to 2014. CCB exposure information was obtained by identification of all prescriptions dispensed during study follow-up...
November 15, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Jie Li, Ming Zhong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 15, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Mahmoud A Ammar, Simon W Lam
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 15, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
John M Allen, Carinda Feild, Bethany R Shoulders, Stacy A Voils
OBJECTIVE: Describe recent developments in the pharmacological management of sepsis and septic shock, focusing on fluid resuscitation, vasopressors, and corticosteroids. DATA SOURCES: A literature search limited to randomized controlled trials written in the English language reporting mortality and other clinically relevant outcomes that were published from July 1, 2016, to August 31, 2018, in patients aged ≥ 18 years. Titles and abstracts were reviewed for relevance...
November 8, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Alana M Ciolek, Audrey J Littlefield, Douglas L Jennings
Continuous-flow left-ventricular assist devices (CF-LVADs) are an option for patients with end-stage heart failure requiring durable mechanical circulatory support. Two of the older-generation CF-LVADs have been associated with multiple device-related complications, including bleeding and thrombosis. The newest generation CF-LVAD, the HeartMate 3, was engineered specifically to prevent device-related thrombosis. As more data enhance our understanding of the burden of bleeding and thrombotic adverse events, patients with durable mechanical circulatory support may require less-aggressive antithrombotic therapy...
November 8, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Paul Billoir, Virginie Barbay, Luc Marie Joly, Marielle Fresel, Marie Hélène Chrétien, Véronique Le Cam Duchez
BACKGROUND: Oral anti-Xa inhibitors have demonstrated noninferiority to vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) for the prevention of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation and recurrent venous thromboembolism. They are associated with a decrease in major bleeding. In contrast with VKA, no coagulation monitoring is required. However, in clinical practice, determination of drug concentration is sometimes necessary. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate a low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) calibrated anti-Xa assay for the quantification of rivaroxaban and apixaban plasma concentration in emergency...
October 31, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
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