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Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325581/prenatal-prediction-of-pulmonary-hypoplasia
#1
REVIEW
Jourdan E Triebwasser, Marjorie C Treadwell
Pulmonary hypoplasia, although rare, is associated with significant neonatal morbidity and mortality. Conditions associated with pulmonary hypoplasia include those which limit normal thoracic capacity or movement, including skeletal dysplasias and abdominal wall defects; those with mass effect, including congenital diaphragmatic hernia and pleural effusions; and those with decreased amniotic fluid, including preterm, premature rupture of membranes, and genitourinary anomalies. The ability to predict severe pulmonary hypoplasia prenatally aids in family counseling, as well as obstetric and neonatal management...
March 15, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325580/perinatal-death-investigations-what-is-current-practice
#2
REVIEW
J W Nijkamp, N J Sebire, K Bouman, F J Korteweg, J J H M Erwich, S J Gordijn
Perinatal death (PD) is a devastating obstetric complication. Determination of cause of death helps in understanding why and how it occurs, and it is an indispensable aid to parents wanting to understand why their baby died and to determine the recurrence risk and management in subsequent pregnancy. Consequently, a perinatal death requires adequate diagnostic investigation. An important first step in the analysis of PD is to identify the case circumstances, including relevant details regarding maternal history, obstetric history and current pregnancy (complications are evaluated and recorded)...
March 15, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285990/classification-of-causes-and-associated-conditions-for-stillbirths-and-neonatal-deaths
#3
REVIEW
Vicki Flenady, Aleena M Wojcieszek, David Ellwood, Susannah Hopkins Leisher, Jan Jaap H M Erwich, Elizabeth S Draper, Elizabeth M McClure, Hanna E Reinebrant, Jeremy Oats, Lesley McCowan, Alison L Kent, Glenn Gardener, Adrienne Gordon, David Tudehope, Dimitrios Siassakos, Claire Storey, Jane Zuccollo, Jane E Dahlstrom, Katherine J Gold, Sanne Gordijn, Karin Pettersson, Vicki Masson, Robert Pattinson, Jason Gardosi, T Yee Khong, J Frederik Frøen, Robert M Silver
Accurate and consistent classification of causes and associated conditions for perinatal deaths is essential to inform strategies to reduce the five million which occur globally each year. With the majority of deaths occurring in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), their needs must be prioritised. The aim of this paper is to review the classification of perinatal death, the contemporary classification systems including the World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases - Perinatal Mortality (ICD-PM), and next steps...
March 9, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279640/care-following-stillbirth-in-high-resource-settings-latest-evidence-guidelines-and-best-practice-points
#4
REVIEW
Danya Bakhbakhi, Christy Burden, Claire Storey, Dimitrios Siassakos
Third-trimester stillbirth affects approximately 2.6 million women worldwide each year. Although most stillbirths (98%) occur in low- and middle-income countries, most of the research on the impact of stillbirth and bereavement care has come from high-income countries. The impact of stillbirth ranges from stigma to disenfranchised grief, broken relationships, clinical depression, chronic pain, substance use, increased use of health services, employment difficulties, and debt. Appropriate bereavement care following a stillbirth is essential to minimise the negative socio-economic impact on parents and their families...
March 6, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262391/pregnancy-subsequent-to-stillbirth-medical-and-psychosocial-aspects-of-care
#5
REVIEW
Megan E Fockler, Noor Niyar N Ladhani, Jo Watson, Jon F R Barrett
Pregnancy after stillbirth presents unique challenges for families and healthcare providers. Medical surveillance and interventions must be optimized to improve outcomes and provide individualized support for families. A key component of acceptable care is psychosocial support that is delivered in a timely and sensitive manner by care providers with knowledge about the pervasive impact of stillbirth. With the lack of existing evidence to guide care, there is an urgent need for global leadership and research to address knowledge gaps...
March 2, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259738/reducing-the-impact-of-perinatal-death-the-case-for-increased-understanding-of-underlying-causes-to-inform-change-to-save-babies-lives
#6
EDITORIAL
Zarko Alfirevic, Alexander Heazell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238633/early-neonatal-death-a-challenge-worldwide
#7
REVIEW
Liisa Lehtonen, Ana Gimeno, Anna Parra-Llorca, Máximo Vento
Early neonatal death (ENND), defined as the death of a newborn between zero and seven days after birth, represents 73% of all postnatal deaths worldwide. Despite a 50% reduction in childhood mortality, reduction of ENND has significantly lagged behind other Millennium Developmental Goal achievements and is a growing contributor to overall mortality in children aged <5 years. The etiology of ENND is closely related to the level of a country's industrialization. Hence, prematurity and congenital anomalies are the leading causes in high-income countries...
February 23, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215929/each-baby-counts-national-quality-improvement-programme-to-reduce-intrapartum-related-deaths-and-brain-injuries-in-term-babies
#8
REVIEW
Louise Robertson, Hannah Knight, Edward Prosser Snelling, Emily Petch, Marian Knight, Alan Cameron, Zarko Alfirevic
Although the most recent MBRRACE-UK (Mothers and Babies: Reducing Risk through Audits and Confidential Enquiries across the UK) perinatal mortality report has shown a downward trend in perinatal mortality, the UK still lags behind the best-performing countries in Europe. The burden of perinatal morbidity and mortality is wide-reaching and devastating for the families and care-providers involved. The aim of the Each Baby Counts (EBC) project is to reduce intrapartum term stillbirths, early neonatal deaths, and severe brain injuries by 50% by 2020...
February 16, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214157/causes-and-temporal-changes-in-nationally-collected-stillbirth-audit-data-in-high-resource-settings
#9
REVIEW
Tom Norris, Bradley N Manktelow, Lucy K Smith, Elizabeth S Draper
Few high-income countries have an active national programme of stillbirth audit. From the three national programmes identified (UK, New Zealand, and the Netherlands) steady declines in annual stillbirth rates have been observed over the audit period between 1993 and 2014. Unexplained stillbirth remains the largest group in the classification of stillbirths, with a decline in intrapartum-related stillbirths, which could represent improvements in intrapartum care. All three national audits of stillbirths suggest that up to half of all reviewed stillbirths have elements of care that failed to follow standards and guidance...
February 14, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214156/the-psychological-social-and-economic-impact-of-stillbirth-on-families
#10
REVIEW
Samantha Murphy, Joanne Cacciatore
This article reviews the current state of psychological, social, and economic research into the impact of stillbirth on families. We argue that whereas the knowledge we have of the experiential aspects of stillbirth is increasing, there is still much that remains to be uncovered especially in respect of the impact that seeing the baby may have on mental health. Moreover, the experience of particular social groups merits further work, most notably regarding same-sex couples and surrogates, mothers and fathers drawn from Black and Minority Ethnic groups as well as those from lower socio-economic groups...
February 14, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162973/the-developing-kidney-issues-and-opportunities
#11
EDITORIAL
Patrick Brophy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162972/novel-strategies-to-prevent-stillbirth
#12
REVIEW
Jane Warland, Edwin A Mitchell, Louise M O'Brien
This article reviews three new and emerging risk factors for stillbirth that may be modifiable or might identify a compromised fetus. We focus on fetal movements, maternal sleep, and maternal diet. Recent studies have suggested than a sudden increase in vigorous fetal activity may be associated with increased risk of stillbirth. We review the papers that have reported this finding and discuss the implications as well as potential future directions for research. There is emerging literature to suggest that maternal sleep position may be a risk for stillbirth, especially if the woman settles to sleep supine...
February 2, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161315/renal-development-in-the-fetus-and-premature-infant
#13
REVIEW
Stacy Rosenblum, Abhijeet Pal, Kimberly Reidy
Congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) are one of the leading congenital defects to be identified on prenatal ultrasound. CAKUT represent a broad spectrum of abnormalities, from transient hydronephrosis to severe bilateral renal agenesis. CAKUT are a major contributor to chronic and end stage kidney disease (CKD/ESKD) in children. Prenatal imaging is useful to identify CAKUT, but will not detect all defects. Both genetic abnormalities and the fetal environment contribute to CAKUT. Monogenic gene mutations identified in human CAKUT have advanced our understanding of molecular mechanisms of renal development...
February 1, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153467/water-balance-in-the-fetus-and-neonate
#14
REVIEW
Julie B Lindower
Fetal water balance is dependent prenatally on the placental transfer of water from maternal to fetal circulation. Adequate amniotic fluid volume is one indicator of stable fetal status and development. Excessive or less than expected amniotic fluid volume may be a precursor to postnatal morbidity and mortality. Postnatal transition is marked by predictable changes in body water including contraction of extracellular volume and insensible fluid loss, primarily across the skin barrier. The degree to which these occur is determined by gestational and postnatal age...
January 30, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109705/renal-function-in-the-fetus-and-neonate-the-creatinine-enigma
#15
REVIEW
Justin T Kastl
The use of serum creatinine levels to estimate glomerular function in infants is admittedly fraught with inherent inaccuracies which are both physiological and methodological in nature. This characteristic can understandably reduce the neonatal clinician's confidence in the ability of serum creatinine levels to provide useful information relevant to their patients' medical care. The aim of this review is to provide further insight into the peculiarities of serum creatinine trends in both premature and term infants with special focus on the maturational and developmental changes occurring in the kidney during this crucial time-period...
January 18, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692935/neurodevelopmental-outcomes-and-nutritional-strategies-in-very-low-birth-weight-infants
#16
REVIEW
Mandy Brown Belfort, Richard A Ehrenkranz
The developing brain of the very low birth weight (VLBW) infant is highly sensitive to effects of the nutritional milieu during the neonatal hospitalization and after discharge. Strategies to optimize nutritional care play an important role in reducing long-term neurodevelopmental morbidities in this population. Currently available interventions to ensure that the unique nutrient requirements of the VLBW infant are met include various dietary fortification strategies and parenteral nutrition. In this article, we review evidence regarding nutritional strategies and their beneficial effects on neurodevelopment in VLBW infants...
February 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649995/use-of-donor-milk-in-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#17
REVIEW
Virginie de Halleux, Catherine Pieltain, Thibault Senterre, Jacques Rigo
Own mother's milk is the first choice in feeding preterm infants and provides multiple short- and long-term benefits. When it is unavailable, donor human milk is recommended as the first alternative. Donor milk undergoes processing (i.e. pasteurization) to reduce bacteriological and viral contaminants but influences its bioactive properties with potentially fewer benefits than raw milk. However, there is no clinical evidence of health benefit of raw compared to pasteurized human milk, and donor milk maintains documented advantages compared to formula...
February 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618425/advances-in-nutrition
#18
EDITORIAL
David H Adamkin, Paula G Radmacher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27605513/neonatal-hypoglycemia
#19
REVIEW
David H Adamkin
A consistent definition for neonatal hypoglycemia in the first 48 h of life continues to elude us. Enhanced understanding of metabolic disturbances and genetic disorders that underlie alterations in postnatal glucose homeostasis has added useful information to understanding transitional hypoglycemia. This growth in knowledge still has not led to what we need to know: "How low is too low and for how long?" This article reviews the current state of understanding of neonatal hypoglycemia and how different approaches reach different "expert" opinions...
February 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27599697/fatty-acid-requirements-for-the-preterm-infant
#20
REVIEW
Daniel T Robinson, Camilia R Martin
Fatty acids are critical nutrient regulators of intracellular signaling and influence key pathways including inflammatory responses, hemostasis as well as central nervous system development and function. Preterm birth interrupts the maternal-fetal transfer of essential fatty acids including docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids, which occurs during the third trimester. Postnatal deficits of these nutrients accrue in preterm infants during the first week and they remain throughout the first months. Due to the regulatory roles of these fatty acids, such deficits contribute an increased risk of developing prematurity-related morbidities including impaired growth and neurodevelopment...
February 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
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