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Seminars in Pediatric Surgery

Maria E Linnaus, Daniel J Ostlie
Complications related to general pediatric surgery procedures are a major concern for pediatric surgeons and their patients. Although infrequent, when they occur the consequences can lead to significant morbidity and psychosocial stress. The purpose of this article is to discuss the common complications encountered during several common pediatric general surgery procedures including inguinal hernia repair (open and laparoscopic), umbilical hernia repair, laparoscopic pyloromyotomy, and laparoscopic appendectomy...
December 2016: Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
Andrew M Davidoff, Israel Fernandez-Pineda
With improvement in the outcomes for children with cancer has come an increasing focus on minimizing the morbidity from therapeutic interventions, including surgical procedures, while continuing to have a high likelihood of cure. Thus, an appreciation for the potential complications of surgery, both acute and long term, is critical when considering the risks and benefits of any procedure performed on a child with cancer. Although not meant to be an exhaustive review, here we discuss the most common and significant surgical complications that may occur when performing diagnostic, therapeutic, or supportive procedures in children with the most common malignant solid tumors...
December 2016: Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
Gabriella Grisotti, Robert A Cowles
This review highlights the complications and their risk factors encountered in pediatric hepatobiliary surgery, specifically in the context of pediatric hepatic resection, excision of choledochal cyst, and the Kasai hepatoportoenterostomy procedure for biliary atresia as well as other procedures potentially affecting the biliary tree. With the understanding that these are relatively rare procedures, case reports and small case series are included in addition to larger series when available. The review focuses on publications in English over the past 15 years...
December 2016: Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
Jason S Frischer, Beth Rymeski
Colorectal pediatric surgery is a diverse field that encompasses many different procedures. The pullthrough for Hirschsprung disease, the posterior sagittal anorectoplasty for anorectal malformations including complex cloaca reconstructions and the ileal pouch anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous polyposis present some of the most technically challenging procedures pediatric surgeons undertake. Many children prevail successfully following these surgical interventions, however, a small number of patients suffer from complications following these procedures...
December 2016: Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
James S Farrelly, David H Stitelman
Obtaining reliable enteral and vascular access constitutes a significant fraction of a pediatric surgeon׳s job. Multiple approaches are available. Given the complicated nature of this patient population multiple complications can also occur. This article discusses the various techniques and potential complications associated with short- and long-term enteral and vascular access.
December 2016: Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
Mauricio A Escobar, Michael G Caty
Neonatal surgery is recognized as an independent discipline in general surgery, requiring the expertise of pediatric surgeons to optimize outcomes in infants with surgical conditions. Survival following neonatal surgery has improved dramatically in the past 60 years. Improvements in pediatric surgical outcomes are in part attributable to improved understanding of neonatal physiology, specialized pediatric anesthesia, neonatal critical care including sophisticated cardiopulmonary support, utilization of parenteral nutrition and adjustments in fluid management, refinement of surgical technique, and advances in surgical technology including minimally invasive options...
December 2016: Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
Emily Christison-Lagay
Head and neck anatomy is topographically complex and the region is densely populated by vital nerves and vascular and lymphatic structures. Injury to many of these structures is associated with significant morbidity and may even be fatal. A thorough knowledge of regional anatomy is imperative and complications need to be managed in a thoughtful directed manner. The pediatric surgeon may be called upon to address both congenital and acquired conditions and should be prepared to encounter reoperative fields after failed initial surgery...
December 2016: Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
Michael G Caty, Robert A Cowles
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
Paul D Losty
Surgeons play a pivotal role in the decision-making and multidisciplinary management of childhood solid tumours.(1) Evidence-based medicine-"aims to optimise decision making by emphasising on the use of best evidence from well-designed conducted research." This article offers a brief overview in an effort to demonstrate how a selection of well-conducted, recently published studies can help address some topical and controversial themes in paediatric surgical oncology practice.
October 2016: Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
Alessandro Inserra, Alessandra Narciso, Guglielmo Paolantonio, Raffaella Messina, Alessandro Crocoli
Survival rate for childhood cancer has increased in recent years, reaching as high as 70% in developed countries compared with 54% for all cancers diagnosed in the 1980s. In the remaining 30%, progression or metastatic disease leads to death and in this framework palliative care has an outstanding role though not well settled in all its facets. In this landscape, surgery has a supportive actor role integrated with other welfare aspects from which are not severable. The definition of surgical palliation has moved from the ancient definition of noncurative surgery to a group of practices performed not to cure but to alleviate an organ dysfunction offering the best quality of life possible in all the aspects of life (pain, dysfunctions, caregivers, psychosocial, etc...
October 2016: Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
Raffoul Lara, Capito Carmen, Sarnacki Sabine
Recent years have witnessed marked improvement in cytotoxic treatments with a parallel increase in patient survival. Despite efforts done to minimize long-term side effects of these treatment regimens, it is estimated that 40% of survivors of pediatric cancer will suffer from those. Some will be mild whereas others such as impaired fertility will be a heavy load on parents׳ expectations and patient׳s quality of life. Gonadal damage and severe loss of function is not a rare condition among children cured for cancer...
October 2016: Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
Todd E Heaton, Andrew M Davidoff
Most children who succumb to solid malignancies do so because of the burden of metastatic disease or due to complications associated with the therapy administered to treat metastatic disease. Approximately one-quarter of children with solid tumors will present with metastatic disease, and an additional 20% ultimately develop metastatic disease, most commonly in the lung. The role of surgery in the treatment of metastatic solid tumors, given its disseminated nature, is not intuitive, yet there are circumstances in which surgical resection of metastatic disease can potentially be curative...
October 2016: Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
Dhanya Mullassery, Christopher B Weldon
Pediatric/"Wildtype" gastrointestinal stromal tumor (P/WT-GIST) is a rare cancer, distinct and markedly different from the phenotype found predominantly in older patients (adult, non-wildtype GIST). Having a different molecular signature, it is not responsive to standard adjuvant therapies utilized in adult GIST, and surgery remains the only effective cure. However, even with presumed complete resections in patients with localized disease at presentation, recurrence rates are high. Furthermore, it is an indolent cancer that can persist for decades, and treatment strategies must balance the possible morbid risks of intervention with the reality of preserving quality of life in the interim...
October 2016: Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
Andrea Hayes-Jordan, Michael P LaQuaglia, Shakeel Modak
Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a soft tissue sarcoma of mesenchymal cell origin that typically presents with multiple intra-abdominal tumors and exhibits a multi-phenotypic pattern of immunohistochemical staining. The specific organ or tissue type of origin has yet to be identified. DSRCT rarely arises as a singular tumor in the abdomen; in most cases, there are dozens to hundreds of abdominal peritoneal tumors that are detected on diagnosis. One very large dominant mass is usually present in the omentum, with an additional one or two large conglomerates of tumors in the pelvis and right peritoneum, respectively...
October 2016: Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
Elisabeth T Tracy, Jennifer H Aldrink
Childhood melanoma is a rare pediatric malignancy, with fewer than 500 new diagnoses annually. The incidence is increasing, particularly in the adolescent population. This review highlights the epidemiology, clinical presentation, and histopathologic challenges of pediatric melanoma. Surgical resection remains the cornerstone for localized and regionally advanced disease. Adjuvant therapies, including current options and potential novel therapeutics for this unique population will be discussed.
October 2016: Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
Roshni Dasgupta, David Rodeberg
Pediatric non-rhabdomyosarcoma soft tissue sarcomas (NRSTS) are a heterogeneous group encompassing more than 50 different histological diagnoses arising from primitive mesenchymal tissue. Together, they comprise about half the soft tissue sarcomas diagnosed in children and young adults. Despite each histologies relative rarity, their management schema is similar among the different NRSTS histologies. Surgical management is an important component of the multimodal treatment strategy of all these tumors. Resection with negative margins, while maintaining function, plays an important role as a primary treatment of these patients as well as diminishing the risks of local and distant recurrence...
October 2016: Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
Roshni Dasgupta, Jörg Fuchs, David Rodeberg
A malignant tumor of striated muscle origin, rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a childhood tumor that has benefited from nearly 30 years of multimodality therapy, culminating in a >70% overall 5-year survival. Prognosis for RMS is dependent on primary tumor site, age, completeness of resection, presence and number of metastatic sites, histology, and biology of the tumor cells. Multimodality treatment is based on risk stratification according to pre-treatment stage, postoperative group, histology, and site. Unique to RMS is the concept of postoperative clinical grouping that assesses the completeness of disease resection and takes into account lymph node evaluation at both the regional and metastatic basins...
October 2016: Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
Daniel C Aronson, Rebecka L Meyers
This article aims to give an overview of pediatric liver tumors; in particular of the two most frequently occurring groups of hepatoblastomas and hepatocellular carcinomas. Focus lays on achievements gained through worldwide collaboration. We present recent advances in insight, treatment results, and future questions to be asked. Increasing international collaboration between the four major Pediatric Liver Tumor Study Groups (SIOPEL/GPOH, COG, and JPLT) may serve as a paradigm to approach rare tumors. This international effort has been catalyzed by the Children's Hepatic tumor International Collaboration (CHIC) formation of a large collaborative database...
October 2016: Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
Erika A Newman, Jed G Nuchtern
Neuroblastoma is an embryonic cancer of neural crest cell lineage, accounting for up to 10% of all pediatric cancer. The clinical course is heterogeneous ranging from spontaneous regression in neonates to life-threatening metastatic disease in older children. Much of this clinical variance is thought to result from distinct pathologic characteristics that predict patient outcomes. Consequently, many research efforts have been focused on identifying the underlying biologic and genetic features of neuroblastoma tumors in order to more clearly define prognostic subgroups for treatment stratification...
October 2016: Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
Sabine Irtan, Peter F Ehrlich, Kathy Pritchard-Jones
Despite an impressive increase in survival rate over the past decades, there is still a need to improve the survival of specific subgroups of Wilms tumor (anaplastic, metastatic, and bilateral) and to decrease the late effects of treatment in terms of renal function and heart toxicity. We aim to explore new areas of improvement, from diagnosis to treatment: in the field of radiology the increased use of MRI and exploration of its diffusion-weighted imaging capabilities to predict WT histology at diagnosis and for preoperative assessment; in biology the emergence of new biomarkers that could be integrated into the decision-making process; and surgical techniques with more accurate indication of nephron-sparing surgery that is no longer reserved for bilateral WT and the minimally invasive approach...
October 2016: Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
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