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Periodontology 2000

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194795/description-of-the-periodontal-pocket-in-preclinical-models-limitations-and-considerations
#1
REVIEW
Nikolaos Donos, Jung-Chul Park, André Vajgel, Bruna de Carvalho Farias, Xanthippi Dereka
Establishment of periodontal health and regeneration of the lost periodontal tissues are always the ultimate goal of periodontal treatment. The development of new therapeutic approaches raises the necessity for appropriate experimental models that present periodontal structures and healing capability comparable to humans. Preclinical research and extrapolation of the data to human conditions remains a stage of great importance before the clinical application of the new biomaterials and techniques. Periodontal pockets/defects in preclinical models can be induced experimentally through acute or chronic or a combination of both (induced) modalities...
February 2018: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193353/gingival-crevicular-fluid-and-its-immune-mediators-in-the-proteomic-era
#2
REVIEW
Nagihan Bostanci, Georgios N Belibasakis
The discovery of biomarkers for periodontal disease requires an in-depth understanding of the molecular basis of the initiation and progression of the disease. The gingival crevicular fluid is a biological medium suitable for identifying and measuring such biomarkers because it can be easily and noninvasively sampled from the immediate vicinity of the affected tissues. An ever-expanding pool of gingival crevicular fluid proteins associated with periodontal health or disease has been catalogued over the years, particularly with the recent implementation of proteomic technologies...
November 30, 2017: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193310/bacterial-modulators-of-bone-remodeling-in-the-periodontal-pocket
#3
REVIEW
Brian Henderson, Frank Kaiser
The signaling network involved in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease is not yet fully understood. This review aims to describe possible mechanisms through which the bacterial modulators may be linked directly or indirectly to the process of alveolar bone loss in periodontitis. From the late 1970s to present, new paradigm shifts have been developed regarding our understanding of pathological bone remodeling in periodontal disease. Upcoming evidence suggests that in periodontal disease the local immune response is exacerbated and involves the existence of signaling pathways that have been shown to modulate bone-cell function leading to alveolar bone loss...
November 30, 2017: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193304/microbial-colonization-of-the-periodontal-pocket-and-its-significance-for-periodontal-therapy
#4
REVIEW
Andrea Mombelli
The aim of this paper was to evaluate strategies for periodontal therapy from the perspective of periodontal disease being a consequence of microbial colonization of the periodontal pocket environment. In classic bacterial infections the diversity of the microbiota decreases as the disease develops. In most cases of periodontitis, however, the diversity of the flora increases. Most incriminating bacteria are thought to harm tissues significantly only if present in high numbers over prolonged periods of time...
November 30, 2017: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239086/treatment-of-pathologic-peri-implant-pockets
#5
REVIEW
Stefan Renvert, Ioannis Polyzois
Peri-implant and periodontal pockets share a number of anatomical features but also have distinct differences. These differences make peri-implant pockets more susceptible to trauma and infection than periodontal pockets. Inadequate maintenance can lead to infections (defined as peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis) within peri-implant pockets. These infections are recognized as inflammatory diseases, which ultimately lead to the loss of supporting bone. Diagnostic and treatment methods conventionally used in periodontics have been adopted to assess and treat these diseases...
February 2018: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197129/patient-self-care-of-periodontal-pocket-infections
#6
REVIEW
Nicole Birgit Arweiler, Thorsten M Auschill, Anton Sculean
Treatment of periodontitis aims to control the infection caused by the periodontal pathogenic flora and includes mechanical debridement of root surfaces to disrupt the supragingival and subgingival biofilm. As periodontal pockets of ≤ 5 mm can be perform in a stable condition and may not need additional therapy, the ability and the willingness of the patient to perform good oral hygiene on a long-term basis are of utmost importance for ensuring long-term success of periodontal treatment. In this context, the aim of all home-care measures must be the optimal control of plaque biofilm in order to prevent or treat gingival inflammation as a primary stage of periodontitis...
February 2018: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194797/dental-calculus-the-calcified-biofilm-and-its-role-in-disease-development
#7
REVIEW
Aliye Akcalı, Niklaus P Lang
Dental calculus represents the first fossilized record of bacterial communities as a testimony of evolutionary biology. The development of dental calculus is a dynamic process that starts with a nonmineralized biofilm which eventually calcifies. Nonmineralized dental biofilm entraps particles from the oral cavity, including large amounts of oral bacteria, human proteins, viruses and food remnants, and preserves their DNA. The process of mineralization involves metabolic activities of the bacterial colonies and strengthens the attachment of nonmineralized biofilms to the tooth surface...
February 2018: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194796/the-periodontal-pocket-pathogenesis-histopathology-and-consequences
#8
REVIEW
Dieter D Bosshardt
The conversion of junctional epithelium to pocket epithelium is regarded as a hallmark in the development of periodontitis. Knowledge of factors contributing to the initiation and progression of pocket formation is important and may result in the development of better preventive measures and improve healing outcomes after therapeutic interventions. The periodontal pocket is a pathologically deepened gingival sulcus. In healthy periodontal conditions, the defense mechanisms are generally sufficient to control the constant microbiological challenge through a normally functioning junctional epithelium and the concentrated powerful mass of inflammatory and immune cells and macromolecules transmigrating through this epithelium...
February 2018: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194794/the-periodontal-pocket
#9
REVIEW
Nikolaos Donos
Periodontal disease is synonymous with the presence of periodontal pockets, and very often the clinical success of periodontal therapy is based on periodontal pocket depth reduction. Therefore, in the fields of periodontology and implant dentistry, significant research effort has been placed on the etiopathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of periodontal/peri-implant disease and as a consequence on pocket pathology. In this volume of Periodontology 2000, the in-depth reviews include topics ranging from preclinical models, anatomy and structure of tissues, and molecular and bacterial components, to treatments of pockets around teeth and implants...
February 2018: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194785/molecular-basis-for-immunohistochemical-and-inflammatory-changes-during-progression-of-gingivitis-to-periodontitis
#10
REVIEW
Sivge Kurgan, Alpdogan Kantarci
Two common diseases - gingivitis and periodontitis - affect the periodontium. Symptoms of disease entities are used for distinguishing various forms of gingivitis and periodontitis. Gingivitis follows a linear and progressive course when a healthy individual stops oral care, as shown by the experimental gingivitis model. It is not known if and when gingivitis transforms into periodontitis. A very limited number of studies present direct evidence regarding the histological changes over time and how they correlate to the clinical transition from gingivitis to periodontitis...
February 2018: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193404/surgical-treatment-of-the-residual-periodontal-pocket
#11
REVIEW
Filippo Graziani, Dimitra Karapetsa, Nikolaos Mardas, Natalie Leow, Nikolaos Donos
The ultimate goal of periodontal therapy is to prevent further disease progression in order to reduce the risk of tooth loss. This objective can be achieved through a number of therapeutic modalities comprising both the nonsurgical and surgical phases of periodontal therapy. Nonsurgical periodontal treatment has been shown to control periodontal infection and to arrest progression of the disease in a significant number of cases. However, despite completion of nonsurgical treatment, a number of periodontal pockets, defined as 'residual', often remain...
February 2018: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193355/development-of-the-gingival-sulcus-at-the-time-of-tooth-eruption-and-the-influence-of-genetic-factors
#12
REVIEW
Luigi Nibali
Tooth eruption is characterized by a concert of mechanisms that result in the emergence of teeth in the oral cavity. Genetic variants seem to regulate this process and the formation of a gingival sulcus around the teeth. Interindividual variability in the response to microbial triggers in the sulcus plays an important role in the onset and progression of periodontal diseases. Host genetic variants can influence this variability, affecting the response of the host to the subgingival biofilm. Genetic factors affecting tooth eruption could potentially influence susceptibility to periodontal diseases and, specifically, susceptibility to localized aggressive periodontitis...
February 2018: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193334/comparison-of-peri-implant-and-periodontal-marginal-soft-tissues-in-health-and-disease
#13
REVIEW
Saso Ivanovski, Ryan Lee
The integrity of the peri-implant soft-tissue seal is crucial for maintaining peri-implant tissue health. Whilst the transmucosal component of the restored implant shares some common features with teeth, namely the presence of a junctional epithelium and a connective tissue component, there are some important differences. A key difference is the nature of the relationship of the connective tissue with the implant surface, whereby there is 'adaptation' of collagen fibers in a parallel orientation in relation to the implant, but insertion of fiber attachment perpendicularly into cementum in the case of teeth...
February 2018: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193331/host-modulation-therapy-with-anti-inflammatory-agents
#14
REVIEW
Philip M Preshaw
Host modulation therapy refers to a treatment concept in which drug therapies are used as an adjunct to conventional periodontal treatment to ameliorate destructive aspects of the host inflammatory response. This strategy is not new in the treatment of periodontitis. Previously, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have been investigated in this regard, with evidence of reductions in alveolar bone resorption when these drugs are used for prolonged periods of time. However, the risk of significant unwanted effects precludes the use of both nonselective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and the selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors as adjunctive treatments for periodontitis...
February 2018: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758305/revisiting-the-page-schroeder-model-the-good-the-bad-and-the-unknowns-in-the-periodontal-host-response-40%C3%A2-years-later
#15
REVIEW
George Hajishengallis, Jonathan M Korostoff
In their classic 1976 paper, Page & Schroeder described the histopathologic events and the types of myeloid cells and lymphocytes involved in the initiation and progression of inflammatory periodontal disease. The staging of periodontal disease pathogenesis as 'initial', 'early', 'established' and 'advanced' lesions productively guided subsequent research in the field and remains fundamentally valid. However, major advances regarding the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the induction, regulation and effector functions of immune and inflammatory responses necessitate a reassessment of their work and its integration with emerging new concepts...
October 2017: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758304/subgingival-debridement-end-point-methods-and-how-often
#16
REVIEW
Isabelle Laleman, Simone Cortellini, Senne De Winter, Esteban Rodriguez Herrero, Christel Dekeyser, Marc Quirynen, Wim Teughels
Subgingival debridement is the part of nonsurgical therapy which aims to remove the biofilm without intentionally removing the cementum or subgingival calculus. The objective of this review was to describe the end point of this therapy, the different methods used and how often it should be carried out. The literature shows that several methods are currently available for subgingival debridement, namely hand instrumentation, (ultra)sonic instrumentation, laser, photodynamic therapy and air-polishing. None of these methods seems superior to any other regarding clinical benefits or microbiological differences...
October 2017: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758303/the-periodontal-war-microbes-and-immunity
#17
REVIEW
Jeffrey L Ebersole, Dolph Dawson, Pinar Emecen-Huja, Radhakrishnan Nagarajan, Katherine Howard, Martha E Grady, Katherine Thompson, Rebecca Peyyala, Ahmad Al-Attar, Kathryn Lethbridge, Sreenatha Kirakodu, Octavio A Gonzalez
Maintenance of periodontal health or transition to a periodontal lesion reflects the continuous and ongoing battle between the vast microbial ecology in the oral cavity and the array of resident and emigrating inflammatory/immune cells in the periodontium. This war clearly signifies many 'battlefronts' representing the interface of the mucosal-surface cells with the dynamic biofilms composed of commensal and potential pathogenic species, as well as more recent knowledge demonstrating active invasion of cells and tissues of the periodontium leading to skirmishes in connective tissue, the locality of bone and even in the local vasculature...
October 2017: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758302/periodontitis-epidemiology-is-periodontitis-under-recognized-over-diagnosed-or-both
#18
REVIEW
Panos N Papapanou, Cristiano Susin
Currently, two principal forms of destructive periodontal disease are recognized - chronic periodontitis and aggressive periodontitis - but their distinction in epidemiologic studies has been rather problematic because of substantial overlap of their primary features. This review critically appraises some key features relevant to the epidemiology of human periodontitis that underlie its core 'identity' as a bacterial biofilm-induced, inflammatory disease and discusses its impact within the larger context of aging populations...
October 2017: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758301/periodontal-plastic-surgery-of-gingival-recessions-at-single-and-multiple-teeth
#19
REVIEW
Francesco Cairo
This manuscript aims to review periodontal plastic surgery for root coverage at single and multiple gingival recessions. Techniques are assessed based on biological principles, surgical procedures, prognosticative factors and expected clinical and esthetic outcomes. The use of coronally advanced flap, laterally sliding flap, free gingival graft, the tunnel grafting technique, barrier membranes, enamel matrix derivative, collagen matrix and acellular dermal matrix are evaluated. The clinical scenario and practical implications are analyzed according to a modern evidence-based approach...
October 2017: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758300/nonsurgical-and-surgical-treatment-of-periodontitis-how-many-options-for-one-disease
#20
REVIEW
Filippo Graziani, Dimitra Karapetsa, Bettina Alonso, David Herrera
Treatment of periodontitis aims at preventing further disease progression with the intentions to reduce the risk of tooth loss, minimize symptoms and perception of the disease, possibly restore lost periodontal tissue and provide information on maintaining a healthy periodontium. Therapeutic intervention includes introduction of techniques to change behavior, such as: individually tailored oral-hygiene instructions; a smoking-cessation program; dietary adjustment; subgingival instrumentation to remove plaque and calculus; local and systemic pharmacotherapy; and various types of surgery...
October 2017: Periodontology 2000
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