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Periodontology 2000

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27501498/oral-inflammation-and-infection-and-chronic-medical-diseases-implications-for-the-elderly
#1
REVIEW
Frank A Scannapieco, Albert Cantos
Oral diseases, such as caries and periodontitis, not only have local effects on the dentition and on tooth-supporting tissues but also may impact a number of systemic conditions. Emerging evidence suggests that poor oral health influences the initiation and/or progression of diseases such as atherosclerosis (with sequelae including myocardial infarction and stoke), diabetes mellitus and neurodegenerative diseases (such as Alzheimer's disease, rheumatoid arthritis and others). Aspiration of oropharyngeal (including periodontal) bacteria causes pneumonia, especially in hospitalized patients and the elderly, and may influence the course of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease...
October 2016: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27501497/tooth-loss-as-a-predictor-of-shortened-longevity-exploring-the-hypothesis
#2
REVIEW
Paula K Friedman, Ira B Lamster
Many factors contribute to human tooth loss, including oral hygiene practices, trauma, smoking, health status, socio-economic status and individual preferences. Loss of teeth impairs quality-of-life measures, including the eating of most foods that require full masticatory function. A recent study of centenarians found that at age 65-74 years, those who lived to be 100 had a lower rate of edentulism than did younger members of their birth cohort at ages 65-74 years. Oral health was consistent with compression of morbidity toward the end of life...
October 2016: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27501496/oral-health-and-the-frailty-syndrome
#3
REVIEW
Michael I MacEntee, Leeann R Donnelly
The frailty syndrome is an ever-growing area of study among older adults because of its association with an increased risk of falls, hospitalization, institutionalization, dependency and mortality. Frailty is neither a disease nor a disability but is better understood as a medical syndrome of multisystem dysregulation that results in a diminished ability to overcome everyday stressors. The prevalence of frailty in any given population can vary widely, in part because of the way in which it is defined and measured, but in general it is higher among women and in those with advanced age and declining health...
October 2016: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27501495/implants-for-the-aged-patient-biological-clinical-and-sociological-considerations
#4
REVIEW
P Mark Bartold, Saso Ivanovski, Ivan Darby
Until recently, age, particularly old age, was considered a contraindication to the placement of dental implants. However, this was based largely on anecdotal dogma rather than on empirical information. This review considers the biological, clinical and socio-economic implications of implants placed in the aged population. Aging has been shown to have an influence on the biological aspects of soft- and hard-tissue wound healing and tissue remodeling, which may influence the establishment and maintenance of implant integration...
October 2016: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27501494/treatment-of-periodontal-disease-in-older-adults
#5
REVIEW
Stefan Renvert, G Rutger Persson
Within the next 40 years the number of older adults worldwide will more than double. This will impact periodontal treatment needs and presents a challenge to health-care providers and governments worldwide, as severe periodontitis has been reported to be the sixth most prevalent medical condition in the world. Older adults (≥ 80 years of age) who receive regular dental care retain more teeth than those who do not receive such care, but routine general dental care for these individuals is not sufficient to prevent the progression of periodontitis with the same degree of success as in younger individuals...
October 2016: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27501493/the-aging-mouth-differentiating-normal-aging-from-disease
#6
REVIEW
Ira B Lamster, Lynda Asadourian, Tessa Del Carmen, Paula K Friedman
Aging is the physiologic change that occurs over time. In humans, this change occurs at different rates and are related to lifestyle, environment and genetics. It can be challenging to differentiate normal aging from disease. In the oral cavity, with increasing age the teeth demonstrate wearing of the enamel, chipping and fracture lines, and a darker color. The pulp chamber and canals are reduced in size as a result of the deposition of secondary dentin. Coronal or root caries, however, represent disease. A limited amount of periodontal attachment loss occurs in association with aging, usually manifesting as recession on the buccal surface of teeth...
October 2016: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27501492/periodontitis-prevalence-in-adults-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-65%C3%A2-years-of-age-in-the-usa
#7
REVIEW
Paul I Eke, Liang Wei, Wenche S Borgnakke, Gina Thornton-Evans, Xingyou Zhang, Hua Lu, Lisa C McGuire, Robert J Genco
The older adult population is growing rapidly in the USA and it is expected that by 2040 the number of adults ≥ 65 years of age will have increased by about 50%. With the growth of this subpopulation, oral health status, and periodontal status in particular, becomes important in the quest to maintain an adequate quality of life. Poor oral health can have a major impact, leading to tooth loss, pain and discomfort, and may prevent older adults from chewing food properly, often leading to poor nutrition. Periodontitis is monitored in the USA at the national level as part of the Healthy People 2020 initiative...
October 2016: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27501491/aging-inflammation-immunity-and-periodontal-disease
#8
REVIEW
Jeffrey L Ebersole, Christina L Graves, Octavio A Gonzalez, Dolph Dawson, Lorri A Morford, Pinar Emecen Huja, James K Hartsfield, Sarandeep S Huja, Subramanya Pandruvada, Shannon M Wallet
The increased prevalence and severity of periodontal disease have long been associated with aging, such that this oral condition affects the majority of the adult population over 50 years of age. Although the immune system is a critical component for maintaining health, aging can be characterized by quantitative and qualitative modifications of the immune system. This process, termed 'immunosenescence', is a progressive modification of the immune system that leads to greater susceptibility to infections, neoplasia and autoimmunity, presumably reflecting the prolonged antigenic stimulation and/or stress responses that occur across the lifespan...
October 2016: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27501490/the-subgingival-periodontal-microbiota-of-the-aging-mouth
#9
REVIEW
Magda Feres, Flavia Teles, Ricardo Teles, Luciene Cristina Figueiredo, Marcelo Faveri
Different mechanisms have been hypothesized to explain the increase in prevalence and severity of periodontitis in older adults, including shifts in the periodontal microbiota. However, the actual impact of aging on the composition of subgingival biofilms remains unclear. In the present article, we provide an overview of the composition of the subgingival biofilm in older adults and the potential effects of age on the oral microbiome. In particular, this review covers the following topics: (i) the oral microbiota of an aging mouth; (ii) the effects of age and time on the human oral microbiome; (iii) the potential impact of inflammaging and immunosenescence in the host-oral microbiota interactions; and (iv) the relationship of the aging oral microbiota and Alzheimer's disease...
October 2016: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27501489/from-restoration-to-regeneration-periodontal-aging-and-opportunities-for-therapeutic-intervention
#10
REVIEW
Lan Huang, Benjamin Salmon, Xing Yin, Jill A Helms
With the march of time our bodies start to wear out: eyesight fades, skin loses its elasticity, teeth and bones become more brittle and injuries heal more slowly. These universal features of aging can be traced back to our stem cells. Aging has a profound effect on stem cells: DNA mutations naturally accumulate over time and our bodies have evolved highly specialized mechanisms to remove these damaged cells. Whilst obviously beneficial, this repair mechanism also reduces the pool of available stem cells and this, in turn, has a dramatic effect on tissue homeostasis and on our rate of healing...
October 2016: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27501488/the-aging-population-demographics-and-the-biology-of-aging
#11
REVIEW
Eleni Kanasi, Srinivas Ayilavarapu, Judith Jones
Epidemiologic studies show that 11% of the world's population is over 60 years of age; this is projected to increase, by 2050, to 22% of the population. Oral aging is a current focus of several organizations including the Federation Dentaire Internationale, the World Health Organization and the American and Japanese Dental Associations. In their Tokyo Declaration, the Japanese Association identified the elderly population as one of its main target groups. One of the WHO goals is for each person to retain more than 20 teeth by age 80, despite the fact that the prevalence of periodontal disease is continuously rising as the population is aging...
October 2016: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27501487/geriatric-periodontology-how-the-need-to-care-for-the-aging-population-can-influence-the-future-of-the-dental-profession
#12
REVIEW
Ira B Lamster
The world's population is aging, and it has been estimated that by 2050, the number of people 65 years of age and older will reach 1.5 billion. The aging population will be affected by noncommunicable chronic diseases, including diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and cognitive impairment. This important demographic shift includes a reduction in tooth loss/edentulism, particularly in older adults of the developed countries in North America, western Europe and north-east Asia. Therefore, in the future, dental providers will be required to care for an expanded number of older adults who have retained teeth and are medically complex...
October 2016: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27045439/management-and-prevention-of-gingival-recession
#13
REVIEW
George K Merijohn
Gingival recession is highly prevalent worldwide. It increases the risk for root caries and can interfere with patient comfort, function and esthetics. Progressive gingival recession also increases the risk of tooth loss secondary to clinical attachment loss. Although mitigating the causes of gingival recession decreases its incidence and severity, implementing practical management and prevention strategies in the clinical setting can be challenging. Identification of susceptible patients and evaluating them for the presence of modifiable risk exposures are essential first steps in developing action plans for appropriate interventions...
June 2016: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27045438/periodontal-diseases-as-a-source-of-halitosis-a-review-of-the-evidence-and-treatment-approaches-for-dentists-and-dental-hygienists
#14
REVIEW
Sophie De Geest, Isabelle Laleman, Wim Teughels, Christel Dekeyser, Marc Quirynen
Bad breath (halitosis) is an important social complaint. In most cases (≥90%), the cause of halitosis can be found within the oral cavity. Under this circumstance, the term oral malodor applies. It affects both healthy and periodontally diseased individuals. Oral malodor is mainly caused by a microbial degradation of both sulfur-containing and nonsulfur-containing amino acids into volatile, bad-smelling gases. Anaerobic gram-negative bacteria, the same species that have been linked to periodontal diseases, are especially involved in this process, explaining why clinicians often associate oral malodor with periodontitis...
June 2016: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27045437/lasers-in-minimally-invasive-periodontal-and-peri-implant-therapy
#15
REVIEW
Koji Mizutani, Akira Aoki, Donald Coluzzi, Raymond Yukna, Chen-Ying Wang, Verica Pavlic, Yuichi Izumi
Laser therapy has the potential to be an effective, minimally invasive procedure in periodontal therapy. The aim of the present review was to survey the relevant literature on the clinical application of lasers as a minimally invasive treatment for periodontitis and peri-implant disease. Currently, there are a large number of published clinical studies and case reports that evaluate the adjunctive use of diode, carbon dioxide, neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd:YAG), erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Er:YAG) and erbium, chromium-doped: yttrium, scandium, gallium, garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) lasers or antimicrobial photodynamic therapy for nonsurgical and minimally invasive surgical treatment of periodontal pockets...
June 2016: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27045436/post-treatment-supportive-care-for-the-natural-dentition-and-dental-implants
#16
REVIEW
Gary C Armitage, Pinelopi Xenoudi
Long-term successful treatment of chronic periodontitis requires placement of patients on post-treatment recall programs known as either periodontal maintenance therapy or supportive periodontal therapy. Selection of the recall intervals must be based on the specific needs of individual patients. A single recall interval (e.g. 6 months) is not suitable for all patients. The main purpose of these programs is to prevent the recurrence of periodontitis. The components of every periodontal maintenance therapy program include: review of medical/dental histories; complete oral examination with an emphasis on the detection of gingival inflammation; establishing whether the maintenance program is working by monitoring clinical attachment levels; evaluation of oral hygiene; and full-mouth supragingival and subgingival debridement (i...
June 2016: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27045435/polymorphonuclear-neutrophils-in-periodontitis-and-their-possible-modulation-as-a-therapeutic-approach
#17
REVIEW
Elena A Nicu, Bruno G Loos
The main focus of this review is polymorphonuclear neutrophilic granulocytes. Polymorphonuclear neutrophils play a pivotal role in normal host resistance to subgingival dental-plaque biofilm. Both hyper- and hypo-responsiveness of the immune system toward the microbial challenge in periodontitis have been described. We review polymorphonuclear neutrophil physiology with emphasis on the role of neutrophil functions and dysfunctions in periodontitis. Text boxes are given at the end of each subsection, which present the current knowledge on neutrophil-modulating agents as a potential therapeutic approach in periodontitis...
June 2016: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27045434/scaling-and-root-planing-vs-conservative-surgery-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-periodontitis
#18
REVIEW
David E Deas, Alan J Moritz, Ruben S Sagun, Scott F Gruwell, Charles A Powell
A renewed interest in conservative surgical techniques has been fueled by new technology, changes in referral patterns to periodontists and a desire to achieve periodontal health in the least invasive, most cost-efficient manner possible. Trends suggest that an increasing amount of periodontal care is being provided in the offices of general dentists. If true, it is likely that patients receiving care in these offices will be offered simpler surgical treatment modalities that do not require an extensive armamentarium...
June 2016: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27045433/ultrasonic-vs-hand-instrumentation-in-periodontal-therapy-clinical-outcomes
#19
REVIEW
Ranjitha Krishna, Jamie A De Stefano
Periodontal disease is the most common oral disease in adults. Traditional nonsurgical periodontal therapy involves subgingival removal of hard and soft deposits on the root surface, along with maintenance of good oral hygiene. Nonsurgical periodontal therapy can either be definitive or part of the initial phase before surgical therapy. Mechanical therapy, either with hand or ultrasonic instrumentation, is the keystone of nonsurgical periodontal therapy. This requires considerable amounts of time and a high level of operator skill...
June 2016: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27045432/antibiotics-antimicrobials-systemic-and-local-administration-in-the-therapy-of-mild-to-moderately-advanced-periodontitis
#20
REVIEW
Karin Jepsen, Søren Jepsen
This review gives an update of the current scientific evidence on the efficacy of the adjunctive use of systemic and local antibiotics/antimicrobials in the treatment of periodontitis. In particular, it addresses whether their use can improve the results of nonsurgical mechanical therapy in mild-to-moderate forms of the disease. Large numbers of randomized clinical trials and systematic reviews with meta-analyses have clearly established that adjunctive systemic antibiotics, combined with mechanical debridement, offer clinical improvements additional to those obtained with scaling and root planing alone...
June 2016: Periodontology 2000
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