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Periodontology 2000

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508445/esthetics-in-periodontics-and-implantology
#1
REVIEW
Giovanni Zucchelli, Praveen Sharma, Ilham Mounssif
Periodontal plastic surgery comprises an increasing part of clinical periodontology. Clinical trials have traditionally used professionals to judge esthetic outcome, and few studies have addressed patient needs and requests (true end points). Development of universally accepted and validated methods for professional esthetic assessment, together with standardized questionnaires for patient-perceived outcome, may help to provide better insights into the true needs and benefits of periodontal and implant-associated plastic surgery...
June 2018: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504173/decision-making-in-root-coverage-procedures-for-the-esthetic-outcome
#2
REVIEW
Martina Stefanini, Matteo Marzadori, Sofia Aroca, Pietro Felice, Matteo Sangiorgi, Giovanni Zucchelli
The primary indication for treatment of gingival recessions is esthetics. In the last decades, patients have become increasingly more demanding in the esthetic outcome expected. In order to obtain a successful final result, periodontal plastic surgery should provide not only complete root coverage but also perfect blending in terms of color and texture. In the literature, many techniques have been demonstrated to be effective in obtaining complete root coverage, and the selection of one surgical technique over another depends on several factors related to the anatomic characteristics of the defect...
June 2018: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504166/esthetic-evaluation-and-patient-centered-outcomes-in-root-coverage-procedures
#3
REVIEW
Ilham Mounssif, Martina Stefanini, Claudio Mazzotti, Matteo Marzadori, Matteo Sangiorgi, Giovanni Zucchelli
Treatment of buccal gingival recession is performed for esthetic concerns, root sensitivity, root caries and cervical abrasion resulting from incorrect toothbrushing. Over the years, clinicians and researchers have improved surgical techniques to achieve surrogate end points, such as complete root coverage, gingival recession reduction or keratinized tissue increase, ignoring the input from the patient regarding the true indications for treatment. In the past few years there has been an emphasis to include patient-centered outcomes in the evaluation of root-coverage procedures...
June 2018: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504162/esthetic-treatment-of-altered-passive-eruption
#4
REVIEW
Monica Mele, Pietro Felice, Praveen Sharma, Claudio Mazzotti, Pietro Bellone, Giovanni Zucchelli
Altered passive eruption is described as a condition in which the relationship between teeth, alveolar bone and soft tissues creates an excessive display of gingiva, commonly known as a 'gummy smile'. While there are authors who consider altered passive eruption to be a risk to periodontal health, its impact is greatest in terms of oral esthetics. The aim of periodontal management in such cases is not only to improve patient esthetics but also to restore periodontal health by re-establishing the normal relationship between the gingival margin, alveolar bone crest and cemento-enamel junction...
June 2018: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29493814/crown-lengthening-and-restorative-procedures-in-the-esthetic-zone
#5
REVIEW
Matteo Marzadori, Martina Stefanini, Matteo Sangiorgi, Ilham Mounssif, Carlo Monaco, Giovanni Zucchelli
Crown lengthening is one of the most common surgical procedures in periodontal practice. Its indications include subgingival caries, crown or root fractures, altered passive eruption, cervical root resorption and short clinical abutment, and its aim is to re-establish the biologic width in a more apical position. While the procedure in posterior areas of the dentition has been thoroughly investigated, crown lengthening performed for esthetic reasons in the anterior areas is still a matter of debate and an evidence-based technique is not available...
June 2018: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29493049/soft-tissue-augmentation-procedures-in-edentulous-esthetic-areas
#6
REVIEW
Matteo Marzadori, Martina Stefanini, Claudio Mazzotti, Sabrina Ganz, Praveen Sharma, Giovanni Zucchelli
Loss of dentition leads to functional and esthetic challenges that are determined by the anatomic features of the edentulous area. These features can complicate the prosthetic rehabilitation of such patients, especially in situations where optimal esthetic outcomes are desired. For these reasons, reconstructive plastic surgery procedures, aimed at restoring the alveolar ridge to its former dimensions, have become of great clinical interest. These reconstructive plastic surgery procedures frequently involve soft-tissue augmentation, performed to improve the quality and quantity of mucogingival tissue with the aim to achieve an ideal esthetic result...
June 2018: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29493024/esthetic-evaluation-and-patient-centered-outcomes-in-single-tooth-implant-rehabilitation-in-the-esthetic-area
#7
REVIEW
Martina Stefanini, Pietro Felice, Claudio Mazzotti, Ilham Mounssif, Matteo Marzadori, Giovanni Zucchelli
Criteria for successful implants, in the rehabilitation of a single missing tooth in the esthetic area, should be determined by composite outcomes, including functional and esthetic aspects of soft tissues and the reconstruction, as well as patient-reported outcomes. This paper focuses on current methods in esthetic assessment and patient-centered/reported outcomes in single-tooth implant rehabilitation in the esthetic area. The relationship between subjective, patient-based esthetic evaluations and objective, professional-based esthetic evaluations is reviewed...
June 2018: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29493021/simplified-procedures-to-treat-periodontal-intraosseous-defects-in-esthetic-areas
#8
REVIEW
Leonardo Trombelli, Anna Simonelli, Luigi Minenna, Renata Vecchiatini, Roberto Farina
Successful treatment of deep intraosseous defects in esthetic areas implies clinical improvement of the lesion consistent with long-term tooth survival as well as the preservation (or improvement) of esthetics. It is hoped that such treatment end points may be reached through procedures (which we have termed as 'simplified') that, on the one hand can be easily and successfully applied by the majority of clinicians, and, on the other hand, are well tolerated by patients in terms of postsurgical pain and discomfort, adverse events and cost...
June 2018: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29493018/surgery-without-papilla-incision-tunneling-flap-procedures-in-plastic-periodontal-and-implant-surgery
#9
REVIEW
Otto Zuhr, Stephan F Rebele, Stefani L Cheung, Markus B Hürzeler
Diverse clinical advancements, together with some relevant technical innovations, have led to an increase in popularity of tunneling flap procedures in plastic periodontal and implant surgery in the recent past. This trend is further promoted by the fact that these techniques have lately been introduced to a considerably expanded range of indications. While originally described for the treatment of gingival recession-type defects, tunneling flap procedures may now be applied successfully in a variety of clinical situations in which augmentation of the soft tissues is indicated in the esthetic zone...
June 2018: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484714/implant-placement-in-the-esthetic-area-criteria-for-positioning-single-and-multiple-implants
#10
REVIEW
Tiziano Testori, Tommaso Weinstein, Fabio Scutellà, Hom-Lay Wang, Giovanni Zucchelli
Patient expectations from implant treatment have changed over the years and esthetics plays an important role in defining what is now called success of rehabilitation. Of the many factors that influence the outcome of the rehabilitation, the two main ones are the bone and soft-tissue deficiencies at the intended implant site. Many surgical approaches are described in terms of timing of implant placement and management of regenerative procedures. The aim of this article is to discuss the different implant placement alternatives in the esthetic area, in particular: (i) the timing of implant placement/regenerative procedures/skeletal growth/altered passive eruption; (ii) the correct three-dimensional position of the fixture between the cuspids and in the premolar area; (iii) multiple missing teeth in the esthetic area with single tooth/pontic or cantilevered options/prosthetic compensation; (iv) placement of implants into infected sites; and (v) the influence of abutment and crown morphology on implant position...
June 2018: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484712/alveolar-ridge-preservation-in-the-esthetic-zone
#11
REVIEW
Ronald E Jung, Alexis Ioannidis, Christoph H F Hämmerle, Daniel S Thoma
In the esthetic zone, in the case of tooth extraction, the clinician is often confronted with a challenge regarding the optimal decision-making process for providing a solution using dental implants. This is because, after tooth extraction, alveolar bone loss and structural and compositional changes of the covering soft tissues, as well as morphological alterations, can be expected. Ideally, the therapeutic plan starts before tooth extraction and it offers three options: spontaneous healing of the extraction socket; immediate implant placement; and techniques for preserving the alveolar ridge at the site of tooth removal...
June 2018: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478284/immediate-implant-placement-and-provisionalization-of-maxillary-anterior-single-implants
#12
REVIEW
Joseph Yun Kwong Kan, Kitchai Rungcharassaeng, Matteo Deflorian, Tommaso Weinstein, Hom-Lay Wang, Tiziano Testori
An inevitable loss of soft and hard tissue after tooth extraction often results in a compromised site for anterior implant esthetics in both vertical and horizontal dimensions. Immediate implant placement and provisionalization has been a viable option for replacing failing maxillary anterior teeth as it preserves the vertical existing osseous and gingival architecture. With the simultaneous addition of soft- and hard-tissue grafts, the peri-implant horizontal tissue topography can also be maintained. The esthetic success of immediate implant placement and provisionalization procedures is influenced by a number of factors that can be identified as patient-dependent or clinician-dependent...
June 2018: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478252/vertical-ridge-augmentation-in-the-esthetic-zone
#13
REVIEW
Isabella Rocchietta, Luca Ferrantino, Massimo Simion
The reconstruction of deficient alveolar ridges using vertical and/or horizontal guided bone regeneration techniques allows for ideal implant placement, which is crucial for function and also for esthetically successful outcomes. Unlike in the past, when meeting a patient's functional demands was sufficient, many patients now have greater expectations from their implant restoration. Hence, it is no longer enough simply to restore the edentulous space with a functioning tooth or teeth. It has been suggested that patients now measure their final restoration using the contralateral natural tooth as the gold standard...
June 2018: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478251/horizontal-bone-augmentation-procedures-in-implant-dentistry-prosthetically-guided-regeneration
#14
REVIEW
Matteo Chiapasco, Paolo Casentini
The rehabilitation of partially or totally edentulous patients with implant-supported prostheses has become routine, with excellent long-term outcome. A proper implant position is mandatory to achieve good functional and esthetic outcome and may require an adequate amount of alveolar bone and surrounding soft tissue. When this is lacking because of atrophy, sequelae of periodontal disease, traumas or congenital malformations, increased bone volume and/or keratinized mucosa can be obtained by guided bone regeneration, bone-grafting techniques and alveolar bone expansion...
June 2018: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473219/soft-tissue-dehiscence-coverage-at-peri-implant-sites
#15
REVIEW
Claudio Mazzotti, Martina Stefanini, Pietro Felice, Valentina Bentivogli, Ilham Mounssif, Giovanni Zucchelli
Soft-tissue dehiscence at the facial aspect of an osteointegrated implant is a common complication which impacts on the final esthetic result. The etiology and ways of diagnosing this condition are still controversial. Many factors seem to influence the position of the peri-implant soft-tissue margin, and some of these have been studied more carefully than others. Various surgical and combination surgical-prosthetic approaches have been described to treat soft-tissue dehiscence, with the latter appearing to be more predictable...
June 2018: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239086/treatment-of-pathologic-peri-implant-pockets
#16
REVIEW
Stefan Renvert, Ioannis Polyzois
Peri-implant and periodontal pockets share a number of anatomical features but also have distinct differences. These differences make peri-implant pockets more susceptible to trauma and infection than periodontal pockets. Inadequate maintenance can lead to infections (defined as peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis) within peri-implant pockets. These infections are recognized as inflammatory diseases, which ultimately lead to the loss of supporting bone. Diagnostic and treatment methods conventionally used in periodontics have been adopted to assess and treat these diseases...
February 2018: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197129/patient-self-care-of-periodontal-pocket-infections
#17
REVIEW
Nicole Birgit Arweiler, Thorsten M Auschill, Anton Sculean
Treatment of periodontitis aims to control the infection caused by the periodontal pathogenic flora and includes mechanical debridement of root surfaces to disrupt the supragingival and subgingival biofilm. As periodontal pockets of ≤ 5 mm can be perform in a stable condition and may not need additional therapy, the ability and the willingness of the patient to perform good oral hygiene on a long-term basis are of utmost importance for ensuring long-term success of periodontal treatment. In this context, the aim of all home-care measures must be the optimal control of plaque biofilm in order to prevent or treat gingival inflammation as a primary stage of periodontitis...
February 2018: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194797/dental-calculus-the-calcified-biofilm-and-its-role-in-disease-development
#18
REVIEW
Aliye Akcalı, Niklaus P Lang
Dental calculus represents the first fossilized record of bacterial communities as a testimony of evolutionary biology. The development of dental calculus is a dynamic process that starts with a nonmineralized biofilm which eventually calcifies. Nonmineralized dental biofilm entraps particles from the oral cavity, including large amounts of oral bacteria, human proteins, viruses and food remnants, and preserves their DNA. The process of mineralization involves metabolic activities of the bacterial colonies and strengthens the attachment of nonmineralized biofilms to the tooth surface...
February 2018: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194796/the-periodontal-pocket-pathogenesis-histopathology-and-consequences
#19
REVIEW
Dieter D Bosshardt
The conversion of junctional epithelium to pocket epithelium is regarded as a hallmark in the development of periodontitis. Knowledge of factors contributing to the initiation and progression of pocket formation is important and may result in the development of better preventive measures and improve healing outcomes after therapeutic interventions. The periodontal pocket is a pathologically deepened gingival sulcus. In healthy periodontal conditions, the defense mechanisms are generally sufficient to control the constant microbiological challenge through a normally functioning junctional epithelium and the concentrated powerful mass of inflammatory and immune cells and macromolecules transmigrating through this epithelium...
February 2018: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194795/description-of-the-periodontal-pocket-in-preclinical-models-limitations-and-considerations
#20
REVIEW
Nikolaos Donos, Jung-Chul Park, André Vajgel, Bruna de Carvalho Farias, Xanthippi Dereka
Establishment of periodontal health and regeneration of the lost periodontal tissues are always the ultimate goal of periodontal treatment. The development of new therapeutic approaches raises the necessity for appropriate experimental models that present periodontal structures and healing capability comparable to humans. Preclinical research and extrapolation of the data to human conditions remains a stage of great importance before the clinical application of the new biomaterials and techniques. Periodontal pockets/defects in preclinical models can be induced experimentally through acute or chronic or a combination of both (induced) modalities...
February 2018: Periodontology 2000
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