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Periodontology 2000

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30198138/contemporary-approaches-for-identifying-individual-risk-for-periodontitis
#1
REVIEW
Kenneth S Kornman
Key breakthroughs in our understanding of the etiology and principles of predictable treatment of patients with chronic periodontitis first emerged in the late 1960s and carried on into the mid-1980s. Unfortunately, some generalizations of the evidence led many to believe that periodontitis was a predictable result of exposure to bacterial plaque accumulations over time. For a brief period, the initial plaque concept was translated by some to implicate specific bacterial infections, with both concepts (plaque exposure and specific infection) being false assumptions that led to clinical outcomes which were frustrating to both the clinician and the patient...
October 2018: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30198137/periodontal-complications-of-prescription-and-recreational-drugs
#2
REVIEW
Francis J Hughes, P Mark Bartold
Drug use for both therapeutic and recreational purposes is very widespread in most societies. The range of drugs used, the variations in response to these drugs and other health and behavioral confounders mean that drug use may be an important contributor to individualized periodontal diagnoses. In this narrative review, we review the main reported effects of drugs on the periodontal tissues and periodontal disease processes. Although some of the more common adverse drug reactions on periodontal tissues are well described, in many other cases the evidence for these drug effects is quite limited and based on small case series or isolated reports...
October 2018: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30198136/periodontal-complications-with-obesity
#3
REVIEW
Jean E Suvan, Nicholas Finer, Francesco D'Aiuto
The purpose of this paper was to identify and summarize current evidence describing periodontal complications associated with obesity. Electronic searches supplemented with manual searches were carried out to identify relevant systematic reviews. Identification, screening, eligibility, and inclusion of studies were performed independently by two reviewers. A MeaSurement Tool to Assess systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) was used to assess the quality and risk of bias of the included reviews. From 430 titles and abstracts screened, 14 systematic reviews were considered as eligible for inclusion in this meta-review...
October 2018: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30198135/a-public-health-perspective-on-personalized-periodontics
#4
REVIEW
Ellie T Knight, W Murray Thomson
In this paper, we consider personalized periodontics from a public health perspective. Periodontitis is an under-acknowledged and important public health problem, and there has long been interest in identifying and treating those who are at high risk of developing this disease. Although susceptibility/risk-assessment tools in periodontology are currently in their early stages of development, personalized periodontics is increasingly becoming a realistic approach. At the population level, however, personalized periodontics is not an effective way of improving periodontal health because it would target only those who seek help or are able to access care...
October 2018: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30198134/periodontal-complications-of-hyperglycemia-diabetes-mellitus-epidemiologic-complexity-and-clinical-challenge
#5
REVIEW
Thomas Kocher, Jörgen König, Wenche Sylling Borgnakke, Christiane Pink, Peter Meisel
This report provides a comprehensive overview of the adverse effects of hyperglycemia on the periodontium. It combines data from literature reviews of original data from two large, population-based epidemiologic studies with comprehensive periodontal health assessment. Emphasis is placed on the exploration of hitherto sparsely reported effects of prediabetes and poorly controlled (uncontrolled) diabetes, in contrast to the umbrella term "diabetes." This stems from the realization that it is not simply having a diagnosis of diabetes that may adversely affect periodontal health...
October 2018: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30198133/targeting-epigenetic-mechanisms-in-periodontal-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Silvana P Barros, Eman Hefni, Rafael Nepomuceno, Steven Offenbacher, Kari North
Epigenetic factors are heritable genome modifications that potentially impact gene transcription, contributing to disease states. Epigenetic marks play an important role in chronic inflammatory conditions, as observed in periodontal diseases, by allowing microbial persistence or by permitting microbial insult to play a role in the so-called 'hit-and-run' infectious mechanism, leading to lasting pathogen interference with the host genome. Epigenetics also affects the health sciences by providing a dynamic mechanistic framework to explain the way in which environmental and behavioral factors interact with the genome to alter disease risk...
October 2018: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30198132/personalized-periodontal-treatment-for-the-tobacco-and-alcohol-using-patient
#7
REVIEW
Mark I Ryder, Elizabeth T Couch, Benjamin W Chaffee
The use of various forms of tobacco is one of the most important preventable risk factors for the incidence and progression of periodontal disease. Tobacco use negatively affects treatment outcomes for both periodontal diseases and conditions, and for dental implants. Tobacco-cessation programs can mitigate these adverse dental treatment outcomes and may be the most effective component of a personalized periodontal treatment approach. In addition, heavy alcohol consumption may exacerbate the adverse effects of tobacco use...
October 2018: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30198131/behavioral-models-for-periodontal-health-and-disease
#8
REVIEW
Jonathon T Newton, Koula Asimakopoulou
The oral health-related behavior of patients with periodontal disease is a critical determinant of their health. Psychological models of behavior provide a framework for the design of interventions to enhance oral health-related behavior. This article reviews published manuscripts on interventions to enhance oral health-related behavior, classifying the nature of the interventions according to current psychological models of behavior. Fifteen manuscripts reporting the findings of 14 studies were identified and reviewed...
October 2018: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30198130/genetics-of-periodontitis-discovery-biology-and-clinical-impact
#9
REVIEW
Arne S Schaefer
This review provides an update on genome-wide association studies in periodontitis. Studies in populations with European ancestry have dominated the landscape of periodontitis genetics studies but, increasingly, studies in Asian populations are being reported. The review also summarizes evidence for suggested associated genetic variations. The loci associated with genome-wide association studies consist of noncoding variations, many of which are predicted to modulate levels of gene expression. In this article, the biological functions of the genes that are nearest to the associations and their implications for disease etiology are also examined...
October 2018: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30198129/lifestyle-and-periodontitis-the-emergence-of-personalized-periodontics
#10
REVIEW
P Mark Bartold
Personalized medicine is a medical model that involves the tailoring of healthcare - with medical decisions, practices, and/or products being customized to an individual patient. In this model, diagnostic testing is often employed for selecting appropriate and optimal therapies based on the context of a patient's genetic content or other epidemiologic, sociologic, molecular, physiologic, or cellular analyses. With the advent of major advances in periodontal medicine, including genomic discoveries and greater understanding of the multifactorial nature of periodontitis, it seems that the time is ripe to use personalized medicine as a model for personalized periodontics...
October 2018: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30198128/role-of-periodontal-therapy-in-management-of-common-complex-systemic-diseases-and-conditions-an-update
#11
REVIEW
Amarpreet Sabharwal, Isaac S Gomes-Filho, Elizabeth Stellrecht, Frank A Scannapieco
The goal of this review is to summarize the results of randomized trials reported since 2010 that assessed the effect of periodontal interventions on at least one systemic outcome in human subjects of any age, gender or ethnicity. Oral outcome measures included gingivitis, pocket depth, clinical attachment loss and/or radiographic bone loss and oral hygiene indices. Studies were excluded if the trial was not completed or if treatment was not randomized. The results suggest that nonsurgical periodontal intervention provided to pregnant women is safe and improves periodontal status without preventing adverse pregnancy outcomes...
October 2018: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30198127/effect-of-micronutrient-malnutrition-on-periodontal-disease-and-periodontal-therapy
#12
REVIEW
Henrik Dommisch, Denica Kuzmanova, Daniel Jönsson, Melissa Grant, Iain Chapple
Periodontitis is a complex chronic inflammatory noncommunicable disease, initiated by the development of a dysbiotic microbial plaque biofilm below the gingival margin. Whilst the pathogenic biofilm is a "necessary cause" of periodontitis, it is insufficient on its own to cause the disease, and a destructive immune-inflammatory response is a key to the translation of risk to destructive events. Other exposures or "component causes" include individual genetic predisposition, lifestyle (including smoking and nutrition), and environmental factors...
October 2018: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30198126/stress-allostatic-load-and-periodontal-diseases
#13
REVIEW
Wael Sabbah, Noha Gomaa, Aswathikutty Gireesh
Psychosocial stress plays an important role in periodontal disease through biological and behavioral pathways. In this paper we review studies that examine the relationship between stress and periodontal diseases, and discuss the different measures used to assess stress. Self-reported measures, such as the Perceived Stress Scale and the Stress Appraisal Measure, have traditionally been used to assess stress. Frequent and repeated exposure to stressor(s) leads to wear and tear of the body's systems, resulting in what is known as allostatic load...
October 2018: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30198125/periodontal-complications-with-age
#14
REVIEW
Goesta Rutger Persson
The present literature review on periodontal complications in aging focuses on the diagnosis, etiology and development of periodontal complications as a complete entity. In addition, the review also focuses on some of the common systemic diseases that either may further add to periodontal complications or, as result of anti-inflammatory treatment, limit the expression of periodontal disease. There is no evidence to suggest that clinical methods to provide periodontal therapies have been developed especially for older individuals...
October 2018: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508445/esthetics-in-periodontics-and-implantology
#15
REVIEW
Giovanni Zucchelli, Praveen Sharma, Ilham Mounssif
Periodontal plastic surgery comprises an increasing part of clinical periodontology. Clinical trials have traditionally used professionals to judge esthetic outcome, and few studies have addressed patient needs and requests (true end points). Development of universally accepted and validated methods for professional esthetic assessment, together with standardized questionnaires for patient-perceived outcome, may help to provide better insights into the true needs and benefits of periodontal and implant-associated plastic surgery...
June 2018: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504173/decision-making-in-root-coverage-procedures-for-the-esthetic-outcome
#16
REVIEW
Martina Stefanini, Matteo Marzadori, Sofia Aroca, Pietro Felice, Matteo Sangiorgi, Giovanni Zucchelli
The primary indication for treatment of gingival recessions is esthetics. In the last decades, patients have become increasingly more demanding in the esthetic outcome expected. In order to obtain a successful final result, periodontal plastic surgery should provide not only complete root coverage but also perfect blending in terms of color and texture. In the literature, many techniques have been demonstrated to be effective in obtaining complete root coverage, and the selection of one surgical technique over another depends on several factors related to the anatomic characteristics of the defect...
June 2018: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504166/esthetic-evaluation-and-patient-centered-outcomes-in-root-coverage-procedures
#17
REVIEW
Ilham Mounssif, Martina Stefanini, Claudio Mazzotti, Matteo Marzadori, Matteo Sangiorgi, Giovanni Zucchelli
Treatment of buccal gingival recession is performed for esthetic concerns, root sensitivity, root caries and cervical abrasion resulting from incorrect toothbrushing. Over the years, clinicians and researchers have improved surgical techniques to achieve surrogate end points, such as complete root coverage, gingival recession reduction or keratinized tissue increase, ignoring the input from the patient regarding the true indications for treatment. In the past few years there has been an emphasis to include patient-centered outcomes in the evaluation of root-coverage procedures...
June 2018: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504162/esthetic-treatment-of-altered-passive-eruption
#18
REVIEW
Monica Mele, Pietro Felice, Praveen Sharma, Claudio Mazzotti, Pietro Bellone, Giovanni Zucchelli
Altered passive eruption is described as a condition in which the relationship between teeth, alveolar bone and soft tissues creates an excessive display of gingiva, commonly known as a 'gummy smile'. While there are authors who consider altered passive eruption to be a risk to periodontal health, its impact is greatest in terms of oral esthetics. The aim of periodontal management in such cases is not only to improve patient esthetics but also to restore periodontal health by re-establishing the normal relationship between the gingival margin, alveolar bone crest and cemento-enamel junction...
June 2018: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29493814/crown-lengthening-and-restorative-procedures-in-the-esthetic-zone
#19
REVIEW
Matteo Marzadori, Martina Stefanini, Matteo Sangiorgi, Ilham Mounssif, Carlo Monaco, Giovanni Zucchelli
Crown lengthening is one of the most common surgical procedures in periodontal practice. Its indications include subgingival caries, crown or root fractures, altered passive eruption, cervical root resorption and short clinical abutment, and its aim is to re-establish the biologic width in a more apical position. While the procedure in posterior areas of the dentition has been thoroughly investigated, crown lengthening performed for esthetic reasons in the anterior areas is still a matter of debate and an evidence-based technique is not available...
June 2018: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29493049/soft-tissue-augmentation-procedures-in-edentulous-esthetic-areas
#20
REVIEW
Matteo Marzadori, Martina Stefanini, Claudio Mazzotti, Sabrina Ganz, Praveen Sharma, Giovanni Zucchelli
Loss of dentition leads to functional and esthetic challenges that are determined by the anatomic features of the edentulous area. These features can complicate the prosthetic rehabilitation of such patients, especially in situations where optimal esthetic outcomes are desired. For these reasons, reconstructive plastic surgery procedures, aimed at restoring the alveolar ridge to its former dimensions, have become of great clinical interest. These reconstructive plastic surgery procedures frequently involve soft-tissue augmentation, performed to improve the quality and quantity of mucogingival tissue with the aim to achieve an ideal esthetic result...
June 2018: Periodontology 2000
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