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Journal of Dental Research

N Rostami, R C Shields, S A Yassin, A R Hawkins, L Bowen, T L Luo, A H Rickard, R Holliday, P M Preshaw, N S Jakubovics
Extracellular DNA (eDNA) has been identified in the matrix of many different monospecies biofilms in vitro, including some of those produced by oral bacteria. In many cases, eDNA stabilizes the structure of monospecies biofilms. Here, the authors aimed to determine whether eDNA is an important component of natural, mixed-species oral biofilms, such as plaque on natural teeth or dental implants. To visualize eDNA in oral biofilms, approaches for fluorescently stained eDNA with either anti-DNA antibodies or an ultrasensitive cell-impermeant dye, YOYO-1, were first developed using Enterococcus faecalis, an organism that has previously been shown to produce extensive eDNA structures within biofilms...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Dental Research
B M Lee, H Jo, G Park, Y H Kim, C K Park, S J Jung, G Chung, S B Oh
Odontoblasts form dentin at the outermost surface of tooth pulp. An increasing level of evidence in recent years, along with their locational advantage, implicates odontoblasts as a secondary role as sensory or immune cells. Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a well-characterized signaling molecule in the neuronal and immune systems, and its potential involvement in interodontoblast communications was recently demonstrated. In an effort to elaborate the ATP-mediated signaling pathway in odontoblasts, the current study performed single-cell reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunofluorescent detection to investigate the expression of ATP receptors related to calcium signal in odontoblasts from incisal teeth of 8- to 10-wk-old rats, and demonstrated an in vitro response to ATP application via calcium imaging experiments...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Dental Research
P Verma, A Nosrat, J R Kim, J B Price, P Wang, E Bair, H H Xu, A F Fouad
It is not known to what extent residual infection may interfere with the success of pulp regeneration procedures. The aim of this study was to determine, radiographically and histologically, the effect of residual bacteria on the outcome of pulp regeneration mediated by a tissue-engineered construct as compared with traditional revascularization. Periapical lesions were induced in 24 canine teeth of 6 ferrets. After disinfection with 1.25% NaOCl and triple antibiotic paste, ferret dental pulp stem cells, encapsulated in a hydrogel scaffold, were injected into half the experimental teeth...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Dental Research
G E Salvi, R Cosgarea, A Sculean
The aim of the present critical review is to summarize recent evidence on the prevalence of peri-implant diseases and their similarities and differences with periodontal diseases with a focus on their pathogenetic mechanisms. Reports on the extent and severity of peri-implant diseases are influenced by different case definitions. The prevalence of peri-implant diseases is reported at the subject or implant level and affected by the type of population samples analyzed (e.g., randomly selected population samples or convenience samples)...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Dental Research
T G Kebede, B Holtfreter, T Kocher, P Meisel, T Dietrich, R Biffar, M Dörr, H Völzke, C Pink
Current evidence indicates the effects of periodontitis on diabetes as well as mortality, for which diabetes itself represents a risk factor. However, the possible interaction of these 2 chronic conditions regarding mortality has not yet been investigated. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate whether periodontal destruction interacts with diabetes on all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality or if diabetes serves as a mediator in this association. The study sample comprised 3,327 participants aged 20 to 81 y from the Study of Health in Pomerania...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Dental Research
F Schwendicke, W M Thomson, J M Broadbent, M Stolpe
Caries increment is affected by sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption. Taxing SSBs could reduce sugar consumption and caries increment. The authors aimed to estimate the impact of a 20% SSB sales tax on caries increment and associated treatment costs (as well as the resulting tax revenue) in the context of Germany. A model-based approach was taken, estimating the effects for the German population aged 14 to 79 y over a 10-y period. Taxation was assumed to affect beverage-associated sugar consumption via empirical demand elasticities...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Dental Research
J Y Lee, W V Giannobile
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 26, 2016: Journal of Dental Research
R J Hinton, Y Jing, J Jing, J Q Feng
The formation of the mandibular condylar cartilage (MCC) and its subchondral bone is an important but understudied topic in dental research. The current concept regarding endochondral bone formation postulates that most hypertrophic chondrocytes undergo programmed cell death prior to bone formation. Under this paradigm, the MCC and its underlying bone are thought to result from 2 closely linked but separate processes: chondrogenesis and osteogenesis. However, recent investigations using cell lineage tracing techniques have demonstrated that many, perhaps the majority, of bone cells are derived via direct transformation from chondrocytes...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Dental Research
J L Silveira, M Albers, D M Vargas, E T Santa Helena, C M Cordova, A Hannemann, H Wallaschofski, P Meisel, C Pink, S Samietz, C O Schmidt, B Holtfreter, H Völzke, M Dörr, T Kocher, M R Markus
The authors evaluated the association of reduced bone stiffness of the calcaneus with clinical attachment loss (CAL) and tooth loss. The authors analyzed data from 4,678 subjects (2,384 women), aged 20 to 88 y, from the second follow-up of the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-2) and the baseline examination of the SHIP-Trend cohort. Bone stiffness, characterized by the stiffness index (SI) and the osteoporotic fracture risk (OFR), was assessed by quantitative ultrasound of the heel. SI and OFR were significantly associated with the mean CAL in women...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Dental Research
E Kasbohm, B Holtfreter, U Völker, A Petersmann, S Samietz, R Biffar, H Völzke, P Meisel, T Kacprowski, G Homuth, T Kocher, A Teumer
Periodontitis is characterized by inflammation of the gingival tissue. The main risk factors are socioeconomic factors, sex, age, smoking, and diabetes, but periodontal disease has also a genetic background. Previous genome-wide association studies failed to reveal genome-wide significant associations of single common single-nucleotide polymorphisms with chronic periodontitis. Using the Illumina ExomeChip data of 6,576 participants of the German population-based cohort studies Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP) and SHIP-Trend, the authors performed single variant and also gene-based association studies of rare and common exonic variations on different periodontal case definitions...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Dental Research
R G Watt, A Heilmann, P Rouxel, D M Williams, G Tsakos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 13, 2016: Journal of Dental Research
S Pieralli, R J Kohal, R E Jung, K Vach, B C Spies
To determine the survival rate and marginal bone loss (MBL) of zirconia dental implants restored with single crowns or fixed dental prostheses. An electronic search was conducted up to November 2015 (without any restriction regarding the publication time) through the databases MEDLINE (PubMed), Cochrane Library, and EMBASE to identify randomized controlled clinical trials and prospective clinical trials including >15 patients. Primary outcomes were survival rate and MBL. Furthermore, the influence of several covariates on MBL was evaluated...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Dental Research
N Simsek Ozek, I Zeller, D E Renaud, P Gümüş, N Nizam, F Severcan, N Buduneli, D A Scott
Without longitudinal clinical data, it is difficult to differentiate some cases of chronic periodontitis (CP) and aggressive periodontitis (AgP). Furthermore, both forms of disease are exacerbated by tobacco use. Therefore, this cross-sectional study was planned, primarily, to determine the ability of Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to distinguish CP and AgP patients by analysis of human saliva samples and, secondarily, to assess the potential confounding influence of smoking on discriminating disease-specific spectral signatures...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Dental Research
A E Sanders, T Sofer, Q Wong, K F Kerr, C Agler, J R Shaffer, J D Beck, S Offenbacher, C R Salazar, K E North, M L Marazita, C C Laurie, R H Singer, J Cai, T L Finlayson, K Divaris
Chronic periodontitis (CP) has a genetic component, particularly its severe forms. Evidence from genome-wide association studies (GWASs) has highlighted several potential novel loci. Here, the authors report the first GWAS of CP among a large community-based sample of Hispanics/Latinos. The authors interrogated a quantitative trait of CP (mean interproximal clinical attachment level determined by full-mouth periodontal examinations) among 10,935 adult participants (mean age: 45 y, range: 18 to 76 y) from the Hispanic Community Health Study / Study of Latinos...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Dental Research
B L Foster, P Kuss, M C Yadav, T N Kolli, S Narisawa, L Lukashova, E Cory, R L Sah, M J Somerman, J L Millán
Loss-of-function mutations in ALPL result in hypophosphatasia (HPP), an inborn error of metabolism that causes defective skeletal and dental mineralization. ALPL encodes tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase, an enzyme expressed in bone, teeth, liver, and kidney that hydrolyzes the mineralization inhibitor inorganic pyrophosphate. As Alpl-null mice die before weaning, we aimed to generate mouse models of late-onset HPP with extended life spans by engineering a floxed Alpl allele, allowing for conditional gene ablation (conditional knockout [cKO]) when crossed with Cre recombinase transgenic mice...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Dental Research
M K Prasad, S Laouina, M El Alloussi, H Dollfus, A Bloch-Zupan
Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by enamel defects. The authors have identified a large consanguineous Moroccan family segregating different clinical subtypes of hypoplastic and hypomineralized AI in different individuals within the family. Using targeted next-generation sequencing, the authors identified a novel heterozygous nonsense mutation in COL17A1 (c.1873C>T, p.R625*) segregating with hypoplastic AI and a novel homozygous 8-bp deletion in C4orf26 (c...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Dental Research
S Y Kwak, Y Yamakoshi, J P Simmer, H C Margolis
Recent studies have shown that native phosphorylated full-length porcine amelogenin (P173) and its predominant cleavage product (P148) can inhibit spontaneous calcium phosphate formation in vitro by stabilizing an amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) precursor phase. Since full-length amelogenin undergoes proteolysis by matrix metalloproteinase 20 (MMP20, enamelysin) soon after secretion, the present study was conducted to assess the effect of amelogenin proteolysis on calcium phosphate formation. Calcium and phosphate were sequentially added to protein solutions without and with added MMP20 (ratio = 200:1) under physiological-like conditions of ionic strength (163 mM) in 50 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Dental Research
N Hirose, R Kitagawa, H Kitagawa, H Maezono, A Mine, M Hayashi, M Haapasalo, S Imazato
An experimental cavity disinfectant (ACC) that is intended to be used for various direct and indirect restorations was prepared by adding an antibacterial monomer 12-methacryloyloxydodecylpyridinum bromide (MDPB) at 5% into 80% ethanol. The antibacterial effectiveness of ACC and its influences on the bonding abilities of resin cements were investigated. To examine the antibacterial activity of unpolymerized MDPB, the minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations (MIC and MBC) were determined for Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus casei, Actinomyces naeslundii, Parvimonas micra, Enterococcus faecalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Porphyromonas gingivalis Antibacterial activities of ACC and the commercial cavity disinfectant containing 2% chlorhexidine and ethanol (CPS) were evaluated by agar disk diffusion tests through 7 bacterial species and by MIC and MBC measurement for S...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Dental Research
S Fabbri, D A Johnston, A Rmaile, B Gottenbos, M De Jager, M Aspiras, E M Starke, M T Ward, P Stoodley
Streptococcus mutans in dental plaque biofilms play a role in caries development. The biofilm's complex structure enhances the resistance to antimicrobial agents by limiting the transport of active agents inside the biofilm. The authors assessed the ability of high-velocity water microsprays to enhance delivery of antimicrobials into 3-d-old S. mutans biofilms. Biofilms were exposed to a 90° or 30° impact, first using a 1-µm tracer bead solution (10(9) beads/mL) and, second, a 0.2% chlorhexidine (CHX) or 0...
August 23, 2016: Journal of Dental Research
E E Joo, I M A Lombaert, K M Yamada
Cells engage in bidirectional communication with their surroundings. This reciprocal dialogue between cells and their cellular microenvironments often governs the maintenance and differentiation of stem/progenitor cells. Here, the authors present evidence that in developing salivary gland explants, a single posttranslational change in microtubules in mesenchymal cells alters the mesenchymal microenvironment and promotes the maintenance and differentiation of a subset of epithelial progenitor cells that impairs branching morphogenesis...
August 19, 2016: Journal of Dental Research
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