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Journal of Dental Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930642/microbial-complexes-and-caries-in-17-year-olds-with-and-without-streptococcus-mutans
#1
L Eriksson, P Lif Holgerson, A Esberg, I Johansson
Streptococcus mutans is a key bacterial species in the caries process, which affects >90% of the population worldwide. However, other acidogenic and aciduric/acidophilic species may contribute to disease development. In Sweden, a country with low prevalences of caries and S. mutans, a significant portion of caries-affected adolescents lack detectable levels of S. mutans. The objectives of the present study were 1) to characterize the tooth biofilm and saliva microbiota of adolescents with caries disease, with or without detectable S...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922616/novel-testing-for-corrosion-of-glass-ceramics-for-dental-applications
#2
J F Esquivel-Upshaw, F Ren, S M Hsu, F Y Dieng, D Neal, A E Clark
The effects of pH cycling immersion on the corrosion of glass-based ceramic materials were investigated by examining the silicon release level in the immersion solution and the surface morphology of the ceramic after immersion. The hypothesis that pH cycling causes more surface degradation than constant immersion was tested. An inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer was used for Si ion concentration determination and scanning electron microscopy for surface morphology analyses. Two pH cycling sequences (pH 2, 7, 10 and pH 10, 2, 7) were employed in this study...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922615/the-impact-of-incorporating-antimicrobials-into-implant-surfaces
#3
N J Hickok, I M Shapiro, A F Chen
With the increase in numbers of joint replacements, spinal surgeries, and dental implantations, there is an urgent need to combat implant-associated infection. In addition to stringent sterile techniques, an efficacious way to prevent this destructive complication is to create new implants with antimicrobial properties. Specifically, these implants must be active in the dental implant environment where the implant is bathed in the glycoprotein-rich salivary fluids that enhance bacterial adhesion, and propagation, and biofilm formation...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910570/nine-novel-pax9-mutations-and-a-distinct-tooth-agenesis-genotype-phenotype
#4
S-W Wong, D Han, H Zhang, Y Liu, X Zhang, M Z Miao, Y Wang, N Zhao, L Zeng, B Bai, Y-X Wang, H Liu, S A Frazier-Bowers, H Feng
Tooth agenesis is one of the most common developmental anomalies affecting function and esthetics. The paired-domain transcription factor, Pax9, is critical for patterning and morphogenesis of tooth and taste buds. Mutations of PAX9 have been identified in patients with tooth agenesis. Despite significant progress in the genetics of tooth agenesis, many gaps in knowledge exist in refining the genotype-phenotype correlation between PAX9 and tooth agenesis. In the present study, we complete genetic and phenotypic characterization of multiplex Chinese families with nonsyndromic (NS) tooth agenesis...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898113/interferon-regulatory-factor-6-is-necessary-for-salivary-glands-and-pancreas-development
#5
K A Metwalli, M A Do, K Nguyen, S Mallick, K Kin, N Farokhnia, G Jun, W D Fakhouri
Interferon regulatory factor 6 ( IRF6) acts as a tumor suppressor and controls cell differentiation in ectodermal and craniofacial tissues by regulating expression of target genes. Haploinsufficiency of IRF6 causes Van der Woude and popliteal pterygium syndrome, 2 syndromic forms of cleft lip and palate. Around 85% of patients with Van der Woude express pits on the lower lip that continuously or intermittently drain saliva, and patients with the common cleft lip and palate have a higher prevalence of dental caries and gingivitis...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898112/functional-odontoblastic-like-cells-derived-from-human-ipscs
#6
H Xie, N Dubey, W Shim, C J A Ramachandra, K S Min, T Cao, V Rosa
The induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have an intrinsic capability for indefinite self-renewal and large-scale expansion and can differentiate into all types of cells. Here, we tested the potential of iPSCs from dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) to differentiate into functional odontoblasts. DPSCs were reprogrammed into iPSCs via electroporation of reprogramming factors OCT-4, SOX2, KLF4, LIN28, and L-MYC. The iPSCs presented overexpression of the reprogramming genes and high protein expressions of alkaline phosphatase, OCT4, and TRA-1-60 in vitro and generated tissues from 3 germ layers in vivo...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892655/bonding-to-cad-cam-composites-an-interfacial-fracture-toughness-approach
#7
M Eldafrawy, M G Ebroin, P A Gailly, J-F Nguyen, M J Sadoun, A K Mainjot
The objective of this study was to evaluate the interfacial fracture toughness (IFT) of composite cement with dispersed filler (DF) versus polymer-infiltrated ceramic network (PICN) computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) composite blocks after 2 different surface pretreatments using the notchless triangular prism (NTP) test. Two DFs (Cerasmart [CRT] and Lava Ultimate [LVA]), 2 PICNs (Enamic [ENA] and experimental PICN [EXP]), and e.max CAD lithium disilicate glass-ceramic (EMX, control) prism samples were bonded to their counterparts with Variolink Esthetic DC composite cement after either hydrofluoric acid etching (HF) or gritblasting (GR)...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892653/saliva-derived-commensal-and-pathogenic-biofilms-in-a-human-gingiva-model
#8
J K Buskermolen, M M Janus, S Roffel, B P Krom, S Gibbs
In vitro models that closely mimic human host-microbiome interactions can be a powerful screening tool for antimicrobials and will hold great potential for drug validation and discovery. The aim of this study was to develop an organotypic oral mucosa model that could be exposed to in vitro cultured commensal and pathogenic biofilms in a standardized and scalable manner. The oral mucosa model consisted of a tissue-engineered human gingiva equivalent containing a multilayered differentiated gingiva epithelium (keratinocytes) grown on a collagen hydrogel, containing gingiva fibroblasts, which represented the lamina propria...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892649/expression-of-phosphate-transporters-during-dental-mineralization
#9
L Merametdjian, S Beck-Cormier, N Bon, G Couasnay, S Sourice, J Guicheux, C Gaucher, L Beck
The importance of phosphate (Pi) as an essential component of hydroxyapatite crystals suggests a key role for membrane proteins controlling Pi uptake during mineralization in the tooth. To clarify the involvement of the currently known Pi transporters (Slc17a1, Slc34a1, Slc34a2, Slc34a3, Slc20a1, Slc20a2, and Xpr1) during tooth development and mineralization, we determined their spatiotemporal expression in murine tooth germs from embryonic day 14.5 to postnatal day 15 and in human dental samples from Nolla stages 6 to 9...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892645/self-assembling-peptide-p11-4-and-fluoride-for-regenerating-enamel
#10
M Alkilzy, A Tarabaih, R M Santamaria, C H Splieth
Regenerative medicine-based approaches for caries treatment focus on biomimetic remineralization of initial carious lesions as a minimal invasive therapy. In vitro, self-assembling peptide P11-4 enhances remineralization of early carious lesions. To investigate the safety and clinical efficacy of P11-4 for treatment of initial caries, a randomized controlled single-blind study was conducted on children aged >5 y with visible active early caries on erupting permanent molars. Subjects were randomized to either the test group (P11-4 + fluoride varnish) or control group (fluoride varnish alone)...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886269/loss-of-function-grhl3-variants-detected-in-african-patients-with-isolated-cleft-palate
#11
M A Eshete, H Liu, M Li, W L Adeyemo, L J J Gowans, P A Mossey, T Busch, W Deressa, P Donkor, P B Olaitan, B S Aregbesola, R O Braimah, G O Oseni, F Oginni, R Audu, C Onwuamah, O James, E Augustine-Akpan, L A Rahman, M O Ogunlewe, F K N Arthur, S A Bello, P Agbenorku, P Twumasi, F Abate, T Hailu, Y Demissie, A Hailu, G Plange-Rhule, S Obiri-Yeboah, M M Dunnwald, P E Gravem, M L Marazita, A A Adeyemo, J C Murray, R A Cornell, A Butali
In contrast to the progress that has been made toward understanding the genetic etiology of cleft lip with or without cleft palate, relatively little is known about the genetic etiology for cleft palate only (CPO). A common coding variant of grainyhead like transcription factor 3 ( GRHL3) was recently shown to be associated with risk for CPO in Europeans. Mutations in this gene were also reported in families with Van der Woude syndrome. To identify rare mutations in GRHL3 that might explain the missing heritability for CPO, we sequenced GRHL3 in cases of CPO from Africa...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880717/bivalent-histone-codes-on-wnt5a-during-odontogenic-differentiation
#12
Y Zhou, L Zheng, F Li, M Wan, Y Fan, X Zhou, W Du, C Pi, D Cui, B Zhang, J Sun, X Zhou
Lineage-committed differentiation is an essential biological program during odontogenesis, which is tightly regulated by lineage-specific genes. Some of these genes are modified by colocalization of H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 marks at promoter regions in progenitors. These modifications, named "bivalent domains," maintain genes in a poised state and then resolve for later activation or repression during differentiation. Wnt5a has been reported to promote odontogenic differentiation in dental mesenchyme. However, relatively little is known about the epigenetic modulations on Wnt5a activation during tooth development...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880715/defective-mineralization-in-x-linked-hypophosphatemia-dental-pulp-cell-cultures
#13
B R Coyac, B Hoac, P Chafey, G Falgayrac, L Slimani, P S Rowe, G Penel, A Linglart, M D McKee, C Chaussain, C Bardet
X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) is a skeletal disease caused by inactivating mutations in the PHEX gene. Mutated or absent PHEX protein/enzyme leads to a decreased serum phosphate level, which cause mineralization defects in the skeleton and teeth (osteomalacia/odontomalacia). It is not yet altogether clear whether these manifestations are caused solely by insufficient circulating phosphate availability for mineralization or also by a direct, local intrinsic effect caused by impaired PHEX activity. Here, we evaluated the local role of PHEX in a 3-dimensional model of extracellular matrix (ECM) mineralization...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880116/photoacoustic-imaging-for-noninvasive-periodontal-probing-depth-measurements
#14
C Y Lin, F Chen, A Hariri, C J Chen, P Wilder-Smith, T Takesh, J V Jokerst
The periodontal probe is the gold standard tool for periodontal examinations, including probing depth measurements, but is limited by systematic and random errors. Here, we used photoacoustic ultrasound for high-spatial resolution imaging of probing depths. Specific contrast from dental pockets was achieved with food-grade cuttlefish ink as a contrast medium. Here, 39 porcine teeth (12 teeth with artificially deeper pockets) were treated with the contrast agent, and the probing depths were measured with novel photoacoustic imaging and a Williams periodontal probe...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876966/the-effect-of-resin-bonding-on-long-term-success-of-high-strength-ceramics
#15
M B Blatz, M Vonderheide, J Conejo
Digital manufacturing, all-ceramics, and adhesive dentistry are currently the trendiest topics in clinical restorative dentistry. Tooth- and implant-supported fixed restorations from computer-aided design (CAD)/computer-aided manufacturing (CAM)-fabricated high-strength ceramics-namely, alumina and zirconia-are widely accepted as reliable alternatives to traditional metal-ceramic restorations. Most recent developments have focused on high-translucent monolithic full-contour zirconia restorations, which have become extremely popular in a short period of time, due to physical strength, CAD/CAM fabrication, and low cost...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28850289/dynamics-of-mixed-candida-species-biofilms-in-response-to-antifungals
#16
G Vipulanandan, M Herrera, N P Wiederhold, X Li, J Mintz, B L Wickes, D Kadosh
Oral infections caused by Candida species, the most commonly isolated human fungal pathogen, are frequently associated with biofilms. Although Candida albicans is the predominant organism found in patients with oral thrush, a biofilm infection, there is an increasing incidence of oral colonization and infections caused by non- albicans Candida species, including C. glabrata, C. dubliniensis, and C. tropicalis, which are frequently more resistant to antifungal treatment. While single-species Candida biofilms have been well studied, considerably less is known about the dynamics of mixed- Candida species biofilms and how these dynamics are altered by antifungal treatment...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846469/randomized-clinical-trial-of-12-and-38-silver-diamine-fluoride-treatment
#17
M H T Fung, D Duangthip, M C M Wong, E C M Lo, C H Chu
This 30-mo randomized clinical trial compared the effectiveness of 2 concentrations (12% or 38%) of silver diamine fluoride (SDF) and 2 periodicity of application (once or twice a year) in arresting cavitated dentin caries in primary teeth. Children aged 3 to 4 y who had at least 1 active cavitated caries lesion were enrolled and randomly allocated into 4 groups for intervention. Group 1 had 12% SDF applied annually (every 12 mo), group 2 had 12% SDF applied semiannually (every 6 mo), group 3 had 38% SDF applied annually, and group 4 had 38% SDF applied semiannually...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846464/the-presence-of-mmp-20-reinforces-biomimetic-enamel-regrowth
#18
S Prajapati, Q Ruan, K Mukherjee, S Nutt, J Moradian-Oldak
Biomimetic synthesis of artificial enamel is a promising strategy for the prevention and restoration of defective enamel. We have recently reported that a hydrogel system composed of chitosan-amelogenin (CS-AMEL) and calcium phosphate is effective in forming an enamel-like layer that has a seamless interface with natural tooth surfaces. Here, to improve the mechanical system function and to facilitate the biomimetic enamel regrowth, matrix metalloproteinase-20 (MMP-20) was introduced into the CS-AMEL hydrogel...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825856/the-use-of-variant-maps-to-explore-domain-specific-mutations-of-fgfr1
#19
L A Lansdon, H V Bernabe, N Nidey, J Standley, M J Schnieders, J C Murray
Here we describe the genotype-phenotype correlations of diseases caused by variants in Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1 ( FGFR1) and report a novel, de novo variant in FGFR1 in an individual with multiple congenital anomalies. The proband presented with bilateral cleft lip and palate, malformed auricles, and bilateral ectrodactyly of his hands and feet at birth. He was later diagnosed with diabetes insipidus, spastic quadriplegia, developmental delay, agenesis of the corpus callosum, and enlargement of the third cerebral ventricle...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817360/closing-the-gap-mouse-models-to-study-adhesion-in-secondary-palatogenesis
#20
K J Lough, K M Byrd, D C Spitzer, S E Williams
Secondary palatogenesis occurs when the bilateral palatal shelves (PS), arising from maxillary prominences, fuse at the midline, forming the hard and soft palate. This embryonic phenomenon involves a complex array of morphogenetic events that require coordinated proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and adhesion in the PS epithelia and underlying mesenchyme. When the delicate process of craniofacial morphogenesis is disrupted, the result is orofacial clefting, including cleft lip and cleft palate (CL/P). Through human genetic and animal studies, there are now hundreds of known genetic alternations associated with orofacial clefts; so, it is not surprising that CL/P is among the most common of all birth defects...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
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