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Journal of Dental Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732187/do-genetic-markers-of-inflammation-modify-the-relationship-between-periodontitis-and-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-findings-from-the-ship-study
#1
A A Akinkugbe, C L Avery, A S Barritt, S R Cole, M Lerch, J Mayerle, S Offenbacher, A Petersmann, M Nauck, H Völzke, G D Slade, G Heiss, T Kocher, B Holtfreter
An association between periodontitis and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been reported by experimental animal and epidemiologic studies. This study investigated whether circulating levels of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and a weighted genetic CRP score representing markers of inflammatory burden modify the association between periodontitis and NAFLD. Data came from 2,481 participants of the Study of Health in Pomerania who attended baseline examination that occurred between 1997 and 2001. Periodontitis was defined as the percentage of sites (0%, <30%, ≥30%) with probing pocket depth (PD) ≥4 mm, and NAFLD status was determined using liver ultrasound assessment...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732183/new-resins-for-dental-composites
#2
A P P Fugolin, C S Pfeifer
Restorative composites have evolved significantly since they were first introduced in the early 1960s, with most of the development concentrating on the filler technology. This has led to improved mechanical properties, notably wear resistance, and has expanded the use of composites to larger posterior restorations. On the organic matrix side, concerns over the polymerization stress and the potential damage to the bonded interface have dominated research in the past 20 y, with many "low-shrinkage" composites being launched commercially...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732182/stim1-regulates-enamel-mineralization-and-ameloblast-modulation
#3
Y Furukawa, N Haruyama, M Nikaido, M Nakanishi, N Ryu, M Oh-Hora, K Kuremoto, K Yoshizaki, Y Takano, I Takahashi
Loss-of-function mutations in the Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) channel genes ORAI1 and STIM1 abolish store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) and result in ectodermal dysplasia with amelogenesis imperfecta. However, because of the limited availability of patient tissue, analyses of enamel mineralization or possible changes in ameloblast function or morphology have not been possible. Here, we generated mice with ectodermal tissue-specific deletion of Stim1 ( Stim1 cKO [conditional knockout]), Stim2 ( Stim2 cKO), and Stim1 and Stim2 ( Stim1/2 cKO) and analyzed their enamel phenotypes as compared with those of control ( Stim1/2(fl/fl)) animals...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732181/irf6-and-spry4-signaling-interact-in-periderm-development
#4
Y A Kousa, R Roushangar, N Patel, A Walter, P Marangoni, R Krumlauf, O D Klein, B C Schutte
Rare mutations in IRF6 and GRHL3 cause Van der Woude syndrome, an autosomal dominant orofacial clefting disorder. Common variants in IRF6 and GRHL3 also contribute risk for isolated orofacial clefting. Similarly, variants within genes that encode receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling components, including members of the FGF pathway, EPHA3 and SPRY2, also contribute risk for isolated orofacial clefting. In the mouse, loss of Irf6 or perturbation of Fgf signaling leads to abnormal oral epithelial adhesions and cleft palate...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732180/the-role-of-noncoding-genetic-variation-in-isolated-orofacial-clefts
#5
F Thieme, K U Ludwig
In the past decade, medical genetic research has generated multiple discoveries, many of which were obtained via genome-wide association studies (GWASs). A major GWAS finding is that the majority of risk variants for complex traits map to noncoding regions. This has resulted in a paradigm shift in terms of the interpretation of human genomic sequence variation, with more attention now being paid to what was previously termed "junk DNA." Translation of genetic findings into biologically meaningful results requires 1) large-scale and cell-specific efforts to annotate non-protein-coding regions and 2) the integration of comprehensive genomic data sets...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732179/kgf-enhances-oral-epithelial-adhesion-and-rete-peg-elongation-via-integrins
#6
G L Sa, X P Xiong, J G Ren, J Y Wang, H F Xia, Z K Liu, S G He, Y F Zhao
Oral epithelial adhesion to the lamina propria underlies the physiologic function of the oral mucosa and contributes to resisting bacterial invasion, preventing body fluid loss, and maintaining routine chewing; thus, understanding the factors that positively influence oral epithelial adhesion is a research topic of great interest. Rete pegs contribute to oral epithelial adhesion by enlarging the contact areas, whereas integrins are the major molecules that mediate epithelial cell adhesion to the basement membrane...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732176/a-comprehensive-craniofacial-study-of-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome
#7
A Lewyllie, J Roosenboom, K Indencleef, P Claes, A Swillen, K Devriendt, C Carels, M Cadenas De Llano-Pérula, G Willems, G Hens, A Verdonck
The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is one of the most frequent microdeletion syndromes and presents with a highly variable phenotype. In most affected individuals, specific but subtle facial features can be seen. In this observational study, we aim to investigate the craniofacial and dental features of 20 children with a confirmed diagnosis of 22q11.2DS by analyzing 3-dimensional (3D) facial surface scans, 2-dimensional (2D) clinical photographs, panoramic and cephalometric radiographs, and dental casts...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731788/identification-of-osr2-transcriptional-target-genes-in-palate-development
#8
X Fu, J Xu, P Chaturvedi, H Liu, R Jiang, Y Lan
Previous studies have identified the odd-skipped related 2 (Osr2) transcription factor as a key intrinsic regulator of palatal shelf growth and morphogenesis. However, little is known about the molecular program acting downstream of Osr2 in the regulation of palatogenesis. In this study, we isolated palatal mesenchyme cells from embryonic day 12.5 (E12.5) and E13.5 Osr2(RFP/+) and Osr2(RFP/-) mutant mouse embryos and performed whole transcriptome RNA sequencing analyses. Differential expression analysis of the RNA sequencing datasets revealed that expression of 70 genes was upregulated and expression of 61 genes was downregulated by >1...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709393/microbiome-associated-with-severe-caries-in-canadian-first-nations-children
#9
M Agnello, J Marques, L Cen, B Mittermuller, A Huang, N Chaichanasakul Tran, W Shi, X He, R J Schroth
Young Indigenous children in North America suffer from a higher degree of severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) than the general population, leading to speculation that the etiology and characteristics of the disease may be distinct in this population. To address this knowledge gap, we conducted the first microbiome analysis of an Indigenous population using modern molecular techniques. We investigated the caries-associated microbiome among Canadian First Nations children with S-ECC. Thirty First Nations children <72 mo of age with S-ECC and 20 caries-free children were recruited in Winnipeg, Canada...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700256/hippo-pathway-an-emerging-regulator-of-craniofacial-and-dental-development
#10
J Wang, J F Martin
The evolutionarily conserved Hippo signaling pathway is a vital regulator of organ size that fine-tunes cell proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation. A number of important studies have revealed critical roles of Hippo signaling and its effectors Yap (Yes-associated protein) and Taz (transcriptional coactivator with PDZ binding motif) in tissue development, homeostasis, and regeneration, as well as in tumorigenesis. In addition, recent studies have shown evidence of crosstalk between the Hippo pathway and other key signaling pathways, such as Wnt signaling, that not only regulates developmental processes but also contributes to disease pathogenesis...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697314/grainyhead-like-transcription-factors-in-craniofacial-development
#11
M R Carpinelli, M E de Vries, S M Jane, S Dworkin
Craniofacial development in vertebrates involves the coordinated growth, migration, and fusion of several facial prominences during embryogenesis, processes governed by strict genetic and molecular controls. A failure in any of the precise spatiotemporal sequences of events leading to prominence fusion often leads to anomalous facial, skull, and jaw formation-conditions termed craniofacial defects (CFDs). Affecting approximately 0.1% to 0.3% of live births, CFDs are a highly heterogeneous class of developmental anomalies, which are often underpinned by genetic mutations...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692808/modulating-wnt-signaling-rescues-palate-morphogenesis-in-pax9-mutant-mice
#12
C Li, Y Lan, R Krumlauf, R Jiang
Cleft palate is a common birth defect caused by disruption of palatogenesis during embryonic development. Although mutations disrupting components of the Wnt signaling pathway have been associated with cleft lip and palate in humans and mice, the mechanisms involving canonical Wnt signaling and its regulation in secondary palate development are not well understood. Here, we report that canonical Wnt signaling plays an important role in Pax9-mediated regulation of secondary palate development. We found that cleft palate pathogenesis in Pax9-deficient embryos is accompanied by significantly reduced expression of Axin2, an endogenous target of canonical Wnt signaling, in the developing palatal mesenchyme, particularly in the posterior regions of the palatal shelves...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692806/microrna-155-3p-mediates-tnf-%C3%AE-inhibited-cementoblast-differentiation
#13
X Wang, H Sun, H Liao, C Wang, C Jiang, Y Zhang, Z Cao
Periodontitis is a prevalent and chronic inflammatory disease that is interrelated with systemic health. Periodontitis can be promoted by tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). Cementum, a vital part of the periodontium, is a bone-like mineralized tissue that is produced by cementoblasts. Our laboratory previously revealed that TNF-α inhibits cementoblast differentiation and mineralization. However, how TNF-α modulates cementoblast differentiation and mineralization remains largely unknown. MicroRNA-155 (miR-155) is induced and regulates TNF-α-inhibited osteogenic differentiation...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682159/association-of-nod2-mutations-with-aggressive-periodontitis
#14
T Sudo, Y Okada, K Ozaki, K Urayama, M Kanai, H Kobayashi, M Gokyu, Y Izumi, T Tanaka
Aggressive periodontitis (AgP) is characterized by rapid alveolar bone destruction and tooth loss early in life, and its etiology remains unclear. To explore the genetic risk factors of AgP, we performed genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping for identity-by-descent mapping and identified 32 distinct candidate loci, followed by whole exome sequencing with 2 pedigrees of AgP consisting of 3 cases and 1 control in 1 family and 2 sibling cases in the other. After variant filtering procedures and validation by targeted Sanger sequencing, we identified 2 missense mutations at 16q12 in NOD2 (p...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665779/a-new-laser-processing-strategy-for-improving-enamel-erosion-resistance
#15
M Esteves-Oliveira, S Wollgarten, S Liebegall, P Jansen, M Bilandzic, H Meyer-Lueckel, H Fischer, J Stollenwerk, R Poprawe
In the present study, a new automatic laser-processing strategy allowing standardized irradiation of natural tooth areas was investigated. The objective was to find a combination of laser parameters that could cause over a 600°C temperature increase at the enamel surface while not damaging enamel, avoiding temperature change above 5.5°C in the pulp and increasing enamel erosion resistance. Seventy-seven bovine enamel samples were randomly divided into 6 laser groups and 1 negative control (C/no treatment/ n = 11)...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665777/longevity-of-anterior-composite-restorations-in-a-general-dental-practice-based-network
#16
K Collares, N J M Opdam, M Laske, E M Bronkhorst, F F Demarco, M B Correa, M C D N J M Huysmans
This practice-based study investigated the performance of a large set of anterior composite restorations placed by a group of 24 general practices. Based on data from electronic patient files, the longevity of 72,196 composite restorations was analyzed, as placed in 29,855 patients by 47 general dental practitioners between 1996 and 2011. Annual failure rates (AFRs) were calculated, and variables associated with failure were assessed by multivariate Cox regression analysis with shared frailty for 2 age groups (5 to 24 y and ≥25 y)...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665757/functional-epitopes-for-anti-aquaporin-5-antibodies-in-sj%C3%A3-gren-syndrome
#17
J Alam, J H Koh, S-K Kwok, S-H Park, K Park, Y Choi
We recently reported the presence of anti-aquaporin 5 (AQP5) immunoglobulin G (IgG) in patients with primary Sjögren syndrome (SS) with a sensitivity of 0.73 and a specificity of 0.68. The aim of this study was to identify functional epitopes for the anti-AQP5 autoantibodies detected in control subjects and patients with SS. Recognition of epitopes by anti-AQP5 autoantibodies in sera ( n = 13 for control and n = 24 for SS) or purified IgG ( n = 1 for control and n = 3 for SS) was evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) assay performed in the presence or absence of peptides corresponding to the second transmembrane helix and extracellular loops A, C, and E of AQP5...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665752/signaling-pathways-critical-for-tooth-root-formation
#18
J Wang, J Q Feng
Tooth is made of an enamel-covered crown and a cementum-covered root. Studies on crown dentin formation have been a major focus in tooth development for several decades. Interestingly, the population prevalence for genetic short root anomaly (SRA) with no apparent defects in crown is close to 1.3%. Furthermore, people with SRA itself are predisposed to root resorption during orthodontic treatment. The discovery of the unique role of Nfic (nuclear factor I C; a transcriptional factor) in controlling root but not crown dentin formation points to a new concept: tooth crown and root have different control mechanisms...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662367/inhibition-of-the-mir-17-92-cluster-separates-stages-of-palatogenesis
#19
R J Ries, W Yu, N Holton, H Cao, B A Amendt
The role that noncoding regions of the genome play in the etiology of cleft palate is not well studied. A novel method of microRNA (miR) inhibition that allows for specific miR knockdown in vivo has been developed by our laboratory. To further understand the role of miRs in palatogenesis, we used a new mouse model to inhibit specific miRs within the miR-17-92 cluster. Transgenic mice expressing inhibitory complexes for miR-17 and miR-18 manifested a clefting phenotype that was distinct from that observed in mice carrying inhibitory complexes for miR-17, miR-18, miR-19, and miR-92...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662356/a-population-based-study-of-effects-of-genetic-loci-on-orofacial-clefts
#20
L M Moreno Uribe, T Fomina, R G Munger, P A Romitti, M M Jenkins, H K Gjessing, M Gjerdevik, K Christensen, A J Wilcox, J C Murray, R T Lie, G L Wehby
Prior genome-wide association studies for oral clefts have focused on clinic-based samples with unclear generalizability. Prior samples were also small for investigating effects by cleft type and exclusively studied isolated clefts (those occurring without other birth defects). We estimated the effects of 17 top loci on cleft types in both isolated and nonisolated cases in the largest consortium to date of European-descent population-based studies. Our analytic approach focused on a mother-child dyad case-control design, but it also allowed analyzing mother-only or child-only genotypes to maximize power...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
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