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Pediatric Neurosurgery

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535502/cerebellar-glioblastoma-in-a-child
#1
George Papaevangelou, Christos Chamilos, Helen Dana, Spyros Sgouros
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 24, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494465/congenital-salivary-gland-anlage-tumor-an-unusual-anterior-skull-base-mass-in-the-neonatal-period
#2
Jonathan E Martin, Belachew Tessema, Boulos Beshai, Fabiola Balarezo
Congenital salivary gland anlage tumor (SGAT) is a benign nasopharyngeal mass that presents with respiratory distress in infancy. Prior case reports have characterized SGAT as a lesion of the nasopharynx without intracranial extension. We report a unique case of SGAT extending through the anterior skull base and discuss the differential diagnosis and management of this unusual entity.
May 12, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427053/growing-skull-fracture-and-the-orbitocranial-variant-nuances-of-surgical-management
#3
Vikram Singh, Gopalakrishnan M Sasidharan, Dhananjaya Ishwar Bhat, Bhagavatula Indira Devi
AIMS: Growing skull fracture (GSF) is a rare complication resulting from diastatic enlargement of a pediatric skull fracture. Orbitocranial GSF is a distinct variant with more complex management issues due to the displacement of the globe. This study aims to discuss surgical considerations in the management of GSF, with particular reference to orbitocranial variants. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of 7 children operated for GSFs at our institute from 2008 to 2015...
April 21, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380489/moyamoya-in-a-patient-with-smith-magenis-syndrome
#4
Jacob Freeman, Frederic Deleyiannis, Timothy J Bernard, Laura Z Fenton, Steig Somme, C Corbett Wilkinson
Occurrence of moyamoya syndrome in a patient with Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) has previously been reported once in a 10-year-old Asian female. We report a second case of moyamoya in a patient with SMS, in a now 25-year-old Asian female diagnosed with both conditions as a child. In addition to describing her medical and surgical history, we provide a detailed report of her omental transposition, in which the omental circulation was anastomosed to the superior thyroid artery and external jugular vein. To our knowledge, this is the first report of omental transposition for moyamoya in which omental vessels are anastomosed to vessels in the neck, as well as the second report of moyamoya in a patient with SMS...
April 6, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329751/conservative-management-of-large-traumatic-supratentorial-epidural-hematoma-in-the-pediatric-population
#5
Pierre-Olivier Champagne, Kevin Xiaho He, Claude Mercier, Alexander G Weil, Louis Crevier
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Conservative management of traumatic epidural hematomas is being recognized as a safe alternative to surgical treatment in asymptomatic children. There is still debate about the maximal size of epidural hematoma that should be tolerated before deciding for surgery. METHODS: We report - through a retrospective cohort study from a single institution - a series of 16 conservatively managed traumatic epidural hematomas of more than 15 mm thickness. RESULTS: 14 patients (88%) were successfully treated using conservative management...
March 23, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329748/extensive-multilevel-split-laminotomy-for-debulking-a-cervicothoracolumbar-nondysraphic-intramedullary-spinal-cord-lipoma-in-a-2-month-old-infant
#6
Ha Son Nguyen, Sean Lew
INTRODUCTION: Laminectomy is the traditional approach for posterior exposure of the spinal canal for tumor resection. Another technique is split laminotomy, which entails the division and retraction of the spinous processes and laminae to access the thecal sac. This technique has been employed for small-segment exposures, but not extensively explored for long-segment exposures. CASE: A 2-month-old male presented with progressive right-leg plegia. MRI of the spine revealed a large, intramedullary spinal-cord lipoma extending from C6 to L5...
March 23, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324875/unilateral-postoperative-deep-cerebral-venous-thrombosis-with-complete-recovery-a-report-of-2-cases
#7
Mony Benifla, Suzzanne Laughlin, Zulma S Tovar-Spinoza, James T Rutka, Peter B Dirks
Postsurgical deep brain venous thrombosis has not been well described in children before. When approaching thalamic or intraventricular lesions, extra care should be taken to prevent injury to the internal cerebral veins (ICVs) and the vein of Galen. However, even when they are well preserved during surgery, postoperative hemodynamic changes, mainly in the first 24 h, or surgical manipulation can cause thrombosis of these veins. We report 2 children with unilateral postoperative ICV thrombosis; in 1 of the patients the vein of Galen was also thrombosed...
March 22, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297703/molecular-basis-of-distant-medulloblastoma-recurrence
#8
Rafael Roesler, Caroline Brunetto de Farias, Gustavo R Isolan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 16, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288462/cerebral-proliferative-angiopathy-in-a-child
#9
Patricia Puerta, Antonio Guillén, Jordi Muchart, Verónica González, Enrique Ferrer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 14, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249297/cerebrospinal-fluid-shunting-complications-in-children
#10
Brian W Hanak, Robert H Bonow, Carolyn A Harris, Samuel R Browd
Although cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt placement is the most common procedure performed by pediatric neurosurgeons, shunts remain among the most failure-prone life-sustaining medical devices implanted in modern medical practice. This article provides an overview of the mechanisms of CSF shunt failure for the 3 most commonly employed definitive CSF shunts in the practice of pediatric neurosurgery: ventriculoperitoneal, ventriculopleural, and ventriculoatrial. The text has been partitioned into the broad modes of shunt failure: obstruction, infection, mechanical shunt failure, overdrainage, and distal catheter site-specific failures...
March 2, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245445/midbrain-gliofibroma-presenting-in-adulthood-following-cure-of-a-childhood-intraventricular-pilocytic-astrocytoma
#11
Mohammad U Ahmad, Atik Barborie, Barry Pizer, David Husband, Conor Mallucci, Michael D Jenkinson
INTRODUCTION: Gliofibromas are rare biphasic tumours with a good prognosis that usually occur in childhood. Rare adult spinal cases have been treated with radiotherapy. This report describes the case of a gliofibroma occurring in a young adult 10 years after treatment for a childhood pilocytic astrocytoma. CASE: A 14-year-old female underwent complete resection of a right lateral ventricle pilocytic astrocytoma confirmed on postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
March 1, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231580/pediatric-hangman-s-fracture-a-comprehensive-review
#12
Michael Montalbano, Christian Fisahn, Marios Loukas, Rod J Oskouian, Jens R Chapman, R Shane Tubbs
PURPOSE: Over 170 years ago, traumatic spondylolisthesis of the axis or hangman's fracture was described. Most descriptions of this entity have focused on adult presentations. METHODS: We review the literature on pediatric cases of hangman's fracture emphasizing the embryological as well as presentation aspects. RESULTS: The majority of cervical spine fractures in children occur at C1 and C2 vertebrae. A normal anterolisthesis of C2 can be seen in younger children and can mimic the anterolisthesis seen after traumatic spondylolisthesis...
February 24, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226329/transfrontal-and-transsphenoidal-approaches-to-pediatric-craniopharyngioma-a-national-perspective
#13
Yimo Lin, Daniel Hansen, Christina M Sayama, I-Wen Pan, Sandi Lam
INTRODUCTION: This study compared transsphenoidal (TS) and transfrontal (TF) approaches to craniopharyngioma utilizing a national database. METHODS: The Kids' Inpatient Database (2003, 2006, and 2009) was surveyed for patients with a diagnosis of craniopharyngioma who underwent a subset of surgical interventions to compare TS and TF surgery. Demographics, hospital variables, and complications/comorbidities were analyzed with multivariate regression. RESULTS: 314 admissions (TS = 104, TF = 210) were identified...
February 23, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222441/unusual-occurrence-of-multifocal-desmoplastic-infantile-astrocytoma-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#14
Vinayak Narayan, Amey R Savardekar, Anita Mahadevan, A Arivazhagan, Lingegowda Appaji
Desmoplastic infantile gliomas are rare, benign tumors of the early infancy period. Two histological subtypes - desmoplastic infantile astrocytoma (DIA) and desmoplastic infantile ganglioglioma - have been described. The characteristic features of DIAs are lobar location, glial histology, and excellent prognosis after complete surgical excision. DIAs usually present as solitary, cortical-surfacing, solid-cystic neoplasms; however, atypical, aggressive, and multifocal variants of DIA have been reported in the literature...
February 22, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125818/neural-stem-cells-and-fetal-onset-hydrocephalus
#15
Esteban M Rodríguez, María M Guerra
Fetal-onset hydrocephalus is not only a disorder of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics, but also a brain disorder. How can we explain the inborn and, so far, irreparable neurological impairment in children born with hydrocephalus? We hypothesize that a cell junction pathology of neural stem cells (NSC) leads to two inseparable phenomena: hydrocephalus and abnormal neurogenesis. All neurons, glial cells, and ependymal cells of the mammalian central nervous system originate from the NSC forming the ventricular zone (VZ) and the neural progenitor cells (NPC) forming the subventricular zone...
January 27, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095378/advanced-neuroimaging-techniques-in-pediatric-hydrocephalus
#16
Smruti K Patel, Weihong Yuan, Francesco T Mangano
From the early days of pneumoencephalography and ventriculography to the emerging technology of magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the present day, neuroimaging has always been a critical tool in the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric hydrocephalus. There is accumulating evidence from both human and animal research suggesting that one of the major pathophysiological mechanisms underlying poor outcomes in these children is damage to vulnerable white matter (WM) structures in the brain as a result of ventricular enlargement and increased intracranial pressure...
January 18, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241124/skull-base-and-cervical-spine-involvement-in-jansen-syndrome-case-report
#17
Rabia Khan, Peter Oakes, Christian Fisahn, Brittni Burgess, Kristina M Kirkpatrick, Rod J Oskouian, R Shane Tubbs, Jeffrey P Blount
INTRODUCTION: Metaphyseal chondrodysplasia, Jansen type (JMD), is a rare form of endochondral ossification resulting in short limbs and dwarfism. CASE REPORT: A child presented with JMD and was found to have involvement of the cervical spine. Conservative treatment was given to the patient who at the long-term follow-up continues to have no neurological findings or cervical spine instability. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this case represents the first report of involvement of the superior cervical spine in a patient with JMD...
2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208152/simultaneous-umbilical-hernia-repair-with-transumbilical-ventriculoperitoneal-shunt-placement
#18
Michael J Montalbano, Marios Loukas, W Jerry Oakes, R Shane Tubbs
INTRODUCTION: Recently, placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt via a transumbilical approach has been reported. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Herein, we report the repair of an umbilical hernia via the same incision and introduction of the distal end of a ventricultoperitoneal shunt into the peritoneal cavity in 3 patients. A case illustration is included. RESULTS: Both hernia repair and placement of the distal end of the ventriculoperitoneal shunt were uncomplicated in our small case series...
2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192784/extra-axial-cerebellopontine-angle-medulloblastoma-in-an-infant
#19
Mukesh Kumar Bhaskar, Manish Jaiswal, Bal Krishna Ojha, Sunil Kumar Singh, Anil Chandra, Mukta Meel, Mohd Faheem
Medulloblastoma is a common tumor of the posterior fossa, representing 20-25% of all pediatric neoplasms. It commonly occurs in the midline (cerebellar vermis) and rarely at the cerebellopontine angle. Most of them are intra-axial, and an extra-axial location of this tumor is very rare. Extra-axial cerebellopontine angle medulloblastoma is extremely uncommon and has never been reported in an infant. We report an extra-axial cerebellopontine angle medulloblastoma in a 1-year-old child.
2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103603/real-time-ultrasound-guided-catheter-navigation-for-approaching-deep-seated-brain-lesions-role-of-intraoperative-neurosonography-with-and-without-fusion-with-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#20
Sunil Manjila, Aditya Karhade, Ji Hoon Phi, R Michael Scott, Edward R Smith
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Brain shift during the exposure of cranial lesions may reduce the accuracy of frameless stereotaxy. We describe a rapid, safe, and effective method to approach deep-seated brain lesions using real-time intraoperative ultrasound placement of a catheter to mark the dissection trajectory to the lesion. METHODS: With Institutional Review Board approval, we retrospectively reviewed the radiographic, pathologic, and intraoperative data of 11 pediatric patients who underwent excision of 12 lesions by means of this technique...
2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
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