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Pediatric Neurosurgery

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791910/melatonin-attenuates-histopathological-changes-in-the-hippocampus-of-infantile-rats-with-kaolin-induced-hydrocephalus
#1
Mehmet Turgut, Meral Baka, Yiğit Uyanıkgil
OBJECTIVE/AIM: Hydrocephalus is defined as an incapacitating neurological disorder characterized by ventricular enlargement in children, but the effects of melatonin on this hydrocephalus have not yet been fully elucidated. In the present experiment, we attempted to investigate the effects of exogenous melatonin administration on hydrocephalus-induced hippocampal changes in infantile rats. METHODS: In this study, we randomly divided 45 Swiss albino rats aged 2 weeks into 3 groups: group I, the control group received a sham injection with needle insertion only; groups II and III were given kaolin injections before treatment - group II, the hydrocephalus group, was treated with an isotonic NaCl solution, and group III, the hydrocephalus plus melatonin group, was treated with 0...
May 23, 2018: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788028/atypical-teratoid-rhabdoid-tumor-of-the-spinal-cord-in-a-child-case-report-and-comprehensive-review-of-the-literature
#2
Mohammed Babgi, Alaa Samkari, Abeer Al-Mehdar, Shaker Abdullah
INTRODUCTION: Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) of the central nervous system is characterized by SMARCB1/INI deletion or mutation in the long arm of chromosome 22 11(22q11.2), also resulting in loss of nuclear expression of INI1 protein immunohistochemically. AT/RT tumors usually occur in children below 3 years. The tumor is usually seen in the cerebellum or the cerebrum, with an extremely rare incidence in the spinal cord. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We report a rare case of AT/RT in a 6-year-old boy who had a primary spinal cord lesion in the thoracolumbar junction...
May 22, 2018: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734193/spontaneous-resolution-of-chiari-1-associated-syringomyelia-a-report-of-two-cases
#3
R Ramnarayan, C V Shankar Ganesh, Ramesh Kumar
BACKGROUND: Traditional teaching is that Chiari 1 malformations with syrinx should be operated as soon as possible. We present 2 cases of a radiologically proven Chiari 1 malformation with syrinx which were treated nonoperatively and improved radiologically. METHODS: Two children with an MRI-proven Chiari 1 malformations were followed up nonoperatively for 7 years (2010-2017). One was a boy aged 8 years and the other a girl aged 9 years at first presentation. Their parents were not interested in a surgical option and so it was decided to adopt a wait-and-watch policy...
May 7, 2018: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719303/acute-obstructive-hydrocephalus-due-to-a-giant-posterior-cerebral-artery-aneurysm-in-a-pediatric-patient
#4
Can Sarica, Bahattin Tanrikulu, Yener Sahin, Adnan Dağçınar, Feyyaz Baltacioglu, Yasar Bayri
INTRODUCTION: Intracranial aneurysms are very rare in children. Although subarachnoidal hemorrhage (SAH) is by far the most common presentation of aneurysms in the majority of the pediatric case series, it is not rare for an unruptured aneurysm to present with a mass effect. Acute hydrocephalus is a common finding following aneurysmal SAH. However, this malady may develop even in the absence of SAH but secondary to direct obstruction by a giant aneurysm. This situation is extremely rare in children, with only a few known case reports in the literature...
May 2, 2018: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698961/impact-of-serum-vancomycin-trough-levels-in-the-treatment-of-central-nervous-system-shunt-infections-caused-by-coagulase-negative-staphylococci
#5
Ashley Gibson, Sheldon L Kaplan, Jesus G Vallejo
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are a common cause of pediatric ventricular shunt infections. The Infectious Diseases Society of America recommends vancomycin serum troughs of 15-20 µg/mL when treating CoNS shunt infections in adult patients. We report a series of pediatric cases of CoNS shunt infections in which clinical cure was obtained with troughs < 15 µg/mL. These findings question the relevance of this recommendation in pediatric patients.
April 26, 2018: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698954/giant-thoracolumbar-dumbbell-ganglioneuroma
#6
Felipe José Santaella, Pedro Tadao Hamamoto Filho, Gianfelipe Belini Poliseli, Victor Azevedo de Oliveira, Luis Gustavo Ducati, Marcelo Padovani de Toledo Moraes, Marco Antônio Zanini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 26, 2018: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694968/a-rare-cause-of-juvenile-stroke-extracranial-carotid-artery-aneurysm-with-venous-complete-reconstruction-of-the-carotid-bifurcation
#7
Maurizio Domanin, Silvia Lanfranconi, Silvia Romagnoli, Letterio Runza, Francesca Cortini, Giacomo Piero Comi, Livio Gabrielli
Extracranial carotid artery aneurysms (ECAA) are a rare cause of embolic stroke. The underlying etiology is variable, with atherosclerosis being the most common entity in older subjects. Several treatments have been developed over the last 20 years, but the preferred method remains unknown. Notwithstanding the widespread use of endovascular techniques, surgical reconstruction by means of a bifurcated venous bypass graft should be applied in younger patients. In this way, it is possible to avoid major concerns about the development of long-term intrastent restenosis, and also to spare the external carotid artery which represents the main branch for the ipsilateral cerebral and facial perfusion...
April 25, 2018: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672322/isolated-traumatic-diastasis-of-the-clival-synchondroses-without-clival-fracture
#8
Amir H Faraji, Pawel G Ochalski, Alp Ozpinar, Jason E Blatt, Ian F Pollack
Traumatic clival fractures in the pediatric population are associated with high mortality rates. In our previously reported series, a subset of clival fractures were associated with traumatic diastasis of the surrounding clival synchondroses. Herein, we describe a pediatric case of an isolated traumatic diastasis of the clival synchondroses without clival fracture with significant injury to neurovascular structures. To our knowledge this is the first report to describe this entity. Careful radiological attention should be made towards the clival synchondroses in crushing head injuries to best tailor screening for cerebrovascular injury even in the absence of clival fractures...
April 19, 2018: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672310/significance-of-fdg-pet-hypermetabolism-in-children-with-intractable-focal-epilepsy
#9
Solon Schur, Victoria Allen, Andrew White, David Mirsky, Nicholas Stence, Brent O'Neill, Michael Handler, Roy Dudley, Pramote Laoprasert
BACKGROUND: Interictal 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission topography (FDG-PET) hypometabolism is routinely used in the presurgical workup of children with medically intractable epilepsy (MIE). FDG-PET hypermetabolism, however, is rarely seen, and the significance of this finding in the epilepsy workup is not well established. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of patients who underwent FDG-PET during the presurgical workup of MIE over a 4-year period, between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2013, at the Children's Hospital Colorado, CO, USA...
April 19, 2018: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649797/a-multimodal-approach-to-the-treatment-of-intraparenchymal-meningioma-in-a-7-year-old-boy-a-case-report
#10
Maria Caterina Vescovi, Daniele Bagatto, Gabriele Capo, Marta Maieron, Dario Marin, Enrico Pegolo, Barbara Tomasino
Intraparenchymal meningiomas are very rare: only 26 cases have been diagnosed in patients younger than 20 years since 1954. They can lead to preoperative differential diagnosis mistakes due to their atypical neuroimaging appearance. A multimodal approach is thus necessary to plan a surgical procedure aiming to receive the best extent of resection while preserving the patient's functional integrity. The authors report the case of a 7-year-old boy with a history of blurred vision, left eye deviation, and weakness on the left side of his body...
April 12, 2018: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642069/if-it-s-not-broken-should-we-fix-it-ventriculoperitoneal-shunt-catheter-contributing-to-closed-loop-small-bowel-obstruction-in-a-pediatric-patient-with-ileostomy
#11
Asiya K Shakir, Faridali Ramji, Basheer Shakir, Sandeep Prabhu, Rakesh Kumar, Muhammad Adnan Altaf
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 11, 2018: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29635239/cervical-myelopathy-caused-by-invaginated-laminae-of-the-axis-into-the-spinal-canal-in-a-pediatric-patient
#12
Kadir Oktay, Omer Burak Ericek, Kerem Mazhar Ozsoy, Nuri Eralp Cetinalp, Tahsin Erman
Cervical myelopathy caused by invaginated laminae of the axis is an extremely rare entity. Advanced imaging techniques are useful to define this rare pathology and site of the spinal canal compression. Surgical removal of the floating laminae is commonly an adequate treatment method. Fusion procedures should be added in the presence of instability. There are few cases of invaginated anomalous laminae of the axis in the literature. In this report, to the best of our knowledge having reviewed the literature, the youngest and first female patient is presented...
April 10, 2018: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29635228/surgical-treatment-of-spinal-deformities-in-young-paraplegic-children-with-intraspinal-tumors
#13
Heiko M Lorenz, Lena Braunschweig, Steffen Schiele, Konstantinos Tsaknakis, Marina M Hecker, Andrea S Gantner, Anna-Kathrin Hell
Bilateral vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib (VEPTR) treatment using rib-to-pelvis constructs without touching the spine is a safe surgical technique to correct scoliosis while still allowing further MRI or neurosurgical interventions. In this retrospective cohort study, 4 paraplegic children with spinal deformity after intraspinal tumors and 4 children with neuromuscular diseases were compared. VEPTR treatment was able to considerably reduce the main scoliotic curve in both patient groups (41 vs. 40%)...
April 10, 2018: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627843/spontaneous-ventriculostomy-into-the-subdural-space-in-a-neonate-with-congenital-hydrocephalus
#14
Mahesh Krishna Pillai, Rajeev Kariyattil, Linda Rubene, Rajinder Kumar, Venkatesh Govindaraju, Koshy Kochummen
We report a case of spontaneous temporary resolution of congenital hydrocephalus due to drainage into the subdural space, which is not a physiological space for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This is the first report of spontaneous drainage of CSF into the subdural space, and we term it "ventriculosubdurostomy." We highlight the fact that spontaneous resolution of hydrocephalus due to drainage into a nonphysiological CSF space is temporary.
April 6, 2018: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566386/occipital-condyle-fracture-extending-to-the-inferior-part-of-the-clivus
#15
Necati Ucler, Seyho Cem Yucetas
Although rarely reported in the literature, serious occipital and condylar fractures have been diagnosed more often with the widespread use of computed cranial tomography in traumas. In this paper, a 16-year-old female with a left occipital fracture extending from the left occipital condyle anterior of the hypoglossal canal to the inferior part of the clivus is presented. The fracture which had caused a neurological deficit was cured with conservative treatment. For delayed hypoglossal nerve paralysis due to swelling within the canal, methylprednisolone was started, and a complete cure was attained in about 10 days...
March 22, 2018: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408824/craniofacial-distraction-in-the-management-of-anterior-plagiocephaly-a-novel-idea-and-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#16
Tarek Elbanoby
BACKGROUND: The objective of this work is to present a review of all reports involving the management of unicoronal synostosis with distraction osteogenesis (DO). Also, we have innovated a new method in the treatment of cases of anterior plagiocephaly at a young age using DO. METHODS: We present a case in which anterior plagiocephaly was treated by DO of both metopic and hemicoronal sutures in a 4-month-old female patient. A comprehensive systematic literature review was completed using the search terms "distraction osteogenesis," "unicoronal synostosis," "anterior plagiocephaly," and "craniosynostosis...
February 7, 2018: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342464/risk-factors-for-intraoperative-hypocapnia-in-pediatric-neurosurgical-patients-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#17
In-Kyung Song, Soolyoen Choi, Seohee Lee, Eun-Hee Kim, Ji-Hyun Lee, Hee-Soo Kim, Jin-Tae Kim
BACKGROUND: Hypocapnia has been associated with an increased risk and adverse outcomes in the injured brain. This study aimed to identify risk factors of intraoperative hypocapnia in pediatric neurosurgical patients when tidal volumes and respiratory rates were determined based on their weight and age, respectively. METHODS: Electronic medical records of pediatric patients (≤18 years) who underwent neurosurgery from December 2014 to January 2016 were retrospectively reviewed...
January 18, 2018: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320777/a-case-of-giant-supratentorial-choroid-plexus-carcinoma-in-a-young-girl
#18
Saumya Gupta, Kirti Gupta, Apinderpreet Singh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2018: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316549/posterior-third-ventricular-glioblastoma-with-primary-leptomeningeal-metastasis-in-a-child
#19
Mustafa Kemal Demir, Ozlem Yapıcıer, Ozden Caglar Ozturk, Melisa Aslan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 10, 2018: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672313/delayed-chronic-subdural-hematoma-after-total-cranial-vault-reconstruction-for-sagittal-synostosis
#20
Christopher R Pasarikovski, Taylor J Abel, Chris R Forrest, Peter B Dirks, George M Ibrahim
When diagnosed and treated after the first year of life, the surgical management of sagittal synostosis typically necessitates total cranial vault reconstruction. The safety of total cranial vault reshaping has improved greatly over the past 3 decades. We report on the first published case of an asymptomatic 5-year-old patient who was found to have a large left sided chronic subdural hematoma 4 months after total cranial vault reshaping requiring surgery, detected on routine imaging. We hypothesize that augmentation of venous blood egression through the emissary veins during surgery may have led to venous hypertension and subsequently the development of the chronic subdural hematoma...
2018: Pediatric Neurosurgery
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