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Pediatric Neurosurgery

Pinar Aydin Ozturk, Omer Sanri, Adil Yilmaz, Abdurrahman Arpa, Unal Ozturk, Adnan Ceviz
Factor XIII deficiency is a rare hemorrhagic disorder that can cause spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage and bleeding after surgery. The diagnosis of factor XIII deficiency is difficult before surgical interventions, because coagulation parameters are normal in these patients. Important clinical findings are postsurgical bleeding and recurrent spontaneous intracranial hematomas. These findings should raise the clinical suspicion of factor XIII deficiency. Therefore, diagnosis of factor XIII deficiency is very important for neurologists and neurosurgeons in terms of reducing mortality and morbidity...
September 3, 2018: Pediatric Neurosurgery
Yusuke S Hori, Keina Nagakita, Yuki Ebisudani, Mizuho Aoi, Yoko Shinno, Toru Fukuhara
Choroid plexus hyperplasia/papilloma and resulting hyperproduction of cerebrospinal fluid is a rare cause of hydrocephalus. In these patients, intractable ascites can occur after a ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunting operation. However, shunt-related hydrocele is a rare complication of VP shunting. Previous reports have indicated catheter-tip migration to the scrotum as a cause of hydrocele. Here, we present the first documented case of choroid plexus hyperplasia that led to intractable ascites after shunting and a resulting hydrocele without catheter-tip migration into the scrotum...
August 29, 2018: Pediatric Neurosurgery
Maureen Lacy, Samantha DeDios-Stern, Sarah Fredrickson, Shravan Parikh, Todd Nader, David M Frim
This cross-sectional study investigates the prevalence and risks for psychiatric diagnoses in a large cohort of children with Chiari malformation type 1 (CM1) presenting for neurosurgical evaluation. Children between the ages of 6 and 17 years who were evaluated and diagnosed with CM1 at a neurosurgery clinic were identified. Eighty-six participants were recruited for this study with an average age of 11 years. Parents of participants completed a pediatric medical history questionnaire and a semistructured interview regarding the child's psychiatric, developmental, medical, and family history...
August 27, 2018: Pediatric Neurosurgery
Zhiqiang Feng, Qiuping Li, JianJun Gu, Wenjun Shen
Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) provides a physiological restoration of cerebrospinal fluid and a shunt-free option for hydrocephalus children. Continuous developments in techniques and instruments have improved ETV as the first-line treatment. This paper focuses on the recent advances in surgical techniques, instruments, predictive models, imaging tools, and new cohort studies. The efficacy, safety, indications, and remaining challenges of ETV are discussed. More patients undergo ETV with a better outcome, identifying a new era of hydrocephalus treatment...
August 15, 2018: Pediatric Neurosurgery
Zeferino Demartini, Luana Antunes Maranha Gatto, Tatiane Coghetto da Rocha, Adriano Keijiro Maeda, Adriana Valerio, Gelson Luis Koppe, Alexandre Novicki Francisco
Intracranial aneurysm surgery is commonly performed using pinned head holders, which pose a higher risk for the pediatric population. Several authors recommend avoiding the use of this device when it is not strictly necessary, and this is currently possible considering advances in anesthesiology and monitoring. As the literature on microsurgery without skull clamp use is scant, we report the case of a 15-year-old boy presenting with a subarachnoid hemorrhage after rupture of a middle cerebral artery aneurysm...
2018: Pediatric Neurosurgery
Thao N Do, Amy M Linabery, Richard J Patterson, Albert Tu
BACKGROUND: Rhabdomyosarcoma originating in the mastoid is rare and may be misdiagnosed as an infectious mastoiditis due to overlapping clinical and imaging features. We aimed to identify distinguishing characteristics to facilitate earlier diagnosis and treatment. METHOD: Here we describe a case report and a systematic review of 23 reports describing previous cases of mastoid rhabdomyosarcoma. We compare these patients to a systematic review of patients with infectious mastoiditis and identify distinguishing clinical features...
2018: Pediatric Neurosurgery
Valentina Baro, Luca Denaro, Domenico d'Avella
PURPOSE: We report our preliminary experience concerning the use of thrombin-gelatin hemostatic matrix to strengthen the final hemostasis after posterior fossa low-grade tumor surgery in children. To our knowledge, this is the first report regarding the use of hemostatic matrix in pediatric neurosurgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 2012 and 2016, twenty-three patients underwent posterior fossa surgery for low-grade gliomas in our department. The mean age was 6...
2018: Pediatric Neurosurgery
Mosab Abbas, Mohamad Bakhaidar, Saleh S Baeesa
Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunting is one of the most common simple neurosurgical procedures. VP shunt catheters are made of silicone-coated Silastic tubes, which are made to be inert and hardly induce any reaction in normal tissue. We report a rare case of an extensive intracranial calcification of a VP shunt. This is a very rare case of a documented extensive calcification around the ventricular catheter of a VP shunt. We review the previously reported cases in the literature and present our management of the case...
2018: Pediatric Neurosurgery
Islam Fayed, Matthew F Sacino, Willilam D Gaillard, Robert F Keating, Chima O Oluigbo
INTRODUCTION: MR-guided laser interstitial thermal therapy (MRgLITT) has emerged as a safe and effective treatment option for the ablation of epileptic foci. Its minimally invasive nature makes it attractive due to decreased morbidity and hospital stay. OBJECTIVE: To report the efficacy and safety of MRgLITT as a minimally invasive procedure for the ablation of epileptic foci in the pediatric population of medically refractory lesional epilepsy. METHODS: A retrospective review of patients who underwent MRgLITT via Visualase laser ablation at a single pediatric center was performed...
2018: Pediatric Neurosurgery
Michael G Z Ghali, Ayman Samkari, J Steve Hou, Manjula Balasubramanian, Sherri Besmer, Matthew Keisling, Prithvi Narayan
Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is rare in children with immunocompromise as an important risk factor. A 7-year-old girl with unspecified T-cell immunodeficiency presented with left-sided weakness and was found to have a right-sided frontal lobe mass on imaging. The mass was resected; histopathology and molecular studies evidenced diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Prior chest imaging had revealed left upper lobe mass, and repeat chest imaging revealed multiple pulmonary nodules, initially concerning for metastasis...
2018: Pediatric Neurosurgery
Shrikant Rege, Jitendra Tadghare, Akhilesh Patel, Amit Varma
Spinal hamartoma is an extremely rare, benign spinal lesion occurring in children. It may cause spinal cord compression and subsequent neurological deficits. On reviewing the literature, of a total of 20 cases, only 2 cases are reported in an adolescent age group. It may be a pure spinal hamartoma, or sometimes it may be associated with either neurofibromatosis type I or spinal dysraphism. MRI is the investigation of choice. Surgical excision of the lesion and the decompression of the cord are the definitive treatment...
2018: Pediatric Neurosurgery
Zeferino Junior Demartini, Tatiana von Hertwig de Oliveira, Ricardo Munhoz da Rocha Guimarães, Alfredo Löhr, Gelson Luis Koppe, Luana A Maranha Gatto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Pediatric Neurosurgery
Alexandrina Nikova, Dimitar Ganchev, Theodossios Birbilis
OBJECTIVE: Spinal arteriovenous malformations (AVM) manifest in the pediatric population very differently from the ones in adulthood. Despite that fact, the treatment strategy is quite the same, which provokes a question - whether some of the therapies have an advantage and if so, in which age group. METHODS: For this reason, the authors searched the world literature between 1989 and 2018 for spinal AVM in children and further categorized the studies into two age groups: < 12 and ≥12...
2018: Pediatric Neurosurgery
Takafumi Shimogawa, Takato Morioka, Nobuya Murakami, Nobutaka Mukae, Kimiaki Hashiguchi, Satoshi O Suzuki, Koji Iihara
PURPOSE: It is well known that bony and cartilaginous tissues can be present in lumbosacral lipomas; however, the relationship between their presence and clinical features has not been demonstrated. METHODS: Five (10.4%) out of 48 patients had osteochondral tissues in lipomas. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical, neuroradiological, and histological findings of these patients. RESULTS: Five (45.5%) of 11 patients with dorsal and transitional type lipomas had osteochondral tissues, while none with caudal and filar type lipomas had these tissues...
2018: Pediatric Neurosurgery
Jeyaseelan Nadarajah, Leve Joseph Devarajan Sebastian, Nishchint Jain, S B Gaikwad, Prashant Jauhari, Ashish Saini
Pediatric posterior-circulation aneurysms are uncommon, difficult-to-treat lesions associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Infections and trauma are important risk factors in children. Here, we present a 10-year-old boy with a lower respiratory tract infection, rapidly progressive right-neck swelling, and weakness of the right upper limb. Imaging revealed a partially thrombosed right vertebral-artery pseudoaneurysm with multiple cavitory lung lesions. Subsequent laboratory work-up showed underlying primary immunodeficiency disorder (chronic granulomatous disease)...
2018: Pediatric Neurosurgery
Matthew Pease, Sheri Dewan, Stephanie Greene
Shunt infections are common pediatric neurosurgical cases with high morbidity that almost always requires surgical removal of the shunt, external ventricular drain placement, and delayed shunt replacement. Tunnel infections are well-described clinical entities occurring with indwelling catheters, whereby the indwelling tunnel portion of a line becomes externally infected with a sterile central lumen. These infections are typically treated with line replacement or antibiotics depending on clinical circumstances...
2018: Pediatric Neurosurgery
Humam Tanki, Harshita Singh, Uday S Raswan, Abdul R Bhat, Altaf R Kirmani, Altaf U Ramzan
Hydatid disease is an endemic zoonotic disease in many areas of the world. An intracranial hydatid cyst is a relatively rare entity, accounting for only 1-2% of all intracranial space-occupying lesions. Most commonly they are seen in children and young adults. Here, we present 9 cases of pediatric intracranial hydatid cyst operated at Sher-I-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, Srinagar, India, between 2009 and 2015. The mean age of presentation was 11.5 years. The male to female ratio was 5: 4. In 7 cases, a history of contact with pet dogs was present...
2018: Pediatric Neurosurgery
Can Sarica, Cem Yucetas, Ali Ozen, Necati Ucler, Capan Konca, Selahattin Akar
Holoprosencephaly is a rare congenital malformation resulting from an impaired midline division of the prosencephalon into distinct cerebral hemispheres. Hydrocephalus is a frequent problem among the few survivors with alobar holoprosencephaly (aHPE), its most severe form. The literature about neurosurgical management of hydrocephalus in this condition is limited and dispersed, and there are still some points that need to be resolved. We report the case of a newborn with aHPE, hydrocephalus, and central diabetes insipidus...
2018: Pediatric Neurosurgery
Daniel Thomas Ginat, Daniel Lam, Andrew Scott Kuhn, Russell Reid
Several surgical options are available for treating the different types of craniosynostosis, including fronto-orbital advancement and remodeling, total or subtotal cranial vault remodeling, barrel stave osteotomy with cranial remodeling, endoscopic suturectomy, monobloc advancement and cranioplasty, and revision cranioplasty. High-resolution, low-dose CT with 3D reconstructed images and volumetric analysis can be useful for evaluating the craniofacial skeleton following surgery. The various types of craniosynostosis surgery and corresponding imaging findings are reviewed in this article...
2018: Pediatric Neurosurgery
Valentina Baro, Ignazio D'Errico, Domenico d'Avella, Luca Denaro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Pediatric Neurosurgery
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