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Pediatric Neurosurgery

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131135/interhemispheric-and-infratentorial-subdural-empyema-with-preseptal-cellulitis-as-complications-of-sinusitis-a-case-report
#1
Muhammad Reza Arifianto, Achmad Zuhro Ma'ruf, Arie Ibrahim, Abdul Hafid Bajamal
Intracranial complications of paranasal sinusitis have become rare due to the use of antibiotics nowadays. However, several cases have been reported due the ability of paranasal sinusitis to cause serious complications. Once the infection spreads over the cranial structure, it could infect the orbits, underlying bones, meninges, adjacent veins, and brain. Subdural empyema is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication following paranasal sinusitis and should be considered as a neurological emergency...
November 11, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131086/intracranial-epidural-haematoma-following-surgical-removal-of-a-giant-lumbosacral-schwannoma-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#2
Jakob Nemir, Vjerislav Peterković, Ines Trninić, Ivan Domazet, Hrvoje Barić, Miroslav Vukić
Postoperative intracranial epidural haematoma (EDH) is an extremely rare complication following spinal surgery, with only a handful of cases described in the literature. We report the case of a 16-year-old girl who underwent a successful subtotal resection of a giant lumbosacral schwannoma (L2-S2 level). Recovery from general anaesthesia was uneventful; however, her neurological status deteriorated rapidly within 24 h after surgery. A head computed tomography scan revealed a large right frontoparietal EDH with midline shift...
November 11, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131126/extending-the-neuroanatomic-territory-of-diffuse-midline-glioma-k27m-mutant-pineal-region-origin
#3
Andrea R Gilbert, Wafik Zaky, Murat Gokden, Christine E Fuller, Eylem Ocal, Norman E Leeds, Gregory N Fuller
Diffuse midline glioma, H3-K27M mutant (DMG-K27M) is a newly described, molecularly distinct infiltrative glioma that almost exclusively arises in midline CNS structures, including the brain stem, especially the pons, as well as the thalamus and spinal cord with rare examples seen in the cerebellum, third ventricle, and hypothalamus. To our knowledge, only 1 case of a molecularly confirmed DMG-K27M arising in the pineal region has been previously reported. We present the second occurrence of a tissue-confirmed DMG-K27M of the pineal region, which, to our knowledge, is the first case reported in a child and the first case with documented preoperative MRI...
November 4, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131121/emerging-insights-and-new-perspectives-on-the-nature-of-hydrocephalus
#4
Luke D Tomycz, Andrew T Hale, Timothy M George
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 3, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131102/a-case-of-a-4-year-old-female-with-a-primary-spinal-malignancy-presenting-with-froin-s-syndrome
#5
Andrew T Hale, Gregory P Fricker, Travis W Crook
We report the case of a 4-year-old female with a primary extradural intramedullary atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) leading to a middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarct and Froin's syndrome. She presented with a 6-pound weight loss over the previous week, as well as a decreased urinary output and an altered mental status. She underwent a brain MRI that revealed a left MCA infarct, mild ventriculomegaly, and bilateral internal carotid artery, M1, and A1 stenosis. An external ventricular drain (EVD) was placed due to increased intracranial pressure...
November 2, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131101/outcomes-and-prognostic-factors-in-pediatric-oligodendroglioma-a-population-based-study
#6
Nicholas J Goel, Kalil G Abdullah, Shih-Shan Lang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Pediatric oligodendroglioma (pODG) is a rare primary brain tumor that remains poorly understood. Demographics, outcomes, and prognostic factors were analyzed in 346 pODG cases from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. METHODS: Gender, race, age, tumor location, tumor size, tumor grade, extent of resection, and use of radiotherapy were evaluated with respect to overall survival (OS) by univariate and multivariate analysis. These factors were assessed in the pediatric cohort and 5,753 adult oligodendroglioma cases for comparison...
November 2, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084406/a-retrospective-study-of-cervical-spine-mri-findings-in-children-with-abusive-head-trauma
#7
Lance S Governale, Farah W Brink, Charles P Pluto, Victoria A Schunemann, Rachel Weber, Jerome Rusin, Beth A Fischer, Megan M Letson
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Increasing attention has been given to the possible association of cervical spine (c-spine) injuries with abusive head trauma (AHT). The aims of this study were to describe c-spine MRI findings in hospitalized AHT patients. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of children under the age of 5 years with AHT admitted to hospital in 2004-2013. Those with c-spine MRI were identified, and the images were reviewed. RESULTS: 250 AHT cases were identified, with 34 (14%) undergoing c-spine MRI...
October 31, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080894/posttraumatic-intralaminar-hematoma-developing-between-cranial-dural-layers-a-case-report
#8
Biji Bahuleyan, Vineetkumar Thakorbhai Patel, Prashanth Usurumarthi, Girish Kuranjiyoor Madhavan, Santhosh George Thomas
We present a case of post-traumatic hematoma developing between the 2 layers of the cranial dura in a 2-year-old child following head injury. This child presented with history of fall from a height in altered sensorium with paucity of movements on the left side. Computerized tomography scan of the brain showed a right parietal linear fracture with an underlying hyperdense biconvex hematoma. Emergency evacuation of the hematoma was done. On elevation of the scalp flap, a fibrous membrane was seen protruding between the fracture lines...
October 28, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073589/effect-of-unshaven-hair-with-absorbable-sutures-and-early-postoperative-shampoo-on-cranial-surgery-site-infection
#9
Insun Yeom, Won-Oak Oh, Dong-Seok Kim, Eun-Kyung Park, Kyu-Won Shim
BACKGROUND: Cranial surgical site infection is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitals. Preoperative hair shaving for cranial neurosurgical procedures is performed traditionally in an attempt to protect patients against complications from infections at cranial surgical sites. However, preoperative shaving of surgical incision sites using traditional surgical blades without properly washing the head after surgery can cause infections at surgical sites. Therefore, a rapid protocol in which the scalp remains unshaven and absorbable sutures are used for scalp closure with early postoperative shampooing is examined in this study...
October 27, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946146/third-ventricle-germ-cell-tumor-originating-from-the-infundibulum-with-rapidly-expansive-enlargement
#10
Yuichiro Yoneoka, Junichi Yoshimura, Masakazu Sano, Masayasu Okada, Akiyoshi Kakita, Yukihiko Fujii
We present a pediatric case of a rapidly expanding third ventricle germ cell tumor (GCT). A 14-year-old boy suffered from gradual-onset central diabetes insipidus (DI) and received desmopressin treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed nonspecific findings of the pituitary-hypothalamic axis. Nine months after the initial DI diagnosis, he developed progressively worsening headache. MRI demonstrated a third ventricle tumor causing noncommunicating hydrocephalus, although an MRI 16 weeks before admission did not show the lesion...
September 26, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934739/differential-pressure-shunt-for-simultaneous-diversion-of-ventricular-fluid-and-extracerebral-fluid
#11
Daniel Craig, Ken R Winston, Zach Folzenlogen, Kathryn A Beauchamp
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The management of extracerebral collections of fluid in patients with hydrocephalus can be problematic for either their simultaneous separate management or sequential management, each of which may require multiple surgeries and the management of external drains. The object of this report is to review the experience with a shunt configuration that simultaneously diverts ventricular fluid and extracerebral fluid, whether subdural or subarachnoid in location, through different outflow resistances...
September 22, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926844/atypical-presentation-of-a-pediatric-cerebellar-ganglioglioma
#12
Richard Bram, Roberta J Seidman, David Chesler
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Gangliogliomas (GGs) are rare central nervous system tumors occurring primarily in the supratentorial compartment with infratentorial instances most often involving the brain stem. Infratentorial GGs typically present with signs and symptoms of increased intracranial pressure (ICP), cranial nerve deficits, or focal cerebellar findings; rarely, these tumors have been associated with focal seizures. METHODS: In this report, we describe an atypical presentation of a cerebellar GG in a 20-month-old male who initially presented with syncope and emesis in the absence of electrographic evidence of seizures, radiographic evidence of hydrocephalus, or elevated ICP...
September 20, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926835/air-in-the-subdural-space-at-the-clivus
#13
Mustafa Ogden, Mehmet Faik Özveren
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 20, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910815/the-outcome-and-patterns-of-traumatic-brain-injury-in-the-paediatric-population-of-a-developing-country-secondary-to-tv-trolley-tip-over
#14
Muhammad Waqas, Gohar Javed, Karim Rizwan Nathani, Badar Ujjan, Syed A Quadri, Muhammad Zubair Tahir
BACKGROUND: Television (TV) trolley tip-over incidences are common and can cause significant morbidity and mortality in children. This study was aimed at analyzing the pattern and outcomes of head injuries resulting from TV trolley tip-over. METHOD: We conducted a medical chart review of children with TV trolley tip-over head injuries from January 2009 to April 2016. We collected data on demographics, the mechanism of injury, clinical and radiological features of the injury, and outcomes...
September 15, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866663/infections-of-intrathecal-baclofen-delivery-systems-and-ventriculoperitoneal-shunting-systems-clinical-series-discussion
#15
Oussama Abousamra, Maria Del Pilar Duque Orozco, Kenneth J Rogers, Freeman Miller, Julieanne P Sees
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The physiological interaction between the intrathecal baclofen (ITB) delivery system and the ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunting system in a patient who had both systems implanted has not been reported previously. The aim of our report is to evaluate the effect that one system's infection might have on the other. METHODS: Records of children who were followed at our institution between 2004 and 2015 for management of their ITB systems were reviewed...
September 2, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797007/cerebrospinal-fluid-biomarkers-of-pediatric-hydrocephalus
#16
David D Limbrick, Leandro Castaneyra-Ruiz, Roland H Han, Daniel Berger, James P McAllister, Diego M Morales
Hydrocephalus (HC) is a common, debilitating neurological condition that requires urgent clinical decision-making. At present, neurosurgeons rely heavily on a patient's history, physical examination findings, neuroimaging, and clinical judgment to make the diagnosis of HC or treatment failure (e.g., shunt malfunction). Unfortunately, these tools, even in combination, do not eliminate subjectivity in clinical decisions. In order to improve the management of infants and children with HC, there is an urgent need for new biomarkers to complement currently available tools and enable clinicians to confidently establish the diagnosis of HC, assess therapeutic efficacy/treatment failure, and evaluate current and future developmental challenges, so that every child has access to the resources they need to optimize their outcome and quality of life...
August 11, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704811/the-evolution-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-shunts-advances-in-technology-and-technique
#17
Krystal L Tomei
Over the past few centuries, there have been many advances in shunt technology, from the evolution of shunt tubing materials, to advances in valves for regulating the flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Additional medical advances have enabled the antibiotic impregnation of catheters. Finally, advances in technology have expanded the options for minimally invasive techniques and improved the management of complicated cases of hydrocephalus. The evolution of technology and technique in the management of hydrocephalus with CSF shunts will be discussed here...
July 14, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249297/cerebrospinal-fluid-shunting-complications-in-children
#18
Brian W Hanak, Robert H Bonow, Carolyn A Harris, Samuel R Browd
Although cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt placement is the most common procedure performed by pediatric neurosurgeons, shunts remain among the most failure-prone life-sustaining medical devices implanted in modern medical practice. This article provides an overview of the mechanisms of CSF shunt failure for the 3 most commonly employed definitive CSF shunts in the practice of pediatric neurosurgery: ventriculoperitoneal, ventriculopleural, and ventriculoatrial. The text has been partitioned into the broad modes of shunt failure: obstruction, infection, mechanical shunt failure, overdrainage, and distal catheter site-specific failures...
March 2, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125818/neural-stem-cells-and-fetal-onset-hydrocephalus
#19
Esteban M Rodríguez, María M Guerra
Fetal-onset hydrocephalus is not only a disorder of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics, but also a brain disorder. How can we explain the inborn and, so far, irreparable neurological impairment in children born with hydrocephalus? We hypothesize that a cell junction pathology of neural stem cells (NSC) leads to two inseparable phenomena: hydrocephalus and abnormal neurogenesis. All neurons, glial cells, and ependymal cells of the mammalian central nervous system originate from the NSC forming the ventricular zone (VZ) and the neural progenitor cells (NPC) forming the subventricular zone...
January 27, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095378/advanced-neuroimaging-techniques-in-pediatric-hydrocephalus
#20
Smruti K Patel, Weihong Yuan, Francesco T Mangano
From the early days of pneumoencephalography and ventriculography to the emerging technology of magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the present day, neuroimaging has always been a critical tool in the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric hydrocephalus. There is accumulating evidence from both human and animal research suggesting that one of the major pathophysiological mechanisms underlying poor outcomes in these children is damage to vulnerable white matter (WM) structures in the brain as a result of ventricular enlargement and increased intracranial pressure...
January 18, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
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