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Pediatric Neurosurgery

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208152/simultaneous-umbilical-hernia-repair-with-transumbilical-ventriculoperitoneal-shunt-placement
#1
Michael J Montalbano, Marios Loukas, W Jerry Oakes, R Shane Tubbs
INTRODUCTION: Recently, placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt via a transumbilical approach has been reported. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Herein, we report the repair of an umbilical hernia via the same incision and introduction of the distal end of a ventricultoperitoneal shunt into the peritoneal cavity in 3 patients. A case illustration is included. RESULTS: Both hernia repair and placement of the distal end of the ventriculoperitoneal shunt were uncomplicated in our small case series...
February 17, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192784/extra-axial-cerebellopontine-angle-medulloblastoma-in-an-infant
#2
Mukesh Kumar Bhaskar, Manish Jaiswal, Bal Krishna Ojha, Sunil Kumar Singh, Anil Chandra, Mukta Meel, Mohd Faheem
Medulloblastoma is a common tumor of the posterior fossa, representing 20-25% of all pediatric neoplasms. It commonly occurs in the midline (cerebellar vermis) and rarely at the cerebellopontine angle. Most of them are intra-axial, and an extra-axial location of this tumor is very rare. Extra-axial cerebellopontine angle medulloblastoma is extremely uncommon and has never been reported in an infant. We report an extra-axial cerebellopontine angle medulloblastoma in a 1-year-old child.
February 14, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125818/neural-stem-cells-and-fetal-onset-hydrocephalus
#3
Esteban M Rodríguez, María M Guerra
Fetal-onset hydrocephalus is not only a disorder of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics, but also a brain disorder. How can we explain the inborn and, so far, irreparable neurological impairment in children born with hydrocephalus? We hypothesize that a cell junction pathology of neural stem cells (NSC) leads to two inseparable phenomena: hydrocephalus and abnormal neurogenesis. All neurons, glial cells, and ependymal cells of the mammalian central nervous system originate from the NSC forming the ventricular zone (VZ) and the neural progenitor cells (NPC) forming the subventricular zone...
January 27, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103603/real-time-ultrasound-guided-catheter-navigation-for-approaching-deep-seated-brain-lesions-role-of-intraoperative-neurosonography-with-and-without-fusion-with-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#4
Sunil Manjila, Aditya Karhade, Ji Hoon Phi, R Michael Scott, Edward R Smith
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Brain shift during the exposure of cranial lesions may reduce the accuracy of frameless stereotaxy. We describe a rapid, safe, and effective method to approach deep-seated brain lesions using real-time intraoperative ultrasound placement of a catheter to mark the dissection trajectory to the lesion. METHODS: With Institutional Review Board approval, we retrospectively reviewed the radiographic, pathologic, and intraoperative data of 11 pediatric patients who underwent excision of 12 lesions by means of this technique...
January 20, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095378/advanced-neuroimaging-techniques-in-pediatric-hydrocephalus
#5
Smruti K Patel, Weihong Yuan, Francesco T Mangano
From the early days of pneumoencephalography and ventriculography to the emerging technology of magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the present day, neuroimaging has always been a critical tool in the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric hydrocephalus. There is accumulating evidence from both human and animal research suggesting that one of the major pathophysiological mechanisms underlying poor outcomes in these children is damage to vulnerable white matter (WM) structures in the brain as a result of ventricular enlargement and increased intracranial pressure...
January 18, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092907/sinus-thrombosis-after-endovascular-treatment-of-vein-of-galen-aneurysmal-malformation
#6
Zeferino Demartini, Marcio Luis Tostes Dos Santos, Gelson Luis Koppe, Adriane de Andre Cardoso-Demartini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 17, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064284/surgery-modified-pi-with-triple-bonnet-flap-and-fronto-orbital-advancement
#7
Uday Singh Raswan, Sarbjit Singh Chhiber, Altaf Umar Ramzan
INTRODUCTION: Craniosynostosis is the premature fusion of one or more of the cranial sutures and can occur as part of a syndrome or as an isolated defect. Pansynostosis is a rare form of craniosynostosis that involves premature fusion of all the cranial sutures (coronal, sagittal, metopic, and occipital). Particularly in cases of late presentation, there are heightened clinical concerns, both functional and aesthetic. In untreated cases of pansynostosis and increased intracranial pressure, optic nerve damage progresses to optic atrophy and then blindness...
January 7, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002814/the-global-rise-of-endoscopic-third-ventriculostomy-with-choroid-plexus-cauterization-in-pediatric-hydrocephalus
#8
Michael C Dewan, Robert P Naftel
In the quest to identify the optimal means of cerebrospinal fluid diversion free of shunt dependency, endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) with choroid plexus cauterization (CPC) has been proposed as a promising procedure in select children. Supplementing traditional ETV with obliteration of the choroid plexus has been shown to decrease the likelihood of ultimate shunt dependency by roughly 20%. Originally devised to treat hydrocephalus in infants in sub-Saharan Africa, ETV/CPC has gained eager attention and cautious support in the developed world...
December 22, 2016: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997915/new-concepts-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-physiology-and-development-of-hydrocephalus
#9
Darko Orešković, Milan Radoš, Marijan Klarica
The goal of this review is the presentation of the new (Bulat-Klarica-Orešković) hypothesis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) physiology and the ensuing new concept of hydrocephalus development in light of this hypothesis. The widely accepted classic hypothesis of CSF physiology and the traditional concept of hydrocephalus are contradicted by numerous experimental and clinical data, which consequently results in unsatisfying clinical treatment and patient recovery. Therefore, the newly presented concept of hydrocephalus development and possible future treatments are discussed...
December 21, 2016: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978530/aquaporin-water-channels-and-hydrocephalus
#10
Alan S Verkman, Lukmanee Tradtrantip, Alex J Smith, Xiaoming Yao
The aquaporins (AQPs) are a family of water-transporting proteins that are broadly expressed in mammalian cells. Two AQPs in the central nervous system, AQP1 and AQP4, might play a role in hydrocephalus and are thus potential drug targets. AQP1 is expressed in the ventricular-facing membrane of choroid plexus epithelial cells, where it facilitates the secretion of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). AQP4 is expressed in astrocyte foot processes and ependymal cells lining ventricles, where it appears to facilitate the transport of excess water out of the brain...
December 16, 2016: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931021/a-retrospective-analysis-of-neonatal-encephalocele-predisposing-factors-and-outcomes
#11
Seyho Cem Yucetas, Necati Uçler
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates the predisposing factors and outcomes of surgical management of encephaloceles at our institution. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 32 occipital encephaloceles managed operatively at the Neurosurgery Department Clinics of the Faculty of Medicine, Adıyaman University, was performed between 2011 and 2015. RESULTS: Among the study population, 19 mothers had been exposed to TORCH infections (toxoplasma, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus), 18 were in consanguineous marriages, and 3 had regular prenatal screening...
December 9, 2016: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926912/cranioplasty-after-craniectomy-in-a-pediatric-population-single-center-experience-from-a-developing-country
#12
Muhammad Waqas, Badar Ujjan, Yousaf Bashir Hadi, Faizuddin Najmuddin, Altaf Ali Laghari, Swaleha Khalid, Muhammad Ehsan Bari, Umar Farooq Bhatti
Cranioplasty is a frequently performed procedure in neurosurgery. The pediatric population for this procedure is distinct from the adult one because of the growing skulls and thinner bones of the calvarium. A paucity of data on the outcomes of this procedure in the pediatric population has been identified repeatedly. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to investigate the outcomes in a pediatric population that underwent cranioplasty after craniectomy at our institute in a developing-world country. Our cohort showed no association of complication rate or cosmetic outcomes with the timing of cranioplasty, area of skull defect, type of implant used, or method of storage...
December 8, 2016: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923230/skull-subsidence-due-to-periosteum-defect-following-craniotomy-in-a-child
#13
Hidetaka Arishima, Ayumi Akazawa, Ken-Ichiro Kikuta
We report a case of a 7-year-old child with a cranial deformity secondary to a craniotomy for an intracranial hematoma. He suffered from an acute epidural hematoma with a lineal fracture of the right temporal bone following a severe head injury. A large question mark-shaped skin flap with the periosteum and temporal muscle was created for a decompressive craniectomy; however, neither the acute epidural hematoma nor brain swelling was severe, and we performed a small craniotomy compared with the skin flap without a decompressive craniectomy...
December 7, 2016: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923226/intraoperative-tumoral-bleeding-of-hypervascular-medulloblastoma-after-ventricular-drainage-a-case-report
#14
Han-Seung Ryu, Tae-Young Jung, Moon-Soo Han, Seul-Ki Kim, Kyung-Hwa Lee
We report a rare case of intraoperative tumoral bleeding of a hypervascular medulloblastoma. A 12-year-old girl presented with dizziness and nausea. Brain magnetic resonance (MR) images revealed an approximately 4.2-cm enhanced mass on the cerebellar vermis associated with mild perilesional edema and increased cerebral blood volume. Angiography showed tumoral staining and developed occipital and circular dural sinuses in the venous phase. A suboccipital craniotomy was performed. To relieve the intracranial pressure, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was drained via a lateral ventricular catheter in the occipital horn...
December 7, 2016: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915350/rapid-brain-shift-with-remote-site-haemorrhage-after-arachnoid-cyst-excision-treatment-dilemmas
#15
Girish M Ramachandran, Rajesh P Nair, Lakshman I Kongwad, G Shanthakumar
Sylvian arachnoid cysts pose considerable management dilemmas. Surgical options include cyst fenestration, either endoscopically or microsurgically, and cysto-peritoneal shunt. One of the rare complications after rapid decompression of the arachnoid cysts is haemorrhage in the surrounding brain as well as in remote areas. We describe a case of multiple remote-site intra-parenchymal haemorrhage as a rare complication after surgical decompression of a sylvian fissure arachnoid cyst.
December 3, 2016: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915334/intraventricular-tuberculoma-in-a-child-a-rare-location
#16
Deepashu Sachdeva, Ishu Bishnoi, Anita Jagetia, Lavlesh Rathore, Atul Agarwal, Vineeta Batra, Amandeep Kaur
Intracranial tuberculoma is an uncommon presentation of tuberculosis, and its occurrence in an intraventricular location is very rare. It is usually confused with glioma, parasitic cyst, and craniopharyngioma. Few case reports exist in the literature on this entity. We report a case of tuberculoma at the foramen of Monro in a 7-year-old child and review the literature in terms of diagnostic dilemma.
December 3, 2016: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806370/historical-perspective-of-split-cord-malformations-a-tale-of-two-cords
#17
Erfanul Saker, Marios Loukas, Christian Fisahn, Rod J Oskouian, R Shane Tubbs
INTRODUCTION: Our appreciation and understanding of what is now known as the split cord malformation (SCM) have a long history. The oldest known example of SCM is from roughly AD 100. Other isolated examples can be found in the large body of work of the pathologists of the 1800s, where the SCMs were found incidentally during autopsies. CONCLUSIONS: SCM has a rich history and has intrigued physicians for over 200 years. Many well-known figures from the past such as Chiari and von Recklinghausen, both pathologists, made early postmortem descriptions of SCM...
2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780166/a-case-of-metachronous-single-metastasis-of-medulloblastoma-to-the-lateral-ventricle-de-novo-lesion-or-metastasis-due-to-reversed-cerebrospinal-fluid-flow-following-ventriculoperitoneal-shunt
#18
Apinderpreet Singh, Ravi Garg, Kirti Gupta, Pravin Salunke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780163/giant-hypothalamic-hamartoma-in-an-infant-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#19
Sandeep Kandregula, Amey R Savardekar, B N Nandeesh, A Arivazhagan, Malla Bhaskar Rao
Giant hypothalamic hamartomas (GHH) are extremely rare lesions in infants and usually intrinsically epileptogenic. We present the case of a 10-month-old girl child presenting with drug-resistant seizures and a giant hypothalamic lesion that was confirmed as hamartoma on histopathology. Surgical decompression and disconnection from the hypothalamus was performed with the intent of controlling her seizures. Unfortunately, the patient developed right middle cerebral artery and posterior cerebral artery territory infarction, possibly due to vasospasm or thrombosis of the vessels...
2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721316/severe-acute-subdural-hemorrhages-in-a-patient-with-glutaric-acidemia-type-1-under-recommended-treatment
#20
Mika Ishige, Tatsuo Fuchigami, Erika Ogawa, Hiromi Usui, Ryutaro Kohira, Yoriko Watanabe, Shori Takahashi
Glutaric acidemia type 1 is a rare autosomal recessive disease caused by a deficiency of glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase. Previous studies have reported subdural hemorrhage in untreated patients with glutaric acidemia type 1. However, there is only one report of severe acute subdural hemorrhage after minor head trauma in a patient with glutaric acidemia type 1 under guideline-recommended treatment. We report a second case of life-threatening severe acute subdural hemorrhage after a minor head trauma in a patient with glutaric acidemia type 1...
2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
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