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Neonatology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315881/new-insights-on-early-patterns-of-respiratory-disease-among-extremely-low-gestational-age-newborns
#1
Stefano Nobile, Paolo Marchionni, Giovanni Vento, Valentina Vendettuoli, Claudio Marabini, Alessandra Lio, Cinzia Ricci, Domenica Mercadante, Mariarosa Colnaghi, Fabio Mosca, Costantino Romagnoli, Virgilio Carnielli
BACKGROUND: The analysis of early patterns of lung disease among preterm infants may help to identify predictors of pulmonary deterioration. OBJECTIVES: To analyze FIO2 requirement in the first 14 days of life among preterm infants and to find predictors of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). METHODS: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: 3 Italian level III NICUs. POPULATION: infants born between 240/7 and 276/7 weeks' gestational age (GA) who survived to 14 days...
March 18, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253519/reliability-of-pulse-oximetry-during-progressive-hypoxia-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-and-recovery-in-a-piglet-model-of-neonatal-hypoxic-cardiac-arrest
#2
Mohammad Ahmad Hassan, Claudia Weber, Markus Waitz, Li Huang, Helmut D Hummler, Marc Robin Mendler
BACKGROUND: Pulse oximetry is widely used in intensive care and emergency conditions to monitor arterial oxygenation and to guide oxygen therapy. OBJECTIVE: To study the reliability of pulse oximetry in comparison with CO-oximetry in newborn piglets during progressive hypoxia, cardiac arrest, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), and after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). METHODS: Thirty-three newborn piglets were exposed to hypoxia until asystole occurred and then resuscitated until ROSC...
March 3, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253512/neonatal-hypoglycaemia-and-visual-development-a-review
#3
Nabin Paudel, Arijit Chakraborty, Nicola Anstice, Robert J Jacobs, Jo E Hegarty, Jane E Harding, Benjamin Thompson
BACKGROUND: Many newborn babies experience low blood glucose concentrations, a condition referred to as neonatal hypoglycaemia (NH). The effect of NH on visual development in infancy and childhood is of interest because the occipital lobes, which include the primary visual cortex and a number of extrastriate visual areas, may be particularly susceptible to NH-induced injury. In addition, a number of case series have suggested that NH can affect eye and optic nerve development. OBJECTIVE: To review the existing literature concerning the effect of NH on the visual system...
March 3, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214832/the-burden-of-respiratory-disease-in-very-low-birth-weight-infants-changes-in-perinatal-care-and-outcomes-in-a-decade-in-spain
#4
Fermín García-Muñoz Rodrigo, Antonio Losada Martínez, María Dolores Elorza Fernández, Julio Moreno Hernando, Josep Figueras Aloy, Máximo Vento Torres
BACKGROUND: Advances in perinatal care have led to a significant reduction in morbidity and mortality among very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. Much of this progress is related to the prevention and management of respiratory disease. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate changes in perinatal care and its influence on respiratory morbidity and mortality among VLBW infants in Spain in 2 consecutive periods (2002-2006 and 2007-2011). METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of data prospectively collected of all VLBW infants included in the Spanish SEN1500 network...
February 18, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208138/a-comparison-of-the-thompson-encephalopathy-score-and-amplitude-integrated-electroencephalography-in-infants-with-perinatal-asphyxia-and-therapeutic-hypothermia
#5
Lauren C Weeke, Ana Vilan, Mona C Toet, Ingrid C van Haastert, Linda S de Vries, Floris Groenendaal
BACKGROUND: In previous studies clinical signs or amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG)-based signs of encephalopathy were used to select infants with perinatal asphyxia for treatment with hypothermia. AIM: The objective of this study was to compare Thompson encephalopathy scores and aEEG, and relate both to outcome. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Thompson scores, aEEG, and outcome were compared in 122 infants with perinatal asphyxia and therapeutic hypothermia...
February 17, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196365/the-golden-age-of-probiotics-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-and-observational-studies-in-preterm-infants
#6
Elda Dermyshi, Yizhong Wang, Chongbin Yan, Wenchao Hong, Gang Qiu, Xiaohui Gong, Ting Zhang
BACKGROUND: Over the last few years, probiotics have been one of the most studied interventions in neonatal medicine. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this work was to analyse all studies (randomized controlled trials, RCTs, and observational studies) assessing the use of probiotics in very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants. SEARCH METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science...
February 15, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142140/dha-reduces-oxidative-stress-after-perinatal-asphyxia-a-study-in-newborn-piglets
#7
Rønnaug Solberg, Mariangela Longini, Fabrizio Proietti, Serafina Perrone, Cosetta Felici, Alessio Porta, Ola Didrik Saugstad, Giuseppe Buonocore
BACKGROUND: Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage is a major cause of acute mortality and chronic neurological morbidity in infants and children. Oxidative stress due to free radical formation and the initiation of abnormal oxidative reactions appears to play a key role. Docosahexanoic acid (DHA), a main component of brain membrane phospholipids, may act as a neuroprotectant after hypoxia-ischemia by regulating multiple molecular pathways and gene expression. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to test the hypothesis that DHA provides significant protection against lipoperoxidation damage in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus in a neonatal piglet model of severe hypoxia-reoxygenation...
February 1, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142138/three-dimensional-imaging-based-web-application-for-predicting-tracheal-tube-depth-in-preterm-neonates
#8
Raksa Tupprasoot, Dean Langan, J Ciaran Hutchinson, Hannah Barrett, Michael R J Sury, Owen J Arthurs
BACKGROUND: Positioning a tracheal tube (TT) to the correct depth in preterm infants is challenging. Currently, there is no reliable single-predictor model for neonates applicable to the whole range of size or age. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we used post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging (PMMRI) of preterm infants to measure tracheal dimensions and to develop a clinical guide for TT positioning. METHODS: We measured tracheal length (TL) and tracheal diameter (TD) in a cohort of normal neonates and foetuses that underwent PMMRI (cause of death unexplained)...
February 1, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125815/patent-ductus-arteriosus-treatment-in-very-preterm-infants-a-european-population-based-cohort-study-epice-on-variation-and-outcomes
#9
Anna-Karin Edstedt Bonamy, Anna Gudmundsdottir, Rolf F Maier, Liis Toome, Jennifer Zeitlin, Mercedes Bonet, Alan Fenton, Asbjørn Børch Hasselager, Arno van Heijst, Ludwig Gortner, David Milligan, Patrick Van Reempts, Elaine M Boyle, Mikael Norman
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) occurs frequently in very preterm infants and despite the lack of evidence for treatment benefits, treatment for PDA is common in neonatal medicine. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this work was to study regional variations in PDA treatment in very preterm infants (≤31 weeks of gestation), its relation to differences in perinatal characteristics, and associations with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and survival without major neonatal morbidity...
January 26, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118641/effects-of-breathing-and-apnoea-during-sustained-inflations-in-resuscitation-of-preterm-infants
#10
Gianluca Lista, Francesco Cavigioli, Paola Azzurra La Verde, Francesca Castoldi, Ilia Bresesti, Colin J Morley
BACKGROUND: A sustained inflation (SI) at birth in preterm babies may be ineffective unless the infants breathe. Gain in lung volume is associated with breathing during delivery room non-invasive management. OBJECTIVE: To describe the breathing patterns of preterm infants during an SI and correlate to a calculated gain in lung volume. METHODS: Retrospective observational study. Data collected from a respiratory function monitor during SI (25 cmH2O for 15 s then PEEP at 5 cmH2O) through a face mask in preterm infants (gestational age [GA] ≤31 weeks)...
January 25, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095377/associations-of-maternal-leptin-with-neonatal-adiposity-differ-according-to-pregravid-weight
#11
Julie Patenaude, Guillaume Lacerte, Marilyn Lacroix, Laetitia Guillemette, Catherine Allard, Myriam Doyon, Marie-Claude Battista, Julie Moreau, Julie Ménard, Jean-Luc Ardilouze, Patrice Perron, Marie-France Hivert
BACKGROUND: During pregnancy, maternal circulating leptin is released by maternal adipose tissue and the placenta, and may have a role in fetal development. OBJECTIVES: We investigated maternal leptinemia and glycemia associations with neonatal adiposity, taking into account pregravid weight status. METHODS: We included 235 pregnant women from the Genetics of Glucose Regulation in Gestation and Growth prospective cohort with data: blood samples collected during the 2nd trimester, an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and the measured leptin and glucose levels...
January 18, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092917/is-fat-mass-accretion-of-late-preterm-infants-associated-with-insulin-resistance
#12
Nadia Liotto, Maria Lorella Giannì, Francesca Taroni, Paola Roggero, Chiara Cristiana Condello, Anna Orsi, Camilla Menis, Riccardo Bonfanti, Fabio Mosca
BACKGROUND: Late preterm infants show a major fat mass accretion from birth to term. The contribution of preterm birth to the development of the metabolic syndrome is still under investigation. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate body composition changes in late preterm infants during the first 3 months and to investigate their insulin sensitivity and resistance. METHODS: We conducted an observational, longitudinal study. A total of 216 late preterm infants underwent body composition assessment using an air displacement plethysmograph at term and at 3 months of corrected age...
January 17, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092913/umbilical-venous-catheter-malposition-is-associated-with-necrotizing-enterocolitis-in-premature-infants
#13
Mustafa Sulemanji, Khashayar Vakili, David Zurakowski, Wayne Tworetzky, Steven J Fishman, Heung Bae Kim
OBJECTIVE: The etiology of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remains elusive despite known associations with several factors, including intestinal ischemia related to the effects of umbilical arterial catheterization on the mesenteric circulation. However, the role of the mesenteric venous circulation has yet to be studied as a potential cause of NEC. We examined the association between umbilical venous catheter (UVC) position and the development of NEC in premature infants. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study was performed to examine the effect of UVC on portosystemic shunting via the ductus venosus (DV) and its potential role in NEC...
January 17, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076856/mri-differences-associated-with-intrauterine-growth-restriction-in-preterm-infants
#14
Christie J Bruno, Shreyans Bengani, William A Gomes, Mariana Brewer, Melissa Vega, Xianhong Xie, Mimi Kim, Mamta Fuloria
BACKGROUND: Preterm infants are at risk for neurodevelopmental impairment. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) further increases this risk. Brain imaging studies are often utilized at or near term-equivalent age to determine later prognosis. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between intrauterine growth and regional brain volume on MRI scans performed in preterm infants at or near term-equivalent age. METHODS: This is a retrospective case-control study of 24 infants born at gestational age ≤30 weeks and cared for in a large, inner-city, academic neonatal intensive-care unit from 2012 to 2013...
January 11, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073106/surfactant-need-by-gestation-for-very-preterm-babies-initiated-on-early-nasal-cpap-a-danish-observational-multicentre-study-of-6-628-infants-born-2000-2013
#15
Rikke Wiingreen, Gorm Greisen, Finn Ebbesen, Jesper Padkær Petersen, Gitte Zachariassen, Tine Brink Henriksen, Bo Mølholm Hansen
BACKGROUND: In recent years, early nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) as respiratory support for preterm infants is being advocated as an alternative to prophylactic surfactant and treatment with mechanical ventilation. A number of infants treated with early nCPAP do not need treatment with surfactant, but few studies provide data on this. Since the 1990s, the first approach to respiratory support to preterm infants in Denmark has been early nCPAP combined with surfactant administration by the INSURE method by which the infant is intubated and surfactant administration is followed by rapid extubation to nCPAP if possible...
January 11, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073104/use-of-transcutaneous-bilirubin-to-determine-the-need-for-phototherapy-in-resource-limited-settings
#16
Bolajoko O Olusanya, Abieyuwa A Emokpae
BACKGROUND: Routine and timely determination of total serum bilirubin (TSB) remains a challenge in many resource-limited countries with substantial burden of severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Limited evidence exists on the potential usefulness of transcutaneous bilirubin (TcB) to identify infants who may require phototherapy based on possible treatment criteria in such settings. OBJECTIVE: To compare the number of infants requiring phototherapy across different TSB criteria and determine the predictive performance of TcB under each criterion...
January 11, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030867/medications-that-increase-osmolality-and-compromise-the-safety-of-enteral-feeding-in-preterm-infants
#17
Suresh Chandran, Mei Chien Chua, Wanyun Lin, Jia Min Wong, Seyed Ehsan Saffari, Victor Samuel Rajadurai
BACKGROUND: Medications added to preterm milk feeds have the potential to raise osmolality, causing feed intolerance and necrotizing enterocolitis. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the osmolality of milk feeds and water with 14 medications and the diluent amounts required to keep the osmolality below the safety threshold of ≤450 mOsm/kg. Changes in the osmolality of milk with medications while on continuous infusion over 2 and 4 h were determined...
December 29, 2016: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013313/increased-intestinal-inflammation-and-digestive-dysfunction-in-preterm-pigs-with-severe-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#18
Ann Cathrine F Støy, Peter M H Heegaard, Kerstin Skovgaard, Stine B Bering, Mette Bjerre, Per T Sangild
BACKGROUND: The risk factors for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) are well known, but the factors involved in the different NEC presentations remain unclear. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that digestive dysfunction and intestinal inflammation are mainly affected by severe NEC lesions. METHODS: In 48 preterm pigs, the association between the macroscopic NEC score (range 1-6) and the expression of 48 genes related to inflammation, morphological, and digestive parameters in the distal small intestine was investigated...
December 24, 2016: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013308/neonatal-pneumothorax-a-descriptive-regional-danish-study
#19
Louise Vibede, Emil Vibede, Mette Bendtsen, Lia Pedersen, Finn Ebbesen
BACKGROUND: Neonatal pneumothorax (PTX) can occur due to underlying pulmonary disease and/or ventilatory support. PTX can also develop at the onset of respiration. PTX can be life-threatening, and prompt diagnosis is essential to reduce mortality. OBJECTIVE: To analyse aetiology, demographic aspects, age at diagnosis, required treatment (specifically drainage), and prognosis of all cases of neonatal PTX observed in the North Jutland Region of Denmark from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2014...
December 24, 2016: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013306/inhibition-of-rac1-signaling-downregulates-inflammasome-activation-and-attenuates-lung-injury-in-neonatal-rats-exposed-to-hyperoxia
#20
Julia K Hummler, Fredrick Dapaah-Siakwan, Ruben Vaidya, Ronald Zambrano, Siwei Luo, Shaoyi Chen, Nadine Kerr, Juan Pablo de Rivero Vaccari, Robert W Keane, W Dalton Dietrich, Eduardo Bancalari, Karen C Young, Shu Wu
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory injury, particularly the production of active interleukin (IL)-1β plays a major role in the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants. The release of active IL-1β is controlled by posttranscriptional modifications of its proform (pro-IL-1β) through the inflammasome. Rac1 is a member of the Rho family of GTPases that regulate the inflammatory process. OBJECTIVE: This study tested the hypothesis that Rac1 signaling increases inflammasome activation that results in damaging inflammation, and that the inhibition of Rac1 signaling prevents lung injury, by inhibiting inflammasome activation in a newborn rat model of BPD induced by hyperoxia...
December 24, 2016: Neonatology
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