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Neonatology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131014/early-nutrition-and-growth-until-the-corrected-age-of-2-years-in-extremely-preterm-infants
#1
Henni Hiltunen, Eliisa Löyttyniemi, Erika Isolauri, Samuli Rautava
BACKGROUND: Extremely preterm birth is associated with a high risk of extrauterine growth retardation, which has been linked with adverse developmental outcomes. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether nutritional management during the first 7 days of life affects growth patterns until the corrected age of 2 years in extremely preterm infants. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study of 78 extremely preterm (<28 weeks' gestation) neonates was conducted...
November 10, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131075/the-cerebellar-cerebral-microstructure-is-disrupted-at-multiple-sites-in-very-preterm-infants-with-cerebellar-haemorrhage
#2
Vera Neubauer, Tanja Djurdjevic, Elke Griesmaier, Marlene Biermayr, Elke Ruth Gizewski, Ursula Kiechl-Kohlendorfer
BACKGROUND: Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques have prompted reconsideration of the anatomical correlates of adverse outcomes in preterm infants. The importance of the contribution made by the cerebellum is now increasingly appreciated. The effect of cerebellar haemorrhage (CBH) on the microstructure of the cerebellar-cerebral circuit is largely unexplored. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of CBH on the microstructure of cerebellar-cerebral connections in preterm infants aged <32 gestational weeks...
November 9, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131055/bmi-is-a-better-body-proportionality-measure-than-the-ponderal-index-and-weight-for-length-for-preterm-infants
#3
A Nicole Ferguson, Shannon C Grabich, Irene E Olsen, Rebecca Cantrell, Reese H Clark, Wendy N Ballew, Jeffrey Chou, M Louise Lawson
BACKGROUND: Clinicians have observed preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit growing disproportionally; however, the only growth charts that have been available were from preterm infants born in the 1950s which utilized the ponderal index. Prior to creating the recently published BMI curves, we found only 1 reference justifying the use of the ponderal index. OBJECTIVES: To determine the best measure of body proportionality for assessing growth in US preterm infants...
November 9, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131125/splanchnic-cerebral-oxygenation-ratio-decreases-during-enteral-feedings-in-anemic-preterm-infants-observations-under-near-infrared-spectroscopy
#4
Katherine Braski, Kimberlee Weaver-Lewis, Manndi Loertscher, Qian Ding, Xiaoming Sheng, Mariana Baserga
BACKGROUND: Anemia is common in premature infants. Due to risks with red blood cell transfusions, many anemic infants are not transfused. The implications of this pathophysiologic status, especially at times of increased metabolic demand (enteral feedings), is not well understood. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) allows for the noninvasive determination of regional oxygen saturations (rSO2) in tissues such as the brain and mesentery, giving insight into their oxygen sufficiency. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that during enteral feedings very low birth weight (VLBW) infants with a hematocrit ≤28% will experience a decrease in splanchnic rSO2 and splanchnic-cerebral oxygenation ratio (SCOR)...
November 8, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131022/an-echocardiographic-screening-program-helps-to-identify-pulmonary-hypertension-in-extremely-low-birthweight-infants-with-and-without-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-a-single-center-experience
#5
Katrin Mehler, Floris E Udink Ten Cate, Titus Keller, Ursula Bangen, Angela Kribs, André Oberthuer
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) affects 1 in 6 infants with a birthweight <1,000 g (extremely low birthweight; ELBW) and is frequently associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). If untreated, the mortality rates of the disease are high. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to characterize risk factors for PH in ELBW infants and to describe the timing of onset of the disease by setting up a screening program. METHODS: ELBW infants treated at the Department of Neonatology (level III neonatal intensive care unit at the University of Cologne Medical Centre, Germany) between January 2010 and March 2015 were included...
November 8, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084407/hypoxemia-episodes-during-day-and-night-and-their-impact-on-oxygen-saturation-targeting-in-mechanically-ventilated-preterm-infants
#6
Deepak Jain, Carmen D'Ugard, Jose Bello, Eduardo Bancalari, Nelson Claure
BACKGROUND: Hypoxemia episodes (HE) occur frequently in ventilated preterm infants and hinder the achievement of arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) targets. These episodes may increase the risk for retinopathy of prematurity and neurodevelopmental disability. There are no data on the variation in HE and SpO2 targeting between day and night. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the difference between day and night on the frequency and severity of HE and achievement of SpO2 targets...
October 31, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080897/congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia-10-year-evaluation-of-survival-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-and-foetoscopic-endotracheal-occlusion-in-four-high-volume-centres
#7
Kitty G Snoek, Anne Greenough, Joost van Rosmalen, Irma Capolupo, Thomas Schaible, Kamal Ali, René M Wijnen, Dick Tibboel
BACKGROUND: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a severe congenital anomaly with significant mortality. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine if there were trends in survival over the last decade and to compare patient populations, treatment options, and survival rates between 4 high-volume centres, and hence determine which factors were associated with survival. METHODS: In 4 high-volume CDH centres from the CDH EURO Consortium, data from all CDH patients born between 2004 and 2013 were analysed...
October 28, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073624/racial-and-ethnic-disparities-in-preterm-infant-mortality-and-severe-morbidity-a-population-based-study
#8
James G Anderson, Elizabeth E Rogers, Rebecca J Baer, Scott P Oltman, Randi Paynter, J Colin Partridge, Larry Rand, Laura L Jelliffe-Pawlowski, Martina A Steurer
BACKGROUND: Disparities exist in the rates of preterm birth and infant mortality across different racial/ethnic groups. However, only a few studies have examined the impact of race/ethnicity on the outcomes of premature infants. OBJECTIVE: To report the rates of mortality and severe neonatal morbidity among multiple gestational age (GA) groups stratified by race/ethnicity. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study utilizing linked birth certificate, hospital discharge, readmission, and death records up to 1 year of life...
October 27, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073596/efficacy-of-antenatal-corticosteroid-treatment-on-neurodevelopmental-outcome-according-to-head-circumference-at-birth
#9
Helene Basset, Simon Nusinovici, Noémie Huetz, Loic Sentilhes, Isabelle Berlie, Cyril Flamant, Jean-Christophe Roze, Geraldine Gascoin
BACKGROUND: There are concerns about the efficacy of antenatal corticosteroid treatment (ACT) in the growth-restricted fetus. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of ACT on neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years of corrected age according to the z score of birth head circumference (ZS HC) in a large prospective cohort of preterm infants. METHODS: This study was conducted as a population-based, prospective, multicenter study, including 4,965 infants born between 24 and 33 weeks' gestation and whose status regarding ACT and the measurement of head circumference at birth were available...
October 27, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024930/effect-of-concurrent-src-kinase-inhibition-with-short-duration-hypothermia-on-ca2-calmodulin-kinase-iv-activity-and-neuropathology-after-hypoxia-ischemia-in-the-newborn-swine-brain
#10
Panagiotis Kratimenos, Ioannis Koutroulis, Amit Jain, Shadi Malaeb, Maria Delivoria-Papadopoulos
BACKGROUND: Hypoxia-ischemia (HI) results in increased activation of Ca2+/calmodulin kinase IV (CaM kinase IV) mediated by Src kinase. Therapeutic hypothermia ameliorates neuronal injury in the newborn. HYPOTHESIS: Inhibition of Src kinase concurrently with hypothermia further attenuates the hypoxia-induced increased activation of CaM kinase IV compared with hypothermia alone. DESIGN/METHODS: Ventilated piglets were exposed to HI, received saline or a selective Src kinase inhibitor (PP2), and were cooled to 33°C...
October 13, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954269/the-impact-of-maternal-gestational-hypertension-and-the-use-of-anti-hypertensives-on-neonatal-myocardial-performance
#11
Colm R Breatnach, Cathy Monteith, Lisa McSweeney, Elizabeth C Tully, Fergal D Malone, Etaoin Kent, Anne Doherty, Orla Franklin, Afif El-Khuffash
BACKGROUND: Assessment of myocardial performance in neonates using advanced techniques such as deformation imaging and rotational mechanics has gained considerable interest. The applicability of these techniques for elucidating abnormal myocardial performance in various clinical scenarios is becoming established. We hypothesise that term infants born to mothers with gestational hypertension (GH) may experience impaired performance of the left and right ventricles during the early neonatal period...
September 28, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946144/cerebellar-infarction-unusual-manifestation-with-facial-palsy-focal-seizures-and-secondary-generalization
#12
Tobias Mühlbacher, Georg Bohner, Christoph Bührer, Christof Dame
BACKGROUND: Cerebellar infarction is exceedingly rare in neonates, usually occurring after traumatic birth. Lifelong sequelae can result from cerebellar damage with disorders of motor function, ataxia, and also cognitive dysfunction. OBJECTIVES/METHODS: We report the clinical presentation of a preterm triplet infant delivered by elective cesarean who showed peripheral facial palsy immediately after birth. RESULTS: Tonic seizures with high-voltage discharges over the contralateral cerebral hemisphere and secondary generalization were successfully treated with phenobarbital...
September 26, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934751/first-trimester-vaginal-ureaplasma-biovar-colonization-and-preterm-birth-results-of-a-prospective-multicenter-study
#13
Judith Rittenschober-Böhm, Thomas Waldhoer, Stefan M Schulz, Birgit Stihsen, Birgit Pimpel, Katharina Goeral, Erich Hafner, Gerhard Sliutz, David C Kasper, Armin Witt, Angelika Berger
BACKGROUND: While there is a proven association of upper genital tract Ureaplasma infection during pregnancy with adverse pregnancy outcome, the effect of vaginal Ureaplasma colonization on preterm delivery has been controversially debated. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that women with isolation of vaginal U. parvum but not U. urealyticum are at increased risk for spontaneous preterm birth (SPB) compared to women with negative results. METHODS: A vaginal swab taken between 12 and 14 weeks of gestation was analyzed for the presence of Ureaplasma biovars by PCR in 4,330 pregnant women...
September 22, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934746/temperature-probe-placement-during-preterm-infant-resuscitation-a-randomised-trial
#14
Brahim Bensouda, Romain Mandel, Abdelwaheb Mejri, Jean Lachapelle, Marie St-Hilaire, Nabeel Ali
BACKGROUND: Hypothermia on admission to intensive care is associated with poor outcomes in preterm infants. The neonatal resuscitation program recommends the use of servo-control thermoregulation during resuscitation. Very little evidence exists to guide optimal temperature probe placement in the delivery room. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to determine, in moderately preterm infants, if temperature probe placement in the dorsal, thoracic, or axillary area during delivery room resuscitation would result in differing temperatures on admission to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU)...
September 22, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934743/early-electroencephalography-suppression-and-postnatal-morbidities-correlate-with-cerebral-volume-at-term-equivalent-age-in-very-preterm-infants
#15
Sverre Wikström, Holger Hövel, Ingrid Hansen Pupp, Vineta Fellman, Petra S Hüppi, David Ley, Lena Hellström-Westas
BACKGROUND: Early brain activity is associated with long-term outcome. Establishing a relation also with postnatal brain growth may increase our understanding of early life influences on preterm brain development. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate whether early electroencephalography (EEG) activity in infants born very preterm is associated with brain volumes at term, and whether postnatal morbidity affects this association. METHODS: Very preterm infants (n = 38) with a median gestational age (GA) of 25...
September 22, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926834/heme-oxygenase-activity-and-heme-binding-in-a-neonatal-mouse-model
#16
Stephanie Kourula, Joyce Ang, Hui Zhao, Flora Kalish, Peter Vandenabeele, Karl G Sylvester, Ronald J Wong, David K Stevenson
BACKGROUND: Severe hemolytic disease of the newborn leads to the release of pro-oxidative free heme (FH). Heme oxygenase (HO) is primarily responsible for detoxifying FH. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the protective effects of HO in a model of heme overload. METHODS: For in vitro studies, NIH3T3 HO-1-luc cells were incubated with 10, 30, or 60 µM FH or methemalbumin (MHA). HO-1 promoter activity was assessed 3, 6, and 24 h after treatment. Cell survival was indexed by viability assays...
September 20, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926830/a-distinctive-ictal-amplitude-integrated-electroencephalography-pattern-in-newborns-with-neonatal-epilepsy-associated-with-kcnq2-mutations
#17
Ana Vilan, José Mendes Ribeiro, Pasquale Striano, Sarah Weckhuysen, Lauren C Weeke, Eva Brilstra, Linda S de Vries, Maria Roberta Cilio
BACKGROUND: Recurrent and prolonged seizures are harmful for the developing brain, emphasizing the importance of early seizure recognition and effective therapy. Amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG) has become a valuable tool to diagnose epileptic seizures, and, in parallel, genetic etiologies are increasingly being recognized, changing the paradigm of the workup and management of neonatal seizures. OBJECTIVE: To report the ictal aEEG pattern in neonates with KCNQ2-related epilepsy...
September 20, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926828/are-all-amplitude-integrated-electroencephalogram-systems-equal
#18
Tobias Werther, Monika Olischar, Gunnar Naulaers, Philipp Deindl, Katrin Klebermass-Schrehof, Nathan Stevenson
BACKGROUND: Filter and peak detection algorithms implemented in amplitude-integrated electroencephalogram (aEEG) systems are not standardized. New aEEG systems are continuously enriching the market and clinicians are faced with different aEEG devices whose tracings may vary. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this work was to determine the role of different aEEG systems on quantitative measurements of the aEEG. METHODS: In this observational study, a single-channel aEEG recording (Olympic CFM 6000) with corresponding EEG signal was obtained from 32 infants at a gestational age of 36-44 weeks...
September 20, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922658/impact-of-minimally-invasive-surfactant-therapy-in-preterm-infants-at-29-32-weeks-gestation
#19
Peter A Dargaville, Sanoj K M Ali, Hamish D Jackson, Christopher Williams, Antonio G De Paoli
BACKGROUND: Most preterm infants born at 29-32 weeks gestation now avoid intubation in early life, and thus lack the usual conduit through which exogenous surfactant is given if needed. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to examine whether a technique of minimally invasive surfactant therapy used selectively at 29-32 weeks gestation would improve outcomes. METHODS: We studied the impact of selective administration of surfactant (poractant alfa 100-200 mg/kg) by thin catheter in infants with respiratory distress syndrome on continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)...
September 19, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910809/ingeborg-syllm-rapoport-1912-2017-an-exemplary-life-for-children-and-paediatrics
#20
Hannes Sallmon, Roland R Wauer, Charles Christoph Roehr
Ingeborg Syllm-Rapoport, the first Chair in neonatology in Europe, passed away on March 23. Her biography illustrates how medical and scientific work has been influenced by social, ideological, and economic frames and boundaries in the 20th century. Regarded as a "Half-Jew" by the Nazi racist laws, she was denied her medical doctorate. She went to the USA, where she trained in paediatrics and met her husband, the biochemist Samuel Mitja Rapoport. During the "McCarthy Era" both were persecuted as communists...
September 15, 2017: Neonatology
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