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Neonatology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601871/perinatal-factors-affecting-serum-hepcidin-levels-in-low-birth-weight-infants
#1
Kenji Ichinomiya, Kenichi Maruyama, Takahiro Inoue, Aya Koizumi, Fumitaka Inoue, Kazuyo Fukuda, Yu Yamazaki, Hirokazu Arakawa
BACKGROUND: Hepcidin, an iron-regulatory hormone, plays a key role in preventing iron overload. Few studies have investigated the regulation of hepcidin in low-birth-weight (LBW) infants who are vulnerable to iron imbalance. OBJECTIVES: To identify perinatal factors associated with serum hepcidin levels in LBW infants. METHODS: Ninety-two LBW infants with a median gestational age (GA) of 32.6 weeks and birth weight of 1,587 g were prospectively enrolled...
June 10, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601870/restricted-ventilation-associated-with-reduced-neurodevelopmental-impairment-in-preterm-infants
#2
Roseanne J S Vliegenthart, Wes Onland, Aleid G van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Anne P M De Jaegere, Cornelieke S H Aarnoudse-Moens, Anton H van Kaam
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Restrictive use of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) in preterm infants reduces the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Our objective was to determine its effect on neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) at 24 months' corrected age (CA). METHODS: This retrospective single-center cohort study included all patients with a gestational age <30 weeks born in 2004/2005 (epoch 1) and 2010/2011 (epoch 2). In epoch 2, we introduced a policy of restriction on IMV and liberalized the use of respiratory stimulants in the delivery room and neonatal intensive care...
June 10, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601861/electrical-grounding-improves-vagal-tone-in-preterm-infants
#3
Rohit Passi, Kim K Doheny, Yuri Gordin, Hans Hinssen, Charles Palmer
BACKGROUND: Low vagal tone (VT) is a marker of vulnerability to stress and the risk of developing necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants. Electric fields produced by equipment in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) induce an electric potential measurable on the skin in reference to ground. An electrical connection to ground reduces the skin potential and improves VT in adults. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to measure the electric field strengths in the NICU environment and to determine if connecting an infant to electrical ground would reduce the skin potential and improve VT...
June 10, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571020/optimising-intravenous-volume-resuscitation-of-the-newborn-in-the-delivery-room-practical-considerations-and-gaps-in-knowledge
#4
Daragh Finn, Charles C Roehr, C Anthony Ryan, Eugene M Dempsey
Volume resuscitation (VR) for the treatment of newborn shock is a rare but potentially lifesaving intervention. Conducting clinical studies to assess the effectiveness of VR in the delivery room during newborn stabilization is challenging. We review the available literature and current management guidelines to determine which infants will benefit from VR, the frequency of VR, and the choice of agents used. In addition, the potential role for placental transfusion in the prevention of newborn shock is explored...
June 2, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28564654/high-dose-cannabidiol-induced-hypotension-after-global-hypoxia-ischemia-in-piglets
#5
Håvard T Garberg, Rønnaug Solberg, Jon Barlinn, Jose Martinez-Orgado, Else-Marit Løberg, Ola Didrik Saugstad
BACKGROUND: Cannabidiol (CBD) is considered a promising neuroprotectant after perinatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI). We have previously studied the effects of CBD 1 mg/kg in the early phase after global HI in piglets. In contrast to prior studies, we found no evidence of neuroprotection and hypothesized that higher doses might be required to demonstrate efficacy in this animal model. OBJECTIVE: To assess the safety and potential neuroprotective effects of high-dose CBD...
June 1, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558384/randomized-controlled-trial-comparing-different-single-doses-of-intravenous-paracetamol-for-placement-of-peripherally-inserted-central-catheters-in-preterm-infants
#6
Daniella W E Roofthooft, Sinno H P Simons, Richard A van Lingen, Dick Tibboel, John N van den Anker, Irwin K H Reiss, Monique van Dijk
BACKGROUND: The availability of a safe and effective pharmacological therapy to reduce procedural pain in preterm infants is limited. The effective analgesic single dose of intravenous paracetamol in preterm infants is unknown. Comparative studies on efficacy of different paracetamol doses in preterm infants are lacking. OBJECTIVES: To determine the analgesic effects of different single intravenous paracetamol doses on pain from peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) placement in preterm infants...
May 31, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558383/successful-liver-transplantation-for-transient-abnormal-myelopoiesis-associated-liver-failure
#7
Kazuaki Yasuoka, Hirosuke Inoue, Koichi Tanaka, Junko Fujiyoshi, Yuki Matsushita, Masayuki Ochiai, Yuhki Koga, Toshiharu Matsuura, Tomoaki Taguchi, Shouichi Ohga
Infants with Down syndrome (DS) are at risk of developing a transient abnormal myelopoiesis (TAM). TAM occasionally involves liver fibrosis, which can be fatal. The management of liver disease in TAM has not yet been established and is mainly supportive. We report an infant with DS and TAM who developed end-stage liver failure. Liver dysfunction progressed even after blast cells disappeared from the circulation. He underwent a living-donor liver transplantation at 56 days of life without surgical complications...
May 31, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514777/direct-measurement-of-tissue-oxygenation-in-neonates-via-resonance-raman-spectroscopy-a-pilot-study
#8
Anjali Iyengar, Andrew Gaillardetz, Hocine Tighiouart, Betsabee Castillo, Padraic Romfh, Jonathan M Davis
BACKGROUND: The ability to monitor tissue oxygenation in neonates remains a challenge due to limited blood supply and the reliance on invasive procedures. Resonance Raman spectroscopy noninvasively measures tissue oxygenation (RRS-StO2). Peripheral tissue oxygenation using this novel technology has not been described in neonates. OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationship between short-term RRS-StO2 measurements and central venous saturation (ScvO2) and pulse oximetry (SpO2) in preterm and term neonates...
May 18, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501874/screening-tool-for-early-postnatal-prediction-of-retinopathy-of-prematurity-in-preterm-newborns-step-rop
#9
Caroline A Ricard, Christiane E L Dammann, Olaf Dammann
BACKGROUND: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a disorder of the preterm newborn characterized by neurovascular disruption in the immature retina that may cause visual impairment and blindness. OBJECTIVE: To develop a clinical screening tool for early postnatal prediction of ROP in preterm newborns based on risk information available within the first 48 h of postnatal life. METHODS: Using data submitted to the Vermont Oxford Network (VON) between 1995 and 2015, we created logistic regression models based on infants born <28 completed weeks gestational age...
May 13, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486234/low-plasma-protein-levels-at-birth-are-associated-with-poor-cardiovascular-adaptation-and-serious-adverse-outcome-in-infants-with-gestational-age-32-weeks-the-proh%C3%A3-mie-study
#10
Francesco Bonsante, Duksha Ramful, Sylvain Samperiz, Sandrine Daniel, Anais Godeluck, Pierre-Yves Robillard, Karim Jamal-Bey, Jean-Bernard Gouyon, Christine Binquet, Silvia Iacobelli
BACKGROUND: Retrospective studies suggest that early hypoproteinemia has prognostic value for adverse outcome in preemies, but the underlying pathophysiology is unknown. We hypothesized that the prognostic relevance of hypoproteinemia could be related to its association with impaired cardiovascular function and organ perfusion during transition. OBJECTIVES: To describe the plasma protein status and the measures of cardiovascular function according to the outcome in infants <32 weeks' gestation...
May 10, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482345/fetal-and-postnatal-head-circumference-growth-synergetic-factors-for-neurodevelopmental-outcome-at-2-years-of-age-for-preterm-infants
#11
Mélanie Sicard, Simon Nusinovici, Matthieu Hanf, Jean-Baptiste Muller, Isabelle Guellec, Pierre-Yves Ancel, Géraldine Gascoin, Jean-Christophe Rozé, Cyril Flamant
Preterm infants present higher risk of non-optimal neurodevelopmental outcome. Fetal and postnatal growth, in particular head circumference (HC), is associated with neurodevelopmental outcome. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to calculate the relationship between HC at birth, HC delta Z-score (between birth and hospital discharge), and non-optimal neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years of corrected age in preterm infants. METHODS: Surviving infants born ≤34 weeks of gestation were included in the analysis...
May 9, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456800/inhaled-glucocorticoids-and-pneumonia-in-preterm-infants-post-hoc-results-from-the-neurosis-trial
#12
Alexander Koch, Karen Kreutzer, Gabriele von Oldershausen, Christian F Poets, Dirk Bassler
BACKGROUND: Inhaled glucocorticoids may increase the risk of pneumonia in adults. Thus, respiratory infections may be a potential explanation for the non-significantly increased mortality seen in the glucocorticoid group in the largest randomized trial on inhaled glucocorticoids for preventing bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm infants published to date (NEuroSIS). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of inhaled budesonide on the risk of death due to respiratory infections in the NEuroSIS trial...
April 29, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445880/heating-of-newborn-infants-due-to-blue-light-emitting-diode-fibreoptic-phototherapy-pads
#13
Pei Ling Ng, Tony Carlisle, Marleesa Ly, Scott Adam Morris
BACKGROUND: Surface temperatures of fibreoptic phototherapy pads using a high intensity blue light-emitting diode (LED) light source have not been studied. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to measure the temperature of LED fibreoptic phototherapy pads during phototherapy in a bench-top study, and to determine temperature effects on babies during phototherapy. METHODS: A commercially available LED fibreoptic phototherapy system was tested...
April 27, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427056/blood-pressure-during-the-immediate-neonatal-transition-is-the-mean-arterial-blood-pressure-relevant-for-the-cerebral-regional-oxygenation
#14
Nariae Baik, Berndt Urlesberger, Bernhard Schwaberger, Alexander Avian, Lukas Mileder, Georg M Schmölzer, Gerhard Pichler
BACKGROUND: Measurement of mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) is feasible during neonatal transition. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate a potential influence of MABP on the cerebral regional oxygen saturation (crSO2) in preterm and term infants during the immediate neonatal transition. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Preterm and term infants were included in this observational study. The crSO2 was measured by near-infrared spectroscopy with the INVOS 5100C (Somanetics Corp...
April 21, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538240/sharing-progress-in-neonatal-spin-brain-gut-heart-and-lung-incorporating-the-32nd-international-workshop-on-surfactant-replacement-dublin-may-26-27-2017-abstracts
#15
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538239/how-to-save-1-million-lives-in-a-year-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#16
Colm P Travers, Wally A Carlo
Despite major improvements in reducing childhood mortality worldwide, over 5 million pregnancies per year end in stillbirths or neonatal deaths. The vast majority of these deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. Many of these deaths are preventable with readily available evidence-based care practices. This review focuses on educational programs developed to reduce preventable deaths in newborn infants in low- and middle-income countries, including Essential Newborn Care and Helping Babies Breathe, a simplified version of the Neonatal Resuscitation Program...
2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538238/current-research-on-the-epidemiology-pathogenesis-and-management-of-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#17
Simon Eaton, Clare M Rees, Nigel J Hall
Despite decades of research on necrotizing enterocolitis, we still do not fully understand the pathogenesis of the disease, or how to prevent or how to treat it. However, as a result of recent significant advances in the microbiology, molecular biology, and cell biology of the intestine of preterm infants and infants with necrotizing enterocolitis, there is some hope that research into this devastating disease will yield some important translation into effective prevention, more rapid diagnosis, and novel therapies...
2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538237/update-on-postnatal-steroids
#18
Henry L Halliday
Antenatal steroid treatment to enhance fetal lung maturity and surfactant treatment to prevent or treat respiratory distress syndrome have been major advances in perinatal medicine in the past 40 years contributing to improved outcomes for preterm infants. Use of postnatal steroids to prevent or treat chronic lung disease in preterm infants has been less successful and associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. Although early (in the first week of life) postnatal steroid treatment facilitates earlier extubation and reduces the risk of chronic lung disease, it is associated with adverse effects, such as hyperglycemia, hypertension, gastrointestinal bleeding and perforation, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, growth failure, and cerebral palsy, and cannot be recommended...
2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538236/surfactant-for-respiratory-distress-syndrome-new-ideas-on-a-familiar-drug-with-innovative-applications
#19
H J Niemarkt, M C Hütten, Boris W Kramer
In the last 4 decades, advances in neonatology have led to a significant increase in the survival of preterm infants. One of the biggest advances was the introduction of surfactant replacement therapy for the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome. This is the main cause of respiratory insufficiency in preterm infants and is one of the major causes of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Surfactant replacement therapy is already a well-investigated and established therapy in neonatology. However, surfactant replacement therapy has progressed and been refined over recent decades, especially with the increasing care for preterm infants born before 26 weeks' gestational age and the recent clinical focus on avoiding mechanical ventilation...
2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538235/what-should-we-do-about-low-blood-pressure-in-preterm-infants
#20
Eugene M Dempsey
The management of preterm infants with low blood pressure soon after birth remains unresolved. The definition of what constitutes low blood pressure is uncertain. At birth, mean blood pressure appears to be gestation specific and increases in the first few days of life. Antenatal steroids, delayed cord clamping, and the avoidance of mechanical ventilation are all associated with higher mean blood pressure and less hypotension after birth. Rates of hypotension of 15-50% have been reported in various studies of extremely preterm infants...
2017: Neonatology
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