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Neonatology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902988/smell-and-taste-to-improve-nutrition-in-very-preterm-infants-a-randomized-controlled-pilot-trial
#1
Friederike Beker, Gillian Opie, Elizabeth Noble, Yannan Jiang, Frank H Bloomfield
BACKGROUND: The perception of smell and taste, though present early in development, is not routinely considered in the care of preterm infants. Smell and taste are known to increase gut motility, insulin secretion, and the release of appetite, digestive and metabolic hormones. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the effect of regular smell and taste on the time from birth to full enteral feeds, and the feasibility of the study protocol in very preterm infants. METHODS: In a randomized controlled trial, infants <29 weeks' postmenstrual age (PA) were assigned to receive either the smell and taste of milk before each feed or to have no exposure to the smell and taste of milk (control)...
December 1, 2016: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902984/evaluation-of-club-cell-10-kda-protein-cc10-levels-in-full-term-infants
#2
Nasim Gorji, Aprile L Pilon, Melissa E Winn, Morgan Newsome, Jonathan M Davis
BACKGROUND: The club cell 10-kDa protein (CC10) is a homeostatic protein that is produced in the lung, diffuses into the blood, and is then excreted into the urine and stool. CC10 is known to have anti-inflammatory properties and to have lower endogenous production in preterm infants. OBJECTIVES: As recombinant human CC10 (rhCC10) is being studied in preterm infants to reduce lung injury, understanding CC10 levels in term infants with normal lungs is needed to establish appropriate target dosing ranges...
December 1, 2016: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902983/perinatal-asphyxia-and-erythropoietin-and-vegf-serial-serum-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-responses
#3
Deirdre U Sweetman, Chike Onwuneme, William R Watson, John F A Murphy, Eleanor J Molloy
BACKGROUND: Infants with neonatal encephalopathy (NE) of hypoxic-ischaemic origin are at risk of oxidative and ischaemia-reperfusion injury, which may induce abnormal inflammatory responses involving excessive cytokine production and release in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Systemic inflammation is found in infants with NE, and we therefore were interested in cytokines associated with hypoxia, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and erythropoietin (Epo). OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between Epo, VEGF levels, brain injury and outcome in a group of term infants exposed to perinatal asphyxia (PA) compared to controls...
December 1, 2016: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898422/national-evidence-in-israel-supporting-reevaluation-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-prophylactic-guidelines
#4
Itai Gross, Yael Siedner-Weintraub, Wiessam Abu Ahmad, Benjamin Bar-Oz, Smadar Eventov-Friedman
BACKGROUND: The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recently narrowed the indications for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) prophylaxis, while in Israel the guidelines have not changed. OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence and severity of RSV infection among preterm infants born earlier than 340/7 weeks of gestation (PI), late preterm infants born at 340/7-366/7 weeks (LPTI), and term infants born after 370/7 weeks of gestation (TI) and to determine whether the results support a change in local policy...
November 30, 2016: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898415/hypotension-and-adverse-outcomes-in-prematurity-comparing-definitions
#5
Deidre St Peter, Christiana Gandy, Suma B Hoffman
BACKGROUND: In the premature neonate, there is no consensus regarding normal blood pressure (BP). The most common definition used is a mean arterial BP (MAP) less than the gestational age (GA); however, studies indicate that the neuroprotective mechanism of autoregulation is lost below a MAP of 30 mm Hg. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether hypotension defined as MAP <30 mm Hg or MAP less than the infant's GA better predicts adverse outcomes of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and death...
November 30, 2016: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894120/end-of-life-care-and-survival-without-major-brain-damage-in-newborns-at-the-limit-of-viability
#6
Fermín García-Muñoz Rodrigo, Lourdes Urquía Martí, José Ángel García Hernández, Josep Figueras Aloy, Alfredo García-Alix Pérez
BACKGROUND: The probabilities of survival and survival without major brain damage (MBD) are low in newborns at the limit of viability. Survival without MBD constitutes a major concern for parents and professionals. OBJECTIVES: To know the probabilities of survival without MBD in newborns ≤26 weeks' gestational age (GA) relative to the total number of survivors, whether these probabilities vary with GA, and how end-of-life (EoL) decisions influence these results...
November 29, 2016: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884010/less-neutrophil-extracellular-trap-formation-in-term-newborns-than-in-adults
#7
Patrick Lipp, Johanna Ruhnau, Anja Lange, Antje Vogelgesang, Alexander Dressel, Matthias Heckmann
BACKGROUND: Newborns are prone to infections, which are independent predictors of neonatal mortality and morbidity. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are structures composed of chromatin and antimicrobial molecules that capture and kill pathogens. NETs may play an important role in the innate immune system and, thus, might be associated with impaired neonatal immune function. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to compare NET formation between term neonates and healthy adults...
November 25, 2016: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866210/body-composition-in-very-preterm-infants-role-of-neonatal-characteristics-and-nutrition-in-achieving-growth-similar-to-term-infants
#8
Geneviève Tremblay, Christine Boudreau, Sylvie Bélanger, Odette St-Onge, Etienne Pronovost, David Simonyan, Isabelle Marc
BACKGROUND: The identification of factors involved in the postnatal growth of preterm infants will help achieve growth similar to that of term infants. OBJECTIVES: As per protocol: to compare body composition in very preterm infants at term-corrected age (TCA) with that in term infants, and to explore relationships between neonatal characteristics and body composition in preterm infants. METHODS: Anthropometry, nutritional characteristics, and neonatal outcomes were prospectively collected in 26 preterm (<29 weeks) and 33 term (37-40 weeks) infants...
November 19, 2016: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866188/feasibility-of-laryngeal-mask-airway-device-placement-in-neonates
#9
Amanda A Wanous, Andrew Wey, Kyle D Rudser, Kari D Roberts
BACKGROUND: The laryngeal mask airway (LMA) has been used in adult and pediatric populations for decades. While the familiarity of its use in the neonatal population is increasing, there are few data investigating this. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of LMA placement in neonates by investigating the time and number of attempts required for successful placement and physiologic stability during the placement of the device. METHODS: This study is one component of a national, multicenter, randomized controlled trial investigating surfactant administration through an LMA in neonates...
November 19, 2016: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842321/reference-ranges-of-reticulocyte-haemoglobin-content-in-preterm-and-term-infants-a-retrospective-analysis
#10
Laila Lorenz, Andreas Peter, Jörg Arand, Fabian Springer, Christian F Poets, Axel R Franz
BACKGROUND: Despite iron supplementation, some preterm infants develop iron deficiency (ID). The optimal iron status parameter for early detection of ID has yet to be determined. OBJECTIVE: To establish reference ranges for reticulocyte haemoglobin content (Ret-He) in preterm and term infants and to identify confounding factors. METHODS: Retrospective analyses of Ret-He and complete blood count in infants with a clinically indicated blood sample obtained within 24 h after birth...
November 15, 2016: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842320/hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy-associated-liver-fatty-degeneration-and-the-effects-of-therapeutic-hypothermia-in-newborn-piglets
#11
Hiroyuki Kubo, Ryuichi Shimono, Shinji Nakamura, Kosuke Koyano, Wataru Jinnai, Satoshi Yamato, Saneyuki Yasuda, Makoto Nakamura, Aya Tanaka, Takayuki Fujii, Kenji Kanenishi, Yoichi Chiba, Takanori Miki, Takashi Kusaka, Masaki Ueno
BACKGROUND: Although liver can be injured under the hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) condition, there is currently no histopathological evidence. Therapeutic hypothermia is used to protect the brain; however, the therapeutic potential for concomitant liver injury is unknown. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to histopathologically prove HIE-associated liver injury and to investigate the influence of therapeutic hypothermia in a newborn piglet HIE model. METHODS: Eighteen newborn piglets were divided into 3 groups: control (n = 4), HIE (n = 8), and therapeutic hypothermia (n = 6) groups...
November 15, 2016: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842315/randomized-trial-to-compare-renal-function-and-ductal-response-between-indomethacin-and-ibuprofen-treatment-in-extremely-low-birth-weight-infants
#12
Yuh Jyh Lin, Chung Ming Chen, Virender K Rehan, Adrian Florens, Shou Yien Wu, Min Luen Tsai, Yung T Kuo, Fu Kuei Huang, Tsu F Yeh
BACKGROUND: A head to head comparison study on renal function and ductal response between indomethacin and ibuprofen has rarely been conducted in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to compare renal function and ductal response between indomethacin and ibuprofen in ELBW infants. METHODS: We performed a double-blind randomized control trial to compare renal function and ductal response between indomethacin (0...
November 15, 2016: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842300/quicksf-a-new-technique-in-surfactant-administration
#13
Christian A Maiwald, Patrick Neuberger, Matthias Vochem, Christian Poets
BACKGROUND: Recent studies indicate an increasing use of less invasive surfactant administration. Different techniques have been shown with distinct risks and benefits. The aim of this study was to develop a new method that simplifies this procedure. OBJECTIVES: An applicator was developed and tested on a manikin to make tracheal surfactant application easier and faster. METHODS: A device for oral administration of a catheter into the trachea was developed...
November 15, 2016: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788524/insufficient-sedation-and-severe-side-effects-after-fast-administration-of-remifentanil-during-insure-in-preterm-newborns
#14
Ellen H M de Kort, Lidwien M Hanff, Daniella Roofthooft, Irwin K M Reiss, Sinno H P Simons
BACKGROUND: Neonatal intubation is stressful and should be performed with premedication. In the case of an INSURE (intubation/surfactant/extubation) procedure a short duration of action of the premedication used is needed to facilitate fast extubation. Given its pharmacological profile, remifentanil seems a suitable candidate. OBJECTIVES: The aim here was to evaluate the effect and side effects of remifentanil as a premedication for preterm neonates undergoing INSURE...
October 28, 2016: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788515/intrauterine-adiposity-and-bmi-in-4-to-5-year-old-offspring-from-diabetic-pregnancies
#15
Nurah M Hammoud, Harold W de Valk, Douwe H Biesma, Gerhard H A Visser
BACKGROUND: Pregnancies complicated by maternal diabetes are associated with disproportionate intrauterine growth that subsequently may lead to pediatric adiposity. OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether disproportionate intrauterine growth leads to differences in BMI in 4- to 5-year-old offspring from pregnancies complicated by type 1 (ODM1), type 2 (ODM2), or gestational diabetes (OGDM). METHODS: Ultrasound data of fetal head-to-abdominal circumference (HC/AC) ratio obtained between 32 and 36 weeks of gestational age were related to offspring anthropometrics that were retrieved from infant welfare centers...
October 28, 2016: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760427/doxapram-treatment-for-apnea-of-prematurity-a-systematic-review
#16
Roseanne J S Vliegenthart, Christine H Ten Hove, Wes Onland, Anton H L C van Kaam
BACKGROUND: Apnea of prematurity (AOP) is a common complication of preterm birth, for which caffeine is the first treatment of choice. In case of persistent AOP, doxapram has been advocated as an additional therapy. OBJECTIVE: To identify and appraise all existing evidence regarding efficacy and safety of doxapram use for AOP in infants born before 34 weeks of gestational age. METHODS: All studies reporting on doxapram use for AOP were identified by searching electronic databases, references from relevant studies, and abstracts from the Societies for Pediatric Research...
October 20, 2016: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756070/long-gap-esophageal-atresia-is-a-unique-entity-within-the-esophageal-atresia-defect-spectrum
#17
Sigrid Bairdain, David Zurakowski, Sara O Vargas, Nicole Stenquist, Molly McDonald, Meghan C Towne, David T Miller, Russell W Jennings, David B Kantor, Pankaj B Agrawal
BACKGROUND: Long-gap esophageal atresia (LGEA) may have clinical and syndromic presentations different from those of esophageal atresia (EA) that affects shorter segments of the esophagus (non-LGEA). This may suggest unique underlying developmental mechanisms. OBJECTIVES: We sought to characterize clinical differences between LGEA and non-LGEA by carefully phenotyping a cohort of EA patients, and furthermore to assess molecular genetic findings in a subset of them...
October 19, 2016: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756067/determinants-of-neonatal-vitamin-d-levels-as-measured-on-neonatal-dried-blood-spot-samples
#18
Chloe A Smith, Cong Sun, Angela Pezic, Christine Rodda, Fergus Cameron, Katie Allen, Maria E Craig, John Carlin, Terry Dwyer, Robyn M Lucas, Darryl W Eyles, Andrew S Kemp, Justine A Ellis, Anne-Louise Ponsonby
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is linked to adverse childhood health outcomes, yet data on the distribution and quantifiable determinants of neonatal 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD) concentration, a vitamin D biomarker, are limited. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to identify determinants of neonatal 25OHD concentration, measured using neonatal dried blood spots (DBS). METHODS: A total of 259 ethnically diverse children aged 0-16 years born in Victoria, Australia, were recruited...
October 19, 2016: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756065/reduction-in-cerebral-oxygenation-due-to-patent-ductus-arteriosus-is-pronounced-in-small-for-gestational-age-neonates
#19
Emily Cohen, Laura Dix, Willem Baerts, Thomas Alderliesten, Petra Lemmers, Frank van Bel
BACKGROUND: A haemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (hsPDA) reduces cerebral oxygenation in appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) preterm neonates. Reduced cerebral oxygenation has been associated with brain injury. Preterm small-for-gestational-age (SGA) neonates show higher cerebral oxygenation than AGA peers throughout the first postnatal days. To date, no studies have investigated the effect of hsPDA on cerebral oxygenation in preterm SGA neonates. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the effect of hsPDA on cerebral oxygenation in preterm SGA neonates compared to AGA peers...
October 19, 2016: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756063/rapid-identification-of-bacterial-antibiotic-resistance-by-qpcr-in-infants-with-gram-negative-septicaemia-a-proof-of-concept-study
#20
Hugh Simon Lam, Kathy Y Y Chan, Margaret Ip, Kam Tong Leung, Norman W S Lo, Raymond P O Wong, Karen Li, Pak Cheung Ng
BACKGROUND: Neonatal sepsis remains an important cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Tools to rapidly predict antibiotic resistance in neonatal sepsis would be extremely valuable. OBJECTIVES: To develop quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) primer/probe sets that can rapidly detect antibiotic resistance genes common to a neonatal unit, and to investigate the feasibility of direct detection of antibiotic resistance genes in whole blood of infants with Gram-negative septicaemia without first isolating the organism...
October 19, 2016: Neonatology
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