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Sports Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647914/shifting-the-physical-inactivity-curve-worldwide-by-closing-the-gender-gap
#1
Grégore I Mielke, Inacio Crochemore M da Silva, Tracy L Kolbe-Alexander, Wendy J Brown
PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to (i) examine gender differences in physical inactivity in countries with different levels of Human Development Index (HDI); and (ii) assess whether small changes in the prevalence of inactivity in women could achieve the World Health Organization's (WHO) global inactivity target. METHODS: Data on inactivity were extracted for 142 countries for the year 2010 from the WHO Data Repository. Data for HDI were obtained for the year 2010 from the United Nations Development Program...
June 24, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643209/high-intensity-interval-training-interventions-in-children-and-adolescents-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
William T B Eddolls, Melitta A McNarry, Gareth Stratton, Charles O N Winn, Kelly A Mackintosh
BACKGROUND: Whilst there is increasing interest in the efficacy of high-intensity interval training in children and adolescents as a time-effective method of eliciting health benefits, there remains little consensus within the literature regarding the most effective means for delivering a high-intensity interval training intervention. Given the global health issues surrounding childhood obesity and associated health implications, the identification of effective intervention strategies is imperative...
June 22, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623613/assessment-of-metabolic-flexibility-by-means-of-measuring-blood-lactate-fat-and-carbohydrate-oxidation-responses-to-exercise-in-professional-endurance-athletes-and-less-fit-individuals
#3
Iñigo San-Millán, George A Brooks
BACKGROUND: Increased muscle mitochondrial mass is characteristic of elite professional endurance athletes (PAs), whereas increased blood lactate levels (lactatemia) at the same absolute submaximal exercise intensities and decreased mitochondrial oxidative capacity are characteristics of individuals with low aerobic power. In contrast to PAs, patients with metabolic syndrome (MtS) are characterized by a decreased capacity to oxidize lipids and by early transition from fat to carbohydrate oxidation (FATox/CHOox), as well as elevated blood lactate concentration [La(-)] as exercise power output (PO) increases, a condition termed 'metabolic inflexibility'...
June 16, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608181/modified-maturity-offset-prediction-equations-validation-in-independent-longitudinal-samples-of-boys-and-girls
#4
Sławomir M Kozieł, Robert M Malina
BACKGROUND: Predicted maturity offset and age at peak height velocity are increasingly used with youth athletes, although validation studies of the equations indicated major limitations. The equations have since been modified and simplified. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to validate the new maturity offset prediction equations in independent longitudinal samples of boys and girls. METHODS: Two new equations for boys with chronological age and sitting height and chronological age and stature as predictors, and one equation for girls with chronological age and stature as predictors were evaluated in serial data from the Wrocław Growth Study, 193 boys (aged 8-18 years) and 198 girls (aged 8-16 years)...
June 12, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578541/anthropometric-and-physical-qualities-of-elite-male-youth-rugby-league-players
#5
REVIEW
Kevin Till, Sean Scantlebury, Ben Jones
Rugby league is a collision team sport played at junior and senior levels worldwide, whereby players require highly developed anthropometric and physical qualities (i.e. speed, change-of-direction speed, aerobic capacity, muscular strength and power). Within junior levels, professional clubs and national governing bodies implement talent identification and development programmes to support the development of youth (i.e. 13-20 years) rugby league players into professional athletes. This review presents and critically appraises the anthropometric and physical qualities of elite male youth rugby league players aged between 13 and 20 years, by age category, playing standard and playing position...
June 3, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577258/-beet-ing-the-mountain-a-review-of-the-physiological-and-performance-effects-of-dietary-nitrate-supplementation-at-simulated-and-terrestrial-altitude
#6
Oliver Michael Shannon, Kerry McGawley, Linn Nybäck, Lauren Duckworth, Matthew John Barlow, David Woods, Mario Siervo, John Paul O'Hara
Exposure to altitude results in multiple physiological consequences. These include, but are not limited to, a reduced maximal oxygen consumption, drop in arterial oxygen saturation, and increase in muscle metabolic perturbations at a fixed sub-maximal work rate. Exercise capacity during fixed work rate or incremental exercise and time-trial performance are also impaired at altitude relative to sea level. Recently, dietary nitrate (NO3(-)) supplementation has attracted considerable interest as a nutritional aid during altitude exposure...
June 2, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577257/effects-of-vitamin-d-supplementation-on-serum-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-concentrations-and-physical-performance-in-athletes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#7
REVIEW
Forough Farrokhyar, Gayathri Sivakumar, Katey Savage, Alex Koziarz, Sahab Jamshidi, Olufemi R Ayeni, Devin Peterson, Mohit Bhandari
BACKGROUND: There is currently no systematic review examining the effects of vitamin D supplementation among athletes. A rigorous systematic review and meta-analysis is important to provide a balanced view of current knowledge on the effect of vitamin D on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations and physical performance. OBJECTIVES: This systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluated the effects of oral vitamin D supplementation on serum 25(OH)D concentrations and physical performance in athletes...
June 2, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573403/a-kinetic-model-describing-injury-burden-in-team-sports
#8
Colin W Fuller
BACKGROUND: Injuries in team sports are normally characterised by the incidence, severity, and location and type of injuries sustained: these measures, however, do not provide an insight into the variable injury-burden experienced during a season. Injury burden varies according to the team's match and training loads, the rate at which injuries are sustained and the time taken for these injuries to resolve. At the present time, this time-based variation of injury burden has not been modelled...
June 1, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573402/the-psychological-effects-of-strength-exercises-in-people-who-are-overweight-or-obese-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Gill A Ten Hoor, Gerjo Kok, Gjalt-Jorn Y Peters, Tim Frissen, Annemie M W J Schols, Guy Plasqui
BACKGROUND: Overweightness and obesity represent a high burden on well-being and society. Strength training has positive effects on body composition and metabolic health for people who are overweight or obese. The evidence for psychological effects of strength exercises is unclear. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the psychological effects of strength exercises for people who are overweight or obese. METHODS: Relevant literature was identified by use of the PubMed and PsycINFO databases...
June 1, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573401/effects-of-supervised-vs-unsupervised-training-programs-on-balance-and-muscle-strength-in-older-adults-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
REVIEW
André Lacroix, Tibor Hortobágyi, Rainer Beurskens, Urs Granacher
BACKGROUND: Balance and resistance training can improve healthy older adults' balance and muscle strength. Delivering such exercise programs at home without supervision may facilitate participation for older adults because they do not have to leave their homes. To date, no systematic literature analysis has been conducted to determine if supervision affects the effectiveness of these programs to improve healthy older adults' balance and muscle strength/power. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to quantify the effectiveness of supervised vs...
June 1, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523517/body-size-of-male-youth-soccer-players-1978-2015
#11
REVIEW
Robert M Malina, António J Figueiredo, Manuel J Coelho-E-Silva
BACKGROUND: Studies of the body size and proportions of athletes have a long history. Comparisons of athletes within specific sports across time, though not extensive, indicate both positive and negative trends. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate secular variation in heights and weights of male youth soccer players reported in studies between 1978 and 2015. METHODS: Reported mean ages, heights, and weights of male soccer players 9-18 years of age were extracted from the literature and grouped into two intervals: 1978-99 and 2000-15...
May 18, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508338/fluid-balance-in-team-sport-athletes-and-the-effect-of-hypohydration-on-cognitive-technical-and-physical-performance
#12
REVIEW
Ryan P Nuccio, Kelly A Barnes, James M Carter, Lindsay B Baker
Sweat losses in team sports can be significant due to repeated bursts of high-intensity activity, as well as the large body size of athletes, equipment and uniform requirements, and environmental heat stress often present during training and competition. In this paper we aimed to: (1) describe sweat losses and fluid balance changes reported in team sport athletes, (2) review the literature assessing the impact of hypohydration on cognitive, technical, and physical performance in sports-specific studies, (3) briefly review the potential mechanisms by which hypohydration may impact team sport performance, and (4) discuss considerations for future directions...
May 15, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497286/the-influence-of-drinking-fluid-on-endurance-cycling-performance-a-meta-analysis
#13
REVIEW
Justin J Holland, Tina L Skinner, Christopher G Irwin, Michael D Leveritt, Eric D B Goulet
BACKGROUND: Fluid replacement during cycling exercise evolves on a spectrum from simply drinking to thirst to planned structured intake, with both being appropriate recommendations. However, with mixed findings suggesting fluid intake may or may not improve endurance cycling performance (ECP) in a diverse range of trained individuals, there is a clear need for summarised evidence regarding the effect of fluid consumption on ECP. OBJECTIVES: (1) Determine the magnitude of the effect of drinking fluid on performance during cycling exercise tasks of various durations, compared with no drinking; (2) examine the relationship between rates of fluid intake and ECP; and (3) establish fluid intake recommendations based on the observations between rates of fluid intake and ECP...
May 12, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497285/comparison-of-periodized-and-non-periodized-resistance-training-on-maximal-strength-a-meta-analysis
#14
REVIEW
Tyler D Williams, Danilo V Tolusso, Michael V Fedewa, Michael R Esco
BACKGROUND: Periodization is a logical method of organizing training into sequential phases and cyclical time periods in order to increase the potential for achieving specific performance goals while minimizing the potential for overtraining. Periodized resistance training plans are proposed to be superior to non-periodized training plans for enhancing maximal strength. OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this study was to examine the previous literature comparing periodized resistance training plans to non-periodized resistance training plans and determine a quantitative estimate of effect on maximal strength...
May 12, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497284/exercise-interventions-for-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-groin-pain-and-injury-in-athletes-a-critical-and-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Paula C Charlton, Michael K Drew, Benjamin F Mentiplay, Alison Grimaldi, Ross A Clark
BACKGROUND: Groin injury is a common musculoskeletal complaint for athletes competing in a variety of sports. The extent to which exercise interventions incorporating external load are an appropriate option for the treatment and prevention of groin injury in athletes is not yet clear. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review was to describe and evaluate exercise therapy interventions and outcomes for the treatment and prevention of groin injury with specific attention to application of external load...
May 12, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497283/the-impact-of-resistance-training-on-swimming-performance-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Emmet Crowley, Andrew J Harrison, Mark Lyons
BACKGROUND: The majority of propulsive forces in swimming are produced from the upper body, with strong correlations between upper body strength and sprint performance. There are significant gaps in the literature relating to the impact of resistance training on swimming performance, specifically the transfer to swimming performance. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this systematic literature review are to (1) explore the transfer of resistance-training modalities to swimming performance, and (2) examine the effects of resistance training on technical aspects of swimming...
May 12, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493064/evidence-based-prerequisites-and-precursors-of-athletic-talent-a-review
#17
REVIEW
Vladimir B Issurin
Extensive findings related to nature and nurture in determining athletic talent (AT) have been reviewed. Available data demonstrate the important contribution of hereditary factors as well as the crucial importance of environmental prerequisites for identifying and developing AT. Recent publications provide examples of contemporary approaches intended to solve the problem of how to discover and nurture AT. A number of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies highlighted possibilities of revealing a predisposition to certain sports among youthful prospects, but were unable to predict attainment of world-class status...
May 11, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493063/authors-reply-to-dotan-and-falk-are-prepubertal-children-metabolically-comparable-to-well-trained-adult-endurance-athletes
#18
Sébastien Ratel, Anthony J Blazevich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 11, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493062/comment-on-are-prepubertal-children-metabolically-comparable-to-well-trained-adult-endurance-athletes
#19
LETTER
Raffy Dotan, Bareket Falk
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 11, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493061/chronotype-physical-activity-and-sport-performance-a-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
Jacopo Antonino Vitale, Andi Weydahl
BACKGROUND: Many variables related to sport have been shown to have circadian rhythms. Chronotype is the expression of circadian rhythmicity in an individual, and three categories of chronotype are defined: morning types (M-types), evening types (E-types), and neither types (N-types). M-types show earlier peaks of several psychophysiological variables during the day than E-types. The effect of chronotype on athletic performance has not been extensively investigated. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present review was to study the effect of chronotype on athletic performance and the psychophysiological responses to physical activity...
May 11, 2017: Sports Medicine
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