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Sports Medicine

Washington Pires, Samuel Penna Wanner, Danusa Dias Soares, Cândido Celso Coimbra
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 16, 2018: Sports Medicine
Cecilia Kitic
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 16, 2018: Sports Medicine
James L Nuzzo
Rates of participation in physical activity are often not the same between groups in a given demographic category. These differences have been termed 'inequities,' and major health organizations are advocating large-scale initiatives to create 'equity' in physical activity. The aim of this paper is to explain why equity in physical activity is a misguided goal. Equity is a misguided goal because it ignores absolute rates of physical activity (i.e., it is a metric of how one group compares with another), and because it is an automated goal that ignores sizes of 'gaps' between groups...
July 13, 2018: Sports Medicine
David L Mann, H J C Ravensbergen
Classification is a defining characteristic of para-sports whereby eligible athletes are allocated a sport class to compete against others with similar activity limitations. To account for the unique characteristics of each sport, para-sports should develop their own classification system using evidence that demonstrates the impact of impairment on performance in that sport. Although the move towards sport-specific classification has progressed in sports for athletes with physical and intellectual impairments, sports for athletes with vision impairment (VI) continue to use the same three classes irrespective of the sport, with classes delineated by legal definitions of low vision and blindness...
July 9, 2018: Sports Medicine
Pedro E Alcaraz, Jorge Carlos-Vivas, Bruno O Oponjuru, Alejandro Martínez-Rodríguez
Page 1: Abstract, Conclusions, sentence 4. The following sentence, which read.
July 9, 2018: Sports Medicine
Luís Miguel Silva, Henrique Pereira Neiva, Mário Cardoso Marques, Mikel Izquierdo, Daniel Almeida Marinho
BACKGROUND: In team sports, it is imperative that the warm-up improves acute explosive performance. However, the exact strategies, methods, and consequences of different warm-up practices remain unclear. A time delay between the warm-up and match and during half-time could negate the positive metabolic effects of the warm-up. OBJECTIVES: We conducted a systematic review to synthesize and analyze the potential effects of strategies during a warm-up (before match), post-warm-up (time between the end of warm-up and the start of a match), and re-warm-up (half-time break within a match) on explosive performance in team sports...
July 2, 2018: Sports Medicine
Steven J Obst, Luke J Heales, Benjamin L Schrader, Scott A Davis, Keely A Dodd, Cory J Holzberger, Louis B Beavis, Rod S Barrett
BACKGROUND: Changes in the mechanical behaviour of the Achilles and patellar tendons in tendinopathy could affect muscle performance, and have implications for injury prevention and rehabilitation strategies. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of clinically diagnosed tendinopathy on the mechanical and material properties of the Achilles tendon (AT) and patellar tendon (PT). DESIGN: Systematic review with meta-analysis. METHODS: A search of electronic databases (SPORTDiscus, CINAHL, PubMed, ScienceDirect and Google Scholar) was conducted to identify research articles that reported local and global in vivo mechanical (e...
June 30, 2018: Sports Medicine
John P DiFiori, Arne Güllich, Joel S Brenner, Jean Côté, Brian Hainline, Edward Ryan, Robert M Malina
Participation in sports offers both short-term and long-term physical and psychosocial benefits for children and adolescents. However, an overemphasis on competitive success in youth sports may limit the benefits of participation, and could increase the risk of injury, burnout, and disengagement from physical activity. The National Basketball Association and USA Basketball recently assembled a group of leading experts to share their applied research and practices to address these issues. This review includes the group's analysis of the existing body of research regarding youth sports participation and the related health, performance, and psychosocial outcomes...
June 30, 2018: Sports Medicine
Caroline Bolling, Willem van Mechelen, H Roeline Pasman, Evert Verhagen
It is possible to prevent sports injuries. Unfortunately, the demonstrated efficacy and effectiveness of injury prevention approaches are not translated into lasting real-world effects. Contemporary views in sports medicine and injury prevention suggest that sports injuries are 'complex' phenomena. If the problem we aim to prevent is complex, then the first step in the 'sequence of prevention' that defines the 'injury problem' already needs to have considered this. The purpose of this paper is to revisit the first step of the 'sequence of prevention', and to explore new perspectives that acknowledge the complexity of the sports injury problem...
June 28, 2018: Sports Medicine
Timothy G Eckard, Darin A Padua, Darren W Hearn, Brett S Pexa, Barnett S Frank
BACKGROUND: The relationship between training load and musculoskeletal injury is a rapidly advancing area of research in need of an updated systematic review. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review examined the evidence for the relationship between training load and musculoskeletal injury risk in athlete, military, and first responder (i.e. law enforcement, firefighting, rescue service) populations. METHODS: The CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, SportDISCUS, and SCOPUS databases were searched using a comprehensive strategy...
June 26, 2018: Sports Medicine
Ryan P McGrath, William J Kraemer, Soham Al Snih, Mark D Peterson
Handgrip strength (HGS) is often used as an indicator of overall muscle strength for aging adults, and low HGS is associated with a variety of poor health outcomes including chronic morbidities, functional disabilities, and all-cause mortality. As public health initiatives and programs target the preservation of muscle strength for aging adults, it is important to understand how HGS factors into the disabling process and the sequence of health events that connect low HGS with premature mortality. Such information will help to inform interventions designed to slow the disabling process and improve health outcomes for those at risk for muscle weakness...
June 26, 2018: Sports Medicine
Isaac Estevan, Lisa M Barnett
The promotion of motor competence is integral to a holistic view of children's development. Motor development models address the potential role of actual and perceived motor competence, physical activity and health-related fitness in children's health. Actual motor competence and optimal levels of perceived motor competence seem to be key for engaging children and adolescents in physical activity and sports. Commonly, the assessment of perceived motor competence is carried out by using instruments originally developed to assess different constructs of physical self-perception with the consequent error assumed...
June 25, 2018: Sports Medicine
Cesare Granata, Nicholas A Jamnick, David J Bishop
A sedentary lifestyle has been linked to a number of metabolic disorders that have been associated with sub-optimal mitochondrial characteristics and an increased risk of premature death. Endurance training can induce an increase in mitochondrial content and/or mitochondrial functional qualities, which are associated with improved health and well-being and longer life expectancy. It is therefore important to better define how manipulating key parameters of an endurance training intervention can influence the content and functionality of the mitochondrial pool...
June 22, 2018: Sports Medicine
Pedro E Alcaraz, Jorge Carlos-Vivas, Bruno O Oponjuru, Alejandro Martínez-Rodríguez
BACKGROUND: Sprinting is key in the development and final results of competitions in a range of sport disciplines, both individual (e.g., athletics) and team sports. Resisted sled training (RST) might provide an effective training method to improve sprinting, in both the acceleration and the maximum-velocity phases. However, substantial discrepancies exist in the literature regarding the influence of training status and sled load prescription in relation to the specific components of sprint performance to be developed and the phase of sprint...
June 20, 2018: Sports Medicine
José L Areta, Will G Hopkins
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle glycogen is an important energy source for muscle contraction and a key regulator of metabolic responses to exercise. Manipulation of muscle glycogen is therefore a strategy to improve performance in competitions and potentially adaptation to training. However, assessing muscle glycogen in the field is impractical, and there are no normative values for glycogen concentration at rest and during exercise. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to meta-analyse the effects of fitness, acute dietary carbohydrate (CHO) availability and other factors on muscle glycogen concentration at rest and during exercise of different durations and intensities...
June 19, 2018: Sports Medicine
Kristy Martin, Romain Meeusen, Kevin G Thompson, Richard Keegan, Ben Rattray
Mental fatigue reflects a change in psychobiological state, caused by prolonged periods of demanding cognitive activity. It has been well documented that mental fatigue impairs cognitive performance; however, more recently, it has been demonstrated that endurance performance is also impaired by mental fatigue. The mechanism behind the detrimental effect of mental fatigue on endurance performance is poorly understood. Variables traditionally believed to limit endurance performance, such as heart rate, lactate accumulation and neuromuscular function, are unaffected by mental fatigue...
June 19, 2018: Sports Medicine
Sergej M Ostojic
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 18, 2018: Sports Medicine
Eduardo Caldas Costa, Jacqueline L Hay, Dustin S Kehler, Kevin F Boreskie, Rakesh C Arora, Daniel Umpierre, Andrea Szwajcer, Todd A Duhamel
BACKGROUND: Aerobic exercise reduces blood pressure (BP), but it is unknown whether a high-intensity training approach can elicit a greater BP reduction in populations with elevated BP. This systematic review compared the efficacy of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) versus moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) for reducing BP in adults with pre- to established hypertension. METHODS: Five electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, PEDro, and SPORTDiscus) were searched for randomized trials comparing the chronic effects of HIIT versus MICT on BP in individuals with resting systolic BP ≥ 130 mmHg and/or diastolic BP ≥ 85 mmHg and/or under antihypertensive medication...
June 13, 2018: Sports Medicine
Peta T Johnston, Jodie A McClelland, Kate E Webster
BACKGROUND: Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) may not restore lower limb biomechanics during single-limb landings. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to identify and evaluate differences in lower limb biomechanics during high-demand single-limb landings between the ACLR limb and the contralateral limb and healthy control participants. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was conducted using six electronic databases searched until April 2017 for published peer-reviewed studies that investigated lower limb biomechanics on the ACLR limb compared with either the contralateral limb or those of control participants...
June 12, 2018: Sports Medicine
Nancy E Murphy, Christopher T Carrigan, J Philip Karl, Stefan M Pasiakos, Lee M Margolis
BACKGROUND: Negative energy balance (EB) is common during military operations, diminishing body mass and physical performance. However, the magnitude of negative EB where performance would still be maintained is not well defined. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to explore relationships between EB and physical performance during military operations and define an acceptable negative EB threshold where performance may be maintained. METHODS: A systematic search was performed for studies that measured EB and physical performance during military training...
June 8, 2018: Sports Medicine
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