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Sports Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918566/understanding-the-science-of-resistance-training-an-evolutionary-perspective
#1
William J Kraemer, Nicholas A Ratamess, Shawn D Flanagan, Jason P Shurley, Janice S Todd, Terry C Todd
The history of resistance training research began with anecdotal ideas and a slow growth of research from the late 1890s through the 1970s. The mid-1970s were a nexus point when resistance training studies evolved from just strength assessments to importance in physiological systems, physical health, and physical performance capabilities for individuals interested in physical fitness through to those seeking elite athletic performances. The pursuit of understanding program design and what mediated successful programs continues today as new findings, replication of old concepts, and new visions with the latest technologies fuel both our understanding and interest in this modality...
September 16, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918464/what-s-next-in-complex-networks-capturing-the-concept-of-attacking-play-in-invasive-team-sports
#2
REVIEW
João Ramos, Rui J Lopes, Duarte Araújo
The evolution of performance analysis within sports sciences is tied to technology development and practitioner demands. However, how individual and collective patterns self-organize and interact in invasive team sports remains elusive. Social network analysis has been recently proposed to resolve some aspects of this problem, and has proven successful in capturing collective features resulting from the interactions between team members as well as a powerful communication tool. Despite these advances, some fundamental team sports concepts such as an attacking play have not been properly captured by the more common applications of social network analysis to team sports performance...
September 16, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917030/the-role-of-intra-session-exercise-sequence-in-the-interference-effect-a-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis
#3
REVIEW
Lee Eddens, Ken van Someren, Glyn Howatson
BACKGROUND: There is a necessity for numerous sports to develop strength and aerobic capacity simultaneously, placing a significant demand upon the practice of effective concurrent training methods. Concurrent training requires the athlete to perform both resistance and endurance exercise within a training plan. This training paradigm has been associated with an 'interference effect', with attenuated strength adaptation in comparison to that following isolated resistance training. The effectiveness of the training programme rests on the intricacies of manipulating acute training variables, such as exercise sequence...
September 15, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900862/the-influence-of-growth-and-maturation-on-stretch-shortening-cycle-function-in-youth
#4
REVIEW
John M Radnor, Jon L Oliver, Charlie M Waugh, Gregory D Myer, Isabel S Moore, Rhodri S Lloyd
Hopping, skipping, jumping and sprinting are common tasks in both active play and competitive sports. These movements utilise the stretch-shortening cycle (SSC), which is considered a naturally occurring muscle action for most forms of human locomotion. This muscle action results in more efficient movements and helps optimise relative force generated per motor unit recruited. Innate SSC development throughout childhood and adolescence enables children to increase power (jump higher and sprint faster) as they mature...
September 12, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895063/considerations-in-the-use-of-body-mass-change-to-estimate-change-in-hydration-status-during-a-161-kilometer-ultramarathon-running-competition
#5
Martin D Hoffman, Eric D B Goulet, Ronald J Maughan
Hydration guidelines found in the scientific and popular literature typically advise that body mass losses beyond 2% should be avoided during exercise. In this work, we demonstrate that these guidelines are not applicable to prolonged exercise of several hours where body mass loss does not reflect an equivalent loss of body water due to the effects of body mass change from substrate use, release of water bound with muscle and liver glycogen, and production of water during substrate metabolism. These effects on the body mass loss required to maintain body water balance are shown for a 161-km mountain ultramarathon running competition participant utilizing published data for the total energy cost, exogenous energy consumption and percentage from each fuel source, average participant body mass, and the extent of soft tissue fluid accumulation during an ultramarathon...
September 11, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887759/factors-contributing-to-chronic-ankle-instability-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-systematic-reviews
#6
REVIEW
Cassandra Thompson, Siobhan Schabrun, Rick Romero, Andrea Bialocerkowski, Jaap van Dieen, Paul Marshall
BACKGROUND: Many factors are thought to contribute to chronic ankle instability (CAI). Multiple systematic reviews have synthesised the available evidence to identify the primary contributing factors. However, readers are now faced with several systematic reviews that present conflicting findings. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to establish the statistical significance and effect size of primary factors contributing to CAI and to identify likely reasons for inconsistencies in the literature...
September 8, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884352/risk-factors-for-knee-injury-in-golf-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Matthew L Baker, Devakar R Epari, Silvio Lorenzetti, Mark Sayers, Urs Boutellier, William R Taylor
BACKGROUND: Golf is commonly considered a low-impact sport that carries little risk of injury to the knee and is generally allowed following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Kinematic and kinetic studies of the golf swing have reported results relevant to the knee, but consensus as to the loads experienced during a swing and how the biomechanics of an individual's technique may expose the knee to risk of injury is lacking. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to establish (1) the prevalence of knee injury resulting from participation in golf and (2) the risk factors for knee injury from a biomechanical perspective, based on an improved understanding of the internal loading conditions and kinematics that occur in the knee from the time of addressing the ball to the end of the follow-through...
September 7, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879571/risk-factors-for-non-contact-injury-in-adolescent-cricket-pace-bowlers-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Mitchell R L Forrest, Jeffrey J Hebert, Brendan R Scott, Stefano Brini, Alasdair R Dempsey
BACKGROUND: Adolescent cricket pace bowlers are prone to injury. Recognising the risk factors for non-contact injury in this population will aid future injury prevention strategies. OBJECTIVE: To identify the risk factors for non-contact injury in adolescent cricket pace bowlers. METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed, Cochrane Library, PEDro, SPORTDiscus, Embase, and the South African Journal of Sports Medicine to identify all experimental and observational studies reporting risk factors for non-contact injuries in pace bowlers (aged 12-19 years)...
September 6, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853029/effect-of-high-intensity-interval-training-on-fitness-fat-mass-and-cardiometabolic-biomarkers-in-children-with-obesity-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#9
Katrin A Dias, Charlotte B Ingul, Arnt E Tjønna, Shelley E Keating, Sjaan R Gomersall, Turid Follestad, Mansoureh S Hosseini, Siri M Hollekim-Strand, Torstein B Ro, Margrete Haram, Else Marie Huuse, Peter S W Davies, Peter A Cain, Gary M Leong, Jeff S Coombes
BACKGROUND: Paediatric obesity significantly increases the risk of developing cardiometabolic diseases across the lifespan. Increasing cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) could mitigate this risk. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) improves CRF in clinical adult populations but the evidence in paediatric obesity is inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to determine the efficacy of a 12-week, HIIT intervention for increasing CRF and reducing adiposity in children with obesity...
August 29, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853006/are-the-current-guidelines-on-caffeine-use-in-sport-optimal-for-everyone-inter-individual-variation-in-caffeine-ergogenicity-and-a-move-towards-personalised-sports-nutrition
#10
Craig Pickering, John Kiely
Caffeine use is widespread in sport, with a strong evidence base demonstrating its ergogenic effect. Based on existing research, current guidelines recommend ingestion of 3-9 mg/kg approximately 60 min prior to exercise. However, the magnitude of performance enhancement following caffeine ingestion differs substantially between individuals, with the spectrum of responses ranging between highly ergogenic to ergolytic. These extensive inter-individual response distinctions are mediated by variation in individual genotype, environmental factors, and the legacy of prior experiences partially mediated via epigenetic mechanisms...
August 29, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28849386/doping-in-two-elite-athletics-competitions-assessed-by-randomized-response-surveys
#11
Rolf Ulrich, Harrison G Pope, Léa Cléret, Andrea Petróczi, Tamás Nepusz, Jay Schaffer, Gen Kanayama, R Dawn Comstock, Perikles Simon
BACKGROUND: Doping in sports compromises fair play and endangers health. To deter doping among elite athletes, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) oversees testing of several hundred thousand athletic blood and urine samples annually, of which 1-2% test positive. Measures using the Athlete Biological Passport suggest a higher mean prevalence of about 14% positive tests. Biological testing, however, likely fails to detect many cutting-edge doping techniques, and thus the true prevalence of doping remains unknown...
August 28, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840544/transferring-an-analytical-technique-from-ecology-to-the-sport-sciences
#12
Carl T Woods, Sam Robertson, Neil French Collier, Anne L Swinbourne, Anthony S Leicht
BACKGROUND: Learning transfer is defined as an individual's capability to apply prior learnt perceptual, motor, or conceptual skills to a novel task or performance environment. In the sport sciences, learning transfers have been investigated from an athlete-specific perspective. However, sport scientists should also consider the benefits of cross-disciplinary learning to aid critical thinking and metacognitive skill gained through the interaction with similar quantitative scientific disciplines...
August 24, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822112/effectiveness-of-resistance-circuit-based-training-for-maximum-oxygen-uptake-and-upper-body-one-repetition-maximum-improvements-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
REVIEW
Francisco Antonio Muñoz-Martínez, Jacobo Á Rubio-Arias, Domingo Jesús Ramos-Campo, Pedro E Alcaraz
BACKGROUND: It is well known that concurrent increases in both maximal strength and aerobic capacity are associated with improvements in sports performance as well as overall health. One of the most popular training methods used for achieving these objectives is resistance circuit-based training. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present systematic review with a meta-analysis was to evaluate published studies that have investigated the effects of resistance circuit-based training on maximum oxygen uptake and one-repetition maximum of the upper-body strength (bench press exercise) in healthy adults...
August 18, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819746/the-effects-of-resistance-exercise-training-on-anxiety-a-meta-analysis-and-meta-regression-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#14
REVIEW
Brett R Gordon, Cillian P McDowell, Mark Lyons, Matthew P Herring
BACKGROUND: The salutary effects of resistance exercise training (RET) are well established, including increased strength and function; however, less is known regarding the effects of RET on mental health outcomes. Aerobic exercise has well-documented positive effects on anxiety, but a quantitative synthesis of RET effects on anxiety is needed. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the population effect size for resistance exercise training (RET) effects on anxiety and to determine whether variables of logical, theoretical, and/or prior empirical relation to anxiety moderate the overall effect...
August 17, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819744/correlations-do-not-show-cause-and-effect-not-even-for-changes-in-muscle-size-and-strength
#15
Scott J Dankel, Samuel L Buckner, Matthew B Jessee, J Grant Mouser, Kevin T Mattocks, Takashi Abe, Jeremy P Loenneke
It is well known that resistance exercise results in increased muscle strength, but the cause of the improvement is not well understood. It is generally thought that initial increases in strength are caused by neurological factors, before being predominantly driven by increases in muscle size. Despite this hypothesis, there is currently no direct evidence that training-induced increases in muscle size contribute to training-induced increases in muscle strength. The evidence used to support this hypothesis is exclusively correlational analyses and these are often an afterthought using data collected to answer a different question of interest...
August 17, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819742/authors-reply-to-mcmahon-et-al-comment-on-anthropometric-and-physical-qualities-of-elite-male-youth-rugby-league-players
#16
Kevin Till, Sean Scantlebury, Ben Jones
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 17, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819728/comment-on-anthropometric-and-physical-qualities-of-elite-male-youth-rugby-league-players
#17
LETTER
John J McMahon, Paul A Jones, Paul Comfort
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 17, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801751/activity-demands-during-multi-directional-team-sports-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Jeffrey B Taylor, Alexis A Wright, Steven L Dischiavi, M Allison Townsend, Adam R Marmon
BACKGROUND: Late-stage rehabilitation programs often incorporate 'sport-specific' demands, but may not optimally simulate the in-game volume or intensity of such activities as sprinting, cutting, jumping, and lateral movement. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review was to characterize, quantify, and compare straight-line running and multi-directional demands during sport competition. DATA SOURCES: A systematic review of PubMed, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases was conducted...
August 12, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791650/nicotine-sporting-friend-or-foe-a-review-of-athlete-use-performance-consequences-and-other-considerations
#19
REVIEW
Toby Mündel
Nicotine use amongst athletes is high and increasing, especially in team sports. This narrative review examines the rationale behind its use and evidence of its effect on physical performance, and considers important factors that should determine future research efforts. To date, ten studies have assessed muscular strength and power, sub- or maximal endurance and high-intensity exercise when nicotine (medication) or smokeless tobacco was used as an intervention. Two studies observed an ergogenic effect, one an ergolytic with the remaining seven reporting no change...
August 8, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780647/cardiovascular-responses-to-skeletal-muscle-stretching-stretching-the-truth-or-a-new-exercise-paradigm-for-cardiovascular-medicine
#20
REVIEW
Nicholas T Kruse, Barry W Scheuermann
Stretching is commonly prescribed with the intended purpose of increasing range of motion, enhancing muscular coordination, and preventing prolonged immobilization induced by aging or a sedentary lifestyle. Emerging evidence suggests that acute or long-term stretching exercise may modulate a variety of cardiovascular responses. Specifically, at the onset of stretch, the mechanical deformation of the vascular bed coupled with stimulation of group III muscle afferent fibers initiates a cascade of events resulting in both peripheral vasodilation and a heart rate-driven increase in cardiac output, blood pressure, and muscle blood flow...
August 5, 2017: Sports Medicine
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