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Sports Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523517/body-size-of-male-youth-soccer-players-1978-2015
#1
REVIEW
Robert M Malina, António J Figueiredo, Manuel J Coelho-E-Silva
BACKGROUND: Studies of the body size and proportions of athletes have a long history. Comparisons of athletes within specific sports across time, though not extensive, indicate both positive and negative trends. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate secular variation in heights and weights of male youth soccer players reported in studies between 1978 and 2015. METHODS: Reported mean ages, heights, and weights of male soccer players 9-18 years of age were extracted from the literature and grouped into two intervals: 1978-99 and 2000-15...
May 18, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508338/fluid-balance-in-team-sport-athletes-and-the-effect-of-hypohydration-on-cognitive-technical-and-physical-performance
#2
REVIEW
Ryan P Nuccio, Kelly A Barnes, James M Carter, Lindsay B Baker
Sweat losses in team sports can be significant due to repeated bursts of high-intensity activity, as well as the large body size of athletes, equipment and uniform requirements, and environmental heat stress often present during training and competition. In this paper we aimed to: (1) describe sweat losses and fluid balance changes reported in team sport athletes, (2) review the literature assessing the impact of hypohydration on cognitive, technical, and physical performance in sports-specific studies, (3) briefly review the potential mechanisms by which hypohydration may impact team sport performance, and (4) discuss considerations for future directions...
May 15, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497286/the-influence-of-drinking-fluid-on-endurance-cycling-performance-a-meta-analysis
#3
REVIEW
Justin J Holland, Tina L Skinner, Christopher G Irwin, Michael D Leveritt, Eric D B Goulet
BACKGROUND: Fluid replacement during cycling exercise evolves on a spectrum from simply drinking to thirst to planned structured intake, with both being appropriate recommendations. However, with mixed findings suggesting fluid intake may or may not improve endurance cycling performance (ECP) in a diverse range of trained individuals, there is a clear need for summarised evidence regarding the effect of fluid consumption on ECP. OBJECTIVES: (1) Determine the magnitude of the effect of drinking fluid on performance during cycling exercise tasks of various durations, compared with no drinking; (2) examine the relationship between rates of fluid intake and ECP; and (3) establish fluid intake recommendations based on the observations between rates of fluid intake and ECP...
May 12, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497285/comparison-of-periodized-and-non-periodized-resistance-training-on-maximal-strength-a-meta-analysis
#4
REVIEW
Tyler D Williams, Danilo V Tolusso, Michael V Fedewa, Michael R Esco
BACKGROUND: Periodization is a logical method of organizing training into sequential phases and cyclical time periods in order to increase the potential for achieving specific performance goals while minimizing the potential for overtraining. Periodized resistance training plans are proposed to be superior to non-periodized training plans for enhancing maximal strength. OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this study was to examine the previous literature comparing periodized resistance training plans to non-periodized resistance training plans and determine a quantitative estimate of effect on maximal strength...
May 12, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497284/exercise-interventions-for-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-groin-pain-and-injury-in-athletes-a-critical-and-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Paula C Charlton, Michael K Drew, Benjamin F Mentiplay, Alison Grimaldi, Ross A Clark
BACKGROUND: Groin injury is a common musculoskeletal complaint for athletes competing in a variety of sports. The extent to which exercise interventions incorporating external load are an appropriate option for the treatment and prevention of groin injury in athletes is not yet clear. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review was to describe and evaluate exercise therapy interventions and outcomes for the treatment and prevention of groin injury with specific attention to application of external load...
May 12, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497283/the-impact-of-resistance-training-on-swimming-performance-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Emmet Crowley, Andrew J Harrison, Mark Lyons
BACKGROUND: The majority of propulsive forces in swimming are produced from the upper body, with strong correlations between upper body strength and sprint performance. There are significant gaps in the literature relating to the impact of resistance training on swimming performance, specifically the transfer to swimming performance. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this systematic literature review are to (1) explore the transfer of resistance-training modalities to swimming performance, and (2) examine the effects of resistance training on technical aspects of swimming...
May 12, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493064/evidence-based-prerequisites-and-precursors-of-athletic-talent-a-review
#7
REVIEW
Vladimir B Issurin
Extensive findings related to nature and nurture in determining athletic talent (AT) have been reviewed. Available data demonstrate the important contribution of hereditary factors as well as the crucial importance of environmental prerequisites for identifying and developing AT. Recent publications provide examples of contemporary approaches intended to solve the problem of how to discover and nurture AT. A number of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies highlighted possibilities of revealing a predisposition to certain sports among youthful prospects, but were unable to predict attainment of world-class status...
May 11, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493063/authors-reply-to-dotan-and-falk-are-prepubertal-children-metabolically-comparable-to-well-trained-adult-endurance-athletes
#8
Sébastien Ratel, Anthony J Blazevich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 11, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493062/comment-on-are-prepubertal-children-metabolically-comparable-to-well-trained-adult-endurance-athletes
#9
LETTER
Raffy Dotan, Bareket Falk
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 11, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493061/chronotype-physical-activity-and-sport-performance-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Jacopo Antonino Vitale, Andi Weydahl
BACKGROUND: Many variables related to sport have been shown to have circadian rhythms. Chronotype is the expression of circadian rhythmicity in an individual, and three categories of chronotype are defined: morning types (M-types), evening types (E-types), and neither types (N-types). M-types show earlier peaks of several psychophysiological variables during the day than E-types. The effect of chronotype on athletic performance has not been extensively investigated. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present review was to study the effect of chronotype on athletic performance and the psychophysiological responses to physical activity...
May 11, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493060/synthetic-turf-fields-crumb-rubber-and-alleged-cancer-risk
#11
Archie Bleyer
Most synthetic turf fields have crumb rubber interspersed among the simulated grass fibers to reduce athletic injuries by allowing users to turn and slide more readily as they play sports or exercise on the fields. Recently, the crumbs have been implicated in causing cancer in adolescents and young adults who use the fields, particularly lymphoma and primarily in soccer goalkeepers. This concern has led to the initiation of large-scale studies by local and federal governments that are expected to take years to complete...
May 11, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477211/which-women-are-highly-active-over-a-12-year-period-a-prospective-analysis-of-data-from-the-australian-longitudinal-study-on-women-s-health
#12
Toby G Pavey, Tracy L Kolbe-Alexander, Leonie Uijtdewilligen, Wendy J Brown
INTRODUCTION: Current Australian physical activity (PA) guidelines encourage adults to accumulate 150-300 min of moderate to vigorous PA each week. Some critics assert that 300 min is unachievable. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to identify the proportion of younger and mid-aged women who met the 300-min recommendation over a 12-year period, examine how the "highly active" women achieved this level of activity (in terms of walking, moderate activity, and vigorous activity), and to identify the sociodemographic, biological, lifestyle, and work-related determinants of being "highly active"...
May 6, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451905/effects-of-altitude-hypoxia-on-single-and-multiple-sprint-performance-a-comprehensive-review
#13
REVIEW
Olivier Girard, Franck Brocherie, Grégoire P Millet
Many sport competitions, typically involving the completion of single- (e.g. track-and-field or track cycling events) and multiple-sprint exercises (e.g. team and racquet sports, cycling races), are staged at terrestrial altitudes ranging from 1000 to 2500 m. Our aim was to comprehensively review the current knowledge on the responses to either acute or chronic altitude exposure relevant to single and multiple sprints. Performance of a single sprint is generally not negatively affected by acute exposure to simulated altitude (i...
April 27, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444646/comment-on-determining-strength-a-case-for-multiple-methods-of-measurement
#14
LETTER
Paulo Gentil
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 25, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434152/compression-garments-and-recovery-from-exercise-a-meta-analysis
#15
REVIEW
Freddy Brown, Conor Gissane, Glyn Howatson, Ken van Someren, Charles Pedlar, Jessica Hill
BACKGROUND: Adequate recovery from exercise is essential to maintain performance throughout training and competition. While compression garments (CG) have been demonstrated to accelerate recovery, the literature is clouded by conflicting results and uncertainty over the optimal conditions of use. OBJECTIVES: A meta-analysis was conducted to assess the effects of CG on the recovery of strength, power and endurance performance following an initial bout of resistance, running, or non-load-bearing endurance (metabolic) exercise...
April 22, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417330/management-of-nasal-fractures-in-sports
#16
Yashika Patel, Peter Goljan, Todd P Pierce, Anthony Scillia, Kimona Issa, Vincent K McInerney, Anthony Festa
Nasal fractures represent approximately 60% of all maxillofacial injuries that occur in athletic activities; however, there are no current guidelines regarding immediate sideline management of these injuries. Therefore, the purpose of this article was to (1) summarize the anatomy, etiology, and incidence of nasal fractures, and (2) evaluate the current body of literature regarding immediate on-field and subsequent outpatient management. It is imperative to establish that the athlete's airway is not compromised and there are no other severe concomitant injuries, such as a concussion, ocular injury, or leakage of cerebrospinal fluid...
April 17, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401426/high-rates-of-return-to-sports-activities-and-work-after-osteotomies-around-the-knee-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
REVIEW
Alexander Hoorntje, Suzanne Witjes, P Paul F M Kuijer, Koen L M Koenraadt, Rutger C I van Geenen, Joost G Daams, Alan Getgood, Gino M M J Kerkhoffs
BACKGROUND: Knee osteotomies are proven treatment options, especially in younger patients with unicompartmental knee osteoarthritis, for certain cases of chronic knee instability, or as concomitant treatment for meniscal repair or transplantation surgery. Presumably, these patients wish to stay active. Data on whether these patients return to sport (RTS) activities and return to work (RTW) are scarce. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to systematically review (1) the extent to which patients can RTS and RTW after knee osteotomy and (2) the time to RTS and RTW...
April 11, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393328/health-benefits-of-light-intensity-physical-activity-a-systematic-review-of-accelerometer-data-of-the-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-nhanes
#18
REVIEW
Eszter Füzéki, Tobias Engeroff, Winfried Banzer
BACKGROUND: The health effects of light-intensity physical activity (PA) are not well known today. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a systematic review to assess the association of accelerometer-measured light-intensity PA with modifiable health outcomes in adults and older adults. METHODS: A systematic literature search up to March 2016 was performed in the PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and Google Scholar electronic databases, without language limitations, for studies of modifiable health outcomes in adults and older adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey accelerometer dataset...
April 10, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391489/research-into-the-health-benefits-of-sprint-interval-training-should-focus-on-protocols-with-fewer-and-shorter-sprints
#19
Niels B J Vollaard, Richard S Metcalfe
Over the past decade, it has been convincingly shown that regularly performing repeated brief supramaximal cycle sprints (sprint interval training [SIT]) is associated with aerobic adaptations and health benefits similar to or greater than with moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT). SIT is often promoted as a time-efficient exercise strategy, but the most commonly studied SIT protocol (4-6 repeated 30-s Wingate sprints with 4 min recovery, here referred to as 'classic' SIT) takes up to approximately 30 min per session...
April 8, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389828/cross-adaptation-heat-and-cold-adaptation-to-improve-physiological-and-cellular-responses-to-hypoxia
#20
REVIEW
Oliver R Gibson, Lee Taylor, Peter W Watt, Neil S Maxwell
To prepare for extremes of heat, cold or low partial pressures of oxygen (O2), humans can undertake a period of acclimation or acclimatization to induce environment-specific adaptations, e.g. heat acclimation (HA), cold acclimation (CA), or altitude training. While these strategies are effective, they are not always feasible due to logistical impracticalities. Cross-adaptation is a term used to describe the phenomenon whereby alternative environmental interventions, e.g. HA or CA, may be a beneficial alternative to altitude interventions, providing physiological stress and inducing adaptations observable at altitude...
April 7, 2017: Sports Medicine
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