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Sports Medicine

Takashi Abe, Jeremy P Loenneke, Robert S Thiebaud
Fat-free body mass (FFM) is a surrogate for skeletal muscle mass and is often used for the normalization of several physiological variables (e.g., oxygen uptake). However, FFM includes non-skeletal muscle components such as the fat-free component of adipose tissue fat cells. As the amount of adipose tissue mass increases, the FFM will also increase and be included in the measurement of FFM. Therefore, FFM may not be an appropriate indicator of muscle mass when targeting individuals with a large amount of body fat...
November 13, 2018: Sports Medicine
Christoph Centner, Patrick Wiegel, Albert Gollhofer, Daniel König
Figures 2 and 3 were transposed.
November 9, 2018: Sports Medicine
Jules A A C Heuberger, Adam F Cohen
The World Anti-Doping Agency is responsible for maintaining a Prohibited List that describes the use of substances and methods that are prohibited for athletes. The list currently contains 23 substance classes, and an important reason for the existence of this list is to prevent unfair competition due to pharmacologically enhanced performance. The aim of this review was to give an overview of the available evidence for performance enhancement of these substance classes. We searched the scientific literature through PubMed for studies and reviews evaluating the effects of substance classes on performance...
November 8, 2018: Sports Medicine
Vladimir B Issurin
Block periodized (BP) training is an innovative and prospective approach that is drawing increasing attention from coaching scientists and practitioners. However, its further dissemination and implementation demands serious scientific biological underpinnings. More specifically, the fundamental scientific concepts of homeostatic regulation, stress adaptation and the law of supercompensation determine the biological essence and content of appropriate block mesocycles, i.e., the accumulation, transmutation and realization cycles, respectively...
November 8, 2018: Sports Medicine
Nicholas R Lamoureux, John S Fitzgerald, Kevin I Norton, Todd Sabato, Mark S Tremblay, Grant R Tomkinson
OBJECTIVE: To estimate international and national temporal trends in the cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) of adults, and to examine relationships between trends in CRF and trends in health-related, socioeconomic, and environmental indicators. METHODS: Data were obtained from a systematic search of studies that explicitly reported temporal trends in the CRF of apparently healthy adults aged 18-59 years. Sample-weighted temporal trends were estimated using best-fitting regression models relating the year of testing to mean CRF...
November 3, 2018: Sports Medicine
Tomas Vetrovsky, Michal Steffl, Petr Stastny, James J Tufano
BACKGROUND: The aging process is associated with a progressive decline of neuromuscular function, increased risk of falls and fractures, impaired functional performance, and loss of independence. Plyometric training may mitigate or even reverse such age-related deterioration; however, little research on the effects of plyometric exercises has been performed in older adults. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of plyometric training in older adults...
November 2, 2018: Sports Medicine
Chris J Thompson, Job Fransen, Sabrina Skorski, Mitchell R Smith, Tim Meyer, Steve Barrett, Aaron J Coutts
Research in football for a long time has focused on the physical nature of fatigue as opposed to its mental aspects. However, since 2016, six original articles have investigated the effects of induced mental fatigue in football on isolated physical, skill and decision-making performance tests, along with physical, technical and tactical performance outcomes in small-sided games. Whilst these studies have overall shown a negative impact of mental fatigue on task performance, this current opinion aims to critically examine the methodological approach to this problem, most notably the lack of ecological validity when inducing mental fatigue and the present approach to measuring mental fatigue using visual analogue scales (VAS)...
November 2, 2018: Sports Medicine
Alexander J Beaumont, Fergal M Grace, Joanna C Richards, Amy K Campbell, Nicholas F Sculthorpe
BACKGROUND: In contrast to younger athletes, there is comparatively less literature examining cardiac structure and function in older athletes. However, a progressive accumulation of studies during the past four decades offers a body of literature worthy of systematic scrutiny. OBJECTIVES: We conducted a systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression of controlled echocardiography studies comparing left ventricular (LV) structure and function in aerobically trained older athletes (> 45 years) with age-matched untrained controls, in addition to investigating the influence of chronological age...
October 29, 2018: Sports Medicine
Kyle R Barnes, Andrew E Kilding
BACKGROUND: Running economy represents a complex interplay of physiological and biomechanical factors that are able to adapt chronically through training, or acutely through other interventions such as changes in footwear. The Nike Vaporfly (NVF) shoe was designed for marathon running on the roads and has been shown to improve running economy by ~ 4% compared with other marathon shoes, however, during track racing, distance runners traditionally wear a much lighter shoe with an embedded spike plate around the forefoot...
October 29, 2018: Sports Medicine
Adilson Marques, Miguel Peralta, Hugo Sarmento, Vânia Loureiro, Élvio R Gouveia, Margarida Gaspar de Matos
BACKGROUND: Exercise dependence (EXD) can be considered an addictive behaviour because it presents signs typical of other addictive behaviours. Despite possible health problems related to EXD, the prevalence of risk for EXD has never been systematically reviewed. OBJECTIVE: This article aimed to systematically review the prevalence of risk for EXD. METHODS: Studies were identified from searches in the ERIC, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science electronic databases up to June 2018...
October 29, 2018: Sports Medicine
Gareth N Sandford, Andrew E Kilding, Angus Ross, Paul B Laursen
Recent evidence indicates that the modern-day men's 800 m runner requires a speed capability beyond that of previous eras. In addition, the appreciation of different athlete subgroups (400-800, 800, 800-1500 m) implies a complex interplay between the mechanical (aerial or terrestrial) and physiological characteristics that enable success in any individual runner. Historically, coach education for middle-distance running often emphasises aerobic metabolic conditioning, while it relatively lacks consideration for an important neuromuscular and mechanical component...
October 29, 2018: Sports Medicine
Jan Stutz, Remo Eiholzer, Christina M Spengler
BACKGROUND: Current recommendations advise against exercising in the evening because of potential adverse effects on sleep. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the extent to which evening exercise affects sleep and whether variables such as exercise intensity or duration modify the response. METHODS: A systematic search was performed in PubMed, Cochrane, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and CINAHL databases. Studies evaluating sleep after a single session of evening physical exercise compared to a no-exercise control in healthy adults were included...
October 29, 2018: Sports Medicine
Maxim Verboven, Lisa Van Ryckeghem, Jamal Belkhouribchia, Paul Dendale, Bert O Eijnde, Dominique Hansen, Virginie Bito
BACKGROUND: The effect of exercise on cardiac function/structure in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with or without diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is not yet completely understood. To date, results of studies have been controversial with variable outcomes due to the variety of exercise modalities. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present review was to examine the impact of exercise intervention, and different types of exercise, on cardiac function and structure in T2DM through a systematic literature review, combining both pre-clinical and clinical studies...
October 24, 2018: Sports Medicine
Jozo Grgic, Luke C Mcllvenna, Jackson J Fyfe, Filip Sabol, David J Bishop, Brad J Schoenfeld, Zeljko Pedisic
BACKGROUND: Currently, there are inconsistencies in the body of evidence for the effects of resistance and aerobic training on skeletal muscle hypertrophy. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to systematically review and meta-analyze current evidence on the differences in hypertrophic adaptation to aerobic and resistance training, and to discuss potential reasons for the disparities noted in the literature. METHODS: The PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines were followed for this review...
October 20, 2018: Sports Medicine
Christoph Centner, Patrick Wiegel, Albert Gollhofer, Daniel König
BACKGROUND: The combination of low-load resistance training with blood flow restriction (BFR) has recently been shown to promote muscular adaptations in various populations. To date, however, evidence is sparse on how this training regimen influences muscle mass and strength in older adults. PURPOSE: The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to quantitatively identify the effects of low-load BFR (LL-BFR) training on muscle mass and strength in older individuals in comparison with conventional resistance training programmes...
October 10, 2018: Sports Medicine
Jozo Grgic, Pavle Mikulic, Brad J Schoenfeld, David J Bishop, Zeljko Pedisic
This paper aims to critically evaluate and thoroughly discuss the evidence on the topic of caffeine supplementation when performing resistance exercise, as well as provide practical guidelines for the ingestion of caffeine prior to resistance exercise. Based on the current evidence, it seems that caffeine increases both maximal strength and muscular endurance. Furthermore, power appears to be enhanced with caffeine supplementation, although this effect might, to a certain extent, be caffeine dose- and external load-dependent...
October 8, 2018: Sports Medicine
Joshua Robert Zadro, Evangelos Pappas
Following an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, patients are often reassured that timely surgery followed by intensive physiotherapy will "fix their knee". Not only does this message create a false perception of uncomplicated return to sport (RTS), it also ignores the large body of evidence demonstrating a high RTS re-injury rate following ACL reconstruction. In this article, we propose an individualised approach to the management of ACL injuries that targets a shift away from early surgery and towards conservative management, with surgery 'as needed' and rehabilitation tailored to the patient's RTS goals...
October 4, 2018: Sports Medicine
Pedro L Valenzuela, Guillermo Sánchez-Martínez, Elaia Torrontegi, Javier Vázquez-Carrión, Zigor Montalvo, Alejandro Lucia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 24, 2018: Sports Medicine
Craig Pickering, John Kiely
Caffeine is a well-established ergogenic aid, demonstrated to enhance performance across a wide range of capacities through a variety of mechanisms. As such, it is frequently used by both athletes and non-athletes alike. As a result, caffeine ingestion is ubiquitous in modern society, with athletes typically being exposed to regular non-supplemental caffeine through a variety of sources. Previously, it has been suggested that regular caffeine use may lead to habituation and subsequently a reduction in the expected ergogenic effects, thereby blunting caffeine's performance-enhancing impact during critical training and performance events...
September 1, 2018: Sports Medicine
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