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Sports Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143929/a-comparison-of-the-energetic-cost-of-running-in-marathon-racing-shoes
#1
Wouter Hoogkamer, Shalaya Kipp, Jesse H Frank, Emily M Farina, Geng Luo, Rodger Kram
BACKGROUND: Reducing the energetic cost of running seems the most feasible path to a sub-2-hour marathon. Footwear mass, cushioning, and bending stiffness each affect the energetic cost of running. Recently, prototype running shoes were developed that combine a new highly compliant and resilient midsole material with a stiff embedded plate. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine if, and to what extent, these newly developed running shoes reduce the energetic cost of running compared with established marathon racing shoes...
November 16, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143267/hamstring-injury-prevention-practices-in-elite-sport-evidence-for-eccentric-strength-vs-lumbo-pelvic-training
#2
REVIEW
Anthony J Shield, Matthew N Bourne
Hamstring strain injuries are endemic in running-based sports. Given the economic and performance implications of these injuries, a significant body of research has emerged in recent years in an attempt to identify risk factors and develop or optimise injury prevention strategies. Surveys of injury prevention practices among medical and conditioning staff in elite sport suggest that many sporting clubs invest significant efforts in eccentric hamstring conditioning and lumbo-pelvic or trunk stability programmes...
November 15, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143266/-measuring-physical-literacy-and-related-constructs-a-systematic-review-of-empirical-findings
#3
REVIEW
Lowri C Edwards, Anna S Bryant, Richard J Keegan, Kevin Morgan, Stephen-Mark Cooper, Anwen M Jones
BACKGROUND: The concept of physical literacy has received increased research and international attention recently. Where intervention programs and empirical research are gaining momentum, their operationalizations differ significantly. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to inform practice in the measure/assessment of physical literacy via a systematic review of research that has assessed physical literacy (up to 14 June, 2017). METHODS: Five databases were searched using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses for Protocols guidelines, with 32 published articles meeting the inclusion criteria...
November 15, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138991/test-retest-reliability-and-interpretation-of-common-concussion-assessment-tools-findings-from-the-ncaa-dod-care-consortium
#4
Steven P Broglio, Barry P Katz, Shi Zhao, Michael McCrea, Thomas McAllister
BACKGROUND: Concussion diagnosis is typically made through clinical examination and supported by performance on clinical assessment tools. Performance on commonly implemented and emerging assessment tools is known to vary between administrations, in the absence of concussion. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the test-retest reliability of commonly implemented and emerging concussion assessment tools across a large nationally representative sample of student-athletes. METHODS: Participants (n = 4874) from the Concussion Assessment, Research, and Education Consortium completed annual baseline assessments on two or three occasions...
November 14, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129022/heat-acclimation-decay-and-re-induction-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Hein A M Daanen, Sebastien Racinais, Julien D Périard
BACKGROUND: Although the acquisition of heat acclimation (HA) is well-documented, less is known about HA decay (HAD) and heat re-acclimation (HRA). The available literature suggests 1 day of HA is lost following 2 days of HAD. Understanding this relationship has the potential to impact upon the manner in which athletes prepare for major competitions, as a HA regimen may be disruptive during final preparations (i.e., taper). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the rate of HAD and HRA in three of the main physiological adaptations occurring during HA: heart rate (HR), core temperature (T c), and sweat rate (SR)...
November 11, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129021/the-effect-of-natural-or-simulated-altitude-training-on-high-intensity-intermittent-running-performance-in-team-sport-athletes-a-meta-analysis
#6
REVIEW
Michael J Hamlin, Catherine A Lizamore, Will G Hopkins
BACKGROUND: While adaptation to hypoxia at natural or simulated altitude has long been used with endurance athletes, it has only recently gained popularity for team-sport athletes. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the effect of hypoxic interventions on high-intensity intermittent running performance in team-sport athletes. METHODS: A systematic literature search of five journal databases was performed. Percent change in performance (distance covered) in the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (level 1 and level 2 were used without differentiation) in hypoxic (natural or simulated altitude) and control (sea level or normoxic placebo) groups was meta-analyzed with a mixed model...
November 11, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127602/effect-of-high-intensity-interval-training-on-total-abdominal-and-visceral-fat-mass-a-meta-analysis
#7
REVIEW
Florie Maillard, Bruno Pereira, Nathalie Boisseau
BACKGROUND: High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is promoted as a time-efficient strategy to improve body composition. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the efficacy of HIIT in reducing total, abdominal, and visceral fat mass in normal-weight and overweight/obese adults. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched to identify all related articles on HIIT and fat mass. Stratified analysis was performed using the nature of HIIT (cycling versus running, target intensity), sex and/or body weight, and the methods of measuring body composition...
November 10, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127601/interpreting-adaptation-to-concurrent-compared-with-single-mode-exercise-training-some-methodological-considerations
#8
REVIEW
Jackson J Fyfe, Jeremy P Loenneke
Incorporating both endurance and resistance training into an exercise regime is termed concurrent training. While there is evidence that concurrent training can attenuate resistance training-induced improvements in maximal strength and muscle hypertrophy, research findings are often equivocal, with some suggesting short-term concurrent training may instead further enhance muscle hypertrophy versus resistance training alone. These observations have questioned the validity of the purported 'interference effect' on muscle hypertrophy with concurrent versus single-mode resistance training...
November 10, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116573/an-evidence-based-framework-for-strengthening-exercises-to-prevent-hamstring-injury
#9
REVIEW
Matthew N Bourne, Ryan G Timmins, David A Opar, Tania Pizzari, Joshua D Ruddy, Casey Sims, Morgan D Williams, Anthony J Shield
Strength training is a valuable component of hamstring strain injury prevention programmes; however, in recent years a significant body of work has emerged to suggest that the acute responses and chronic adaptations to training with different exercises are heterogeneous. Unfortunately, these research findings do not appear to have uniformly influenced clinical guidelines for exercise selection in hamstring injury prevention or rehabilitation programmes. The purpose of this review was to provide the practitioner with an evidence-base from which to prescribe strengthening exercises to mitigate the risk of hamstring injury...
November 7, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098658/acute-and-residual-soccer-match-related-fatigue-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
REVIEW
J R Silva, M C Rumpf, M Hertzog, C Castagna, A Farooq, O Girard, K Hader
BACKGROUND: Understanding soccer players' match-related fatigue and recovery profiles likely helps with developing conditioning programs that increase team performance and reduce injuries and illnesses. In order to improve match recovery (the return-to-play process and ergogenic interventions) it is also pivotal to determine if match simulation protocols and actual match-play lead to similar responses. OBJECTIVES: (1) To thoroughly describe the development of fatigue during actual soccer match play and its recovery time course in terms of physiological, neuromuscular, technical, biochemical and perceptual responses, and (2) to determine similarities of recovery responses between actual competition (11 vs...
November 2, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098657/post-exercise-ingestion-of-carbohydrate-protein-and-water-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-for-effects-on-subsequent-athletic-performance
#11
REVIEW
Danielle McCartney, Ben Desbrow, Christopher Irwin
BACKGROUND: Athletes may complete consecutive exercise sessions with limited recovery time between bouts (e.g. ≤ 4 h). Nutritional strategies that optimise post-exercise recovery in these situations are therefore important. OBJECTIVE: This two-part review investigated the effect of consuming carbohydrate (CHO) and protein with water (W) following exercise on subsequent athletic (endurance/anaerobic exercise) performance. DATA SOURCES: Studies were identified by searching the online databases SPORTDiscus, PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus...
November 2, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29086218/chronic-physiological-effects-of-swim-training-interventions-in-non-elite-swimmers-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
REVIEW
Ian M Lahart, George S Metsios
BACKGROUND: Swimming is a popular and potentially health-enhancing exercise, but has received less scientific attention compared with other exercise modes. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to determine the chronic (long-term) effect of pool swim training on physiological outcomes in non-elite or non-competitive swimming participants. DESIGN: This study was a systematic review with a meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: We searched the electronic databases PubMed, EMBASE and CENTRAL from inception to March 2017...
October 30, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082464/tanner-whitehouse-skeletal-ages-in-male-youth-soccer-players-tw2-or-tw3
#13
Robert M Malina, Manuel J Coelho-E-Silva, António J Figueiredo, Renaat M Philippaerts, Norikazu Hirose, Maria Eugenia Peña Reyes, Giulio Gilli, Andrea Benso, Roel Vaeyens, Dieter Deprez, Luiz F Guglielmo, Rojapon Buranarugsa
BACKGROUND: The Tanner-Whitehouse radius-ulna-short bone protocol (TW2 RUS) for the assessment of skeletal age (SA) is widely used to estimate the biological (skeletal) maturity status of children and adolescents. The scale for converting TW RUS ratings to an SA has been revised (TW3 RUS) and has implications for studies of youth athletes in age-group sports. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare TW2 and TW3 RUS SAs in an international sample of male youth soccer players and to compare distributions of players by maturity status defined by each SA protocol...
October 29, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082463/talent-identification-in-sport-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Kathryn Johnston, Nick Wattie, Jörg Schorer, Joseph Baker
BACKGROUND: Talent identification (TID) programs are an integral part of the selection process for elite-level athletes. While many sport organizations utilize TID programs, there does not seem to be a clear set of variables that consistently predict future success. OBJECTIVE: This review aims to synthesize longitudinal and retrospective studies examining differences between performance variables in highly skilled and less-skilled athletes in elite-level sport. METHODS: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were used to identify relevant studies (N = 20)...
October 29, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080141/authors-reply-to-hill-comment-on-the-great-british-medalists-project-a-review-of-current-knowledge-on-the-development-of-the-world-s-best-sporting-talent
#15
LETTER
Tim Rees, Lew Hardy, Tim Woodman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 27, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080140/comment-on-the-great-british-medalists-project-a-review-of-current-knowledge-on-the-development-of-the-world-s-best-sporting-talent
#16
LETTER
Andrew P Hill
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 27, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063454/acute-effects-of-dynamic-stretching-on-muscle-flexibility-and-performance-an-analysis-of-the-current-literature
#17
REVIEW
Jules Opplert, Nicolas Babault
Stretching has long been used in many physical activities to increase range of motion (ROM) around a joint. Stretching also has other acute effects on the neuromuscular system. For instance, significant reductions in maximal voluntary strength, muscle power or evoked contractile properties have been recorded immediately after a single bout of static stretching, raising interest in other stretching modalities. Thus, the effects of dynamic stretching on subsequent muscular performance have been questioned. This review aimed to investigate performance and physiological alterations following dynamic stretching...
October 23, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052804/correction-to-effectiveness-of-exercise-interventions-to-improve-postural-control-in-older-adults-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analyses-of-centre-of-pressure-measurements
#18
Daniel C Low, Gregory S Walsh, Marco Arkesteijn
Page 103, Table 1: The cell entry in the 'Terms used' column which previously read: "Centre of pressure OR center of pressure OR COP OR postural sway OR postural stability OR postural control OR balance OR force plat*".
October 20, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043659/magnitude-of-muscle-strength-and-mass-adaptations-between-high-load-resistance-training-versus-low-load-resistance-training-associated-with-blood-flow-restriction-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
REVIEW
Manoel E Lixandrão, Carlos Ugrinowitsch, Ricardo Berton, Felipe C Vechin, Miguel S Conceição, Felipe Damas, Cleiton A Libardi, Hamilton Roschel
BACKGROUND: Low-load resistance training (< 50% of one-repetition maximum [1RM]) associated with blood-flow restriction (BFR-RT) has been thought to promote increases in muscle strength and mass. However, it remains unclear if the magnitude of these adaptations is similar to conventional high-load resistance training (> 65% 1RM; HL-RT). OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of HL- versus BFR-RT on muscle adaptations using a systematic review and meta-analysis procedure...
October 17, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039018/the-activity-demands-and-physiological-responses-encountered-during-basketball-match-play-a-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
Emilija Stojanović, Nenad Stojiljković, Aaron T Scanlan, Vincent J Dalbo, Daniel M Berkelmans, Zoran Milanović
BACKGROUND: Basketball is a popular, court-based team sport that has been extensively studied over the last decade. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article was to provide a systematic review regarding the activity demands and physiological responses experienced during basketball match-play according to playing period, playing position, playing level, geographical location, and sex. METHODS: An electronic database search of relevant articles published prior to 30 September 2016 was performed with PubMed, MEDLINE, ERIC, Google Scholar, SCIndex, and ScienceDirect...
October 16, 2017: Sports Medicine
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