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Sports Medicine

Scott J Dankel, Kevin T Mattocks, Matthew B Jessee, Samuel L Buckner, J Grant Mouser, Brittany R Counts, Gilberto C Laurentino, Jeremy P Loenneke
The principle of progressive overload must be adhered to for individuals to continually increase muscle size with resistance training. While the majority of trained individuals adhere to this principle by increasing the number of sets performed per exercise session, this does not appear to be an effective method for increasing muscle size once a given threshold is surpassed. Opposite the numerous studies examining differences in training loads and sets of exercise performed, a few studies have assessed the importance of training frequency with respect to muscle growth, none of which have tested very high frequencies of training (e...
October 17, 2016: Sports Medicine
Wesam Saleh A Al Attar, Najeebullah Soomro, Peter J Sinclair, Evangelos Pappas, Ross H Sanders
BACKGROUND: Hamstring injuries are among the most common non-contact injuries in sports. The Nordic hamstring (NH) exercise has been shown to decrease risk by increasing eccentric hamstring strength. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the effectiveness of the injury prevention programs that included the NH exercise on reducing hamstring injury rates while factoring in athlete workload. METHODS: Two researchers independently searched for eligible studies using the following databases: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials via OvidSP, AMED (Allied and Complementary Medicine) via OvidSP, EMBASE, PubMed, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, CINAHL and AusSportMed, from inception to December 2015...
October 17, 2016: Sports Medicine
Annelise L Menêses, Raphael M Ritti-Dias, Belinda Parmenter, Jonathan Golledge, Christopher D Askew
BACKGROUND: Both revascularisation and supervised exercise training improve functional outcomes and quality of life in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). However, the value of combined therapy, where exercise therapy is delivered as an adjunct to revascularisation, is less clear. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review evidence on the efficacy of lower limb revascularisation combined with supervised exercise training in patients with PAD. METHODS: Parallel-group randomised controlled trials indexed in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PubMed, Embase, Scopus, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus and Web of Science were searched (up to Jan 2016)...
October 12, 2016: Sports Medicine
Emilija Stojanović, Vladimir Ristić, Daniel Travis McMaster, Zoran Milanović
BACKGROUND: Plyometric training is an effective method to prevent knee injuries in female athletes; however, the effects of plyometric training on jump performance in female athletes is unclear. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the effectiveness of plyometric training on vertical jump (VJ) performance of amateur, collegiate and elite female athletes. METHODS: Six electronic databases were searched (PubMed, MEDLINE, ERIC, Google Scholar, SCIndex and ScienceDirect)...
October 4, 2016: Sports Medicine
Lars Donath, Ralf Roth, Lukas Zahner, Oliver Faude
BACKGROUND: Adequate static and dynamic balance performance is an important prerequisite during daily and sporting life. Various traditional and innovative balance training concepts have been suggested to improve postural control or neuromuscular fall risk profiles over recent years. Whether slackline training (balancing over narrow nylon ribbons) serves as an appropriate training strategy to improve static and dynamic balance performance is as yet unclear. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to examine the occurrence and magnitude of effects of slackline training compared with an inactive control condition on static and dynamic balance performance parameters in children, adults and seniors...
October 4, 2016: Sports Medicine
Marco Antonio Soriano, Timothy J Suchomel, Pedro J Marín
BACKGROUND: External mechanical power is considered to be one of the most important characteristics with regard to sport performance. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this meta-analysis was to examine the effect of load on kinetic variables such as mean and peak power during bench press and bench press throw, thus integrating the findings of various studies to provide the strength and conditioning professional with more reliable evidence upon which to base their program design...
October 3, 2016: Sports Medicine
Bethany Alice Jones, Jon Arcelus, Walter Pierre Bouman, Emma Haycraft
BACKGROUND: Whether transgender people should be able to compete in sport in accordance with their gender identity is a widely contested question within the literature and among sport organisations, fellow competitors and spectators. Owing to concerns surrounding transgender people (especially transgender female individuals) having an athletic advantage, several sport organisations place restrictions on transgender competitors (e.g. must have undergone gender-confirming surgery). In addition, some transgender people who engage in sport, both competitively and for leisure, report discrimination and victimisation...
October 3, 2016: Sports Medicine
Max Stuelcken, Daniel Mellifont, Adam Gorman, Mark Sayers
The wrist/hand complex forms the crucial final link in the kinetic chain between the body and the racquet and therefore has a number of important roles in the production of all tennis strokes. However, the internal and external loads that are created at the wrist during these strokes have the potential to contribute to pain and injury. Therefore, the purposes of this narrative review are to (1) determine the extent of the problem of wrist pain/injury in tennis players, (2) identify bony and soft tissue structures of the wrist that are susceptible to damage as a result of tennis play and (3) explore factors that may influence the development of wrist pain/injury in tennis players...
October 3, 2016: Sports Medicine
Hiroyuki Oda, Kanae Sano, Yoko Kunimasa, Paavo V Komi, Masaki Ishikawa
BACKGROUND: Patients who have had an Achilles tendon (AT) rupture repaired are potentially at higher risk for re-rupture than those without previous rupture. Little attention has been given to the neuromechanical modulation of muscle-tendon interaction and muscle activation profiles during human dynamic movements after AT rupture repair. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine muscle-tendon behavior and muscle activation during bilateral hopping. METHODS: We enrolled nine subjects who had undergone surgical repair of unilateral AT rupture within the past 1-2 years...
October 3, 2016: Sports Medicine
Christopher M Jones, Peter C Griffiths, Stephen D Mellalieu
BACKGROUND: Coaches, sport scientists, clinicians and medical personnel face a constant challenge to prescribe sufficient training load to produce training adaption while minimising fatigue, performance inhibition and risk of injury/illness. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review was to investigate the relationship between injury and illness and longitudinal training load and fatigue markers in sporting populations. METHODS: Systematic searches of the Web of Science and PubMed online databases to August 2015 were conducted for articles reporting relationships between training load/fatigue measures and injury/illness in athlete populations...
September 28, 2016: Sports Medicine
Isabel Andia, Nicola Maffulli
Regenerative medicine seeks to harness the potential of cell biology for tissue replacement therapies, which will restore lost tissue functionality. Controlling and enhancing tissue healing is not just a matter of cells, but also of molecules and mechanical forces. We first describe the main biological technologies to boost musculoskeletal healing, including bone marrow and subcutaneous fat-derived regenerative products, as well as platelet-rich plasma and conditioned media. We provide some information describing possible mechanisms of action...
September 28, 2016: Sports Medicine
Scott J Dankel, Matthew B Jessee, Kevin T Mattocks, J Grant Mouser, Brittany R Counts, Samuel L Buckner, Jeremy P Loenneke
Studies examining resistance training are of importance given that increasing or maintaining muscle mass aids in the prevention or attenuation of chronic disease. Within the literature, it is common practice to administer a set number of target repetitions to be completed by all individuals (i.e. 3 sets of 10) while setting the load relative to each individual's predetermined strength level (usually a one-repetition maximum). This is done under the assumption that all individuals are receiving a similar stimulus upon completing the protocol, but this does not take into account individual variability with regard to how fatiguing the protocol actually is...
September 28, 2016: Sports Medicine
Catriona A Burdon, Inge Spronk, Hoi Lun Cheng, Helen T O'Connor
BACKGROUND: Low glycemic index (GI) pre-exercise meals may enhance endurance performance by maintaining euglycemia and altering fuel utilization. However, evidence for performance benefits is equivocal. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of a low GI (LGI) versus a high GI (HGI) pre-exercise meal on endurance performance using meta-analyses. METHODS: Data sources included MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, AUSPORT, AusportMed, Web of Science, and Scopus...
September 28, 2016: Sports Medicine
Paulo Gentil, James Fisher, James Steele
Resistance exercises can be considered to be multi-joint (MJ) or single-joint (SJ) in nature. Many strength coaches, trainers, and trainees believe that adding SJ exercises to a resistance training (RT) program may be required to optimize muscular size and strength. However, given that lack of time is a frequently cited barrier to exercise adoption, the time commitment resulting from these recommendations may not be convenient for many people. Therefore, it is important to find strategies that reduce the time commitment without negatively affecting results...
September 27, 2016: Sports Medicine
Christopher J Stevens, Lee Taylor, Ben J Dascombe
It is well established that endurance performance is negatively affected by environmental heat stress due to a complex interaction of physical, physiological and psychological alterations. Numerous scientific investigations have attempted to improve performance in the heat with pre-cooling (cooling prior to an exercise test), and as such this has become a well-established ergogenic practice for endurance athletes. However, the use of mid-cooling (cooling during an exercise test) has received considerably less research attention in comparison, despite recent evidence to suggest that the advantage gained from mid-cooling may outweigh that of pre-cooling...
September 27, 2016: Sports Medicine
Jamie Douglas, Simon Pearson, Angus Ross, Mike McGuigan
BACKGROUND: Resistance training is an integral component of physical preparation for athletes. A growing body of evidence indicates that eccentric strength training methods induce novel stimuli for neuromuscular adaptations. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the effects of eccentric training in comparison to concentric-only or traditional (i.e. constrained by concentric strength) resistance training. METHODS: Searches were performed using the electronic databases MEDLINE via EBSCO, PubMed and SPORTDiscus via EBSCO...
September 19, 2016: Sports Medicine
Paul Macadam, John B Cronin, Kim D Simperingham
BACKGROUND: Wearable resistance training (WRT) provides a means of activity- or movement-specific overloading, supposedly resulting in better transference to dynamic sporting performance. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this review was to quantify the acute and longitudinal metabolic, kinematic and/or kinetic changes that occur with WRT during walking, running, sprint running or jumping movements. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science and MEDLINE (EBSCO) were searched using the Boolean phrases (limb OR vest OR trunk) AND (walk* OR run* OR sprint* OR jump* OR bound*) AND (metabolic OR kinetic OR kinematic) AND (load*)...
September 16, 2016: Sports Medicine
Jamie Douglas, Simon Pearson, Angus Ross, Mike McGuigan
An eccentric contraction involves the active lengthening of muscle under an external load. The molecular and neural mechanisms underpinning eccentric contractions differ from those of concentric and isometric contractions and remain less understood. A number of molecular theories have been put forth to explain the unexplained observations during eccentric contractions that deviate from the predictions of the established theories of muscle contraction. Postulated mechanisms include a strain-induced modulation of actin-myosin interactions at the level of the cross-bridge, the activation of the structural protein titin, and the winding of titin on actin...
September 15, 2016: Sports Medicine
Nicholas F McMahon, Michael D Leveritt, Toby G Pavey
BACKGROUND: Recent research into the use of dietary nitrates and their role in vascular function has led to it becoming progressively more popular amongst athletes attempting to enhance performance. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature to evaluate the effect of dietary nitrate (NO3 (-)) supplementation on endurance exercise performance. An additional aim was to determine whether the performance outcomes are affected by potential moderator variables...
September 6, 2016: Sports Medicine
Justin Kompf, Ognjen Arandjelović
Since it was first observed, and especially so in recent years, the phenomenon of the so-called "sticking point" in resistance training has attracted a substantial amount of sports and exercise science research. Broadly speaking, the sticking point is understood as the position in the range of motion of a lift at which a disproportionately large increase in the difficulty associated with continuing the lift is experienced. Hence the sticking point is inherently the performance bottleneck, and is also associated with an increased chance of exercise form deterioration or breakdown...
September 6, 2016: Sports Medicine
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