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Sports Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900583/does-elite-sport-degrade-sleep-quality-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
Luke Gupta, Kevin Morgan, Sarah Gilchrist
BACKGROUND: Information on sleep quality and insomnia symptomatology among elite athletes remains poorly systematised in the sports science and medicine literature. The extent to which performance in elite sport represents a risk for chronic insomnia is unknown. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this systematic review was to profile the objective and experienced characteristics of sleep among elite athletes, and to consider relationships between elite sport and insomnia symptomatology...
November 29, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896682/methods-of-power-force-velocity-profiling-during-sprint-running-a-narrative-review
#2
REVIEW
Matt R Cross, Matt Brughelli, Pierre Samozino, Jean-Benoit Morin
The ability of the human body to generate maximal power is linked to a host of performance outcomes and sporting success. Power-force-velocity relationships characterize limits of the neuromuscular system to produce power, and their measurement has been a common topic in research for the past century. Unfortunately, the narrative of the available literature is complex, with development occurring across a variety of methods and technology. This review focuses on the different equipment and methods used to determine mechanical characteristics of maximal exertion human sprinting...
November 28, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889869/left-ventricular-speckle-tracking-derived-cardiac-strain-and-cardiac-twist-mechanics-in-athletes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-controlled-studies
#3
REVIEW
Alexander Beaumont, Fergal Grace, Joanna Richards, John Hough, David Oxborough, Nicholas Sculthorpe
BACKGROUND: The athlete's heart is associated with physiological remodeling as a consequence of repetitive cardiac loading. The effect of exercise training on left ventricular (LV) cardiac strain and twist mechanics are equivocal, and no meta-analysis has been conducted to date. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to review the literature pertaining to the effect of different forms of athletic training on cardiac strain and twist mechanics and determine the influence of traditional and contemporary sporting classifications on cardiac strain and twist mechanics...
November 26, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878524/muscle-injuries-in-sports-a-new-evidence-informed-and-expert-consensus-based-classification-with-clinical-application
#4
Xavier Valle, Eduard Alentorn-Geli, Johannes L Tol, Bruce Hamilton, William E Garrett, Ricard Pruna, Lluís Til, Josep Antoni Gutierrez, Xavier Alomar, Ramón Balius, Nikos Malliaropoulos, Joan Carles Monllau, Rodney Whiteley, Erik Witvrouw, Kristian Samuelsson, Gil Rodas
Muscle injuries are among the most common injuries in sport and continue to be a major concern because of training and competition time loss, challenging decision making regarding treatment and return to sport, and a relatively high recurrence rate. An adequate classification of muscle injury is essential for a full understanding of the injury and to optimize its management and return-to-play process. The ongoing failure to establish a classification system with broad acceptance has resulted from factors such as limited clinical applicability, and the inclusion of subjective findings and ambiguous terminology...
November 23, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873191/effect-of-exercise-training-on-non-exercise-physical-activity-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#5
REVIEW
Michael V Fedewa, Elizabeth D Hathaway, Tyler D Williams, Michael D Schmidt
BACKGROUND: Many overweight and obese individuals use exercise when attempting to lose weight. However, the improvements in weight and body composition are often far less than expected. Levels of physical activity outside of the structured exercise program are believed to change and may be responsible for the unsuccessful weight loss. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this meta-analysis was to provide a quantitative estimate of the change in non-exercise physical activity (NEPA) during exercise interventions...
November 21, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873190/development-of-a-skill-acquisition-periodisation-framework-for-high-performance-sport
#6
REVIEW
Damian Farrow, Sam Robertson
Unlike physical training, skill acquisition does not currently utilise periodisation to plan, monitor and evaluate programs. Development of a skill acquisition periodisation framework would allow for systematic investigation into the acute and longitudinal effectiveness of such interventions. Using the physical training literature as a reference point, a skill-training periodisation framework was developed for use in high-performance sport. Previous research undertaken in skill acquisition was used to provide support for the framework...
November 21, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858306/menthol-a-fresh-ergogenic-aid-for-athletic-performance
#7
Christopher J Stevens, Russ Best
The application of menthol has recently been researched as a performance-enhancing aid for various aspects of athletic performance including endurance, speed, strength and joint range of motion. A range of application methods has been used including a mouth rinse, ingestion of a beverage containing menthol or external application to the skin or clothing via a gel or spray. The majority of research has focussed on the use of menthol to impart a cooling sensation on athletes performing endurance exercise in the heat...
November 17, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844337/physical-activity-and-prostate-cancer-an-updated-review
#8
REVIEW
Roy J Shephard
Prostate cancer affects a major proportion of older men, and effective preventive measures are few. Earlier suggestions of 10-30% risk reduction from vigorous physical activity thus merit further analysis. This narrative review updates information on associations between physical activity and prostate cancer, seeking activity patterns associated with maximal risk reduction. Systematic searches of Ovid/MEDLINE and PubMed databases from 1996 to June 2016 have linked the terms prostate neoplasms/prostate cancer with occupation, occupational title, sedentary job or heavy work, exercise, physical activity, sports, athletes, physical education/training or aerobic fitness...
November 14, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807719/health-outcomes-in-relation-to-physical-activity-status-overweight-obesity-and-history-of-overweight-obesity-a-review-of-the-watch-paradigm
#9
Scott J Dankel, Jeremy P Loenneke, Paul D Loprinzi
Previous research has shown that physical activity may mitigate the association between overweight/obesity and a number of negative health outcomes; however, less is known on how the duration of overweight/obesity alters this association. Therefore, the purpose of this leading article was to synthesize recent studies from our research group examining how physical activity, overweight/obesity classification, and importantly, overweight/obesity duration impact the association with a variety of different health outcomes...
November 2, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785775/risk-and-protective-factors-for-middle-and-long-distance-running-related-injury
#10
REVIEW
Adam Hulme, Rasmus Oestergaard Nielsen, Toomas Timpka, Evert Verhagen, Caroline Finch
BACKGROUND: Despite a rapidly growing body of research, a systematic evidence compilation of the risk and protective factors for middle- and long-distance running-related injury (RRI) was lacking. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to compile the evidence about modifiable and non-modifiable training-related and behavioral risk and protective factors for middle- and long-distance RRI. METHODS: We searched five databases (PubMed, CINAHL, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, and PsycINFO) for the dates 1 January 1970 to 31 December 2015, inclusive, for original peer-reviewed articles...
October 27, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785773/reporting-multiple-individual-injuries-in-studies-of-team-ball-sports-a-systematic-review-of-current-practice
#11
REVIEW
Lauren V Fortington, Henk van der Worp, Inge van den Akker-Scheek, Caroline F Finch
BACKGROUND: To identify and prioritise targets for injury prevention efforts, injury incidence studies are widely reported. The accuracy and consistency in calculation and reporting of injury incidence is crucial. Many individuals experience more than one injury but multiple injuries are not consistently reported in sport injury incidence studies. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate current practice of how multiple injuries within individuals have been defined and reported in prospective, long-term, injury studies in team ball sports...
October 26, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778303/will-the-conscious-subconscious-pacing-quagmire-help-elucidate-the-mechanisms-of-self-paced-exercise-new-opportunities-in-dual-process-theory-and-process-tracing-methods
#12
Dominic Micklewright, Sue Kegerreis, John Raglin, Florentina Hettinga
The extent to which athletic pacing decisions are made consciously or subconsciously is a prevailing issue. In this article we discuss why the one-dimensional conscious-subconscious debate that has reigned in the pacing literature has suppressed our understanding of the multidimensional processes that occur in pacing decisions. How do we make our decisions in real-life competitive situations? What information do we use and how do we respond to opponents? These are questions that need to be explored and better understood, using smartly designed experiments...
October 25, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757818/can-clinical-evaluation-predict-return-to-sport-after-acute-hamstring-injuries-a-systematic-review
#13
Lotte Schut, Arnlaug Wangensteen, Jolanda Maaskant, Johannes L Tol, Roald Bahr, Maarten Moen
BACKGROUND: The current literature on the value of clinical evaluation for predicting time to return to sport (RTS) after acute hamstring injuries has not been systematically summarised. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature on the prognostic value of clinical findings (patient history and physical examination) for time to RTS after acute hamstring injuries in athletes. DATA SOURCES: The databases PubMed, EMBASE, SPORTDiscus and Cochrane Library were searched between October 2014 and August 2015...
October 18, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752983/frequency-the-overlooked-resistance-training-variable-for-inducing-muscle-hypertrophy
#14
Scott J Dankel, Kevin T Mattocks, Matthew B Jessee, Samuel L Buckner, J Grant Mouser, Brittany R Counts, Gilberto C Laurentino, Jeremy P Loenneke
The principle of progressive overload must be adhered to for individuals to continually increase muscle size with resistance training. While the majority of trained individuals adhere to this principle by increasing the number of sets performed per exercise session, this does not appear to be an effective method for increasing muscle size once a given threshold is surpassed. Opposite the numerous studies examining differences in training loads and sets of exercise performed, a few studies have assessed the importance of training frequency with respect to muscle growth, none of which have tested very high frequencies of training (e...
October 17, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752982/effect-of-injury-prevention-programs-that-include-the-nordic-hamstring-exercise-on-hamstring-injury-rates-in-soccer-players-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Wesam Saleh A Al Attar, Najeebullah Soomro, Peter J Sinclair, Evangelos Pappas, Ross H Sanders
BACKGROUND: Hamstring injuries are among the most common non-contact injuries in sports. The Nordic hamstring (NH) exercise has been shown to decrease risk by increasing eccentric hamstring strength. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the effectiveness of the injury prevention programs that included the NH exercise on reducing hamstring injury rates while factoring in athlete workload. METHODS: Two researchers independently searched for eligible studies using the following databases: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials via OvidSP, AMED (Allied and Complementary Medicine) via OvidSP, EMBASE, PubMed, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, CINAHL and AusSportMed, from inception to December 2015...
October 17, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730569/combined-lower-limb-revascularisation-and-supervised-exercise-training-for-patients-with-peripheral-arterial-disease-a-systematic-review-of-randomised-controlled-trials
#16
Annelise L Menêses, Raphael M Ritti-Dias, Belinda Parmenter, Jonathan Golledge, Christopher D Askew
BACKGROUND: Both revascularisation and supervised exercise training improve functional outcomes and quality of life in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). However, the value of combined therapy, where exercise therapy is delivered as an adjunct to revascularisation, is less clear. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review evidence on the efficacy of lower limb revascularisation combined with supervised exercise training in patients with PAD. METHODS: Parallel-group randomised controlled trials indexed in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PubMed, Embase, Scopus, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus and Web of Science were searched (up to Jan 2016)...
October 12, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704484/effect-of-plyometric-training-on-vertical-jump-performance-in-female-athletes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
Emilija Stojanović, Vladimir Ristić, Daniel Travis McMaster, Zoran Milanović
BACKGROUND: Plyometric training is an effective method to prevent knee injuries in female athletes; however, the effects of plyometric training on jump performance in female athletes is unclear. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the effectiveness of plyometric training on vertical jump (VJ) performance of amateur, collegiate and elite female athletes. METHODS: Six electronic databases were searched (PubMed, MEDLINE, ERIC, Google Scholar, SCIndex and ScienceDirect)...
October 4, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704483/slackline-training-balancing-over-narrow-nylon-ribbons-and-balance-performance-a-meta-analytical-review
#18
Lars Donath, Ralf Roth, Lukas Zahner, Oliver Faude
BACKGROUND: Adequate static and dynamic balance performance is an important prerequisite during daily and sporting life. Various traditional and innovative balance training concepts have been suggested to improve postural control or neuromuscular fall risk profiles over recent years. Whether slackline training (balancing over narrow nylon ribbons) serves as an appropriate training strategy to improve static and dynamic balance performance is as yet unclear. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to examine the occurrence and magnitude of effects of slackline training compared with an inactive control condition on static and dynamic balance performance parameters in children, adults and seniors...
October 4, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699699/the-optimal-load-for-maximal-power-production-during-upper-body-resistance-exercises-a-meta-analysis
#19
Marco Antonio Soriano, Timothy J Suchomel, Pedro J Marín
BACKGROUND: External mechanical power is considered to be one of the most important characteristics with regard to sport performance. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this meta-analysis was to examine the effect of load on kinetic variables such as mean and peak power during bench press and bench press throw, thus integrating the findings of various studies to provide the strength and conditioning professional with more reliable evidence upon which to base their program design...
October 3, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699698/sport-and-transgender-people-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature-relating-to-sport-participation-and-competitive-sport-policies
#20
Bethany Alice Jones, Jon Arcelus, Walter Pierre Bouman, Emma Haycraft
BACKGROUND: Whether transgender people should be able to compete in sport in accordance with their gender identity is a widely contested question within the literature and among sport organisations, fellow competitors and spectators. Owing to concerns surrounding transgender people (especially transgender female individuals) having an athletic advantage, several sport organisations place restrictions on transgender competitors (e.g. must have undergone gender-confirming surgery). In addition, some transgender people who engage in sport, both competitively and for leisure, report discrimination and victimisation...
October 3, 2016: Sports Medicine
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