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International Journal of Sports Medicine

Stuart K Kim, John P A Ioannidis, Marwa A Ahmed, Andrew L Avins, John P Kleimeyer, Michael Fredericson, Jason L Dragoo
Plantar fascial disorder is comprised of plantar fasciitis and plantar fibromatosis. Plantar fasciitis is the most common cause of heel pain, especially for athletes involved in running and jumping sports. Plantar fibromatosis is a rare fibrous hyperproliferation of the deep connective tissue of the foot. To identify genetic loci associated with plantar fascial disorders, a genome-wide association screen was performed using publically available data from the Research Program in Genes, Environment and Health including 21,624 cases of plantar fascial disorders and 80,879 controls...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Tomas Maly, Dai Sugimoto, Jana Izovska, Frantisek Zahalka, Lucia Mala
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of muscular strength, strength asymmetries, and fatigue on the speed and accuracy of an instep kick in soccer players. We measured ball velocity (BV) and kicking accuracy (KA) in the preferred (PL) and non-preferred leg (NPL) before (PRE) and after (POST) physical load in the PL. Maximum peak muscle torque of the knee extensors and flexors in the PL and NPL as well as ipsilateral knee flexors and knee extensors ratio (H:Q ratio) for both legs were assessed. BV was significantly decreased in POST physical load (5...
March 5, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Ewan Thomas, Antonino Bianco, Antonio Paoli, Antonio Palma
Different stretching strategies and protocols are widely used to improve flexibility or maintain health, acting on the muscle tendon-unit, in order to improve the range of motion (ROM) of the joints. This review aims to evaluate the current body of literature in order to understand the relation between stretching typology and ROM, and secondly to evaluate if a relation exists between stretching volume (either as a single training session, weekly training and weekly frequency) and ROM, after long-term stretching...
March 5, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Perrine Truong, Gregoire P Millet, Boris Gojanovic
This study aimed to investigate the differences in maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max ) and submaximal thresholds between a standard graded exercise test (GXT) and a perceptually regulated graded exercise test (PRGXT) in trained runners. Eleven well-trained middle- to long-distance runners performed both tests in a randomized order. PRGXT used incremental "clamps" of rating of perceived exertion (RPE) over 10×1-min stages on an automated treadmill equipped with a sonar sensor allowing them to change their running speed instantly and in a natural way...
February 23, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Azriel D Dror, Katie Virk, Kassandra Lee, Aaron Gerston, Anuradha Prakash, Marcia J Abbott, S Victoria Jaque, Ken D Sumida
The purpose of this study was to determine the minimum amount of resistance exercise that would stimulate bone formation yielding an elevation in bone mineral density (BMD) during the growth period in female rats. Female rats were randomly divided into: Control (Con, n=8), 3 ladder climb resistance-trained group (3LC, n=8), 4 ladder climb resistance-trained group (4LC, n=8), 5 ladder climb resistance-trained group (5LC, n=8), and 6 ladder climb resistance-trained group (6LC, n=8). All exercised groups were conditioned to climb a vertical ladder with weights appended to their tail 3 days/wk for a total of 6 wks...
February 23, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Jonathan D Hughes, Katrina Denton, Rhodri S Lloyd, Jon L Oliver, Mark De Ste Croix
Post-match assessment of creatine kinase (CK) activity and delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) are common markers of exercise-induced muscle damage and recovery status in soccer players. These responses have not been examined in youth female players. This study examined the effect of competitive match play on CK activity and DOMS in elite youth players. Thirty-four elite female players, divided into three chronological age groups (U13, n=11; U15, n=10; U17 n=12). Players completed baseline testing for CK and DOMS that was repeated immediately (for DOMS), 80, 128 and 168 h post-competitive match play for CK...
February 23, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Hiromasa Ueno, Tadashi Suga, Kenji Takao, Takahiro Tanaka, Jun Misaki, Yuto Miyake, Akinori Nagano, Tadao Isaka
Recently, we reported that the forefoot bones were longer in sprinters than in non-sprinters, and that longer forefoot bones correlated with higher sprint performance in sprinters. To further understand the superiority of long forefoot bones in athletic performance, we examined whether forefoot bone length was associated with running performance in endurance runners. The length of the forefoot bones of the big and second toes were measured using magnetic resonance imaging in 45 male well-trained endurance runners and 45 male untrained subjects...
February 23, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Atsushi Imai, Takeshi Imai, Satoshi Iizuka, Koji Kaneoka
The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of a trunk stabilization exercise warm-up program in reducing the incidence of lower extremity injuries among male junior soccer players. Two junior soccer teams participated in this study. The intervention (INT) team performed three trunk stabilization exercises before practice sessions and games, while a control (CON) team performed their usual warm-up without trunk exercises. Both teams engaged in regular soccer training and games, and were followed for the incidence of injury...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Rhiannon M J Snipe, Anthony Khoo, Cecilia M Kitic, Peter R Gibson, Ricardo J S Costa
The study aimed to determine the effects of mild exertional heat stress on intestinal injury, permeability, gastrointestinal symptoms, and systemic endotoxin and cytokine responses. Ten endurance runners completed 2 h of running at 60% V̇O2max in warm (WARM: 30°C) and temperate (TEMP: 22°C) ambient conditions. Rectal temperature (Tre) and gastrointestinal symptoms were recorded every 10 min during exercise. Blood samples were collected pre- and post-exercise, and during recovery to determine plasma intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP) and cortisol concentrations, and systemic endotoxin and inflammatory cytokine profiles...
February 7, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Ethan C Hill, Terry J Housh, Clayton L Camic, Cory M Smith, Richard J Schmidt, Glen Johnson
The mechanisms underlying velocity-specific decreases in torque production during eccentric muscle actions remain unclear. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine electrical efficiency at 60 and 180°·s -1 during fatiguing, maximal eccentric isokinetic muscle actions of the leg extensors. Thirteen men visited the lab on two occasions and randomly performed 30 repeated maximal eccentric isokinetic muscle actions of the leg extensors at 60 and 180°·s - ¹ through a 90° range of motion. Polynomial regression analyses and separate repeated measures ANOVAs were used to examine the composite patterns of responses for electromyographic amplitude, eccentric torque, and electrical efficiency across the 60 and 180°·s - ¹ protocols...
February 7, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Ryu Nagahara, Yohei Takai, Hiroaki Kanehisa, Tetsuo Fukunaga
This study aimed to clarify the influence of vertical impulse on the magnitude of step length (SL) and frequency (SF) and their ratio during the entire acceleration phase of maximal sprinting. Thirty-nine male soccer players performed 60-m sprints, during which step-to-step ground reaction forces were recorded over a 50-m distance. The mean values of spatiotemporal variables and vertical and anteroposterior impulses for each set of four steps during the acceleration phase until the 28th step were computed to examine relationships among variables in seven sections...
February 7, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Don Keiller, Dan Gordon
This study investigates heart rate (HR), in 11 young adults (22.4±3.21yr), at V̇O2max, to ascertain whether measured maximal heart rate (HRmax), as determined by a plateau in HR (HRplat), can reliably confirm V̇O2max. V̇O2max and HRplat were determined, using the parameters of a V̇O2≤50 ml•min-1 and a ∆HR≤2b•min-1, respectively, over the final 60 s of sampling. V̇O2 was also independently determined using a verification phase protocol. A HRplat was achieved by 91% of participants (∆HR=1...
January 24, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Kentaro Chino, Toshiyuki Ohya, Emika Kato, Yasuhiro Suzuki
To examine the effect of long-term daily training on athletes' skeletal muscle, this study determined the relation between their muscle thickness and passive muscle stiffness, and compared the muscle thickness and muscle stiffness between athletes and non-athletes. Participants were elite Japanese athletes (278 men, 200 women) from various sports and non-athletes (35 men, 35 women). Rectus femoris (RF) muscle thickness was measured using B-mode ultrasonography and was normalized to the total body mass (muscle thickness/body mass1/3)...
January 24, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Mark Rakobowchuk, Laurie Isacco, Ophélie Ritter, Alicia González Represas, Malika Bouhaddi, Bruno Degano, Nicolas Tordi, Laurent Mourot
Muscle deoxygenation responses provide information about the training impulse of an exercise session enabling adaptation to be predicted. Our aim was to investigate muscle oxygenation profiles during prolonged low-intensity eccentric and concentric cycling. Twelve healthy men performed two 45-min exercise sessions of concentric (CON) and eccentric (ECC) cycling, matched for the same heart rate at the start of each session. Mechanical power output during ECC was ~2.5 times that of CON (210±40 W vs. 82±16 W)...
January 24, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
David J Elmer, Marissa Toney
PURPOSE: The modified Dmax method can accurately determine the second lactate threshold (LT2), which is valuable for predicting aerobic performance and prescribing exercise. The purpose of this study is to determine if the modified Dmax method can accurately find thresholds in VE (VT2), VCO2 (VCO2T), RER (RERT), and RR (RRT) to estimate LT2. METHODS: Forty-one participants (females n=23, males n=18) completed an incremental exercise test to determine LT2, VT2, VCO2T, RERT, RRT, and blood lactate=4 mmol/L (La4)...
January 23, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Hiroaki Inoue, Kunio Hara, Yuji Arai, Shuji Nakagawa, Hiroyuki Kan, Manabu Hino, Hiroyoshi Fujiwara, Toshikazu Kubo
Conventional surgical methods for iliotibial band friction syndrome (ITBFS) may affect the iliotibial band (ITB), delaying return to sports activities or impeding performance. We have developed a minimally invasive method. This study retrospectively analyzed the outcomes of this procedure in individuals with ITBFS. This study included 34 knees of 31 individuals. Surgery involved lengthening the central part of the ITB by splitting it into a superficial and a deep layer, maintaining the anterior and posterior fibers immediately above the lateral epicondyle...
January 23, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Mikio Hiura, Tadashi Nariai, Muneyuki Sakata, Akitaka Muta, Kenji Ishibashi, Kei Wagatsuma, Tetsuro Tago, Jun Toyohara, Kenji Ishii, Taketoshi Maehara
Dynamic exercise elicits fluctuations in blood pressure (BP) and cerebral blood flow (CBF). This study investigated responses in BP and CBF during cycling exercise and post-exercise hypotension (PEH) using positron emission tomography (PET). CBF was measured using oxygen-15-labeled water (H215O) and PET in 11 human subjects at rest (Rest), at the onset of exercise (Ex1), later in the exercise (Ex2), and during PEH. Global CBF significantly increased by 13% at Ex1 compared with Rest, but was unchanged at Ex2 and during PEH...
January 22, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Hiromasa Ueno, Tadashi Suga, Kenji Takao, Takahiro Tanaka, Jun Misaki, Yuto Miyake, Akinori Nagano, Tadao Isaka
The present study aimed to determine the relationship between passive stiffness of the plantar flexors and running performance in endurance runners. Forty-eight well-trained male endurance runners and 24 untrained male control subjects participated in this study. Plantar flexor stiffness during passive dorsiflexion was calculated from the slope of the linear portion of the torque-angle curve. Of the endurance runners included in the present study, running economy in 28 endurance runners was evaluated by measuring energy cost during three 4-min trials (14, 16, and 18 km/h) of submaximal treadmill running...
December 29, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Irineu Loturco, Lucas Adriano Pereira, Ronaldo Kobal, Cesar Cavinato Cal Abad, William Komatsu, Ronaldo Cunha, Gustavo Arliani, Benno Ejnisman, Alberto de Castro Pochini, Fábio Yuzo Nakamura, Moises Cohen
There are several methods used in sports science to identify asymmetries in athletes, given their purported relevance to injury prevention and performance optimization. We aimed to verify whether asymmetries provided by isokinetic assessments, jump tests, and tensiomyography (TMG) are associated with each other, and whether their respective functional indices are related to jumping ability. TMG parameters, unilateral and bilateral squat-jump (SJ) and countermovement-jump (CMJ) performances, and peak torque in knee-extension and flexion with angular velocities of 60o/s and 300o/s for twenty-four soccer players were retained for analyses...
December 28, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Raúl Domínguez, José Luis Maté-Muñoz, Noemí Serra-Paya, Manuel Vicente Garnacho-Castaño
In resistance training, load intensity is usually calculated as the percentage of a maximum repetition (1RM) or maximum number of possible repetitions (% of 1RM). Some studies have proposed a lactate threshold (LT) intensity as an optimal approach for concurrent training of cardiorespiratory endurance and muscle strength, as well as an alternative in resistance training. The objective of the present study was to analyze the results obtained in research evaluating the use of LT in resistance training. A keyword and search tree strategy identified 14 relevant articles in the Dialnet, Elsevier, Medline, Pubmed, Scopus and Web of Science databases...
December 28, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
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