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Catherine Mary Hill, Romola Starr Bucks, Nicola Cellini, Shayan Motamedi, Annette Carroll, Kate Heathcote, Rebecca Webster, David Simpson
Study Objectives: We aimed to characterize heart rate variability (HRV) during sleep in Andean children native to high altitude (HA) compared to age, gender and genetic ancestry-similar low altitude (LA) children. We hypothesized that the hypoxic burden of sleep at HA could induce variation in HRV. As children have otherwise healthy cardiovascular systems, such alterations could provide early markers of later cardiovascular disease. Methods: Twenty-six LA (14F) and 18 HA (8F) children underwent a single night of attended polysomnography...
September 13, 2018: Sleep
Conor J Wild, Emily S Nichols, Michael E Battista, Bobby Stojanoski, Adrian M Owen
Most people will at some point experience not getting enough sleep over a period of days, weeks, or months. However, the effects of this kind of everyday sleep restriction on high-level cognitive abilities - such as the ability to store and recall information in memory, solve problems, and communicate - remain poorly understood. In a global sample of over 10,000 people, we demonstrated that cognitive performance, measured using a set of 12 well-established tests, is impaired in people who reported typically sleeping less, or more, than 7-8 hours per night - which was roughly half the sample...
September 13, 2018: Sleep
Elise Hodges, Carole L Marcus, Ji Young Kim, Melissa Xanthopoulos, Justine Shults, Bruno Giordani, Dean W Beebe, Carol L Rosen, Ronald D Chervin, Ron B Mitchell, Eliot S Katz, David Gozal, Susan Redline, Lisa Elden, Raanan Arens, Renee Moore, H Gerry Taylor, Jerilynn Radcliffe, Nina H Thomas
Study Objectives: Depressive symptoms following adenotonsillectomy (AT) relative to controls were examined in children with OSAS. Methods : The Childhood Adenotonsillectomy Trial (CHAT) multisite study examined the impact of AT in 453 children aged 5 to 9.9 years with polysomnographic evidence of OSAS without prolonged desaturation, randomized to early adenotonsillectomy (eAT) or watchful waiting with supportive care (WWSC). 176 children (eAT n=83; WWSC n=93) with complete evaluations for depressive symptomatology between baseline and after a 7 month intervention period were included in this secondary analysis...
September 13, 2018: Sleep
Maryam El Gewely, Mélanie Welman, Lan Xiong, Sophie Yin, Hélène Catoire, Guy Rouleau, Jacques Y Montplaisir, Alex Desautels, Simon C Warby
Two genome-wide association studies (GWAS) suggest that insomnia and restless legs syndrome (RLS) share a common genetic basis. While the identified genetic variation in the MEIS1 gene was previously associated with RLS, the two GWAS suggest a novel and independent association with insomnia symptoms. To test the potential pleiotropic effect of MEIS1, we genotyped three MEIS1 variants in 646 chronic insomnia disorder (CID) patients with and without RLS. To confirm our results, we compared the allelic and genotypic distributions of the CID cohort with ethnically matched controls and RLS cases in the French Canadian cohort...
September 12, 2018: Sleep
Romola S Bucks, Shenooka Nanthakumar, Sergio S Starkstein, David Hillman, Alan James, Nigel McArdle, Katherine Hatch, Timothy C Skinner
Obstructive sleep apnoea and related symptoms study,, ACTRN12612001136897.
September 8, 2018: Sleep
Mari Hysing, Allison G Harvey, Kjell Morten Stormark, Ståle Pallesen, Børge Sivertsen
Study objective: The aim of this study was to assess sleep behavior, sleep problems and mental health in childhood as possible candidate precursors for the development of Delayed Sleep Phase (DSP) during adolescence. Methods: A longitudinal cohort study of 2200 children at age 7-9(T1), 11-13(T2), and 16-19(T3) years. DSP was assessed at T3, and mental health problems by the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire and time in bed and sleep problems at T1 and T2. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine associations between sleep and mental health at T1 and T2, and subsequent DSP at T3...
September 7, 2018: Sleep
Adam P Spira, Yang An, Mark N Wu, Jocelynn T Owusu, Eleanor M Simonsick, Murat Bilgel, Luigi Ferrucci, Dean F Wong, Susan M Resnick
Study Objectives: To determine the association of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and napping with subsequent brain β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition in cognitively normal persons. Methods: We studied 124 community-dwelling participants in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging Neuroimaging Substudy who completed self-report measures of EDS and napping at our study baseline and underwent [11C] Pittsburgh compound B positron emission tomography (PiB PET) scans of the brain, an average ±standard deviation of 15...
September 5, 2018: Sleep
Dayna A Johnson, Na Guo, Michael Rueschman, Rui Wang, James G Wilson, Susan Redline
Study Objectives: African Americans have been under-represented in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) research. This study determined the prevalence and correlates of OSA overall and by sex among African Americans in the Jackson Heart Sleep Study. Methods: Participants (N = 852) underwent a type 3 in-home sleep apnea study, 7 day wrist actigraphy and completed standardized measurements and questionnaires. OSA was defined as an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of ≥15, where hypopneas were defined as ≥ 4% associated desaturation...
September 5, 2018: Sleep
Kara M Whitaker, Pamela L Lutsey, Rachel P Ogilvie, James S Pankow, Alain Bertoni, Erin D Michos, Naresh Punjabi, Susan Redline
Study Objectives: To examine the associations of sleep measures with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) among individuals with and without type 2 diabetes. Methods: Data were from 2,049 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis participants taking part in a sleep ancillary study. Cross-sectional linear regression models examined associations of actigraphy estimates of sleep (sleep duration, variability, maintenance efficiency) and polysomnography measures (obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and hypoxemia) with HbA1c, stratified by diabetes status...
September 3, 2018: Sleep
Roy Cox, Dimitris S Mylonas, Dara S Manoach, Robert Stickgold
Slow oscillations and sleep spindles, the canonical electrophysiological oscillations of non-rapid eye movement sleep, are thought to gate incoming sensory information, underlie processes of sleep-dependent memory consolidation, and are altered in various neuropsychiatric disorders. Accumulating evidence of the predominantly local expression of these individual oscillatory rhythms suggests that their cross-frequency interactions may have a similar local component. However, it is unclear whether locally coordinated sleep oscillations exist across the cortex, and whether and how these dynamics differ between fast and slow spindles, and sleep stages...
September 3, 2018: Sleep
Péter Simor, Emilie Steinbach, Tamás Nagy, Médhi Gilson, Juliane Farthouat, Rémy Schmitz, Ferenc Gombos, Péter Ujma, Miklós Pamula, Róbert Bódizs, Philippe Peigneux
Slow wave sleep (SWS) is characterized by the predominance of delta waves and slow oscillations, reflecting the synchronized activity of large cortical neuronal populations. Amongst other functions, SWS plays a crucial role in the restorative capacity of sleep. Rhythmic Acoustic Stimulation (RAS) during SWS has been shown a cost-effective method to enhance slow wave activity. Slow wave activity can be expressed in a region-specific manner as a function of previous waking activity. However, it is unclear whether slow waves can be enhanced in a region-specific manner using RAS...
September 1, 2018: Sleep
Ian G Campbell, Hans P A Van Dongen, Marcus Gainer, Emmad Karmouta, Irwin Feinberg
Study Objectives: There is contradictory evidence on whether sleep need decreases across adolescence. We investigated this question longitudinally with a dose-response design to test the effects of varied sleep durations on daytime sleepiness and on vigilance and to test whether these relations change with age across early and mid-adolescence. Methods: Data from 76 participants who completed at least 2 years of the 3 year study are included in this report. Annually, participants ranging in age from 9...
August 31, 2018: Sleep
Christi S Ulmer, Martica H Hall, Paul A Dennis, Jean C Beckham, Anne Germain
Study Objectives: To determine whether high frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV) during sleep differs between those with and without PTSD as a function of sleep type (NREM versus REM), and to explore this relationship across successive sleep cycles. Participants with PTSD were hypothesized to have lower HF-HRV across both REM and NREM sleep. Methods: Sixty-two post-9/11 military veterans and service members completed self-report measures of sleep quality, insomnia severity, and disruptive nocturnal behaviors...
August 29, 2018: Sleep
Sarah F Schoch, Brady A Riedner, Sean C Deoni, Reto Huber, Monique K LeBourgeois, Salome Kurth
Study Objectives: Sleep slow waves behave like traveling waves and are thus a marker for brain connectivity. Across a night of sleep in adults, wave propagation is scaled down, becoming more local. Yet, it is unknown whether slow wave propagation undergoes similar across-night dynamics in childhood - a period of extensive cortical rewiring. Methods: High-density EEG (128 channels) was recorded during sleep in three groups of healthy children: 2.0 - 4.9 y (n=11), 5...
August 29, 2018: Sleep
William R McMahon, Suzanne Ftouni, Sean P A Drummond, Paul Maruff, Steven W Lockley, Shantha M W Rajaratnam, Clare Anderson
Study Objectives: The interaction between homeostatic sleep pressure and circadian timing modulates the impact of sleep deprivation on cognition. We aimed to investigate how this interaction affects different cognitive functions. Methods: Twenty-three healthy volunteers (18 males; mean age = 25.4 ± 5.7 years) underwent 40 hours of sleep deprivation under constant routine conditions. Performance on the Psychomotor Vigilance Test and a cognitive battery assessing vigilant attention, complex attention, recognition memory, and working memory was assessed in the morning (27 hours awake) and evening (37 hours awake) during sleep deprivation and compared to well-rested performance 24 hours earlier...
August 29, 2018: Sleep
Xiao Liu, Sarah Immanuel, Declan Kennedy, James Martin, Yvonne Pamula, Mathias Baumert
Objective: To assess the effect of adenotonsillectomy for relieving OSAS symptoms in children on cardiac autonomic modulation. Methods: In 354 children enrolled in the Childhood Adenotonsillectomy Trial, randomized to undergo either early adenotonsillectomy (eAT; N=181) or a strategy of watchful waiting with supportive care (WWSC; N=173), nocturnal heart rate control was analysed during quiet, event-free sleep at baseline and at 7 months using overnight polysomnography (PSG)...
August 24, 2018: Sleep
Susan Leemburg, Bo Gao, Ertugrul Cam, Johannes Sarnthein, Claudio L Bassetti
Electroencephalography (EEG) changes across vigilance states have been observed after ischemic stroke in patients and experimental stroke models, but their relation to functional recovery remains unclear. Here, we evaluate motor function, as measured by single pellet reaching (SPR), as well as local EEG changes in nonrapid eye movement (NREM), rapid eye movement (REM), and wakefulness during a 30 day recovery period after middle cerebral artery occlusion or sham surgery in rats. Small cortical infarcts resulted in poor SPR performance and induced widespread changes in EEG spectra in the ipsilesional hemisphere in all vigilance states, without causing major changes in sleep-wake architecture...
August 24, 2018: Sleep
Chan-Won Kim, Yoosoo Chang, Jeong-Gyu Kang, Seungho Ryu
Study Objectives: It is unknown whether changes in sleep duration are associated with hypertension risk. The aim of this study was to investigate whether changes in sleep duration were associated with subsequent risk of developing hypertension in young and middle-aged women and men. Methods: We analyzed data from 106,385 participants who were free of hypertension and cardiovascular disease during the exposure period and who underwent a health checkup exam, including repeated measures of sleep duration...
August 22, 2018: Sleep
Shao-Yu Tsai, Wang-Tso Lee, Chien-Chang Lee, Suh-Fang Jeng, Wen-Chin Weng
Study Objectives: To examine maternal knowledge of childhood sleep and its relation to sleep quantity, quality, and variability in a clinic sample of mothers of toddlers and preschool-age children with epilepsy. Methods: A total of 112 epileptic children wore a wrist actigraphy to objectively assess daily sleep duration and its variability across 7 days. Mothers completed the Parents' Sleep Knowledge Inventory and Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ). Multivariate linear regression models were performed to predict CSHQ sleep disturbance scores, daily sleep duration, and daily sleep duration variability in children with epilepsy...
August 22, 2018: Sleep
Jason Amatoury, Amy S Jordan, Barbara Toson, Chinh Nguyen, Andrew Wellman, Danny J Eckert
Study Objectives: A negative intrathoracic pressure threshold is one commonly proposed mechanism for triggering respiratory-induced arousals in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). If so, they should occur during inspiration, shortly after maximal negative pressure swings. Alternatively, respiratory-induced arousals may occur throughout the respiratory cycle if other mechanisms also contribute. However, arousal timing has been minimally investigated. This study aimed to: 1) determine the temporal relationship between respiratory-induced arousals and breathing phase and 2) characterize neuromuscular and load compensation responses prior to arousal...
August 22, 2018: Sleep
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