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Cell Transplantation

R Yao, M Murtaza, J Tello Velasquez, M Todorovic, A Rayfield, J Ekberg, M Barton, J St John
Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) are glia reported to sustain the continuous axon extension and successful topographic targeting of the olfactory receptor neurons responsible for the sense of smell (olfaction). Due to this distinctive property, OECs have been trialed in human cell transplant therapies to assist in the repair of central nervous system injuries, particularly those of the spinal cord. Though many studies have reported neurological improvement, the therapy remains inconsistent and requires further improvement...
June 2018: Cell Transplantation
Jin-Xiu Yang, Yan-Yun Pan, Xing-Xiang Wang, Yuan-Gang Qiu, Wei Mao
Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) could facilitate the reendothelialization of injured arteries by replacing the dysfunctional endothelial cells, thereby suppressing the formation of neointima. Meanwhile, other findings suggest that EPCs may be involved in the pathogenesis of age-related vascular remodeling. This review is presented to summarize the characteristics of EPCs and age-related vascular remodeling. In addition, the role of EPCs in age-related vascular remodeling and possible solutions for improving the therapeutic effects of EPCs in the treatment of age-related diseases are discussed...
May 2018: Cell Transplantation
Federico Bertuzzi, Luciano De Carlis, Mario Marazzi, Antonio Gaetano Rampoldi, Matteo Bonomo, Barbara Antonioli, Marta Cecilia Tosca, Marta Galuzzi, Andrea Lauterio, Danila Fava, Patrizia Dorighet, Andrea De Gasperi, Giacomo Colussi
Islet transplantation has been reported to restore normoglycemia and the overall metabolic control in type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM). In the most experienced centers, islet transplantation clinical outcome is similar to that of the whole pancreas transplantation. Long-term islet transplantation function remains a very interesting matter worth discussing. A progressive islet function decrease was reported, probably due to islet exhaustion. In 5 islet-transplanted patients with at least 3-yr follow-up and still insulin independent, their glycemic control was characterized by a blinded retrospective continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS)...
May 2018: Cell Transplantation
Han Wool Kim, Hyun-Seob Lee, Jun Mo Kang, Sang-Hun Bae, Chul Kim, Sang-Hun Lee, Johannes Schwarz, Gi Jin Kim, Jin-Su Kim, Dong Hyun Cha, Joopyung Kim, Sung Woon Chang, Tae Hee Lee, Jisook Moon
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common age-related neurodegenerative disease in the elderly and the patients suffer from uncontrolled movement disorders due to loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons on substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). We previously reported that transplantation of human fetal midbrain-derived neural precursor cells restored the functional deficits of a 6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OHDA)-treated rodent model of PD but its low viability and ethical issues still remain to be solved. Albeit immune privilege and neural differentiation potentials suggest mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from various tissues including human placenta MSCs (hpMSCs) for an alternative source, our understanding of their therapeutic mechanisms is still limited...
May 2018: Cell Transplantation
Zheng Zachory Wei, Dongdong Chen, Li-Ping Liu, Xiaohuan Gu, Weiwei Zhong, Yong-Bo Zhang, Yongjun Wang, Shan Ping Yu, Ling Wei
Ischemic stroke remains a serious threat to human life. There are limited effective therapies for the treatment of stroke. We have previously demonstrated that angiogenesis and neurogenesis in the brain play an important role in functional recovery following ischemic stroke. Recent studies indicate that increased arteriogenesis and collateral circulation are determining factors for restoring reperfusion and outcomes of stroke patients. Danshensu, the Salvia miltiorrhiza root extract, is used in treatments of various human ischemic events in traditional Chinese medicine...
April 2018: Cell Transplantation
S Ray, M J Corenblum, A Anandhan, A Reed, F O Ortiz, D D Zhang, C A Barnes, L Madhavan
Redox mechanisms are emerging as essential to stem cell function given their capacity to influence a number of important signaling pathways governing stem cell survival and regenerative activity. In this context, our recent work identified the reduced expression of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2, or Nrf2, in mediating the decline in subventricular zone neural stem progenitor cell (NSPC) regeneration during aging. Since Nrf2 is a major transcription factor at the heart of cellular redox regulation and homeostasis, the current study investigates the role that it may play in the aging of NSPCs that reside within the other major mammalian germinal niche located in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus...
April 2018: Cell Transplantation
Ahsan Habib, Darrell Sawmiller, Huayan Hou, Manasa Kanithi, Jun Tian, Jin Zeng, Dan Zi, Zhi-Xu He, Paul R Sanberg, Jun Tan
Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is the leading cause of dementia in the elderly. In healthy individuals, amyloid precursor protein (APP) is cleaved by α-secretase, generating soluble α-amyloid precursor protein (sAPPα), which contributes neuroprotective functions in the neuronal environment. In contrast, in the neurodegenerative environment of AD patients, amyloid-β-peptide (Aβ) of either 40 or 42 residues are generated by increased activity of β- and γ-secretase. These proteins amalgamate in specific regions of the brain, which disrupts neuronal functions and leads to cognitive impairment...
April 2018: Cell Transplantation
Suning Ping, Xuecheng Qiu, Maria E Gonzalez-Toledo, Xiaoyun Liu, Li-Ru Zhao
Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leucoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a cerebral small vascular disease caused by NOTCH3 mutation-induced vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) degeneration, leading to ischemic stroke and vascular dementia. Our previous study has demonstrated that repeated treatment with a combination of stem cell factor (SCF) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) reduces VSMC degeneration and cerebral endothelial cell (EC) damage and improves cognitive function in a mouse model of CADASIL (TgNotch3R90C)...
April 2018: Cell Transplantation
Flavia Turcato, Paul Kim, Austin Barnett, Yongming Jin, Mike Scerba, Anthony Casey, Warren Selman, Nigel H Greig, Yu Luo
OBJECTIVE: Although cerebral ischemia can activate endogenous reparative processes, such as proliferation of endogenous neural stem cells (NSCs) in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and subgranular zone (SGZ), the majority of these new cells die shortly after injury and do not appropriately differentiate into neurons, or migrate and functionally integrate into the brain. The purpose of this study was to examine a novel strategy for treatment of stroke after injury by optimizing the survival of ischemia-induced endogenous NSCs in the SVZ and SGZ...
April 2018: Cell Transplantation
Jonathan Kimmelman
Patients with progressive neurodegenerative diseases often pursue trial entry seeking to access cutting edge therapies. However, cutting edge therapies for neurodegenerative diseases tend to have higher adverse event rates and underperform placebo. This essay argues that patients seeking trial entry are probably better off, medically, by being assigned to the placebo arm. Because trials involve extra clinic visits and research procedures, patients may be still better off medically by skipping trial participation altogether...
April 2018: Cell Transplantation
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Cell Transplantation
Joana Figueiro-Silva, Desireé Antequera, Consuelo Pascual, Mario de la Fuente Revenga, Huayqui Volt, Darío Acuña-Castroviejo, María Isabel Rodríguez-Franco, Eva Carro
Neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus is a unique process in neurobiology that requires functional integration of newly generated neurons, which may disrupt existing hippocampal network connections and consequently loss of established memories. As neurodegenerative diseases characterized by abnormal neurogenesis and memory dysfunctions are increasing, the identification of new anti-aging drugs is required. In adult mice, we found that melatonin, a well-established neurogenic hormone, and the melatonin analog 2-(2-(5-methoxy-1 H-indol-3-yl)ethyl)-5-methyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole (IQM316) were able to induce hippocampal neurogenesis, measured by neuronal nuclei (NeuN) and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling...
March 2018: Cell Transplantation
Elizabeth M Thompson, Jennifer L Sollinger, Emmanuel C Opara, Christopher A Adin
Currently, islet isolation is performed using harsh collagenases that cause nonspecific injury to both islets and exocrine tissue, negatively affecting the outcome of cell transplantation. We evaluated a novel islet isolation protocol utilizing high concentrations of glucose to cause selective osmotic shock (SOS). Islets have a membrane glucose transporter that allows adaptation to changes in glucose concentrations while exocrine tissue can be selectively destroyed by these osmolar shifts. Canine pancreata were obtained within 15 min after euthanasia from animals ( n = 6) euthanized for reasons unrelated to this study...
March 2018: Cell Transplantation
Chia-Yu Chang, Hsiao-Chien Ting, Hong-Lin Su, Jing-Ren Jeng
In this review, we introduce current developments in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), site-specific nuclease (SSN)-mediated genome editing tools, and the combined application of these two novel technologies in biomedical research and therapeutic trials. The sustainable pluripotent property of iPSCs in vitro not only provides unlimited cell sources for basic research but also benefits precision medicines for human diseases. In addition, rapidly evolving SSN tools efficiently tailor genetic manipulations for exploring gene functions and can be utilized to correct genetic defects of congenital diseases in the near future...
March 2018: Cell Transplantation
Cheng-Lin Li, Zhi-Bin Xu, Xing-Liang Fan, He-Xin Chen, Qiu-Ning Yu, Shu-Bin Fang, Shu-Yue Wang, Yong-Dong Lin, Qing-Ling Fu
Airway epithelial cell injury is a key triggering event to activate allergic airway inflammation, such as asthma. We previously reported that administration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) significantly alleviated allergic inflammation in a mouse model of asthma, and the mmu-miR-21/ACVR2A axis may be involved. However, whether MSCs protect against bronchial epithelial cell injury induced by hypoxia, and the underlying mechanism, remain unknown. In our study, the human bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B was induced to undergo apoptosis with a hypoxia mimic of cobalt chloride (CoCl2 ) damage...
March 2018: Cell Transplantation
Gyeong Joon Moon, Yeon Hee Cho, Dong Hee Kim, Ji Hee Sung, Jeong Pyo Son, Sooyoon Kim, Jae Min Cha, Oh Young Bang
Stroke induces complex and dynamic, local and systemic changes including inflammatory reactions, immune responses, and repair and recovery processes. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown to enhance neurological recovery after stroke. We hypothesized that serum factors play a critical role in the activation of bone marrow (BM) MSCs after stroke such as by increasing proliferation, paracrine effects, and rejuvenation. Human MSCs (hMSCs) were grown in fetal bovine serum (FBS), normal healthy control serum (NS), or stroke patient serum (SS)...
March 2018: Cell Transplantation
Hueng-Chuen Fan, Ching-Shiang Chi, Yih-Jing Lee, Jeng-Dau Tsai, Shinn-Zong Lin, Horng-Jyh Harn
Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs), at least including Alzheimer's, Huntington's, and Parkinson's diseases, have become the most dreaded maladies because there are no precise diagnostic tools or definite treatments for these debilitating diseases. The increased prevalence and a substantial impact on the social-economic and medical care of NDs propel governments to develop policies to counteract the impact. Although the etiologies of NDs are still unknown, growing evidence suggests that genetic, cellular, and circuit alternations may cause the generation of abnormal misfolded proteins, which uncontrolledly accumulate to damage and eventually overwhelm the protein-disposal mechanisms of these neurons, leading to a common pathological feature of NDs...
March 2018: Cell Transplantation
Sanam Salimi Elizei, Mohammadreza Pakyari, Mehraneh Ghoreishi, Ruhangiz Kilani, Sanaz Mahmoudi, Aziz Ghahary
Psoriasis is a chronic skin condition whose pathogenesis is reported to be due to the activation of the interleukin-23/interleukin-17 (IL-23/IL-17) pathway. Here, we report that indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO)-expressing fibroblasts reduce the activity of this pathway in activated immune cells. The findings showed that intralesional injection of IDO-expressing fibroblasts in imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like dermatitis on the back and ear (Pso. ear group) in mice significantly improves the clinical lesional appearance by reducing the number of skin-infiltrated IL-17+ CD4+ T cells (1...
March 2018: Cell Transplantation
Kang Chi, Ru-Huei Fu, Yu-Chuen Huang, Shih-Yin Chen, Ching-Ju Hsu, Shinn-Zong Lin, Chi-Tang Tu, Li-Hsun Chang, Ping-An Wu, Shih-Ping Liu
Parkinson's disease (PD) causes motor dysfunction and dopaminergic cell death. Drug treatments can effectively reduce symptoms but often cause unwanted side effects. Stem cell therapies using cell replacement or indirect beneficial secretomes have recently emerged as potential therapeutic strategies. Although various types of stem cells have been proposed as possible candidates, adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are easily obtainable, more abundant, less ethically disputed, and able to differentiate into multiple cell lineages...
March 2018: Cell Transplantation
Carlos Galeano, Zhifang Qiu, Anuja Mishra, Steven L Farnsworth, Jacob J Hemmi, Alvaro Moreira, Peter Edenhoffer, Peter J Hornsby
Intranasal administration is a promising route of delivery of stem cells to the central nervous system (CNS). Reports on this mode of stem cell delivery have not yet focused on the route across the cribriform plate by which cells move from the nasal cavity into the CNS. In the current experiments, human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were isolated from Wharton's jelly of umbilical cords and were labeled with extremely bright quantum dots (QDs) in order to track the cells efficiently. At 2 h after intranasal delivery in immunodeficient mice, the labeled cells were found under the olfactory epithelium, crossing the cribriform plate adjacent to the fila olfactoria, and associated with the meninges of the olfactory bulb...
March 2018: Cell Transplantation
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