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Psychological Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039293/conflict-and-cooperation-in-paranoia-a-large-scale-behavioural-experiment
#1
N J Raihani, V Bell
BACKGROUND: Paranoia involves thoughts and beliefs about the harmful intent of others but the social consequences have been much less studied. We investigated whether paranoia predicts maladaptive social behaviour in terms of cooperative and punitive behaviour using experimental game theory paradigms, and examined whether reduced cooperation is best explained in terms of distrust as previous studies have claimed. METHODS: We recruited a large population sample (N = 2132) online...
October 17, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039289/death-by-suicide-at-the-ward-level-in-northern-ireland
#2
B Bunting, C Corry, S O'Neill, A Moore
BACKGROUND: Deaths from suicide, as recorded within the Northern Ireland Coroner's Office for the years 2005-2011 inclusive, were analysed in terms of standardised mortality ratios (SMRs), within Wards and Local Government Districts (LGDs). The aim of the study is to examine factors relating to the ecological context of the area within which the person resided at time of death. Area deprivation, religious composition and age structure are examined in terms of SMRs, while controlling for the number of individuals living within a designated area...
October 17, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039285/prospective-risk-factors-for-post-deployment-heavy-drinking-and-alcohol-or-substance-use-disorder-among-us-army-soldiers
#3
Laura Campbell-Sills, Robert J Ursano, Ronald C Kessler, Xiaoying Sun, Steven G Heeringa, Matthew K Nock, Nancy A Sampson, Sonia Jain, Murray B Stein
BACKGROUND: Investigations of drinking behavior across military deployment cycles are scarce, and few prospective studies have examined risk factors for post-deployment alcohol misuse. METHODS: Prevalence of alcohol misuse was estimated among 4645 US Army soldiers who participated in a longitudinal survey. Assessment occurred 1-2 months before soldiers deployed to Afghanistan in 2012 (T0), upon their return to the USA (T1), 3 months later (T2), and 9 months later (T3)...
October 17, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039283/effects-of-between-person-differences-and-within-person-changes-in-symptoms-of-anxiety-and-depression-on-older-age-cognitive-performance
#4
E J Laukka, D Dykiert, M Allerhand, J M Starr, I J Deary
BACKGROUND: Anxiety and depression are both important correlates of cognitive function. However, longitudinal studies investigating how they covary with cognition within the same individual are scarce. We aimed to simultaneously estimate associations of between-person differences and within-person variability in anxiety and depression with cognitive performance in a sample of non-demented older people. METHODS: Participants in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1921 study, a population-based narrow-age sample (mean age at wave 1 = 79 years, n = 535), were examined on five occasions across 13 years...
October 17, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039277/is-paliperidone-palmitate-more-effective-than-other-long-acting-injectable-antipsychotics
#5
R Patel, E Chesney, M Taylor, D Taylor, P McGuire
BACKGROUND: Paliperidone palmitate is one of the most widely prescribed long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics in the UK. However, it is relatively expensive and there are few data comparing its effectiveness to that of other LAI antipsychotics. We sought to address this issue by analyzing a large anonymized electronic health record (EHR) dataset from patients treated with LAI antipsychotics. METHODS: EHR data were obtained from 1281 patients in the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust (SLaM) who started treatment with a LAI antipsychotic between 1 April 2011 and 31 January 2015...
October 17, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037266/is-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-more-effective-than-relaxation-therapy-in-the-treatment-of-anxiety-disorders-a-meta-analysis
#6
Jesus Montero-Marin, Javier Garcia-Campayo, Alba López-Montoyo, Edurne Zabaleta-Del-Olmo, Pim Cuijpers
BACKGROUND: It is not clear whether relaxation therapies are more or less effective than cognitive and behavioural therapies in the treatment of anxiety. The aims of the present study were to examine the effects of relaxation techniques compared to cognitive and behavioural therapies in reducing anxiety symptoms, and whether they have comparable efficacy across disorders. METHOD: We conducted a meta-analysis of 50 studies (2801 patients) comparing relaxation training with cognitive and behavioural treatments of anxiety...
October 17, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032773/understanding-the-development-of-psychopathy-progress-and-challenges
#7
E Viding, E J McCrory
Psychopathy is an adult condition that incurs substantial societal and individual costs. Here we review neurocognitive and genetically informative studies that shed light on how and why this condition emerges. Children cannot present with psychopathy. However, the presence of callous-unemotional (CU) traits can distinguish a group of children who are at elevated risk of psychopathy in adulthood. These children display diminished empathy and guilt and show attenuated brain activation to distress cues in others...
October 16, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021005/trends-in-depression-prevalence-in-the-usa-from-2005-to-2015-widening-disparities-in-vulnerable-groups
#8
A H Weinberger, M Gbedemah, A M Martinez, D Nash, S Galea, R D Goodwin
BACKGROUND: Major depression is associated with significant disability, morbidity, and mortality. The current study estimated trends in the prevalence of major depression in the US population from 2005 to 2015 overall and by demographic subgroups. METHODS: Data were drawn from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), an annual cross-sectional study of US persons ages 12 and over (total analytic sample N = 607 520). Past-year depression prevalence was examined annually among respondents from 2005 to 2015...
October 12, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017624/sociodemographic-inequalities-in-the-management-of-depression-in-adults-aged-55-and-over-an-analysis-of-english-primary-care-data
#9
K Walters, M Falcaro, N Freemantle, M King, Y Ben-Shlomo
BACKGROUND: We do not know how primary care treatment of depression varies by age across both psychotropic medication and psychological therapies. METHODS: Cohort study including 19 710 people aged 55+ with GP recorded depression diagnoses and 26 276 people with recorded depression symptoms during the period 2009-2013, from 373 General Practices in The Health Improvement Network (THIN) database in England. Main outcomes were initiation of treatment with anti-depressants, anxiolytics, hypnotics, anti-psychotic drugs, referrals to psychological therapies within 6 months of onset...
October 11, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017623/the-genealogy-of-the-clinical-syndrome-of-mania-signs-and-symptoms-described-in-psychiatric-texts-from-1880-to-1900
#10
K S Kendler
In 1800, mania was conceptualized as an agitated psychotic state. By 1900, it closely resembled its modern form. This paper reviews the descriptions of mania in Western psychiatry from 1880 to 1900, when Kraepelin was training and developing his concept of manic-depressive illness. Psychiatric textbooks published 1900-1960 described 22 characteristic manic symptoms/signs the presence of which were recorded in 25 psychiatric textbooks and three other key documents published 1880-1900. Descriptions of mania in these nineteenth century textbooks closely resembled those in the twentieth century, recording a mean (s...
October 11, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017620/familial-aggregation-of-matrics-consensus-cognitive-battery-scores-in-a-large-sample-of-outpatients-with-schizophrenia-and-their-unaffected-relatives
#11
A Mucci, S Galderisi, M F Green, K Nuechterlein, P Rucci, D Gibertoni, A Rossi, P Rocca, A Bertolino, P Bucci, G Hellemann, M Spisto, D Palumbo, E Aguglia, G Amodeo, M Amore, A Bellomo, R Brugnoli, B Carpiniello, L Dell'Osso, F Di Fabio, M di Giannantonio, G Di Lorenzo, C Marchesi, P Monteleone, C Montemagni, L Oldani, R Romano, R Roncone, P Stratta, E Tenconi, A Vita, P Zeppegno, M Maj
BACKGROUND: The increased use of the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) to investigate cognitive dysfunctions in schizophrenia fostered interest in its sensitivity in the context of family studies. As various measures of the same cognitive domains may have different power to distinguish between unaffected relatives of patients and controls, the relative sensitivity of MCCB tests for relative-control differences has to be established. We compared MCCB scores of 852 outpatients with schizophrenia (SCZ) with those of 342 unaffected relatives (REL) and a normative Italian sample of 774 healthy subjects (HCS)...
October 11, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017618/dissociation-between-affective-experience-and-motivated-behaviour-in-schizophrenia-patients-and-their-unaffected-first-degree-relatives-and-schizotypal-individuals
#12
Dong-Jie Xie, Simon S Y Lui, Fu-Lei Geng, Zhuo-Ya Yang, Ying-Min Zou, Ying Li, Hera K H Yeung, Eric F C Cheung, Erin A Heerey, Raymond C K Chan
BACKGROUND: The neuropsychological origins of negative syndrome of schizophrenia remain elusive. Evidence from behavioural studies, which utilised emotion-inducing pictures to elicit motivated behaviour generally reported that that schizophrenia patients experienced similar affective experience as healthy individuals but failed to translate emotional salience to motivated behaviour, a phenomenon called emotion-behaviour decoupling. However, a few studies have examined emotion-behaviour decoupling in non-psychotic high-risk populations, who are relatively unaffected by medication effects...
October 11, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994361/prediction-of-drug-abuse-recurrence-a-swedish-national-study
#13
K S Kendler, H Ohlsson, K Sundquist, J Sundquist
BACKGROUND: Relapse from drug abuse (DA) is common, but has rarely been studied in general population samples using a wide range of objective predictors. METHOD: Using nationwide registries, we ascertained 44 523 subjects first registered for DA between the ages of 15 and 40 in 1998 to 2004 and followed for 8 years. We predicted relapse in subjects defined as a second DA registration. We also predicted DA relapse in relative pairs concordant for DA but discordant for relapse...
October 10, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994360/effects-of-childhood-trauma-on-left-inferior-frontal-gyrus-function-during-response-inhibition-across-psychotic-disorders
#14
Y Quidé, N O'Reilly, O J Watkeys, V J Carr, M J Green
BACKGROUND: Childhood trauma is a risk factor for psychosis. Deficits in response inhibition are common to psychosis and trauma-exposed populations, and associated brain functions may be affected by trauma exposure in psychotic disorders. We aimed to identify the influence of trauma-exposure on brain activation and functional connectivity during a response inhibition task. METHODS: We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain function within regions-of-interest [left and right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, right supplementary motor area, right inferior parietal lobule and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex], during the performance of a Go/No-Go Flanker task, in 112 clinical cases with psychotic disorders and 53 healthy controls (HCs)...
October 10, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994357/the-cross-national-epidemiology-of-specific-phobia-in-the-world-mental-health-surveys
#15
K J Wardenaar, C C W Lim, A O Al-Hamzawi, J Alonso
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 10, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994356/age-modification-of-the-relationship-between-c-reactive-protein-and-fatigue-findings-from-understanding-society-ukhls
#16
A Hughes, M Kumari
BACKGROUND: Systemic inflammation may play a role in the development of idiopathic fatigue, that is, fatigue not explained by infections or diagnosed chronic illness, but this relationship has never been investigated in community studies including the entire adult age span. We examine the association of the inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP) and fatigue assessed annually in a 3-year outcome period for UK adults aged 16-98. METHODS: Multilevel models were used to track fatigue 7, 19, and 31 months after CRP measurement, in 10 606 UK individuals...
October 10, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994355/treating-depression-with-physical-activity-in-adolescents-and-young-adults-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomised-controlled-trials
#17
A P Bailey, S E Hetrick, S Rosenbaum, R Purcell, A G Parker
We aimed to establish the treatment effect of physical activity for depression in young people through meta-analysis. Four databases were searched to September 2016 for randomised controlled trials of physical activity interventions for adolescents and young adults, 12-25 years, experiencing a diagnosis or threshold symptoms of depression. Random-effects meta-analysis was used to estimate the standardised mean difference (SMD) between physical activity and control conditions. Subgroup analysis and meta-regression investigated potential treatment effect modifiers...
October 10, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988550/cognitive-profiles-in-childhood-and-adolescence-differ-between-adult-psychotic-and-affective-symptoms-a-prospective-birth-cohort-study
#18
S Koike, J Barnett, P B Jones, M Richards
BACKGROUND: Differences between verbal and non-verbal cognitive development from childhood to adulthood may differentiate between those with and without psychotic symptoms and affective symptoms in later life. However, there has been no study exploring this in a population-based cohort. METHOD: The sample was drawn from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development, and consisted of 2384 study members with self-reported psychotic experiences and affective symptoms at the age of 53 years, and with complete cognitive data at the ages of 8 and 15 years...
October 9, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969721/polygenic-risk-for-severe-psychopathology-among-europeans-is-associated-with-major-depressive-disorder-in-han-chinese-women
#19
A C Edwards, A R Docherty, A Moscati, T B Bigdeli, R E Peterson, B T Webb, S-A Bacanu, J M Hettema, J Flint, K S Kendler
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated that several major psychiatric disorders are influenced by shared genetic factors. This shared liability may influence clinical features of a given disorder (e.g. severity, age at onset). However, findings have largely been limited to European samples; little is known about the consistency of shared genetic liability across ethnicities. METHOD: The relationship between polygenic risk for several major psychiatric diagnoses and major depressive disorder (MDD) was examined in a sample of unrelated Han Chinese women...
October 3, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967351/acute-lsd-effects-on-response-inhibition-neural-networks
#20
A Schmidt, F Müller, C Lenz, P C Dolder, Y Schmid, D Zanchi, U E Lang, M E Liechti, S Borgwardt
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence shows that the serotonin 2A receptor (5-hydroxytryptamine2A receptor, 5-HT2AR) is critically involved in the formation of visual hallucinations and cognitive impairments in lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)-induced states and neuropsychiatric diseases. However, the interaction between 5-HT2AR activation, cognitive impairments and visual hallucinations is still poorly understood. This study explored the effect of 5-HT2AR activation on response inhibition neural networks in healthy subjects by using LSD and further tested whether brain activation during response inhibition under LSD exposure was related to LSD-induced visual hallucinations...
October 2, 2017: Psychological Medicine
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