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Psychological Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424105/specific-impact-of-stimulant-alcohol-and-cannabis-use-disorders-on-first-episode-psychosis-2-year-functional-and-symptomatic-outcomes
#1
C Ouellet-Plamondon, A Abdel-Baki, É Salvat, S Potvin
BACKGROUND: Many studies have concluded that cannabis use disorder (CUD) negatively influences outcomes in first-episode psychosis (FEP). However, few have taken into account the impact of concurrent misuse of other substances. METHODS: This 2-year, prospective, longitudinal study of FEP patients, aged between 18 and 30 years, admitted to early intervention programs in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, examined the specific influence of different substance use disorders (SUD) (alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, amphetamines) on service utilization, symptomatic and functional outcomes in FEP...
April 20, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420450/what-side-effects-are-problematic-for-patients-prescribed-antipsychotic-medication-the-maudsley-side-effects-mse-measure-for-antipsychotic-medication
#2
T Wykes, J Evans, C Paton, T R E Barnes, D Taylor, R Bentall, B Dalton, T Ruffell, D Rose, S Vitoratou
BACKGROUND: Capturing service users' perspectives can highlight additional and different concerns to those of clinicians, but there are no up to date, self-report psychometrically sound measures of side effects of antipsychotic medications. Aim To develop a psychometrically sound measure to identify antipsychotic side effects important to service users, the Maudsley Side Effects (MSE) measure. METHOD: An initial item bank was subjected to a Delphi exercise (n = 9) with psychiatrists and pharmacists, followed by service user focus groups and expert panels (n = 15) to determine item relevance and language...
April 19, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418288/immunopsychiatry-important-facts
#3
G M Khandaker, R Dantzer, P B Jones
Accumulating evidence indicate a role for the immune system particularly inflammation and autoimmunity in the aetiology of major psychiatric disorders such as depression and schizophrenia. In this paper, we discuss some of the key advances in immunopsychiatry in order to highlight to psychiatrists and other health professionals how an increased understanding of this field might enhance our knowledge of illness mechanism and approaches to treatment. We present a brief overview of clinical research that link inflammation and autoimmunity with depression and psychosis, including potential role of inflammation in treatment response, current evidence for the effectiveness of immune-modulating treatment for depression and psychosis, and possible role of inflammation in common physical comorbidities for these disorders such as coronary heart disease and diabetes mellitus...
April 18, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414017/the-prevalence-of-antenatal-and-postnatal-co-morbid-anxiety-and-depression-a-meta-analysis
#4
K Falah-Hassani, R Shiri, C-L Dennis
To date, the precise prevalence of co-morbidity of anxiety and depression in the perinatal period is not well known. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of co-morbid anxiety and depression in the antenatal and postnatal periods. Systematic searches of multiple electronic databases were conducted for studies published between January 1950 and January 2016. We included 66 (24 published and 42 unpublished) studies incorporating 162 120 women from 30 countries. Prevalence of self-reported antenatal anxiety symptoms and mild to severe depressive symptoms was 9...
April 17, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414015/effects-of-depression-metabolic-syndrome-and-cardiorespiratory-fitness-on-mortality-results-from-the-cooper-center-longitudinal-study
#5
C D Rethorst, D Leonard, C E Barlow, B L Willis, M H Trivedi, L F DeFina
BACKGROUND: Depression and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are frequently comorbid disorders that are independently associated with premature mortality. Conversely, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is associated with reduced mortality risk. These factors may interact to impact mortality; however, their effects have not been assessed concurrently. This analysis assessed the mortality risk of comorbid depression/MetS and the effect of CRF on mortality in those with depression/MetS. METHODS: Prospective study of 47 702 adults in the Cooper Center Longitudinal Study...
April 17, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414014/do-dsm-5-section-ii-personality-disorders-and-section-iii-personality-trait-domains-reflect-the-same-genetic-and-environmental-risk-factors
#6
T Reichborn-Kjennerud, R F Krueger, E Ystrom, F A Torvik, T H Rosenström, S H Aggen, S C South, M C Neale, G P Knudsen, K S Kendler, N O Czajkowski
BACKGROUND: DSM-5 includes two conceptualizations of personality disorders (PDs). The classification in Section II is identical to the one found in DSM-IV, and includes 10 categorical PDs. The Alternative Model (Section III) includes criteria for dimensional measures of maladaptive personality traits organized into five domains. The degree to which the two conceptualizations reflect the same etiological factors is not known. METHODS: We use data from a large population-based sample of adult twins from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health Twin Panel on interview-based DSM-IV PDs and a short self-report inventory that indexes the five domains of the DSM-5 Alternative Model plus a domain explicitly targeting compulsivity...
April 17, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414010/letter-to-the-editor-beyond-childhood-trauma-stressful-events-early-and-later-in-life-in-relation-to-psychotic-experiences
#7
M J H Begemann, E Stotijn, M J L Schutte, S M Heringa, I E C Sommer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 17, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399956/examining-heterotypic-continuity-of-psychopathology-a-prospective-national-study
#8
C Blanco, M M Wall, S Wang, M Olfson
BACKGROUND: Individuals with one psychiatric disorder are at increased risk for incidence and recurrence of other disorders. We characterize whether the magnitude of such heterotypic continuity varies based on whether the first disorder remits or persists over time. METHOD: Cohorts were selected from participants in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions wave 1 (2001-2002) and wave 2 (2004-2005) surveys with ⩾1 mood, anxiety, or substance use disorder at wave 1...
April 12, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399955/prosper-delivery-of-universal-preventive-interventions-with-young-adolescents-long-term-effects-on-emerging-adult-substance-misuse-and-associated-risk-behaviors
#9
R Spoth, C Redmond, C Shin, M T Greenberg, M E Feinberg, L Trudeau
BACKGROUND: Substance misuse and associated health-risking behaviors are prevalent in emerging adulthood. There is a knowledge gap concerning the post-high school effects of community-based delivery systems for universal preventive interventions implemented during young adolescence. This study reports effects of the PROSPER delivery system through age 19, 7.5 years past baseline. METHODS: A cohort sequential design included 28 public school districts randomly assigned to the PROSPER partnership delivery system or usual-programming conditions...
April 12, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399944/prospective-association-between-tobacco-smoking-and-death-by-suicide-a-competing-risks-hazard-analysis-in-a-large-twin-cohort-with-35-year-follow-up
#10
A E Evins, T Korhonen, T H Kinnunen, J Kaprio
BACKGROUND: The relationship between smoking and suicide remains controversial. METHOD: A total of 16 282 twin pairs born before 1958 in Finland and alive in 1974 were queried with detailed health and smoking questionnaires in 1975 and 1981, with response rates of 89% and 84%. Smoking status and dose, marital, employment, and socio-economic status, and indicators of psychiatric and somatic illness were assessed at both time points. Emergent psychiatric and medical illness and vital status, including suicide determined by forensic autopsy, were evaluated over 35-year follow-up through government registries...
April 12, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399942/community-based-screening-intervention-for-depression-affects-suicide-rates-among-middle-aged-japanese-adults-erratum
#11
H Oyama, T Sakashita
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 12, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397635/effects-of-electroconvulsive-therapy-on-amygdala-function-in-major-depression-a-longitudinal-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#12
R Redlich, C Bürger, K Dohm, D Grotegerd, N Opel, D Zaremba, S Meinert, K Förster, J Repple, R Schnelle, C Wagenknecht, M Zavorotnyy, W Heindel, H Kugel, M Gerbaulet, J Alferink, V Arolt, P Zwanzger, U Dannlowski
BACKGROUND: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is one of the most effective treatments for severe depression. However, little is known regarding brain functional processes mediating ECT effects. METHOD: In a non-randomized prospective study, functional magnetic resonance imaging data during the automatic processing of subliminally presented emotional faces were obtained twice, about 6 weeks apart, in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) before and after treatment with ECT (ECT, n = 24)...
April 11, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397634/metacognitive-beliefs-mediate-the-effect-of-emotional-abuse-on-depressive-and-psychotic-symptoms-in-severe-mental-disorders
#13
T Østefjells, J U Lystad, A O Berg, R Hagen, R Loewy, L Sandvik, I Melle, J I Røssberg
BACKGROUND: Early trauma is linked to higher symptom levels in bipolar and psychotic disorders, but the translating mechanisms are not well understood. This study examines whether the relationship between early emotional abuse and depressive symptoms is mediated by metacognitive beliefs about thoughts being uncontrollable/dangerous, and whether this pathway extends to influence positive symptoms. METHOD: Patients (N = 261) with psychotic or bipolar disorders were assessed for early trauma experiences, metacognitive beliefs, and current depression/anxiety and positive symptoms...
April 11, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397633/psychosocial-interventions-for-children-and-adolescents-after-man-made-and-natural-disasters-a-meta-analysis-and-systematic-review
#14
R C Brown, A Witt, J M Fegert, F Keller, M Rassenhofer, P L Plener
Children and adolescents are a vulnerable group to develop post-traumatic stress symptoms after natural or man-made disasters. In the light of increasing numbers of refugees under the age of 18 years worldwide, there is a significant need for effective treatments. This meta-analytic review investigates specific psychosocial treatments for children and adolescents after man-made and natural disasters. In a systematic literature search using MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO, as well as hand-searching existing reviews and contacting professional associations, 36 studies were identified...
April 11, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397632/antipsychotic-medication-and-long-term-mortality-risk-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
J Vermeulen, G van Rooijen, P Doedens, E Numminen, M van Tricht, L de Haan
Patients with schizophrenia have a higher mortality risk than patients suffering from any other psychiatric disorder. Previous research is inconclusive regarding the association of antipsychotic treatment with long-term mortality risk. To this aim, we systematically reviewed the literature and performed a meta-analysis on the relationship between long-term mortality and exposure to antipsychotic medication in patients with schizophrenia. The objectives were to (i) determine long-term mortality rates in patients with schizophrenia using any antipsychotic medication; (ii) compare these with mortality rates of patients using no antipsychotics; (iii) explore the relationship between cumulative exposure and mortality; and (iv) assess causes of death...
April 11, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397623/differences-in-neural-and-cognitive-response-to-emotional-faces-in-middle-aged-dizygotic-twins-at-familial-risk-of-depression
#16
K W Miskowiak, A M B Svendsen, C J Harmer, R Elliott, J Macoveanu, H R Siebner, L V Kessing, M Vinberg
BACKGROUND: Negative bias and aberrant neural processing of emotional faces are trait-marks of depression but findings in healthy high-risk groups are conflicting. METHODS: Healthy middle-aged dizygotic twins (N = 42) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI): 22 twins had a co-twin history of depression (high-risk) and 20 were without co-twin history of depression (low-risk). During fMRI, participants viewed fearful and happy faces while performing a gender discrimination task...
April 11, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397619/clarifying-the-role-of-neuroticism-in-suicidal-ideation-and-suicide-attempt-among-women-with-major-depressive-disorder
#17
L M Rappaport, J Flint, K S Kendler
BACKGROUND: Prior research consistently demonstrates that neuroticism increases risk for suicidal ideation, but the association between neuroticism and suicidal behavior has been inconsistent. Whereas neuroticism is recommended as an endophenotype for suicidality, the association of neuroticism with attempted suicide warrants clarification. In particular, prior research has not distinguished between correlates of attempted suicide, correlates of suicidal ideation, and correlates of comorbid psychopathology...
April 11, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397618/suicide-by-mental-health-in-patients-under-observation
#18
S Flynn, T Nyathi, S-G Tham, A Williams, K Windfuhr, N Kapur, L Appleby, J Shaw
BACKGROUND: Observations in psychiatric in-patient settings are used to reduce suicide, self-harm, violence and absconding risk. The study aims were to describe the characteristics of in-patients who died by suicide under observation and examine their service-related antecedents. METHOD: A national consecutive case series in England and Wales (2006-2012) was examined. RESULTS: There were 113 suicides by in-patients under observation, an average of 16 per year...
April 11, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397612/adolescent-friendships-predict-later-resilient-functioning-across-psychosocial-domains-in-a-healthy-community-cohort
#19
A-L van Harmelen, R A Kievit, K Ioannidis, S Neufeld, P B Jones, E Bullmore, R Dolan, P Fonagy, I Goodyer
BACKGROUND: Adolescence is a key time period for the emergence of psychosocial and mental health difficulties. To promote adolescent adaptive ('resilient') psychosocial functioning (PSF), appropriate conceptualisation and quantification of such functioning and its predictors is a crucial first step. Here, we quantify resilient functioning as the degree to which an individual functions better or worse than expected given their self-reported childhood family experiences, and relate this to adolescent family and friendship support...
April 11, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395675/the-effects-of-stress-tension-on-depression-and-anxiety-symptoms-evidence-from-a-novel-twin-modelling-analysis
#20
C G Davey, C López-Solà, M Bui, J L Hopper, C Pantelis, L F Fontenelle, B J Harrison
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 11, 2017: Psychological Medicine
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