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Psychological Medicine

Umut Kırlı, Tolga Binbay, Marjan Drukker, Hayriye Elbi, Bülent Kayahan, Duygu Keskin Gökçelli, Ferda Özkınay, Hüseyin Onay, Köksal Alptekin, Jim van Os
BACKGROUND: Psychotic experiences (PEs) may predict a range of common, non-psychotic disorders as well as psychotic disorders. In this representative, general population-based cohort study, both psychotic and non-psychotic disorder outcomes of PE were analysed, as were potential moderators. METHODS: Addresses were contacted in a multistage clustered probability sampling frame covering 11 districts and 302 neighbourhoods at baseline (n = 4011). Participants were interviewed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) both at baseline and at 6-year follow-up...
August 13, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Stuart B Murray, Daniel S Quintana, Katharine L Loeb, Scott Griffiths, Daniel Le Grange
BACKGROUND: To determine the impact of specialized treatments, relative to comparator treatments, upon the weight and psychological symptoms of anorexia nervosa (AN) at end-of-treatment (EOT) and follow-up. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) between January 1980 and December 2017 that reported the effects of at least two treatments on AN were screened. Weight and psychological symptoms were analyzed separately for each study. PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines were followed, and studies were assessed using the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) criteria and Cochrane risk of bias tool...
August 13, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Y A de Vries, A M Roest, P de Jonge, P Cuijpers, M R Munafò, J A Bastiaansen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Karolina M Lempert, Joanna E Steinglass, Anthony Pinto, Joseph W Kable, Helen Blair Simpson
The National Institute of Mental Health launched the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative to better understand dimensions of behavior and identify targets for treatment. Examining dimensions across psychiatric illnesses has proven challenging, as reliable behavioral paradigms that are known to engage specific neural circuits and translate across diagnostic populations are scarce. Delay discounting paradigms seem to be an exception: they are useful for understanding links between neural systems and behavior in healthy individuals, with potential for assessing how these mechanisms go awry in psychiatric illnesses...
August 2, 2018: Psychological Medicine
A M Fiksinski, E J Breetvelt, Y J Lee, E Boot, N Butcher, L Palmer, E W C Chow, R S Kahn, J A S Vorstman, A S Bassett
BACKGROUND: Identifying factors that influence the functional outcome is an important goal in schizophrenia research. The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a unique genetic model with high risk (20-25%) for schizophrenia. This study aimed to identify potentially targetable domains of neurocognitive functioning associated with functional outcome in adults with 22q11DS. METHODS: We used comprehensive neurocognitive test data available for 99 adults with 22q11DS (n = 43 with schizophrenia) and principal component analysis to derive four domains of neurocognition (Verbal Memory, Visual and Logical Memory, Motor Performance, and Executive Performance)...
August 1, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Tingting Xu, Qing Zhao, Pei Wang, Qing Fan, Jue Chen, Haiyin Zhang, Zhi Yang, Dan J Stein, Zhen Wang
BACKGROUND: The role of the cerebellum in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has drawn increasing attention. However, the functional connectivity between the cerebellum and the cerebral cortex has not been investigated in OCD, nor has the relationship between such functional connectivity and clinical symptoms. METHODS: A total of 27 patients with OCD and 21 healthy controls (HCs) matched on age, sex and education underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Seed-based connectivity analyses were performed to examine differences in cerebellar-cerebral connectivity in patients with OCD compared with HCs...
July 30, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Nikolai Albert, Lasse Randers, Kelly Allott, Heidi Dorthe Jensen, Marianne Melau, Carsten Hjorthøj, Merete Nordentoft
BACKGROUND: The effect of antipsychotics medication on cognitive functioning in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia is poorly understood. Some studies of second generation antipsychotics indicated that they improved cognitive functioning while other studies have found that they decrease the level of cognitive functioning. METHOD: We included patients with schizophrenia who were in treatment with antipsychotics 1.5 years (baseline) after initiation of treatment and followed them up 3...
July 30, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Shreya Asher, Vaishanjali Bhiman, Nishma Gokani, Kerrthana Jeyarayan, Ravina Bhanot, Archana Sasitharan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 30, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Louis Jacob, Josep Maria Haro, Ai Koyanagi
BACKGROUND: Data on the relationship between intelligence quotient (IQ) and violence perpetration are scarce and nationally representative data from the UK adult population is lacking. Therefore, our goal was to examine the relationship between IQ and violence perpetration using nationally representative community-based data from the UK. METHODS: We analyzed cross-sectional data from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey. IQ was estimated using the National Adult Reading Test (NART)...
July 30, 2018: Psychological Medicine
V Drobinin, C Slaney, J Garnham, L Propper, R Uher, M Alda, T Hajek
BACKGROUND: Larger grey matter volume of the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) is among the most replicated biomarkers of genetic risk for bipolar disorders (BD). However, the IFG is a heterogeneous prefrontal region, and volumetric findings can be attributable to changes in cortical thickness (CT), surface area (SA) or gyrification. Here, we investigated the morphometry of IFG in participants at genetic risk for BD. METHODS: We quantified the IFG cortical grey matter volume in 29 affected, 32 unaffected relatives of BD probands, and 42 controls...
July 30, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Hon-Cheong So, Kwan-Long Chau, Fu-Kiu Ao, Cheuk-Hei Mo, Pak-Chung Sham
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases represent a major health issue in patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BD), but the exact nature of cardiometabolic (CM) abnormalities involved and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Psychiatric medications are known risk factors, but it is unclear whether there is a connection between the disorders (SCZ/BD) themselves and CM abnormalities. METHODS: Using polygenic risk scores and linkage disequilibrium score regression, we investigated the shared genetic bases of SCZ and BD with 28 CM traits...
July 26, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Victoria Bell, Benjamin Robinson, Cornelius Katona, Anne-Kathrin Fett, Sukhi Shergill
BACKGROUND: Trauma due to deliberate harm by others is known to increase the likelihood of developing Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). This is the first study investigating basic and dynamic trust in 'interpersonal' PTSD. METHODS: Thirty-two participants with PTSD and 22 healthy controls played a novel multi-round version of a monetary investment protocol, the so-called 'Trust Game', a task from the behavioural economics literature, which is considered to involve trust and reciprocity...
July 25, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Eva María Sánchez-Morla, Ana López-Villarreal, Estela Jiménez-López, Ana Isabel Aparicio, Vicente Martínez-Vizcaíno, Rodriguez-Jimenez Roberto, Eduard Vieta, José-Luis Santos
BACKGROUND: The neurocognitive trajectory in bipolar disorder (BD) is variable, with controversial findings, and most evidence come from cross-sectional studies. We aimed to examine the course of neurocognitive functioning in a sample of euthymic BD patients in comparison with a control group during a 5-year follow-up. METHODS: Ninety-nine euthymic bipolar patients and 40 healthy controls were assessed using a comprehensive neurocognitive battery (six neurocognitive domains) at baseline (T1) and then at 5-year follow-up (T2) in a longitudinal study...
July 25, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Hugh Ramsay, Jennifer H Barnett, Graham K Murray, Jouko Miettunen, Pirjo Mäki, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, George Davey Smith, Mika Ala-Korpela, Juha Veijola
BACKGROUND: Psychoses, especially schizophrenia, are often preceded by cognitive deficits and psychosis risk states. Altered metabolic profiles have been found in schizophrenia. However, the associations between metabolic profiles and poorer cognitive performance and psychosis risk in the population remain to be determined. METHODS: Detailed molecular profiles were measured for up to 8976 individuals from two general population-based prospective birth cohorts: the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC 1986) and the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC)...
July 24, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Matteo Malgaroli, Fiona Maccallum, George A Bonanno
BACKGROUND: Complicated and persistent grief reactions afflict approximately 10% of bereaved individuals and are associated with severe disruptions of functioning. These maladaptive patterns were defined in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) as persistent complex bereavement disorder (PCBD), but its criteria remain debated. The condition has been studied using network analysis, showing potential for an improved understanding of PCBD. However, previous studies were limited to self-report and primarily originated from a single archival dataset...
July 18, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Tamsin Ford, Rachel Hayes, Sarah Byford, Vanessa Edwards, Malcolm Fletcher, Stuart Logan, Brahm Norwich, Will Pritchard, Kate Allen, Matthew Allwood, Poushali Ganguli, Katie Grimes, Lorraine Hansford, Bryony Longdon, Shelley Norman, Anna Price, Obioha C Ukoumunne
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the Incredible Years® Teacher Classroom Management (TCM) programme as a universal intervention, given schools' important influence on child mental health. METHODS: A two-arm, pragmatic, parallel group, superiority, cluster randomised controlled trial recruited three cohorts of schools (clusters) between 2012 and 2014, randomising them to TCM (intervention) or Teaching As Usual (TAU-control). TCM was delivered to teachers in six whole-day sessions, spread over 6 months...
July 18, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Rongqin Yu, Susan Branje, Wim Meeus, Philip Cowen, Seena Fazel
BACKGROUND: Despite evidence of links between depression and violent outcomes, potential moderators of this association remain unknown. The current study tested whether a biological marker, cortisol, moderated this association in a longitudinal sample of adolescents. METHODS: Participants were 358 Dutch adolescents (205 boys) with a mean age of 15 years at the first measurement. Depressive symptoms, the cortisol awakening response (CAR) and violent outcomes were measured annually across 3 years...
July 17, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Jonathan M Platt, Katherine M Keyes, Katie A McLaughlin, Alan S Kaufman
BACKGROUND: Most research on the prevalence, distribution, and psychiatric comorbidity of intellectual disability (ID) relies on clinical samples, limiting the generalizability and utility of ID assessment in a legal context. This study assessed ID prevalence in a population-representative sample of US adolescents and examined associations of ID with socio-demographic factors and mental disorders. METHODS: Data were drawn from the National Comorbidity Survey Adolescent Supplement (N = 6256)...
July 12, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Lauren M Hickling, Rocio Perez-Iglesias, Ann McNeill, Lynne Dawkins, John Moxham, Tamatha Ruffell, Kyra-Verena Sendt, Philip McGuire
BACKGROUND: Smoking is the largest single contributor to poor physical health and increased mortality in people with serious mental illnesses. The aim of the study was to investigate the utility of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) as a harm reduction intervention in this population. METHOD: Fifty tobacco smokers with a psychotic disorder were enrolled onto a 24-week pilot study ( NCT02212041) investigating the efficacy of a 6-week free e-cigarette intervention to reduce smoking...
July 10, 2018: Psychological Medicine
I Meluken, N M Ottesen, C J Harmer, T Scheike, L V Kessing, M Vinberg, K W Miskowiak
BACKGROUND: Identification of endophenotypes can improve prevention, detection and development of new treatments. We therefore investigated whether aberrant affective cognition constitutes an endophenotype for affective disorders by being present in monozygotic (MZ) twins with unipolar or bipolar disorder in partial remission (i.e. affected) and their unaffected co-twins (i.e. high-risk) relative to twins with no family history of affective disorder (i.e. low-risk). METHODS: We conducted an assessor blind cross-sectional study from 2014 to 2017 of MZ twins using Danish population-based registers in recruitment...
July 2, 2018: Psychological Medicine
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