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Psychological Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239293/the-interplay-between-cognitive-ability-alcohol-consumption-and-health-characteristics
#1
E Degerud, E Ystrom, K Tambs, I Ariansen, J Mørland, P Magnus, G Davey Smith, Ø Næss
BACKGROUND: Higher cognitive ability is associated with favourable health characteristics. The relation between ability and alcohol consumption, and their interplay with other health characteristics, is unclear. We aimed to assess the relationship between cognitive ability and alcohol consumption and to assess whether alcohol consumption relates differently to health characteristics across strata of ability. METHODS: For 63 120 Norwegian males, data on cognitive ability in early adulthood were linked to midlife data on alcohol consumption frequency (times per month, 0-30) and other health characteristics, including cardiovascular risk factors and mental distress...
December 14, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239292/ethnic-density-effects-for-adult-mental-health-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-international-studies
#2
Laia Bécares, Michael E Dewey, Jayati Das-Munshi
BACKGROUND: Despite increased ethnic diversity in more economically developed countries it is unclear whether residential concentration of ethnic minority people (ethnic density) is detrimental or protective for mental health. This is the first systematic review and meta-analysis covering the international literature, assessing ethnic density associations with mental health outcomes. METHODS: We systematically searched Medline, PsychINFO, Sociological Abstracts, Web of Science from inception to 31 March 2016...
December 14, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239291/the-impact-of-schizophrenia-and-mood-disorder-risk-alleles-on-emotional-problems-investigating-change-from-childhood-to-middle-age
#3
Lucy Riglin, Stephan Collishaw, Alexander Richards, Ajay K Thapar, Frances Rice, Barbara Maughan, Michael C O'Donovan, Anita Thapar
BACKGROUND: Previous studies find that both schizophrenia and mood disorder risk alleles contribute to adult depression and anxiety. Emotional problems (depression or anxiety) begin in childhood and show strong continuities into adult life; this suggests that symptoms are the manifestation of the same underlying liability across different ages. However, other findings suggest that there are developmental differences in the etiology of emotional problems at different ages. To our knowledge, no study has prospectively examined the impact of psychiatric risk alleles on emotional problems at different ages in the same individuals...
December 14, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239287/school-performance-from-primary-education-in-the-adolescent-offspring-of-parents-with-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder-a-national-register-based-study
#4
Anne Ranning, Thomas Laursen, Esben Agerbo, Anne Thorup, Carsten Hjorthøj, Jens Richardt Møllegaard Jepsen, Merete Nordentoft
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BP) are causes of severe disability worldwide and parents' severe mental illness (SMI) is associated with childhood adversity, and socio-emotional and cognitive problems in children. Yet, how parental BP and SZ affect educational attainment in offspring is still unclear. METHOD: We included all children (N = 684.248) born and living in Denmark between 1986 and 1996 and their parents. Our follow-up lasted from 1986 until children's graduation in 2014...
December 14, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239286/reduced-cortical-thickness-and-increased-gyrification-in-generalized-anxiety-disorder-a-3-t-mri-study
#5
Cinzia Molent, Eleonora Maggioni, Filippo Cecchetto, Marco Garzitto, Sara Piccin, Carolina Bonivento, Marta Maieron, Serena D'Agostini, Matteo Balestrieri, Giampaolo Perna, A Carlo Altamura, Paolo Brambilla
BACKGROUND: Although the study of the neuroanatomical correlates of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is gaining increasing interest, up to now the cortical anatomy of GAD patients has been poorly investigated and still no data on cortical gyrification are available. The aim of the present study is to quantitatively examine the cortical morphology in patients with GAD compared with healthy controls (HC) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study analyzing the gyrification patterns in GAD...
December 14, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233210/optical-coherence-tomography-indices-of-structural-retinal-pathology-in-schizophrenia
#6
Steven M Silverstein, Danielle Paterno, Lindsay Cherneski, Stuart Green
BACKGROUND: Prior optical coherence tomography (OCT) studies of schizophrenia have identified thinning of retinal layers. However, findings have varied across reports, and most studies have had serious methodological limitations. To address unresolved issues, we determined whether: (1) retinal thinning in schizophrenia occurs independently of comorbid medical conditions that affect the retina; (2) thinning is independent of antipsychotic medication dose; (3) optic nerve parameters are abnormal in schizophrenia; and (4) OCT indices are related to visual and cognitive impairments common in schizophrenia...
December 13, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233196/online-prevention-of-disordered-eating-in-at-risk-young-adult-women-a-two-country-pragmatic-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Simon M Wilksch, Anne O'Shea, C Barr Taylor, Denise Wilfley, Corinna Jacobi, Tracey D Wade
BACKGROUND: Disordered eating (DE) is a widespread, serious problem. Efficacious prevention programs that can be delivered at-scale are needed. METHODS: A pragmatic randomized controlled trial of two online programs was conducted. Participants were young-adult women from Australia and New Zealand seeking to improve their body image. Media Smart-Targeted (MS-T) and Student Bodies (SB) were both 9-module interventions released weekly, whilst control participants received positive body image information...
December 13, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233195/intact-striatal-dopaminergic-modulation-of-reward-learning-and-daily-life-reward-oriented-behavior-in-first-degree-relatives-of-individuals-with-psychotic-disorder
#8
Zuzana Kasanova, Jenny Ceccarini, Michael J Frank, Thérèse van Amelsvoort, Jan Booij, Esther van Duin, Henrietta Steinhart, Thomas Vaessen, Alexander Heinzel, Felix Mottaghy, Inez Myin-Germeys
BACKGROUND: Abnormalities in reward learning in psychotic disorders have been proposed to be linked to dysregulated subcortical dopaminergic (DA) neurotransmission, which in turn is a suspected mechanism for predisposition to psychosis. We therefore explored the striatal dopaminergic modulation of reward processing and its behavioral correlates in individuals at familial risk for psychosis. METHODS: We performed a DA D2/3 receptor [18F]fallypride positron emission tomography scan during a probabilistic reinforcement learning task in 16 healthy first-degree relatives of patients with psychosis and 16 healthy volunteers, followed by a 6-day ecological momentary assessment study capturing reward-oriented behavior in the everyday life...
December 13, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224581/executive-function-and-other-cognitive-deficits-are-distal-risk-factors-of-generalized-anxiety-disorder-9-years-later
#9
Nur Hani Zainal, Michelle G Newman
OBJECTIVE: The cognitive model (Hirsch & Mathews, 2012) and attentional control theory (Eysenck & Derakshan, 2011) postulate that compromised executive function (EF) and other cognitive constructs are negatively linked to increased excessive and uncontrollable worry, the core symptom of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). However, the prospective link between neuropsychological constructs and GAD are not well understood. METHODS: A nationally representative sample of 2605 community-dwelling adults whose average age was 55...
December 11, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224573/brain-glutamate-in-medication-free-depressed-patients-a-proton-mrs-study-at-7-tesla
#10
Beata R Godlewska, Charles Masaki, Ann L Sharpley, Philip J Cowen, Uzay E Emir
BACKGROUND: The possible role of glutamate in the pathophysiology and treatment of depression is of intense current interest. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) enables the detection of glutamate in the living human brain and meta-analyses of previous MRS studies in depressed patients have suggested that glutamate levels are decreased in anterior brain regions. Nevertheless, at conventional magnetic field strengths [1.5-3 Tesla (T)], it is difficult to separate glutamate from its metabolite and precursor, glutamine, with the two often being measured together as Glx...
December 11, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202898/isolated-psychosis-during-exposure-to-very-high-and-extreme-altitude-characterisation-of-a-new-medical-entity
#11
Katharina Hüfner, Hermann Brugger, Eva Kuster, Franziska Dünsser, Agnieszka E Stawinoga, Rachel Turner, Iztok Tomazin, Barbara Sperner-Unterweger
BACKGROUND: Psychotic episodes during exposure to very high or extreme altitude have been frequently reported in mountain literature, but not systematically analysed and acknowledged as a distinct clinical entity. METHODS: Episodes reported above 3500 m altitude with possible psychosis were collected from the lay literature and provide the basis for this observational study. Dimensional criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders were used for psychosis, and the Lake Louise Scoring criteria for acute mountain sickness and high-altitude cerebral oedema (HACE)...
December 5, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202896/affordable-virtual-reality-tools-for-the-treatment-of-mental-health-problems
#12
Jill M Newby, Michelle Y W Jiang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202885/the-command-trial-of-cognitive-therapy-to-prevent-harmful-compliance-with-command-hallucinations-predictors-of-outcome-and-mediators-of-change
#13
Max Birchwood, Graham Dunn, Alan Meaden, Nicholas Tarrier, Shon Lewis, Til Wykes, Linda Davies, Maria Michail, Emmanuelle Peters
BACKGROUND: Acting on harmful command hallucinations is a major clinical concern. Our COMMAND CBT trial approximately halved the rate of harmful compliance (OR = 0.45, 95% CI 0.23-0.88, p = 0.021). The focus of the therapy was a single mechanism, the power dimension of voice appraisal, was also significantly reduced. We hypothesised that voice power differential (between voice and voice hearer) was the mediator of the treatment effect. METHODS: The trial sample (n = 197) was used...
December 5, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198246/neurocognitive-dysfunctioning-and-the-impact-of-comorbid-depression-and-anxiety-in-patients-with-somatic-symptom-and-related-disorders-a-cross-sectional-clinical-study
#14
Lars de Vroege, Anique Timmermans, Willem J Kop, Christina M van der Feltz-Cornelis
BACKGROUND: The prevalence and severity of neurocognitive dysfunctioning of patients with somatic symptom and related disorders (SSRD) is unknown. Furthermore, the influence of comorbid depression and anxiety has not been evaluated. This study examines neurocognitive dysfunctioning of patients with SSRD and explores if comorbid depression and anxiety is associated with specific neurocognitive dysfunctioning. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with consecutive patients suffering from SSRD visiting an outpatient specialty mental health care Centre of Excellence for SSRD...
December 4, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198207/neuroanatomical-changes-in-people-with-high-schizotypy-relationship-to-glutamate-levels
#15
Gemma Modinos, Alice Egerton, Anna McLaughlin, Katrina McMullen, Veena Kumari, David J Lythgoe, Gareth J Barker, André Aleman, Steve C R Williams
BACKGROUND: Cortical glutamatergic dysfunction is thought to be fundamental for psychosis development, and may lead to structural degeneration through excitotoxicity. Glutamate levels have been related to gray matter volume (GMV) alterations in people at ultra-high risk of psychosis, and we previously reported GMV changes in individuals with high schizotypy (HS), which refers to the expression of schizophrenia-like characteristics in healthy people. This study sought to examine whether GMV changes in HS subjects are related to glutamate levels...
December 4, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198204/assessing-the-evidence-for-shared-genetic-risks-across-psychiatric-disorders-and-traits
#16
Joanna Martin, Mark J Taylor, Paul Lichtenstein
Genetic influences play a significant role in risk for psychiatric disorders, prompting numerous endeavors to further understand their underlying genetic architecture. In this paper, we summarize and review evidence from traditional twin studies and more recent genome-wide molecular genetic analyses regarding two important issues that have proven particularly informative for psychiatric genetic research. First, emerging results are beginning to suggest that genetic risk factors for some (but not all) clinically diagnosed psychiatric disorders or extreme manifestations of psychiatric traits in the population share genetic risks with quantitative variation in milder traits of the same disorder throughout the general population...
December 4, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198199/secular-trends-in-the-prevalence-of-major-and-subthreshold-depression-among-55-64-year-olds-over-20-years
#17
Hans W Jeuring, Hannie C Comijs, Dorly J H Deeg, Max L Stek, Martijn Huisman, Aartjan T F Beekman
BACKGROUND: Studying secular trends in the exposure to risk and protective factors of depression and whether these trends are associated with secular trends in the prevalence of depression is important to estimate future healthcare demands and to identify targets for prevention. METHODS: Three birth cohorts of 55-64-year olds from the population-based Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam were examined using identical methods in 1992 (n = 944), 2002 (n = 964) and 2012 (n = 957)...
December 4, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198197/the-incidence-of-very-late-onset-psychotic-disorders-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-1960-2016
#18
Jean Stafford, Robert Howard, James B Kirkbride
A substantial subset of people with psychotic disorders are first diagnosed in old age, yet little is known about the epidemiology of very late-onset schizophrenia-like psychosis. We investigated the incidence of affective and non-affective psychotic disorders in those aged 65 and above, and examined variation related to potential risk factors via systematic literature review. We searched PubMed, PsychInfo, Web of Science and bibliographies and directly contacted authors to obtain citations published between 1960 and 2016 containing (derivable) incidence data...
December 4, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183409/genetic-risk-of-major-depressive-disorder-the-moderating-and-mediating-effects-of-neuroticism-and-psychological-resilience-on-clinical-and-self-reported-depression
#19
L B Navrady, M J Adams, S W Y Chan, S J Ritchie, A M McIntosh
BACKGROUND: Polygenic risk scores (PRS) for depression correlate with depression status and chronicity, and provide causal anchors to identify depressive mechanisms. Neuroticism is phenotypically and genetically positively associated with depression, whereas psychological resilience demonstrates negative phenotypic associations. Whether increased neuroticism and reduced resilience are downstream mediators of genetic risk for depression, and whether they contribute independently to risk remains unknown...
November 29, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173244/socio-economic-variations-in-the-mental-health-treatment-gap-for-people-with-anxiety-mood-and-substance-use-disorders-results-from-the-who-world-mental-health-wmh-surveys
#20
S Evans-Lacko, S Aguilar-Gaxiola, A Al-Hamzawi, J Alonso, C Benjet, R Bruffaerts, W T Chiu, S Florescu, G de Girolamo, O Gureje, J M Haro, Y He, C Hu, E G Karam, N Kawakami, S Lee, C Lund, V Kovess-Masfety, D Levinson, F Navarro-Mateu, B E Pennell, N A Sampson, K M Scott, H Tachimori, M Ten Have, M C Viana, D R Williams, B J Wojtyniak, Z Zarkov, R C Kessler, S Chatterji, G Thornicroft
BACKGROUND: The treatment gap between the number of people with mental disorders and the number treated represents a major public health challenge. We examine this gap by socio-economic status (SES; indicated by family income and respondent education) and service sector in a cross-national analysis of community epidemiological survey data. METHODS: Data come from 16 753 respondents with 12-month DSM-IV disorders from community surveys in 25 countries in the WHO World Mental Health Survey Initiative...
November 27, 2017: Psychological Medicine
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