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Psychological Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805183/association-between-smoking-and-psychosis-may-be-mediated-by-maternal-smoking-during-pregnancy
#1
D Curtis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 14, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805182/human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-as-a-research-tool-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
J P Robbins, J Price
Human-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) offer a novel, timely approach for investigating the aetiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. Although we are starting to gain more insight into the specific mechanisms that cause Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia, this has not resulted in therapies to slow the pathological processes. Animal models have been paramount in studying the neurobiological processes underlying psychiatric disorders. Nonetheless, these human conditions cannot be entirely recapitulated in rodents...
August 14, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805179/psychosis-as-a-risk-factor-for-suicidal-thoughts-and-behaviors-a-meta-analysis-of-longitudinal-studies
#3
X Huang, K R Fox, J D Ribeiro, J C Franklin
BACKGROUND: Research has long noted higher prevalence rates of suicidal thoughts and behaviors among individuals with psychotic symptoms. Major theories have proposed several explanations to account for this association. Given the differences in the literature regarding the operationalization of psychosis and sample characteristics, a quantitative review is needed to determine to what extent and how psychosis confers risk for suicidality. METHODS: We searched PsycInfo, PubMed, and GoogleScholar for studies published before 1 January 2016...
August 14, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805178/socioeconomic-inequalities-in-duration-of-untreated-psychosis-evidence-from-administrative-data-in-england
#4
A Reichert, R Jacobs
BACKGROUND: Duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) is an important measure of access to care as it predicts prognosis and treatment outcomes. Little is known about potential socioeconomic inequalities in DUP. The aim of this study was to investigate inequalities in DUP associated with socioeconomic deprivation in a national cohort in England. METHOD: We analysed a cohort of 887 patients with a first-episode in psychosis using the administrative Mental Health Services Dataset in England for 2012/13-2014/15...
August 14, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805175/outcomes-of-a-psycho-education-and-monitoring-programme-to-prevent-compulsory-admission-to-psychiatric-inpatient-care-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#5
B Lay, W Kawohl, W Rössler
BACKGROUND: There is a need for interventions that effectively reduce compulsory admission to psychiatry. We conducted a randomised controlled trial to investigate whether an innovative intervention programme prevents compulsory re-admission in people with serious mental illness. METHODS: The programme addresses primarily patients' self-management skills. It consists of individualised psychoeducation focusing on behaviours prior to and during illness-related crises, crisis cards and, after discharge from the psychiatric hospital, a 24-month preventive monitoring...
August 14, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805173/latent-traits-of-impulsivity-and-compulsivity-toward-dimensional-psychiatry
#6
S R Chamberlain, J Stochl, S A Redden, J E Grant
BACKGROUND: The concepts of impulsivity and compulsivity are commonly used in psychiatry. Little is known about whether different manifest measures of impulsivity and compulsivity (behavior, personality, and cognition) map onto underlying latent traits; and if so, their inter-relationship. METHODS: A total of 576 adults were recruited using media advertisements. Psychopathological, personality, and cognitive measures of impulsivity and compulsivity were completed...
August 14, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805169/the-prevalence-of-suicidal-thoughts-and-behaviours-among-college-students-a-meta-analysis
#7
P Mortier, P Cuijpers, G Kiekens, R P Auerbach, K Demyttenaere, J G Green, R C Kessler, M K Nock, R Bruffaerts
BACKGROUND: Adolescence and young adulthood carry risk for suicidal thoughts and behaviours (STB). An increasing subpopulation of young people consists of college students. STB prevalence estimates among college students vary widely, precluding a validated point of reference. In addition, little is known on predictors for between-study heterogeneity in STB prevalence. METHODS: A systematic literature search identified 36 college student samples that were assessed for STB outcomes, representing a total of 634 662 students [median sample size = 2082 (IQR 353-5200); median response rate = 74% (IQR 37-89%)]...
August 14, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805168/9-11-related-ptsd-among-highly-exposed-populations-a-systematic-review-15-years-after-the-attack
#8
A Lowell, B Suarez-Jimenez, L Helpman, X Zhu, A Durosky, A Hilburn, F Schneier, R Gross, Y Neria
BACKGROUND: The 11 September 2001 (9/11) attacks were unprecedented in magnitude and mental health impact. While a large body of research has emerged since the attacks, published reviews are few, and are limited by an emphasis on cross-sectional research, short time frame, and exclusion of treatment studies. Additionally, to date, there has been no systematic review of available longitudinal information as a unique data set. Consequently, knowledge regarding long-term trajectories of 9/11-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among highly exposed populations, and whether available treatment approaches effectively address PTSD within the context of mass, man-made disaster, remains limited...
August 14, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803556/buffering-effects-of-safe-supportive-and-nurturing-relationships-among-women-with-childhood-histories-of-maltreatment
#9
S R Jaffee, R Takizawa, L Arseneault
BACKGROUND: Adults who were victims of childhood maltreatment tend to have poorer health compared with adults who did not experience abuse. However, many are in good health. We tested whether safe, supportive, and nurturing relationships buffer women with a history of childhood maltreatment from poor health outcomes in later life. METHODS: Participants included women from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study who were involved in an intimate relationship at some point by the time their twin children were 10 years old...
August 14, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799518/a-neurodevelopment-and-neuroplasticity-based-framework-for-early-intervention-in-psychotic-disorders
#10
E Bora
In recent years there has been growing interest in early intervention in psychotic disorders and a number of clinical and research programmes have been developed. The clinical staging model has been an essential part of early intervention as it provides the rationale of existing programmes. In medicine, clinical staging is a valuable approach in disorders where primary pathology is progressive in nature. However, the clinical staging model of psychosis has been proposed without establishing first that schizophrenia is a primarily progressive disorder...
August 11, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789714/letter-to-the-editor-virtual-reality-in-the-treatment-of-eating-and-weight-disorders
#11
G Riva
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 9, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780927/white-matter-microstructure-predicts-longitudinal-social-cognitive-outcomes-after-paediatric-traumatic-brain-injury-a-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#12
N P Ryan, S Genc, M H Beauchamp, K O Yeates, S Hearps, C Catroppa, V A Anderson, T J Silk
BACKGROUND: Deficits in social cognition may be among the most profound and disabling sequelae of paediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, the neuroanatomical correlates of longitudinal outcomes in this domain remain unexplored. This study aimed to characterize social cognitive outcomes longitudinally after paediatric TBI, and to evaluate the use of sub-acute diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to predict these outcomes. METHODS: The sample included 52 children with mild complex-severe TBI who were assessed on cognitive theory of mind (ToM), pragmatic language and affective ToM at 6- and 24-months post-injury...
August 7, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780913/maintaining-abstinence-from-smoking-after-a-period-of-enforced-abstinence-systematic-review-meta-analysis-and-analysis-of-behaviour-change-techniques-with-a-focus-on-mental-health
#13
L S Brose, E Simonavicius, A McNeill
BACKGROUND: Smoking prevalence is doubled among people with mental health problems and reaches 80% in inpatient, substance misuse and prison settings, widening inequalities in morbidity and mortality. As more institutions become smoke-free but most smokers relapse immediately post-discharge, we aimed to review interventions to maintain abstinence post-discharge. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and Web of Science were searched from inception to May 2016 and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cohort studies conducted with adult smokers in prison, inpatient mental health or substance use treatment included...
August 7, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768554/letter-to-the-editor-is-poor-sleep-and-loneliness-linked-by-increased-use-of-technology
#14
B Carter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 3, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745268/assessing-body-image-in-anorexia-nervosa-using-biometric-self-avatars-in-virtual-reality-attitudinal-components-rather-than-visual-body-size-estimation-are-distorted
#15
S C Mölbert, A Thaler, B J Mohler, S Streuber, J Romero, M J Black, S Zipfel, H-O Karnath, K E Giel
BACKGROUND: Body image disturbance (BID) is a core symptom of anorexia nervosa (AN), but as yet distinctive features of BID are unknown. The present study aimed at disentangling perceptual and attitudinal components of BID in AN. METHODS: We investigated n = 24 women with AN and n = 24 controls. Based on a three-dimensional (3D) body scan, we created realistic virtual 3D bodies (avatars) for each participant that were varied through a range of ±20% of the participants' weights...
July 26, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745267/revisiting-subcortical-brain-volume-correlates-of-autism-in-the-abide-dataset-effects-of-age-and-sex
#16
W Zhang, W Groen, M Mennes, C Greven, J Buitelaar, N Rommelse
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by substantial clinical, etiological and neurobiological heterogeneity. Despite this heterogeneity, previous imaging studies have highlighted the role of specific cortical and subcortical structures in ASD and have forwarded the notion of an ASD specific neuroanatomy in which abnormalities in brain structures are present that can be used for diagnostic classification approaches. METHOD: A large (N = 859, 6-27 years, IQ 70-130) multi-center structural magnetic resonance imaging dataset was examined to specifically test ASD diagnostic effects regarding (sub)cortical volumes...
July 26, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745264/shared-genetic-influences-do-not-explain-the-association-between-parent-offspring-relationship-quality-and-offspring-internalizing-problems-results-from-a-children-of-twins-study
#17
L J Hannigan, F V Rijsdijk, J M Ganiban, D Reiss, E L Spotts, J M Neiderhiser, P Lichtenstein, T A McAdams, T C Eley
BACKGROUND: Associations between parenting and child outcomes are often interpreted as reflecting causal, social influences. However, such associations may be confounded by genes common to children and their biological parents. To the extent that these shared genes influence behaviours in both generations, a passive genetic mechanism may explain links between them. Here we aim to quantify the relative importance of passive genetic v. social mechanisms in the intergenerational association between parent-offspring relationship quality and offspring internalizing problems in adolescence...
July 26, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738913/cumulative-exposure-to-childhood-adversity-and-treated-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-cohort-study-of-543-650-adolescents-and-young-adults-in-sweden
#18
E Björkenstam, C Björkenstam, B Jablonska, K Kosidou
BACKGROUND: Though childhood adversity (CA) has been associated with the risk of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), little is known about the effect of cumulative CAs and whether there are clusters of CAs that are more closely related with ADHD. METHODS: We used a Swedish cohort of 543 650 individuals born 1987-1991. Register-based CAs included familial death, substantial parental substance abuse and psychiatric disorder, substantial parental criminality, parental separation, household public assistance recipiency, and residential instability...
July 25, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735596/cue-reactivity-towards-bodies-in-anorexia-nervosa-common-and-differential-effects-in-adolescents-and-adults
#19
S Horndasch, O Kratz, J Van Doren, H Graap, R Kramer, G H Moll, H Heinrich
BACKGROUND: Aberrant reward mechanisms with regard to slim body shapes are discussed in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). The aim of the present study was to examine of cue reactivity toward body shapes in AN via the late positive potential (LPP), an event-related electroencephalography (EEG) component. By including adolescents and adults, aspects of development and chronification could be studied (2 × 2 design). METHODS: Thirty-two female AN patients (19 adolescents and 13 adults) and 37 control participants (16 adolescents and 21 adults) were included...
July 24, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735593/virtual-reality-in-the-assessment-and-treatment-of-psychosis-a-systematic-review-of-its-utility-acceptability-and-effectiveness
#20
M Rus-Calafell, P Garety, E Sason, T J K Craig, L R Valmaggia
Over the last two decades, there has been a rapid increase of studies testing the efficacy and acceptability of virtual reality in the assessment and treatment of mental health problems. This systematic review was carried out to investigate the use of virtual reality in the assessment and the treatment of psychosis. Web of Science, PsychInfo, EMBASE, Scopus, ProQuest and PubMed databases were searched, resulting in the identification of 638 articles potentially eligible for inclusion; of these, 50 studies were included in the review...
July 24, 2017: Psychological Medicine
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