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Psychological Medicine

E Pettersson, P Lichtenstein, H Larsson, J Song, A Agrawal, A D Børglum, C M Bulik, M J Daly, L K Davis, D Demontis, H J Edenberg, J Grove, J Gelernter, B M Neale, A F Pardiñas, E Stahl, J T R Walters, R Walters, P F Sullivan, D Posthuma, T J C Polderman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 18, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Abiodun O Adewuya, Tomilola Adewumi, Olufisayo Momodu, Olushola Olibamoyo, Olabanji Adesoji, Adedayo Adegbokun, Suraju Adeyemo, Olufikunayo Manuwa, Dapo Adegbaju
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to develop and test the feasibility of a primary care worker-led psychological intervention as the main feature of a collaborative stepped care for depression that is effective, affordable, culturally acceptable, tailored to patients' clinical condition and easily integrate-able into the primary care schedule in Nigeria. METHODS: Using the Medical Research Council framework, in the first stage (modelling/theoretical development), experts reviewed and distilled evidence from literature to form the intervention components...
October 17, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Emre Bora, Roger S McIntyre, Aysegul Ozerdem
BACKGROUND: Individuals with bipolar disorder (BD) have a higher prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) compared with the general population. Obesity and MetS are associated with cognitive deficits and brain imaging abnormalities in the general population. Obesity and components of MetS might potentially associate with neuroimaging and neurocognitive findings in BD. METHODS: A literature search of studies investigating the association between obesity (and other components of MetS) and neurocognitive and neuroimaging findings in BD was conducted...
October 17, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Ji Hyun Baek, Kyooseob Ha, Yongkang Kim, Young-Ah Cho, So Yung Yang, Yujin Choi, Sung-Lee Jang, Taesung Park, Tae Hyon Ha, Kyung Sue Hong
BACKGROUND: Given its diverse disease courses and symptom presentations, multiple phenotype dimensions with different biological underpinnings are expected with bipolar disorders (BPs). In this study, we aimed to identify lifetime BP psychopathology dimensions. We also explored the differing associations with bipolar I (BP-I) and bipolar II (BP-II) disorders. METHODS: We included a total of 307 subjects with BPs in the analysis. For the factor analysis, we chose six variables related to clinical courses, 29 indicators covering lifetime symptoms of mood episodes, and 6 specific comorbid conditions...
October 17, 2018: Psychological Medicine
S Walther, J A Bernard, V A Mittal, S A Shankman
Despite the clinical impact of motor symptoms such as agitation or retardation on the course of depression, these symptoms are poorly understood. Novel developments in the field of instrumentation and mobile devices allow for dimensional and continuous recording of motor behavior in various settings, particularly outside the laboratory. Likewise, the use of novel assessments enables to combine multimodal neuroimaging with behavioral measures in order to investigate the neural correlates of motor dysfunction in depression...
October 16, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Michael H Connors, Lena Quinto, Henry Brodaty
Depression and a number of other psychiatric conditions can impair cognition and give the appearance of neurodegenerative disease. Collectively, this group of disorders is known as 'pseudodementia' and are important to identify given their potential reversibility with treatment. Despite considerable interest historically, the longitudinal outcomes of patients with pseudodementia remain unclear. We conducted a systematic review of longitudinal studies of pseudodementia. Bibliographic databases were searched using a wide range of search terms...
October 15, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Nathaniel E Anderson, J Michael Maurer, Prashanth Nyalakanti, Keith A Harenski, Carla L Harenski, Michael R Koenigs, Jean Decety, Kent A Kiehl
BACKGROUND: Psychopathy is a personality disorder associated with severe emotional and interpersonal consequences and persistent antisocial behavior. Neurobiological models of psychopathy emphasize impairments in emotional processing, attention, and integration of information across large-scale neural networks in the brain. One of the largest integrative hubs in the brain is the corpus callosum (CC) - a large white matter structure that connects the two cerebral hemispheres. METHOD: The current study examines CC volume, measured via Freesurfer parcellation, in a large sample (n = 495) of incarcerated men who were assessed for psychopathic traits using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R)...
October 12, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Laura Mandelli, Alessandro Serretti, Stefano Porcelli, Daniel Souery, Julien Mendlewicz, Siegfried Kasper, Stuart Montgomery, Joseph Zohar
The working environment may have a significant effect on response to treatment of depression and this issue has not yet been sufficiently addressed in the scientific literature. There is evidence showing that being engaged in high-level positions can be an obstacle to the success of treatment. This article discusses the few evidence in the literature and some of the possible mechanisms involved. Specific personality attributes and difficulties in adapting to depression may delay access to care and may also reduce treatment compliance...
October 12, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Kelly K Anderson, Ross Norman, Arlene G MacDougall, Jordan Edwards, Lena Palaniyappan, Cindy Lau, Paul Kurdyak
BACKGROUND: Discrepancies between population-based estimates of the incidence of psychotic disorder and the treated incidence reported by early psychosis intervention (EPI) programs suggest additional cases may be receiving services elsewhere in the health system. Our objective was to estimate the incidence of non-affective psychotic disorder in the catchment area of an EPI program, and compare this to EPI-treated incidence estimates. METHODS: We constructed a retrospective cohort (1997-2015) of incident cases of non-affective psychosis aged 16-50 years in an EPI program catchment using population-based linked health administrative data...
October 12, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Travis T Mallard, K Paige Harden, Kim Fromme
BACKGROUND: Emerging adulthood is a peak period of risk for alcohol and illicit drug use. Recent advances in psychiatric genetics suggest that the co-occurrence of substance use and psychopathology arises, in part, from a shared genetic etiology. We sought to extend this research by investigating the influence of genetic risk for schizophrenia on trajectories of four substance use behaviors as they occurred across emerging adulthood. METHOD: Young adult participants of non-Hispanic European descent provided DNA samples and completed daily reports of substance use for 1 month per year across 4 years (N = 30 085 observations of N = 342 participants)...
October 12, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Andrew A Nicholson, Maria Densmore, Margaret C McKinnon, Richard W J Neufeld, Paul A Frewen, Jean Théberge, Rakesh Jetly, J Donald Richardson, Ruth A Lanius
BACKGROUND: The field of psychiatry would benefit significantly from developing objective biomarkers that could facilitate the early identification of heterogeneous subtypes of illness. Critically, although machine learning pattern recognition methods have been applied recently to predict many psychiatric disorders, these techniques have not been utilized to predict subtypes of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), including the dissociative subtype of PTSD (PTSD + DS). METHODS: Using Multiclass Gaussian Process Classification within PRoNTo, we examined the classification accuracy of: (i) the mean amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (mALFF; reflecting spontaneous neural activity during rest); and (ii) seed-based amygdala complex functional connectivity within 181 participants [PTSD (n = 81); PTSD + DS (n = 49); and age-matched healthy trauma-unexposed controls (n = 51)]...
October 11, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Kirsten Barnicot, Mike Crawford
BACKGROUND: Dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT) and mentalisation-based therapy (MBT) are both widely used evidence-based treatments for borderline personality disorder (BPD), yet a head-to-head comparison of outcomes has never been conducted. The present study therefore aimed to compare the clinical outcomes of DBT v. MBT in patients with BPD. METHODS: A non-randomised comparison of clinical outcomes in N = 90 patients with BPD receiving either DBT or MBT over a 12-month period...
October 10, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Annet H van Bergen, Sanne Verkooijen, Annabel Vreeker, Lucija Abramovic, Manon H Hillegers, Annet T Spijker, Erik Hoencamp, Eline J Regeer, Stefan E Knapen, Rixt F Riemersma-van der Lek, Robert Schoevers, Anja W Stevens, Peter F J Schulte, Ronald Vonk, Rocco Hoekstra, Nico J van Beveren, Ralph W Kupka, Iris E C Sommer, Roel A Ophoff, René S Kahn, Marco P M Boks
BACKGROUND: In a large and comprehensively assessed sample of patients with bipolar disorder type I (BDI), we investigated the prevalence of psychotic features and their relationship with life course, demographic, clinical, and cognitive characteristics. We hypothesized that groups of psychotic symptoms (Schneiderian, mood incongruent, thought disorder, delusions, and hallucinations) have distinct relations to risk factors. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study of 1342 BDI patients, comprehensive demographical and clinical characteristics were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-I) interview...
October 10, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Anthony C Ruocco, Alexander R Daros, Jie Chang, Achala H Rodrigo, Jaeger Lam, Justine Ledochowski, Shelley F McMain
BACKGROUND: Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by a heterogeneous clinical phenotype that emerges from interactions among genetic, biological, neurodevelopmental, and psychosocial factors. In the present family study, we evaluated the familial aggregation of key clinical, personality, and neurodevelopmental phenotypes in probands with BPD (n = 103), first-degree biological relatives (n = 74; 43% without a history of psychiatric disorder), and non-psychiatric controls (n = 99)...
October 10, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Winfried Rief, Stefan G Hofmann
Equivalence and non-inferiority trials are becoming more and more popular. Typically, they compare the effects of a treatment of interest with the current gold-standard treatment as the comparator. However, for this approach, the definition of equivalence or non-inferiority margins (NIM) is crucial, and no clear rules for their definition exist. We criticized the practice of these trials of being over-inflationary in favor of (erroneous) equivalence, and we outlined our critique with some study examples comparing psychodynamic treatments with current first-line treatments for mental disorders...
October 8, 2018: Psychological Medicine
M Lahti-Pulkkinen, T H Mina, R L Riha, K Räikkönen, A K Pesonen, A J Drake, F C Denison, R M Reynolds
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of sleep problems among pregnant women is over 50%, and daytime sleepiness is among the most common sleep problems. Previous studies have associated antenatal sleep problems with adverse maternal health and neonatal outcomes, but the consequences of antenatal sleep problems and particularly daytime sleepiness on child psychological development have not been assessed prospectively. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study including 111 mother-child dyads, we examined the associations of maternal daytime sleepiness during pregnancy, assessed at 17 and 28 weeks of gestation using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, with child neuropsychiatric problems and neuropsychological development, assessed with mother-rated questionnaires and individually administered neuropsychological tests, at child age 2...
October 8, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Rajiv Radhakrishnan, Sinan Guloksuz, Margreet Ten Have, Ron de Graaf, Saskia van Dorsselaer, Nicole Gunther, Christian Rauschenberg, Ulrich Reininghaus, Lotta-Katrin Pries, Maarten Bak, Jim van Os
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that cannabis use, childhood adversity, and urbanicity, in interaction with proxy measures of genetic risk, may facilitate onset of psychosis in the sense of early affective dysregulation becoming 'complicated' by, first, attenuated psychosis and, eventually, full-blown psychotic symptoms. METHODS: Data were derived from three waves of the second Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS-2). The impact of environmental risk factors (cannabis use, childhood adversity, and urbanicity) was analyzed across severity levels of psychopathology defined by the degree to which affective dysregulation was 'complicated' by low-grade psychotic experiences ('attenuated psychosis' - moderately severe) and, overt psychotic symptoms leading to help-seeking ('clinical psychosis' - most severe)...
October 4, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Diego Quattrone, Marta Di Forti, Charlotte Gayer-Anderson, Laura Ferraro, Hannah E Jongsma, Giada Tripoli, Caterina La Cascia, Daniele La Barbera, Ilaria Tarricone, Domenico Berardi, Andrei Szöke, Celso Arango, Antonio Lasalvia, Andrea Tortelli, Pierre-Michel Llorca, Lieuwe de Haan, Eva Velthorst, Julio Bobes, Miguel Bernardo, Julio Sanjuán, Jose Luis Santos, Manuel Arrojo, Cristina Marta Del-Ben, Paulo Rossi Menezes, Jean-Paul Selten, Peter B Jones, James B Kirkbride, Alexander L Richards, Michael C O'Donovan, Pak C Sham, Evangelos Vassos, Bart Pf Rutten, Jim van Os, Craig Morgan, Cathryn M Lewis, Robin M Murray, Ulrich Reininghaus
BACKGROUND: The value of the nosological distinction between non-affective and affective psychosis has frequently been challenged. We aimed to investigate the transdiagnostic dimensional structure and associated characteristics of psychopathology at First Episode Psychosis (FEP). Regardless of diagnostic categories, we expected that positive symptoms occurred more frequently in ethnic minority groups and in more densely populated environments, and that negative symptoms were associated with indices of neurodevelopmental impairment...
October 4, 2018: Psychological Medicine
B D Cassetta, L M Tomfohr-Madsen, V M Goghari
BACKGROUND: Although prior research has shown that cognitive training may improve cognition for schizophrenia patients, it is currently unclear which domains of cognition should be targeted in training. One suggestion is to target low- or mid-level cognitive processes. In particular, working memory (WM) and processing speed (PS) have been named as two key areas of impairment in schizophrenia, and two domains of cognition that are linked to higher-order cognition and daily functioning...
October 3, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Ymkje Anna de Vries, Annelieke M Roest, Erick H Turner, Peter de Jonge
BACKGROUND: Previous studies on reporting bias generally examined whether trials were published in stand-alone publications. In this study, we investigated whether pooled-trials publications constitute a specific form of reporting bias. We assessed whether negative trials were more likely to be exclusively published in pooled-trials publications than positive trials and examined the research questions, individual trial results, and conclusions presented in these articles. METHODS: Data from a cohort of 105 randomized controlled trials of 16 antidepressants were extracted from earlier publications and the corresponding Food and Drug Administration (FDA) reviews...
September 28, 2018: Psychological Medicine
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