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Psychological Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202098/gene-environment-interplay-in-depressive-symptoms-moderation-by-age-sex-and-physical-illness
#1
A J Petkus, C R Beam, W Johnson, J Kaprio, T Korhonen, M McGue, J M Neiderhiser, N L Pedersen, C A Reynolds, M Gatz
BACKGROUND: Numerous factors influence late-life depressive symptoms in adults, many not thoroughly characterized. We addressed whether genetic and environmental influences on depressive symptoms differed by age, sex, and physical illness. METHOD: The analysis sample included 24 436 twins aged 40-90 years drawn from the Interplay of Genes and Environment across Multiple Studies (IGEMS) Consortium. Biometric analyses tested age, sex, and physical illness moderation of genetic and environmental variance in depressive symptoms...
February 16, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202095/the-effects-of-vitamin-and-mineral-supplementation-on-symptoms-of-schizophrenia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
J Firth, B Stubbs, J Sarris, S Rosenbaum, S Teasdale, M Berk, A R Yung
BACKGROUND: When used as an adjunctive with antipsychotics, certain vitamins and minerals may be effective for improving symptomatic outcomes of schizophrenia, by restoring nutritional deficits, reducing oxidative stress, or modulating neurological pathways. METHOD: We conducted a systematic review of all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reporting effects of vitamin and/or mineral supplements on psychiatric symptoms in people with schizophrenia. Random-effects meta-analyses were used to calculate the standardized mean difference between nutrient and placebo treatments...
February 16, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196554/impact-of-childhood-and-adulthood-psychological-health-on-labour-force-participation-and-exit-in-later-life
#3
C Clark, M Smuk, D Lain, S A Stansfeld, E Carr, J Head, S Vickerstaff
BACKGROUND: Adulthood psychological health predicts labour force activity but few studies have examined childhood psychological health. We hypothesized that childhood psychological ill-health would be associated with labour force exit at 55 years. METHOD: Data were from the 55-year follow-up of the National Child Development Study (n = 9137). Labour force participation and exit (unemployment, retirement, permanent sickness, homemaking/other) were self-reported at 55 years...
February 15, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196550/genetic-and-environmental-influences-on-last-year-major-depression-in-adulthood-a-highly-heritable-stable-liability-but-strong-environmental-effects-on-1-year-prevalence
#4
K S Kendler, C O Gardner
BACKGROUND: This study seeks to clarify the contribution of temporally stable and occasion-specific genetic and environmental influences on risk for major depression (MD). METHOD: Our sample was 2153 members of female-female twin pairs from the Virginia Twin Registry. We examined four personal interview waves conducted over an 8-year period with MD in the last year defined by DSM-IV criteria. We fitted a structural equation model to the data using classic Mx. The model included genetic and environmental risk factors for a latent, stable vulnerability to MD and for episodes in each of the four waves...
February 15, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196549/mental-health-related-stigma-and-pathways-to-care-for-people-at-risk-of-psychotic-disorders-or-experiencing-first-episode-psychosis-a-systematic-review
#5
P C Gronholm, G Thornicroft, K R Laurens, S Evans-Lacko
BACKGROUND: Stigma associated with mental illness can delay or prevent help-seeking and service contact. Stigma-related influences on pathways to care in the early stages of psychotic disorders have not been systematically examined. METHOD: This review systematically assessed findings from qualitative, quantitative and mixed-methods research studies on the relationship between stigma and pathways to care (i.e. processes associated with help-seeking and health service contact) among people experiencing first-episode psychosis or at clinically defined increased risk of developing psychotic disorder...
February 15, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193313/community-based-screening-intervention-for-depression-affects-suicide-rates-among-middle-aged-japanese-adults
#6
H Oyama, T Sakashita
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that screening interventions may be effective for suicide prevention. Few studies, however, have reported their effects on outcome measures, including death by suicide among middle-aged adults. METHOD: We used a quasi-experimental parallel cluster design with matched community-based intervention and control municipalities (total eligible population: 90 000) in Japan. At-risk residents within the intervention area were invited for universal depression screening and subsequent care/support...
February 14, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193310/depressive-symptoms-and-inflammation-are-independent-risk-factors-of-fatigue-in-breast-cancer-survivors
#7
C Xiao, A H Miller, J Felger, D Mister, T Liu, M A Torres
BACKGROUND: Psychosocial and inflammatory factors have been associated with fatigue in breast cancer survivors. Nevertheless, the relative contribution and/or interaction of these factors with cancer-related fatigue have not been well documented. METHOD: This cross-sectional study enrolled 111 stage 0-III breast cancer patients treated with breast surgery followed by whole breast radiotherapy. Fatigue was measured by the total score of the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory-20...
February 14, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193303/who-pays-the-price-for-high-neuroticism-moderators-of-longitudinal-risks-for-depression-and-anxiety
#8
J R Vittengl
BACKGROUND: High neuroticism is a well-established risk for present and future depression and anxiety, as well as an emerging target for treatment and prevention. The current analyses tested the hypothesis that physical, social and socio-economic disadvantages each amplify risks from high neuroticism for longitudinal increases in depression and anxiety symptoms. METHOD: A national sample of adults (n = 7108) provided structured interview and questionnaire data in the Midlife Development in the United States Survey...
February 14, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193301/hippocampal-subregion-volume-changes-associated-with-antipsychotic-treatment-in-first-episode-psychosis
#9
K Rhindress, D G Robinson, J A Gallego, R Wellington, A K Malhotra, P R Szeszko
BACKGROUND: Hippocampal dysfunction is considered central to many neurobiological models of schizophrenia, yet there are few longitudinal in vivo neuroimaging studies that have investigated the relationship between antipsychotic treatment and morphologic changes within specific hippocampal subregions among patients with psychosis. METHOD: A total of 29 patients experiencing a first episode of psychosis with little or no prior antipsychotic exposure received structural neuroimaging examinations at illness onset and then following 12 weeks of treatment with either risperidone or aripiprazole in a double-blind randomized clinical trial...
February 14, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193300/predictors-of-premenstrual-impairment-among-women-undergoing-prospective-assessment-for-premenstrual-dysphoric-disorder-a-cycle-level-analysis
#10
K M Schmalenberger, T A Eisenlohr-Moul, P Surana, D R Rubinow, S S Girdler
BACKGROUND: Women who experience significant premenstrual symptoms differ in the extent to which these symptoms cause cyclical impairment. This study clarifies the type and number of symptoms that best predict premenstrual impairment in a sample of women undergoing prospective assessment for premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) in a research setting. Central research goals were to determine (1) which emotional, psychological, and physical symptoms of PMDD are uniquely associated with premenstrual impairment, and (2) how many cyclical symptoms optimally predict the presence of a clinically significant premenstrual elevation of impairment...
February 14, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183377/impaired-awareness-of-motor-intention-in-functional-neurological-disorder-implications-for-voluntary-and-functional-movement
#11
K Baek, N Doñamayor, L S Morris, D Strelchuk, S Mitchell, Y Mikheenko, S Y Yeoh, W Phillips, M Zandi, A Jenaway, C Walsh, V Voon
BACKGROUND: Functional neurological disorders (FNDs), also known as conversion disorder, are unexplained neurological symptoms unrelated to a neurological cause. The disorder is common, yet poorly understood. The symptoms are experienced as involuntary but have similarities to voluntary processes. Here we studied intention awareness in FND. METHOD: A total of 26 FND patients and 25 healthy volunteers participated in this functional magnetic resonance study using Libet's clock...
February 10, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183367/selective-functional-disconnection-of-the-orbitofrontal-subregions-in-schizophrenia
#12
Y Xu, W Qin, C Zhuo, L Xu, J Zhu, X Liu, C Yu
BACKGROUND: As a disconnection syndrome, schizophrenia has shown impaired resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC); however, the OFC is a rather heterogeneous region and the rsFC changes in the OFC subregions remain unknown. METHOD: A total of 98 schizophrenia patients and 102 healthy controls underwent resting-state functional MRI using a sensitivity-encoded spiral-in imaging sequence (SENSE-SPIRAL) to reduce susceptibility-induced signal loss and distortion...
February 10, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179046/medium-and-long-term-prognostic-validity-of-competing-classification-proposals-for-the-former-somatoform-disorders
#13
S Schumacher, W Rief, K Klaus, E Brähler, R Mewes
BACKGROUND: DSM-5 introduced a fundamental revision of the category of somatoform disorders, which resulted in the new somatic symptom disorder (SSD) and related disorders. However, prognostic validity of SSD remains unclear, while other classification proposals, such as bodily distress disorder (BDD) or polysymptomatic distress disorder (PSDD), might be promising alternatives for the new ICD-11. Therefore, the comparison of the different approaches concerning long-term prognosis of disorder-relevant factors is of special interest...
February 9, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179039/cannabis-use-and-adherence-to-antipsychotic-medication-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
E Foglia, T Schoeler, E Klamerus, K Morgan, S Bhattacharyya
BACKGROUND: Substance use may increase the risk of non-adherence to antipsychotics, resulting in negative outcomes in patients with psychosis. METHOD: We aimed to quantitatively summarize evidence regarding the effect of cannabis use, the most commonly used illicit drug amongst those with psychosis, on adherence to antipsychotic medication. Studies were identified through a systematic database search. Adopting random-effects models, pooled odds ratios (OR) for risk of non-adherence to antipsychotic medications were calculated comparing: cannabis-users at baseline v...
February 9, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179035/impact-of-deep-brain-stimulation-of-the-ventral-anterior-limb-of-the-internal-capsule-on-cognition-in-depression
#15
I O Bergfeld, M Mantione, M L C Hoogendoorn, H G Ruhé, F Horst, P Notten, J van Laarhoven, P van den Munckhof, G Beute, P R Schuurman, D Denys
BACKGROUND: Preliminary studies report no negative and a possible positive impact of deep brain stimulation (DBS) on cognition of patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD). However, these studies neither controlled for practice effects nor compared active with sham stimulation. METHOD: To address these limitations, we compared 25 TRD patients, who underwent DBS of the ventral anterior limb of the internal capsule (vALIC), with 21 healthy controls (HCs) matched on gender, age and education level...
February 9, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173893/sleep-and-circadian-rhythm-disturbance-in-bipolar-disorder
#16
A J Bradley, R Webb-Mitchell, A Hazu, N Slater, B Middleton, P Gallagher, H McAllister-Williams, K N Anderson
BACKGROUND: Subjective reports of insomnia and hypersomnia are common in bipolar disorder (BD). It is unclear to what extent these relate to underlying circadian rhythm disturbance (CRD). In this study we aimed to objectively assess sleep and circadian rhythm in a cohort of patients with BD compared to matched controls. METHOD: Forty-six patients with BD and 42 controls had comprehensive sleep/circadian rhythm assessment with respiratory sleep studies, prolonged accelerometry over 3 weeks, sleep questionnaires and diaries, melatonin levels, alongside mood, psychosocial functioning and quality of life (QoL) questionnaires...
February 8, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173890/differences-in-executive-functioning-between-violent-and-non-violent-offenders
#17
J Meijers, J M Harte, G Meynen, P Cuijpers
BACKGROUND: A growing body of neuropsychological and neurobiological research shows a relationship between functioning of the prefrontal cortex and criminal and violent behaviour. The prefrontal cortex is crucial for executive functions such as inhibition, attention, working memory, set-shifting and planning. A deficit in these functions - a prefrontal deficit - may result in antisocial, impulsive or even aggressive behaviour. While several meta-analyses show large effect sizes for the relationship between a prefrontal deficit, executive dysfunction and criminality, there are few studies investigating differences in executive functions between violent and non-violent offenders...
February 8, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166863/association-between-alcohol-cannabis-and-other-illicit-substance-abuse-and-risk-of-developing-schizophrenia-a-nationwide-population-based-register-study
#18
S M Nielsen, N G Toftdahl, M Nordentoft, C Hjorthøj
BACKGROUND: Several studies have examined whether use of substances can cause schizophrenia. However, due to methodological limitations in the existing literature (e.g. selection bias and lack of adjustment of co-abuse) uncertainties still remain. We aimed to investigate whether substance abuse increases the risk of developing schizophrenia, addressing some of these limitations. METHOD: The longitudinal, nationwide Danish registers were linked to establish a cohort of 3 133 968 individuals (105 178 673 person-years at risk), identifying 204 505 individuals diagnosed with substance abuse and 21 305 diagnosed with schizophrenia...
February 7, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166848/randomized-control-trial-to-assess-the-efficacy-of-metacognitive-training-compared-with-a-psycho-educational-group-in-people-with-a-recent-onset-psychosis
#19
S Ochoa, R López-Carrilero, M L Barrigón, E Pousa, A Barajas, E Lorente-Rovira, F González-Higueras, E Grasa, I Ruiz-Delgado, J Cid, I Birulés, I Esteban-Pinos, R Casañas, A Luengo, P Torres-Hernández, I Corripio, M Montes-Gámez, M Beltran, A De Apraiz, L Domínguez-Sánchez, E Sánchez, B Llacer, T Pélaez, J L Bogas, S Moritz
BACKGROUND: Aims were to assess the efficacy of metacognitive training (MCT) in people with a recent onset of psychosis in terms of symptoms as a primary outcome and metacognitive variables as a secondary outcome. METHOD: A multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical trial was performed. A total of 126 patients were randomized to an MCT or a psycho-educational intervention with cognitive-behavioral elements. The sample was composed of people with a recent onset of psychosis, recruited from nine public centers in Spain...
February 7, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162109/anorexia-nervosa-in-males-excess-mortality-and-psychiatric-co-morbidity-in-609-swedish-in-patients
#20
J Kask, M Ramklint, N Kolia, D Panagiotakos, A Ekbom, L Ekselius, F C Papadopoulos
BACKGROUND: Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric disorder with high mortality. METHOD: A retrospective register study of 609 males who received hospitalized care for AN in Sweden between 1973 and 2010 was performed. The standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and Cox regression-derived hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated as measures of mortality. The incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were calculated to compare the mortality rates in patients with AN and controls both with and without psychiatric diagnoses...
February 6, 2017: Psychological Medicine
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