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Psychological Medicine

C V Haldipur
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 19, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Joanna E Steinglass, Deborah R Glasofer, Emily Walsh, Gabby Guzman, Carol B Peterson, B Timothy Walsh, Evelyn Attia, Stephen A Wonderlich
BACKGROUND: Habits are behavioral routines that are automatic and frequent, relatively independent of any desired outcome, and have potent antecedent cues. Among individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN), behaviors that promote the starved state appear habitual, and this is the foundation of a recent neurobiological model of AN. In this proof-of-concept study, we tested the habit model of AN by examining the impact of an intervention focused on antecedent cues for eating disorder routines...
February 19, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Maria Hedman-Lagerlöf, Erik Hedman-Lagerlöf, Lars-Göran Öst
Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) have become widely used for common mental disorders (CMDs) but the state of the evidence has not been sufficiently investigated. The aims for this study were: (1) to quantify the effect size of MBIs for CMDs in the acute phase; (2) to explore moderator variables; and (3) to evaluate the evidence status of MBIs for the CMDs it has been tried for. A comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were conducted. RCTs that evaluated MBI and included patients with a primary manifest CMD was included...
February 19, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Emilio Fernandez-Egea, Yulia Worbe, Miguel Bernardo, Trevor W Robbins
BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is common in clozapine-treated patients although the actual prevalence, phenomenology and risk factors remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to address the three aforementioned questions. METHODS: The electronic records of a large cohort of clozapine-medicated schizophrenia patients routinely screened for OCD were used. The Obsessive Compulsive Inventory Revised version (OCI-R) was available from 118 cases and a 21 points cut-off threshold for OCD was defined...
February 19, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Frank Vitaro, Daniel J Dickson, Mara Brendgen, Brett Laursen, Ginette Dionne, Michel Boivin
BACKGROUND: Using a longitudinal twin design and a latent growth curve/autoregressive approach, this study examined the genetic-environmental architecture of substance use across adolescence. METHODS: Self-reports of substance use (i.e. alcohol, marijuana) were collected at ages 13, 14, 15, and 17 years from 476 twin pairs (475 boys, 477 girls) living in the Province of Quebec, Canada. Substance use increased linearly across the adolescent years. RESULTS: ACE modeling revealed that genetic, as well as shared and non-shared environmental factors explained the overall level of substance use and that these same factors also partly accounted for growth in substance use from age 13 to 17...
February 19, 2018: Psychological Medicine
J Ferri, J M Ford, B J Roach, J A Turner, T G van Erp, J Voyvodic, A Preda, A Belger, J Bustillo, D O'Leary, B A Mueller, K O Lim, S C McEwen, V D Calhoun, M Diaz, G Glover, D Greve, C G Wible, J G Vaidya, S G Potkin, D H Mathalon
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia (SZ) is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder associated with disrupted connectivity within the thalamic-cortico-cerebellar network. Resting-state functional connectivity studies have reported thalamic hypoconnectivity with the cerebellum and prefrontal cortex as well as thalamic hyperconnectivity with sensory cortical regions in SZ patients compared with healthy comparison participants (HCs). However, fundamental questions remain regarding the clinical significance of these connectivity abnormalities...
February 15, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Byamah B Mutamba, Jeremy C Kane, Joop T V M de Jong, James Okello, Seggane Musisi, Brandon A Kohrt
BACKGROUND: Despite increasing evidence for the benefits of psychological treatments (PTs) in low- and middle-income countries, few national health systems have adopted PTs as standard care. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a group interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT-G) intervention, when delivered by lay community health workers (LCHWs) in a low-resource government health system in Uganda. The intended outcome was reduction of depression among caregivers of children with nodding syndrome, a neuropsychiatric condition with high morbidity, mortality and social stigma...
February 15, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Lucy D Vanes, Elias Mouchlianitis, Tracy Collier, Bruno B Averbeck, Sukhi S Shergill
BACKGROUND: The significant proportion of schizophrenia patients refractory to treatment, primarily directed at the dopamine system, suggests that multiple mechanisms may underlie psychotic symptoms. Reinforcement learning tasks have been employed in schizophrenia to assess dopaminergic functioning and reward processing, but these have not directly compared groups of treatment-refractory and non-refractory patients. METHODS: In the current functional magnetic resonance imaging study, 21 patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS), 21 patients with non-treatment-resistant schizophrenia (NTR), and 24 healthy controls (HC) performed a probabilistic reinforcement learning task, utilizing emotionally valenced face stimuli which elicit a social bias toward happy faces...
February 14, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Graham Blackman, Nicholas Moran, Eli Silber, Christopher Symeon, Franz Brunnhuber, Asif Mazumder, Fatima Jaffer, Thomas Pollak
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 14, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Winfried Rief, Stefan G Hofmann
In virtually every field of medicine, non-inferiority trials and meta-analyses with non-inferiority conclusions are increasingly common. This non-inferiority approach has been frequently used by a group of authors favoring psychodynamic therapies (PDTs), concluding that PDTs are just as effective as cognitive-behavioral therapies (CBT). We focus on these examples to exemplify some problems associated with non-inferiority tests of psychological treatments, although the problems also apply to psychopharmacotherapy research, CBT research, and others...
February 14, 2018: Psychological Medicine
C Y Shang, H Y Lin, W Y Tseng, S S Gau
BACKGROUND: The dopamine transporter gene (DAT1) and visual memory deficits have been consistently reported to be associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study aimed to examine whether a DAT1 haplotype affected functional and structural brain alterations in children with ADHD and whether those alterations were associated with visual memory. METHOD: We recruited a total of 37 drug-naïve children with ADHD (17 with the DAT1 rs27048 (C)/rs429699 (T) haplotype and 20 without the CT haplotype) and 37 typically developing children (17 with the CT haplotype and 20 without the CT haplotype)...
February 13, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Kirstine Bro Jørgensen, Merete Nordentoft, Carsten Hjorthøj
BACKGROUND: Substance use disorder is highly prevalent in people with psychiatric disorders, and known to impede the psychiatric treatment. Some studies show increased rates of service use, while others show a decrease. These conflicting results are further hampered by a lack of large-scale studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between substance use disorder and psychiatric service use in psychiatric patients. METHODS: The study was a prospective registry-based cohort study including patients with severe mental illness...
February 12, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Hsin-Fang Chung, Nirmala Pandeya, Annette J Dobson, Diana Kuh, Eric J Brunner, Sybil L Crawford, Nancy E Avis, Ellen B Gold, Ellen S Mitchell, Nancy F Woods, Joyce T Bromberger, Rebecca C Thurston, Hadine Joffe, Toyoko Yoshizawa, Debra Anderson, Gita D Mishra
BACKGROUND: Many women experience both vasomotor menopausal symptoms (VMS) and depressed mood at midlife, but little is known regarding the prospective bi-directional relationships between VMS and depressed mood and the role of sleep difficulties in both directions. METHODS: A pooled analysis was conducted using data from 21 312 women (median: 50 years, interquartile range 49-51) in eight studies from the InterLACE consortium. The degree of VMS, sleep difficulties, and depressed mood was self-reported and categorised as never, rarely, sometimes, and often (if reporting frequency) or never, mild, moderate, and severe (if reporting severity)...
February 12, 2018: Psychological Medicine
H Hart, L Lim, M A Mehta, A Simmons, K A H Mirza, K Rubia
BACKGROUND: Children with a history of maltreatment suffer from altered emotion processing but the neural basis of this phenomenon is unknown. This pioneering functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated the effects of severe childhood maltreatment on emotion processing while controlling for psychiatric conditions, medication and substance abuse. METHOD: Twenty medication-naive, substance abuse-free adolescents with a history of childhood abuse, 20 psychiatric control adolescents matched on psychiatric diagnoses but with no maltreatment and 27 healthy controls underwent a fMRI emotion discrimination task comprising fearful, angry, sad happy and neutral dynamic facial expressions...
February 12, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Slava Dantchev, Stanley Zammit, Dieter Wolke
BACKGROUND: Being bullied by a sibling has been recently identified as a potential risk factor for developing depression and self-harm. It is unknown whether this risk extends to other serious mental health problems such as psychosis. We investigated whether sibling bullying victimization or perpetration in middle childhood was prospectively associated with psychotic disorder in early adulthood. METHODS: The current study investigated 6988 participants of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a UK community-based birth cohort...
February 12, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Harma Meffert, Laura C Thornton, Patrick M Tyler, Mary L Botkin, Anna K Erway, Venkata Kolli, Kayla Pope, Stuart F White, R James R Blair
BACKGROUND: Previous work has shown that amygdala responsiveness to fearful expressions is inversely related to level of callous-unemotional (CU) traits (i.e. reduced guilt and empathy) in youth with conduct problems. However, some research has suggested that the relationship between pathophysiology and CU traits may be different in those youth with significant prior trauma exposure. METHODS: In experiment 1, 72 youth with varying levels of disruptive behavior and trauma exposure performed a gender discrimination task while viewing morphed fear expressions (0, 50, 100, 150 fear) and Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent responses were recorded...
February 12, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Gang Ye, Guang Zhong Yin, Zhen Tang, Jia Lin Fu, Jie Chen, Shan Shan Chen, Jia Li, Tian Fu, Xin Yu, Dong Wu Xu, Jeffrey K Yao, Li Hui
BACKGROUND: The pathophysiology of cognitive impairment in patients with the major depressive disorder (MDD) may involve neuroinflammation mediated by cytokines. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels, sustained attention, and their association in patients with MDD. METHODS: Thirty patients with MDD and 30 healthy controls were enrolled in this case-control study. Sustained attention was measured using the Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVP) task in the Cambridge Neuropsychological Tests Automated Battery...
February 8, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Branko M van Hulst, Patrick de Zeeuw, Chantal Vlaskamp, Yvonne Rijks, Bram B Zandbelt, Sarah Durston
BACKGROUND: Attenuated inhibitory control is one of the most robust findings in the neuropsychology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, it is unclear whether this represents a deficit in outright stopping (reactive inhibition), whether it relates to a deficit in anticipatory response slowing (proactive inhibition), or both. In addition, children with other development disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), often have symptoms of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity similar to children with ADHD...
February 8, 2018: Psychological Medicine
E Bora, B B Akdede, K Alptekin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 8, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Dario Zaremba, Verena Enneking, Susanne Meinert, Katharina Förster, Christian Bürger, Katharina Dohm, Dominik Grotegerd, Ronny Redlich, Bruno Dietsche, Axel Krug, Tilo Kircher, Harald Kugel, Walter Heindel, Bernhard T Baune, Volker Arolt, Udo Dannlowski
BACKGROUND: Patients with major depression show reduced hippocampal volume compared to healthy controls. However, the contribution of patients' cumulative illness severity to hippocampal volume has rarely been investigated. It was the aim of our study to find a composite score of cumulative illness severity that is associated with hippocampal volume in depression. METHODS: We estimated hippocampal gray matter volume using 3-tesla brain magnetic resonance imaging in 213 inpatients with acute major depression according to DSM-IV criteria (employing the SCID interview) and 213 healthy controls...
February 8, 2018: Psychological Medicine
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