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Psychological Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716160/to-the-editor-how-statistics-killed-the-cat-conclusion
#1
E F Torrey, R H Yolken
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 18, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714434/altered-interoceptive-activation-before-during-and-after-aversive-breathing-load-in-women-remitted-from-anorexia-nervosa
#2
L A Berner, A N Simmons, C E Wierenga, A Bischoff-Grethe, M P Paulus, U F Bailer, A V Ely, W H Kaye
BACKGROUND: The neural mechanisms of anorexia nervosa (AN), a severe and chronic psychiatric illness, are still poorly understood. Altered body state processing, or interoception, has been documented in AN, and disturbances in aversive interoception may contribute to distorted body perception, extreme dietary restriction, and anxiety. As prior data implicate a potential mismatch between interoceptive expectation and experience in AN, we examined whether AN is associated with altered brain activation before, during, and after an unpleasant interoceptive state change...
July 17, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714426/suicide-following-acute-admissions-for-physical-illnesses-across-england-and-wales
#3
S E Roberts, A John, U Kandalama, J G Williams, R A Lyons, K Lloyd
BACKGROUND: The study aim was to establish and quantify suicide risk following acute admissions for all major physical illnesses, for confirmatory purposes, from two independent information sources from different countries. METHODS: Record linkage of inpatient and death certificate data for 11 004 389 acute admissions for physical illnesses in England and 713 496 in Wales. The main outcome measure was standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) for suicide at 1 year following discharge from hospital...
July 17, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714421/the-prevalence-age-of-onset-and-the-correlates-of-dsm-iv-psychiatric-disorders-in-the-tianjin-mental-health-survey-tjmhs
#4
H Yin, G Xu, H Tian, G Yang, K J Wardenaar, R A Schoevers
BACKGROUND: To effectively shape mental healthcare policy in modern-day China, up-to-date epidemiological data on mental disorders is needed. The objective was to estimate the prevalence, age-of-onset (AOO) and sociodemographic correlates of mental disorders in a representative household sample of the general population (age ⩾ 18) in the Tianjin Municipality in China. METHODS: Data came from the Tianjin Mental health Survey (TJMHS), which was conducted between July 2011 and March 2012 using a two-phase design...
July 17, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712367/the-effects-of-vitamin-and-mineral-supplementation-on-symptoms-of-schizophrenia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-corrigendum
#5
J Firth, B Stubbs, J Sarris, S Rosenbaum, S Teasdale, M Berk, A R Yung
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 17, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712366/letter-to-the-editor-exposure-to-nitrous-oxide-and-intrusive-memory-formation-in-psychological-trauma
#6
K Fluegge
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 17, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712365/psychoneurometric-assessment-of-dispositional-liabilities-for-suicidal-behavior-phenotypic-and-etiological-associations
#7
N C Venables, J R Yancey, M D Kramer, B M Hicks, R F Krueger, W G Iacono, T E Joiner, C J Patrick
BACKGROUND: Can core genetic liabilities for suicidal behavior be indexed using psychological and neural indicators combined? The current work addressed this question by examining phenotypic and genetic associations of two biobehavioral traits, threat sensitivity (THT) and disinhibition (DIS) - operationalized as psychoneurometric variables (i.e., composites of psychological-scale and neurophysiological measures) - with suicidal behaviors in a sample of adult twins. METHODS: Participants were 444 identical and fraternal twins recruited from an urban community...
July 17, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712364/the-structure-of-schizotypal-personality-traits-a-cross-national-study
#8
E Fonseca-Pedrero, M Debbané, J Ortuño-Sierra, R C K Chan, D C Cicero, L C Zhang, C Brenner, E Barkus, R J Linscott, T Kwapil, N Barrantes-Vidal, A Cohen, A Raine, M T Compton, E B Tone, J Suhr, J Muñiz, A Fumero, S Giakoumaki, I Tsaousis, A Preti, M Chmielewski, J Laloyaux, A Mechri, M A Lahmar, V Wuthrich, F Larøi, J C Badcock, A Jablensky
BACKGROUND: Schizotypal traits are considered a phenotypic-indicator of schizotypy, a latent personality organization reflecting a putative liability for psychosis. To date, no previous study has examined the comparability of factorial structures across samples originating from different countries and cultures. The main goal was to evaluate the factorial structure and reliability of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) scores by amalgamating data from studies conducted in 12 countries and across 21 sites...
July 17, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712363/overlapping-and-disease-specific-trait-response-and-reflection-impulsivity-in-adolescents-with-first-episode-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders-or-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#9
J R M Jepsen, J Rydkjaer, B Fagerlund, A K Pagsberg, R Av F Jespersen, B Y Glenthøj, B Oranje
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are developmental disorders with shared clinical characteristics such as cognitive impairments and impulsivity. Impulsivity is a core feature of ADHD and an important factor in aggression, violence, and substance use in schizophrenia. Based on the hypothesis that schizophrenia and ADHD represent a continuum of neurodevelopmental impairments, the aim was to identify overlapping and disease specific forms of impulsivity...
July 17, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712362/letter-to-the-editor-measuring-and-defining-the-double-role-of-the-dsm-criteria-for-psychiatric-disorders
#10
H M van Loo, J-W Romeijn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 17, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705261/-cutting-non-suicidal-self-injury-nssi-on-instagram
#11
R C Brown, T Fischer, A D Goldwich, F Keller, R Young, P L Plener
BACKGROUND: Social media presents an important means for social interaction, especially among adolescents, with Instagram being the most popular platform in this age-group. Pictures and communication about non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) can frequently be found on the internet. METHODS: During 4 weeks in April 2016, n = 2826 (from n = 1154 accounts) pictures which directly depicted wounds on Instagram were investigated. Those pictures, associated comments, and user accounts were independently rated for content...
July 14, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689498/the-slow-death-of-the-concept-of-schizophrenia-and-the-painful-birth-of-the-psychosis-spectrum
#12
S Guloksuz, J van Os
The concept of schizophrenia only covers the 30% poor outcome fraction of a much broader multidimensional psychotic syndrome, yet paradoxically has become the dominant prism through which everything 'psychotic' is observed, even affective states with mild psychosis labelled 'ultra-high risk' (for schizophrenia). The inability of psychiatry to frame psychosis as multidimensional syndromal variation of largely unpredictable course and outcome - within and between individuals - hampers research and recovery-oriented practice...
July 10, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659228/are-we-failing-clinical-trials-a-case-for-strong-aggregate-outcomes
#13
D W Joyce, D K Tracy, S S Shergill
Clinical trials in psychiatry inherit methods for design and statistical analysis from evidence-based medicine. However, trials in other clinical disciplines benefit from a more specific relationship between instruments that measure disease state (e.g. biomarkers, clinical signs), the underlying pathology and diagnosis such that primary outcomes can be readily defined. Trials in psychiatry use diagnosis (i.e. a categorical label for a syndrome) as a proxy for the underlying disorder, and outcomes are defined, for example, as a percentage change in a univariate total score on some clinical instrument...
June 29, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659227/the-role-of-genetic-liability-in-the-association-of-urbanicity-at-birth-and-during-upbringing-with-schizophrenia-in-denmark
#14
D Paksarian, B B Trabjerg, K R Merikangas, O Mors, A D Børglum, D M Hougaard, J J McGrath, C B Pedersen, P B Mortensen, E Agerbo
BACKGROUND: Studies have indicated that the association of urbanicity at birth and during upbringing with schizophrenia may be driven by familial factors such as genetic liability. We used a population-based nested case-control study to assess whether polygenic risk score (PRS) for schizophrenia was associated with urbanicity at birth and at age 15, and to assess whether PRS and parental history of mental disorder together explained the association between urbanicity and schizophrenia...
June 29, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655366/cardiovascular-fitness-in-late-adolescent-males-and-later-risk-of-serious-non-affective-mental-disorders-a-prospective-population-based-study
#15
J Nyberg, M Henriksson, M A I Åberg, A Rosengren, M Söderberg, N D Åberg, H G Kuhn, M Waern
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular fitness in late adolescence is associated with future risk of depression. Relationships with other mental disorders need elucidation. This study investigated whether fitness in late adolescence is associated with future risk of serious non-affective mental disorders. Further, we examined how having an affected brother might impact the relationship. METHOD: Prospective, population-based cohort study of 1 109 786 Swedish male conscripts with no history of mental illness, who underwent conscription examinations at age 18 between 1968 and 2005...
June 28, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655360/tobacco-smoking-is-associated-with-psychotic-experiences-in-the-general-population-of-south-london
#16
V Bhavsar, S Jauhar, R M Murray, M Hotopf, S L Hatch, A McNeill, J Boydell, J H MacCabe
BACKGROUND: The association between cigarette smoking and psychosis remains unexplained, but could relate to causal effects in both directions, confounding by socioeconomic factors, such as ethnicity, or use of other substances, including cannabis. Few studies have evaluated the association between cigarettes and psychotic experiences (PEs) in diverse, inner-city populations, or relationships with number of cigarettes consumed. METHODS: We assessed associations and dose-response relationships between cigarette smoking and PEs in a cross-sectional survey of household residents (n = 1680) in South East London, using logistic regression to adjust for cannabis use, other illicit substances, and socioeconomic factors, including ethnicity...
June 28, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651666/genetic-and-phenotypic-overlap-of-specific-obsessive-compulsive-and-attention-deficit-hyperactive-subtypes-with-tourette-syndrome
#17
M E Hirschtritt, S M Darrow, C Illmann, L Osiecki, M Grados, P Sandor, Y Dion, R A King, D Pauls, C L Budman, D C Cath, E Greenberg, G J Lyon, D Yu, L M McGrath, W M McMahon, P C Lee, K L Delucchi, J M Scharf, C A Mathews
BACKGROUND: The unique phenotypic and genetic aspects of obsessive-compulsive (OCD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among individuals with Tourette syndrome (TS) are not well characterized. Here, we examine symptom patterns and heritability of OCD and ADHD in TS families. METHOD: OCD and ADHD symptom patterns were examined in TS patients and their family members (N = 3494) using exploratory factor analyses (EFA) for OCD and ADHD symptoms separately, followed by latent class analyses (LCA) of the resulting OCD and ADHD factor sum scores jointly; heritability and clinical relevance of the resulting factors and classes were assessed...
June 27, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641609/a-systematic-review-of-the-psychometric-properties-usability-and-clinical-impacts-of-mobile-mood-monitoring-applications-in-young-people
#18
M Dubad, C Winsper, C Meyer, M Livanou, S Marwaha
BACKGROUND: Mobile mood-monitoring applications are increasingly used by mental health providers, widely advocated within research, and a potentially effective method to engage young people. However, little is known about their efficacy and usability in young populations. METHOD: A systematic review addressing three research questions focused on young people: (1) what are the psychometric properties of mobile mood-monitoring applications; (2) what is their usability; and (3) what are their positive and negative clinical impacts? Findings were synthesised narratively, study quality assessed and compared with evidence from adult studies...
June 23, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641601/the-impact-of-traumatic-stress-on-pavlovian-biases
#19
O T Ousdal, Q J Huys, A M Milde, A R Craven, L Ersland, T Endestad, A Melinder, K Hugdahl, R J Dolan
BACKGROUND: Disturbances in Pavlovian valuation systems are reported to follow traumatic stress exposure. However, motivated decisions are also guided by instrumental mechanisms, but to date the effect of traumatic stress on these instrumental systems remain poorly investigated. Here, we examine whether a single episode of severe traumatic stress influences flexible instrumental decisions through an impact on a Pavlovian system. METHODS: Twenty-six survivors of the 2011 Norwegian terror attack and 30 matched control subjects performed an instrumental learning task in which Pavlovian and instrumental associations promoted congruent or conflicting responses...
June 23, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637535/routine-hospital-management-of-self-harm-and-risk-of-further-self-harm-propensity-score-analysis-using-record-based-cohort-data
#20
S Steeg, R Emsley, M Carr, J Cooper, N Kapur
BACKGROUND: The care received by people presenting to hospital following self-harm varies and it is unclear how different types of treatment affect risk of further self-harm. METHOD: Observational cohort data from the Manchester Self-Harm Project, UK, included 16 456 individuals presenting to an Emergency Department with self-harm between 2003 and 2011. Individuals were followed up for 12 months. We also used data from a smaller cohort of individuals presenting to 31 hospitals in England during a 3-month period in 2010/2011, followed up for 6 months...
June 22, 2017: Psychological Medicine
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