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Psychological Medicine

Kai Liu, Xiaohua Zhao, Xiaobing Lu, Xiaoxia Zhu, Hui Chen, Mengmeng Wang, Weixin Yan, Linlin Jing, Yanjia Deng, Lin Yu, Huawang Wu, Ge Wen, Xuegang Sun, Zhiping Lv
BACKGROUND: We hypothesize that the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) may play a role in disturbing the effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) on the striatal connectivity in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS: We performed a longitudinal observation by combining resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and biochemical analyses to identify the abnormal striatal connectivity in MDD patients, and to evaluate the effect of TNF-α level on these abnormal connectivities during SSRI treatment...
December 6, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Vidyulata Kamath, Grace-Anna S Chaney, Jonathan DeRight, Chiadi U Onyike
BACKGROUND: Though meta-analyses of neuropsychological and social cognitive deficits in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) have been conducted, no study has comprehensively characterized and compared the neuropsychological, social cognitive, and olfactory profiles in the behavioral and language variants of FTD. METHODS: Our search yielded 470 publications meeting inclusion criteria representing 11 782 FTD patients and 19 451 controls. For each domain, we calculated Hedges' g effect sizes, which represent the mean difference between the patient and control group divided by the pooled standard deviation...
December 6, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Jennifer Svaldi, Florian Schmitz, Julia Baur, Andrea S Hartmann, Tanja Legenbauer, Charlotte Thaler, Jörn von Wietersheim, Martina de Zwaan, Brunna Tuschen-Caffier
BACKGROUND: Bulimia nervosa (BN), a mental disorder that causes significant impairment, can be treated with psychological, pharmacological, nutrition-based and self-help interventions. We conducted a pre-registered meta-analysis of randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) to assess the efficacy of these interventions in up to 19 different interventions. METHODS: Database search terms were combined for BN and RCTs from database inception to March 2017. Abstinence from binge eating episodes, compensatory behaviors, the absence of a BN diagnosis and reduction of symptom severity were considered as primary outcome variables, reduction of self-reported eating pathology and depression served as secondary outcome variables...
December 5, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Deniz Vatansever, Natali S Bozhilova, Philip Asherson, Jonathan Smallwood
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental condition that profoundly affects quality of life. Although mounting evidence now suggests uncontrolled mind-wandering as a core aspect of the attentional problems associated with ADHD, the neural mechanisms underpinning this deficit remains unclear. To that extent, competing views argue for (i) excessive generation of task-unrelated mental content, or (ii) deficiency in the control of task-relevant cognition...
December 5, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Jennifer Dykxhoorn, Anna-Clara Hollander, Glyn Lewis, Cecelia Magnusson, Christina Dalman, James B Kirkbride
BACKGROUND: We assessed whether the risk of various psychotic disorders and non-psychotic bipolar disorder (including mania) varied by migrant status, a region of origin, or age-at-migration, hypothesizing that risk would only be elevated for psychotic disorders. METHODS: We established a prospective cohort of 1 796 257 Swedish residents born between 1982 and 1996, followed from their 15th birthday, or immigration to Sweden after age 15, until diagnosis, emigration, death, or end of 2011...
December 5, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Baptiste Pignon, Hugo Peyre, Aziz Ferchiou, Jim van Os, Bart P F Rutten, Robin M Murray, Craig Morgan, Marion Leboyer, Franck Schürhoff, Andrei Szöke
BACKGROUND: The Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE) is a 42-item self-report questionnaire that has been developed and validated to measure the dimensions of psychosis in the general population. The CAPE has a three-factor structure with dimensions of positive, negative and depression. Assessing the cross-national equivalence of a questionnaire is an essential prerequisite before pooling data from different countries. In this study, our aim was to investigate the measurement invariance of the CAPE across different countries...
December 5, 2018: Psychological Medicine
James Lock, Helena Chmura Kraemer, Booil Jo, Jennifer Couturier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Cassandra M J Wannan, Vanessa L Cropley, M Mallar Chakravarty, Tamsyn E Van Rheenen, Sam Mancuso, Chad Bousman, Ian Everall, Patrick D McGorry, Christos Pantelis, Cali F Bartholomeusz
BACKGROUND: While previous studies have identified relationships between hippocampal volumes and memory performance in schizophrenia, these relationships are not apparent in healthy individuals. Further, few studies have examined the role of hippocampal subfields in illness-related memory deficits, and no study has examined potential differences across varying illness stages. The current study aimed to investigate whether individuals with early and established psychosis exhibited differential relationships between visuospatial associative memory and hippocampal subfield volumes...
December 4, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Sarah Butter, Mark Shevlin, Jamie Murphy
BACKGROUND: Death by suicide is often preceded by attempted suicide, suicidal ideation and non-suicidal self-injury. These extreme thoughts and behaviours have been considered in terms of a continuum of suicidality. Little known research, however, has considered a suicide continuum that extends beyond these extreme thoughts and behaviours and incorporates a much wider array of phenomena that may vary in severity and may constitute a broader negative self-evaluation (NSE) continuum. METHOD: Harvesting key indicators of NSE from a British epidemiological survey (N = 8580), the current study used exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and factor mixture modelling to (i) identify the dimensional structure of NSE in the general population and (ii) profile the distribution of the resultant NSE dimensions...
December 3, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Jindra M Bakker, Liesbet Goossens, Poornima Kumar, Iris M J Lange, Stijn Michielse, Koen Schruers, Jojanneke A Bastiaansen, Ritsaert Lieverse, Machteld Marcelis, Thérèse van Amelsvoort, Jim van Os, Inez Myin-Germeys, Diego A Pizzagalli, Marieke Wichers
BACKGROUND: Depression has been associated with abnormalities in neural underpinnings of Reward Learning (RL). However, inconsistencies have emerged, possibly owing to medication effects. Additionally, it remains unclear how neural RL signals relate to real-life behaviour. The current study, therefore, examined neural RL signals in young, mildly to moderately depressed - but non-help-seeking and unmedicated - individuals and how these signals are associated with depressive symptoms and real-life motivated behaviour...
November 29, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Sun Jae Jung, Jae H Kang, Andrea L Roberts, Kristen Nishimi, Qixuan Chen, Jennifer A Sumner, Laura Kubzansky, Karestan C Koenen
BACKGROUND: Abnormal thyroid function is prevalent among women and has been linked to increased risk of chronic disease. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been linked to thyroid dysfunction in some studies; however, the results have been inconsistent. Thus, we evaluated trauma exposure and PTSD symptoms in relation to incident thyroid dysfunction in a large longitudinal cohort of civilian women. METHODS: We used data from 45 992 women from the ongoing Nurses' Health Study II, a longitudinal US cohort study that began in 1989...
November 29, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Galit Geulayov, Anne Ferrey, Keith Hawton, Carol Hermon, Gillian K Reeves, Jane Green, Valerie Beral, Sarah Floud
BACKGROUND: High body mass index (BMI) has been associated with lower risks of suicidal behaviour and being underweight with increased risks. However, evidence is inconsistent and sparse, particularly for women. We aim to study this relationship in a large cohort of UK women. METHODS: In total 1.2 million women, mean age 56 (s.d. 5) years, without prior suicide attempts or other major illness, recruited in 1996-2001 were followed by record linkage to national hospital admission and death databases...
November 29, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Laura Mandelli, Angelo Arminio, Anna-Rita Atti, Diana De Ronchi
BACKGROUND: Quantification of suicidal risk in specific populations is important for the adoption of targeted prevention and harm reduction measures. Though there remains little systematic evidence, risk of suicide attempts for bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge-purging anorexia nervosa (AN-bp) appears higher than restrictive AN (AN-r); risk in binge eating disorder (BED) is still unclear. The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare proportions of suicide attempts in eating disorder (ED) subgroups...
November 29, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Fartein Ask Torvik, Kristin Gustavson, Eivind Ystrom, Tom H Rosenström, Nathan Gillespie, Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud, Kenneth S Kendler
BACKGROUND: Studies on the stability of genetic risk for depression have relied on self-reported symptoms rather than diagnoses and/or short follow-up time. Our aim is to determine to what degree genetic and environmental influences on clinically assessed major depressive disorder (MDD) are stable between age 18 and 45. METHODS: A population-based sample of 11 727 twins (6875 women) born between 1967 and 1991 was followed from 2006 to 2015 in health registry data from primary care that included diagnoses provided by treating physicians...
November 28, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Charlotte Louise Eversfield, Llwyd David Orton
BACKGROUND: Non-motor features of Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), such as auditory hallucinations (AH), contribute to disease burden but are not well understood. METHODS: Systematic review and random-effects meta-analyses of studies reporting AH associated with PD or DLB. Prevalence of visual hallucinations (VH) in identified studies meeting eligibility criteria were included in meta-analyses, facilitating comparison with AH. Synthesis of qualitative descriptions of AH was performed...
November 26, 2018: Psychological Medicine
O A Oginni, E J Robinson, A Jones, Q Rahman, K A Rimes
BACKGROUND: Sexual minority youth have elevated suicidal ideation and self-harm compared with heterosexual young people; however, evidence for mediating mechanisms is predominantly cross-sectional. Using a longitudinal design, we investigated self-esteem and depressive symptoms as mediators of increased rates of suicidal ideation or self-harm (SISH) among sexual minority youth, and the roles of childhood gender nonconformity (CGN) and sex as moderators of these relationships. METHOD: In total, 4274 youth from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort reported sexual orientation at age 15 years, and past-year SISH at age 20 years...
November 23, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Seoyoung Kim, Wi Hoon Jung, Oliver D Howes, Mattia Veronese, Federico E Turkheimer, Yun-Sang Lee, Jae Sung Lee, Euitae Kim, Jun Soo Kwon
BACKGROUND: Given that only a subgroup of patients with schizophrenia responds to first-line antipsychotic drugs, a key clinical question is what underlies treatment response. Observations that prefrontal activity correlates with striatal dopaminergic function, have led to the hypothesis that disrupted frontostriatal functional connectivity (FC) could be associated with altered dopaminergic function. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between frontostriatal FC and striatal dopamine synthesis capacity in patients with schizophrenia who had responded to first-line antipsychotic drug compared with those who had failed but responded to clozapine...
November 21, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Falk Leichsenring, Allan Abbass, Mark Hilsenroth, Patrick Luyten, Sven Rabung, Christiane Steinert
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 21, 2018: Psychological Medicine
R Schalbroeck, F Termorshuizen, E Visser, T van Amelsvoort, J P Selten
BACKGROUND: Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) appear to be at increased risk of non-affective psychotic disorder (NAPD) and bipolar disorder (BD). However, most previous studies examined the co-occurrence of ASD and NAPD or BD, ignoring possible diagnostic bias and selection bias. We used longitudinal data from Dutch psychiatric case registers to assess the risk of NAPD or BD among individuals with ASD, and compared the results to those obtained for the Dutch population in earlier studies...
November 21, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Chris Gale, Paul Glue, Yoram Barak
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 21, 2018: Psychological Medicine
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