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American Journal of Psychiatry

Alan S Brown, Urs Meyer
Epidemiologic studies, including prospective birth cohort investigations, have implicated maternal immune activation in the etiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. Maternal infectious pathogens and inflammation are plausible risk factors for these outcomes and have been associated with schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder, and bipolar disorder. Concurrent with epidemiologic research are animal models of prenatal immune activation, which have documented behavioral, neurochemical, neuroanatomic, and neurophysiologic disruptions that mirror phenotypes observed in these neuropsychiatric disorders...
September 17, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Gareth Ball, Charles B Malpas, Sila Genc, Daryl Efron, Emma Sciberras, Vicki Anderson, Jan M Nicholson, Timothy J Silk
OBJECTIVE: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a multifactorial disorder with diverse associated risk factors and comorbidities. In this study, the authors sought to understand ADHD from a dimensional perspective and to identify neuroanatomical correlates of traits and behaviors that span diagnostic criteria. METHODS: Multimodal neuroimaging data and multi-informant cognitive and clinical data were collected in a densely phenotyped pediatric cohort (N=160; 70 with ADHD; age range, 9-12 years)...
September 17, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
A John Rush, Michael E Thase
Specific challenges that profoundly affect the outcome of treatment for depression include 1) patient engagement and retention in care and optimization of treatment adherence, 2) optimization of symptom and side effect control by medication adjustments using measurement-based care procedures, 3) restoration of daily functioning and quality of life, and 4) prevention or at least mitigation of symptomatic relapse or recurrence. According to data from the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression study, some 10%-15% of patients will not return for treatment after an initial thorough evaluation visit; an additional 20%-35% will not complete the first acute-phase treatment step, and another 20%-50% will not complete 6 months of continuation treatment...
September 17, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Tracy L Simpson, Andrew J Saxon, Cynthia Stappenbeck, Carol A Malte, Robert Lyons, Dana Tell, Steven P Millard, Murray Raskind
OBJECTIVE: Current medications for alcohol use disorder do not target brain noradrenergic pathways. Theoretical and preclinical evidence suggests that noradrenergic circuits may be involved in alcohol reinforcement and relapse. After a positive pilot study, the authors tested the α-1 adrenergic receptor antagonist prazosin to treat alcohol use disorder in a larger sample. METHOD: Ninety-two participants with alcohol use disorder but without posttraumatic stress disorder were randomly assigned to receive prazosin or placebo in a 12-week double-blind study...
August 29, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Nolan R Williams, Boris D Heifets, Christine Blasey, Keith Sudheimer, Jaspreet Pannu, Heather Pankow, Jessica Hawkins, Justin Birnbaum, David M Lyons, Carolyn I Rodriguez, Alan F Schatzberg
OBJECTIVE: In addition to N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonism, ketamine produces opioid system activation. The objective of this study was to determine whether opioid receptor antagonism prior to administration of intravenous ketamine attenuates its acute antidepressant or dissociative effects. METHOD: In a proposed double-blind crossover study of 30 adults with treatment-resistant depression, the authors performed a planned interim analysis after studying 14 participants, 12 of whom completed both conditions in randomized order: placebo or 50 mg of naltrexone preceding intravenous infusion of 0...
August 29, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Mark S George
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 29, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Anita Thapar
The 21st century has witnessed the discovery of multiple rare and common gene variants associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and these discoveries have already provided a starting point for the investigation of the biology of the disorder and novel treatments. The purpose of this selective review is to examine genetic findings from the past 5 years and consider their implications for the conceptualization of ADHD and future clinical practice. Recent discoveries reveal the strong genetic overlaps between ADHD and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as well as intellectual disability...
August 16, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Lee S Cohen, Lina Góez-Mogollón, Alexandra Z Sosinsky, Gina M Savella, Adele C Viguera, David Chitayat, Sonia Hernández-Díaz, Marlene P Freeman
OBJECTIVE: Second-generation antipsychotics are commonly prescribed to reproductive-age women for the treatment of a spectrum of psychiatric disorders. Quetiapine is the most commonly prescribed medication in this class, and therefore a better understanding of its reproductive safety profile is critical. The goal of this study was to determine the risk of major malformations among infants exposed to quetiapine during pregnancy compared with a group of infants whose mothers had a history of psychiatric morbidity but who did not use a second-generation antipsychotic during pregnancy...
August 16, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Hélène Vulser, Marie-Laure Paillère Martinot, Eric Artiges, Ruben Miranda, Jani Penttilä, Yvonne Grimmer, Betteke M van Noort, Argyris Stringaris, Maren Struve, Tahmine Fadai, Viola Kappel, Robert Goodman, Eleni Tzavara, Charbel Massaad, Tobias Banaschewski, Gareth J Barker, Arun L W Bokde, Uli Bromberg, Rüdiger Brühl, Christian Büchel, Anna Cattrell, Patricia Conrod, Sylvane Desrivières, Herta Flor, Vincent Frouin, Juergen Gallinat, Hugh Garavan, Penny Gowland, Andreas Heinz, Frauke Nees, Dimitri Papadopoulos-Orfanos, Tomas Paus, Luise Poustka, Sarah Rodehacke, Michael N Smolka, Henrik Walter, Robert Whelan, Gunter Schumann, Jean-Luc Martinot, Hervé Lemaitre
OBJECTIVE: White matter microstructure alterations have recently been associated with depressive episodes during adolescence, but it is unknown whether they predate depression. The authors investigated whether subthreshold depression in adolescence is associated with white matter microstructure variations and whether they relate to depression outcome. METHOD: Adolescents with subthreshold depression (N=96) and healthy control subjects (N=336) drawn from a community-based cohort were compared using diffusion tensor imaging and whole brain tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) at age 14 to assess white matter microstructure...
August 16, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Alan S Brown, Keely Cheslack-Postava, Panu Rantakokko, Hannu Kiviranta, Susanna Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Ian W McKeague, Heljä-Marja Surcel, Andre Sourander
OBJECTIVE: Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder with a largely unknown etiology. To date, few studies have investigated prenatal exposure to toxins and risk of autism by using maternal biomarkers of exposure. Persistent organic pollutants are lipophilic halogenated organic compounds and include the insecticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), as well as its metabolite p,p'-dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The objective of this study was to test whether elevated maternal levels of persistent organic pollutants are associated with autism among offspring...
August 16, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Jentien M Vermeulen, Frederike Schirmbeck, Matthijs Blankers, Mirjam van Tricht, Richard Bruggeman, Wim van den Brink, Lieuwe de Haan
OBJECTIVE: The high prevalence of smoking and cognitive deficits in schizophrenia patients is well known, but findings regarding the association between the two are contradictory, and longitudinal studies are lacking. The authors sought to examine the multi-cross-sectional association between smoking behavior and performance in specific cognitive domains and the longitudinal association between change in smoking behavior and change in cognitive functioning in a large prospective study...
August 2, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Simone Jennissen, Julia Huber, Johannes C Ehrenthal, Henning Schauenburg, Ulrike Dinger
OBJECTIVE: An increased understanding of repetitive dysfunctional patterns and their relationship to an individual's life history is regarded as a key mechanism of change in insight-oriented therapies. At the same time, empirical research on the insight-outcome relationship is rare, and its generalizability is restricted by the use of a wide range of definitions and methods among studies. The authors conducted a meta-analysis to systematically examine the association between patient insight and psychotherapy outcome across a range of treatment modalities...
August 2, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Yasmin L Hurd, Charles P O'Brien
The opioid epidemic is at the epicenter of the drug crisis, resulting in an inconceivable number of overdose deaths and exorbitant associated medical costs that have crippled many communities across the socioeconomic spectrum in the United States. Classic medications for the treatment of opioid use disorder predominantly target the opioid system and thus have been underutilized, in part due to their own potential for abuse and heavy regulatory burden for patients and clinicians. Opioid antagonists are now evolving in their use, not only to prevent acute overdoses but as extended-use treatment options...
August 2, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Yasmina Molero, Johan Zetterqvist, Ingrid A Binswanger, Clara Hellner, Henrik Larsson, Seena Fazel
OBJECTIVE: The authors examined associations between medications for alcohol and opioid use disorders (acamprosate, naltrexone, methadone, and buprenorphine) and suicidal behavior, accidental overdoses, and crime. METHOD: In this total population cohort study, 21,281 individuals who received treatment with at least one of the four medications between 2005 and 2013 were identified. Data on medication use and outcomes were collected from Swedish population-based registers...
August 2, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Yuan Xiao, Huaiqiang Sun, Shulin Shi, Dan Jiang, Bo Tao, Youjin Zhao, Wenjing Zhang, Qiyong Gong, John A Sweeney, Su Lui
OBJECTIVE: This study tested for differences of white matter integrity between treated and never-treated long-term schizophrenia patients, matched on illness duration, and for differential changes in relation to age in these two groups relative to healthy comparison subjects. METHOD: This cross-sectional diffusion tensor imaging study included 31 never-treated and 46 matched antipsychotic-treated patients with long-term schizophrenia and 58 healthy comparison subjects...
August 2, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Michael J Meaney
The importance of maternal depression for child outcomes is well established, and impairments in psychosocial function and parenting are as severe in women with high subsyndromal levels of depressive symptoms as they are in women with clinical depression. The author conducted a systematic review that explored the association between maternal depressive symptoms and child neurodevelopmental outcomes, including in neuroimaging studies. The results strongly suggest that the influences of maternal depressive symptoms operate across a continuum to influence child outcomes, implying that maternal depression may appropriately be considered an issue of population health...
August 2, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Konstantinos Bromis, Maria Calem, Antje A T S Reinders, Steven C R Williams, Matthew J Kempton
OBJECTIVE: The authors conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis of MRI region-of-interest and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Because patients have high rates of comorbid depression, an additional objective was to compare the findings to a meta-analysis of MRI studies in depression. METHOD: The MEDLINE database was searched for studies from 1985 through 2016. A total of 113 studies met inclusion criteria and were included in an online database...
July 19, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Josh M Krivinko, Susan L Erickson, Ying Ding, Zhe Sun, Peter Penzes, Matthew L MacDonald, Nathan A Yates, Milos D Ikonomovic, Oscar L Lopez, Robert A Sweet, Julia Kofler
OBJECTIVE: The presence of psychosis in Alzheimer's disease denotes a phenotype with more rapid cognitive deterioration than in Alzheimer's disease without psychosis. Discovery of novel pharmacotherapies that engage therapeutic targets for prevention or treatment of Alzheimer's disease with psychosis would benefit from identifying the neurobiology of resilience to psychosis in Alzheimer's disease. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether alterations in the synaptic proteome were associated with resilience to psychotic symptoms in Alzheimer's disease and, if present, were independent of neuropathologic burden...
July 19, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Kenneth S Kendler, Henrik Ohlsson, Paul Lichtenstein, Jan Sundquist, Kristina Sundquist
OBJECTIVE: The authors examined the heritability of treated major depression in a twin and full/half-sibling design, to describe key genetic epidemiological features of major depression and to determine which clinical indices of genetic liability optimally predict risk of depression in relatives. METHOD: The authors examined all treated cases of major depression in Sweden recorded in inpatient, specialist, and primary care registries and, using OpenMx, estimated the etiologic role of genetic and environmental factors from monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs and full and half siblings reared together and apart (total N=1,718,863 pairs)...
July 19, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Francesco Benedetti, David H Avery, Michael Bauer, William E Bunney, Okan Çaliyurt, Giovanni Camardese, Cristina Colombo, Sara Dallaspezia, Tone Elise Henriksen, Siegfried Kasper, Kenichi Kuriyama, Raymond W Lam, Klaus Martiny, Ybe Meesters, Kazuo Mishima, Raphael Schulte, Masahiro Suzuki, Łukasz Święcicki, Makoto Uchiyama, David Veale, Dietmar Winkler, Joseph Wu, Nese Yorguner Kupeli, Takuya Yoshiike, Xin Yu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
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