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American Journal of Psychiatry

Curt A Sandman, Megan M Curran, Elysia Poggi Davis, Laura M Glynn, Kevin Head, Tallie Z Baram
OBJECTIVE: The authors sought to assess associations among early-life exposure to adversity, the development and maturation of neurons and brain circuits, and neurodevelopmental outcomes. Specifically, they examined whether fetal exposure to placental corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), a molecule conveying maternal signals to the fetus, predicts brain growth and neuropsychiatric outcomes in school-age children. METHOD: In a large, well-characterized prospective cohort, concentrations of placental CRH (pCRH) in maternal plasma were determined during five intervals during gestation...
March 2, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Roseann E Peterson, Na Cai, Andy W Dahl, Tim B Bigdeli, Alexis C Edwards, Bradley T Webb, Silviu-Alin Bacanu, Noah Zaitlen, Jonathan Flint, Kenneth S Kendler
OBJECTIVE: The extent to which major depression is the outcome of a single biological mechanism or represents a final common pathway of multiple disease processes remains uncertain. Genetic approaches can potentially identify etiologic heterogeneity in major depression by classifying patients on the basis of their experience of major adverse events. METHOD: Data are from the China, Oxford, and VCU Experimental Research on Genetic Epidemiology (CONVERGE) project, a study of Han Chinese women with recurrent major depression aimed at identifying genetic risk factors for major depression in a rigorously ascertained cohort carefully assessed for key environmental risk factors (N=9,599)...
March 2, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Kelly K Anderson, Ross Norman, Arlene MacDougall, Jordan Edwards, Lena Palaniyappan, Cindy Lau, Paul Kurdyak
OBJECTIVE: Early psychosis intervention (EPI) programs improve clinical and functional outcomes for people with first-episode psychosis. Less is known about the impact of these programs on the larger health care system. The authors sought to compare indicators of health service use, self-harm, suicide, and mortality between people with first-episode psychosis who were using EPI services and a propensity-matched group of concurrent control subjects who were not accessing EPI services. METHOD: A retrospective cohort of incident cases of nonaffective psychosis in the catchment area of the Prevention and Early Intervention Program for Psychoses in London, Ontario, between 1997 and 2013 was constructed using health administrative data...
March 2, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Luiza K Axelrud, Marcos L Santoro, Daniel S Pine, Fernanda Talarico, Ary Gadelha, Gisele G Manfro, Pedro M Pan, Andrea Jackowski, Felipe Picon, Elisa Brietzke, Rodrigo Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo A Bressan, Eurípedes C Miguel, Luis A Rohde, Hakon Hakonarson, Zdenka Pausova, Sintia Belangero, Tomas Paus, Giovanni A Salum
OBJECTIVE: Alzheimer's disease is a heritable neurodegenerative disorder in which early-life precursors may manifest in cognition and brain structure. The authors evaluate this possibility by examining, in youths, associations among polygenic risk score for Alzheimer's disease, cognitive abilities, and hippocampal volume. METHOD: Participants were children 6-14 years of age in two Brazilian cities, constituting the discovery (N=364) and replication samples (N=352)...
March 2, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Karolina Kauppi, Sara Brin Rosenthal, Min-Tzu Lo, Nilotpal Sanyal, Mian Jiang, Ruben Abagyan, Linda K McEvoy, Ole A Andreassen, Chi-Hua Chen
OBJECTIVE: Antipsychotic drugs were incidentally discovered in the 1950s, but their mechanisms of action are still not understood. Better understanding of schizophrenia pathogenesis could shed light on actions of current drugs and reveal novel "druggable" pathways for unmet therapeutic needs. Recent genome-wide association studies offer unprecedented opportunities to characterize disease gene networks and uncover drug-disease relationships. Polygenic overlap between schizophrenia risk genes and antipsychotic drug targets has been demonstrated, but specific genes and pathways constituting this overlap are undetermined...
March 2, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Eduard Vieta, Estela Salagre, Iria Grande, André F Carvalho, Brisa S Fernandes, Michael Berk, Boris Birmaher, Mauricio Tohen, Trisha Suppes
Bipolar disorder is a recurrent disorder that affects more than 1% of the world population and usually has its onset during youth. Its chronic course is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality, making bipolar disorder one of the main causes of disability among young and working-age people. The implementation of early intervention strategies may help to change the outcome of the illness and avert potentially irreversible harm to patients with bipolar disorder, as early phases may be more responsive to treatment and may need less aggressive therapies...
January 24, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Qingzhong Wang, Bhaskar Roy, Gustavo Turecki, Richard C Shelton, Yogesh Dwivedi
OBJECTIVE: Proinflammatory cytokines have recently received considerable attention for their role in suicidal behavior; however, how the expression of cytokine genes is regulated is not clearly known. The authors examined underlying mechanisms of critical cytokine gene tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) dysregulation in the brains of individuals who died by suicide. METHOD: TNF-α expression was examined in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of the postmortem brains of persons with and without major depressive disorder who died by suicide and of persons with major depressive disorder who died of causes other than suicide...
January 24, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Gregory E Simon, Christine Stewart, Enid M Hunkeler, Bobbi Jo Yarborough, Frances Lynch, Karen J Coleman, Arne Beck, Belinda H Operskalski, Robert B Penfold, David S Carrell
OBJECTIVE: The authors sought to describe patterns of health care use prior to first diagnosis of a psychotic disorder in a population-based sample. METHOD: Electronic health records and insurance claims from five large integrated health systems were used to identify 624 patients 15-29 years old who received a first diagnosis of a psychotic disorder in any care setting and to record health services received, diagnoses assigned, and medications dispensed during the previous 36 months...
January 24, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Sarah J Marzi, Karen Sugden, Louise Arseneault, Daniel W Belsky, Joe Burrage, David L Corcoran, Andrea Danese, Helen L Fisher, Eilis Hannon, Terrie E Moffitt, Candice L Odgers, Carmine Pariante, Richie Poulton, Benjamin S Williams, Chloe C Y Wong, Jonathan Mill, Avshalom Caspi
OBJECTIVE: DNA methylation has been proposed as an epigenetic mechanism by which early-life experiences become "embedded" in the genome and alter transcriptional processes to compromise health. The authors sought to investigate whether early-life victimization stress is associated with genome-wide DNA methylation. METHOD: The authors tested the hypothesis that victimization is associated with DNA methylation in the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Study, a nationally representative 1994-1995 birth cohort of 2,232 twins born in England and Wales and assessed at ages 5, 7, 10, 12, and 18 years...
January 12, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Marin M Jukić, Tore Haslemo, Espen Molden, Magnus Ingelman-Sundberg
OBJECTIVE: The antidepressant escitalopram is predominantly metabolized by the polymorphic CYP2C19 enzyme. The authors investigated the effect of CYP2C19 genotype on exposure and therapeutic failure of escitalopram in a large patient population. METHOD: A total of 4,228 escitalopram serum concentration measurements from 2,087 CYP2C19-genotyped patients 10-30 hours after drug intake were collected retrospectively from the drug monitoring database at Diakonhjemmet Hospital in Oslo...
January 12, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Nancy J Donovan, Joseph J Locascio, Gad A Marshall, Jennifer Gatchel, Bernard J Hanseeuw, Dorene M Rentz, Keith A Johnson, Reisa A Sperling
OBJECTIVE: To understand the role of depressive symptoms in preclinical Alzheimer's disease, it is essential to define their temporal relationship to Alzheimer's proteinopathies in cognitively normal older adults. The study objective was to examine associations of brain amyloid beta and longitudinal measures of depression and depressive symptom clusters in a cognitively normal sample of older adults. METHOD: A total of 270 community-dwelling, cognitively normal elderly individuals underwent baseline Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) positron emission tomography (PET) measures of cortical aggregate amyloid beta and annual assessments with the 30-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS)...
January 12, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Alain Brunet, Daniel Saumier, Aihua Liu, David L Streiner, Jacques Tremblay, Roger K Pitman
OBJECTIVE: The authors assessed the efficacy of trauma memory reactivation performed under the influence of propranolol, a noradrenergic beta-receptor blocker, as a putative reconsolidation blocker, in reducing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). METHOD: This was a 6-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial in 60 adults diagnosed with long-standing PTSD. Propranolol or placebo was administered 90 minutes before a brief memory reactivation session, once a week for 6 consecutive weeks...
January 12, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Douglas L Noordsy, Jonathan D Burgess, Kate V Hardy, Lynn M Yudofsky, Jacob S Ballon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Stefan K Schalk, Steven R Hendrix, David A Nissan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Brandon M Theriault, Joseph J Schlesinger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Mark Olfson, Melanie M Wall, Carlos Blanco
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Ned H Kalin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
James H Kocsis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
David C Steffens
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
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