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American Journal of Psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103715/irritability-in-youths-a-translational-model
#1
Melissa A Brotman, Katharina Kircanski, Argyris Stringaris, Daniel S Pine, Ellen Leibenluft
Although irritability is among the most common reasons that children and adolescents are brought for psychiatric care, there are few effective treatments. Developmentally sensitive pathophysiological models are needed to guide treatment development. In this review, the authors present a mechanistic model of irritability that integrates clinical and translational neuroscience research. Two complementary conceptualizations of pathological irritability are proposed: 1) aberrant emotional and behavioral responding to frustrative nonreward, mediated by reward-system dysfunction; and 2) aberrant approach responding to threat, mediated by threat-system dysfunction...
January 20, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103714/gaze-contingent-music-reward-therapy-for-social-anxiety-disorder-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
Amit Lazarov, Daniel S Pine, Yair Bar-Haim
OBJECTIVE: Patients with social anxiety disorder exhibit increased attentional dwelling on social threats, providing a viable target for therapeutics. This randomized controlled trial examined the efficacy of a novel gaze-contingent music reward therapy for social anxiety disorder designed to reduce attention dwelling on threats. METHOD: Forty patients with social anxiety disorder were randomly assigned to eight sessions of either gaze-contingent music reward therapy, designed to divert patients' gaze toward neutral stimuli rather than threat stimuli, or to a control condition...
January 20, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103713/divorce-and-the-onset-of-alcohol-use-disorder-a-swedish-population-based-longitudinal-cohort-and-co-relative-study
#3
Kenneth S Kendler, Sara Larsson Lönn, Jessica Salvatore, Jan Sundquist, Kristina Sundquist
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to clarify the magnitude and nature of the relationship between divorce and risk for alcohol use disorder (AUD). METHOD: In a population-based Swedish sample of married individuals (N=942,366), the authors examined the association between divorce or widowhood and risk for first registration for AUD. AUD was assessed using medical, criminal, and pharmacy registries. RESULTS: Divorce was strongly associated with risk for first AUD onset in both men (hazard ratio=5...
January 20, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103712/endogenous-and-antipsychotic-related-risks-for-diabetes-mellitus-in-young-people-with-schizophrenia-a-danish-population-based-cohort-study
#4
Anto P Rajkumar, Henriette Thisted Horsdal, Theresa Wimberley, Dan Cohen, Ole Mors, Anders D Børglum, Christiane Gasse
OBJECTIVE: Diabetes mellitus contributes to excessive cardiovascular deaths and reduced life expectancy in schizophrenia. This population-based cohort study investigated the endogenous risk for diabetes in antipsychotic-naive schizophrenia and evaluated the risks added by starting antipsychotic treatment in people with schizophrenia. METHOD: The study followed all people born in Denmark on or after Jan. 1, 1977, until Jan. 1, 2013 (N=2,736,510). The Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register ascertained schizophrenia diagnoses...
January 20, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068780/long-acting-injectable-naltrexone-induction-a-randomized-trial-of-outpatient-opioid-detoxification-with-naltrexone-versus-buprenorphine
#5
Maria Sullivan, Adam Bisaga, Martina Pavlicova, C Jean Choi, Kaitlyn Mishlen, Kenneth M Carpenter, Frances R Levin, Elias Dakwar, John J Mariani, Edward V Nunes
OBJECTIVE: At present there is no established optimal approach for transitioning opioid-dependent adults to extended-release injection naltrexone (XR-naltrexone) while preventing relapse. The authors conducted a trial examining the efficacy of two methods of outpatient opioid detoxification for induction to XR-naltrexone. METHOD: Participants were 150 opioid-dependent adults randomly assigned 2:1 to one of two outpatient detoxification regimens, naltrexone-assisted detoxification or buprenorphine-assisted detoxification, followed by an injection of XR-naltrexone...
January 10, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068779/norepinephrine-transporter-gene-variants-and-remission-from-depression-with-venlafaxine-treatment-in-older-adults
#6
Victoria S Marshe, Malgorzata Maciukiewicz, Soham Rej, Arun K Tiwari, Etienne Sibille, Daniel M Blumberger, Jordan F Karp, Eric J Lenze, Charles F Reynolds, James L Kennedy, Benoit H Mulsant, Daniel J Müller
OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study was to investigate five putatively functional variants of the norepinephrine transporter (SLC6A2, NET) and serotonin transporter (SLC6A4, SERT) genes and remission in depressed older adults treated with venlafaxine. A secondary objective was to analyze 17 other variants in serotonergic system genes (HTR1A, HTR2A, HTR1B, HTR2C, TPH1, TPH2) potentially involved in the mechanism of action of venlafaxine. METHOD: The sample included 350 adults age 60 or older with DSM-IV-defined major depressive disorder and a score of at least 15 on the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS)...
January 10, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978771/the-role-of-behavioral-interventions-in-buprenorphine-maintenance-treatment-a-review
#7
Kathleen M Carroll, Roger D Weiss
OBJECTIVE: Although counseling is a required part of office-based buprenorphine treatment of opioid use disorders, the nature of what constitutes appropriate counseling is unclear and controversial. The authors review the literature on the role, nature, and intensity of behavioral interventions in office-based buprenorphine treatment. METHOD: The authors conducted a review of randomized controlled studies testing the efficacy of adding a behavioral intervention to buprenorphine maintenance treatment...
December 16, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978770/the-20-year-longitudinal-trajectories-of-social-functioning-in-individuals-with-psychotic-disorders
#8
Eva Velthorst, Anne-Kathrin J Fett, Avraham Reichenberg, Greg Perlman, Jim van Os, Evelyn J Bromet, Roman Kotov
OBJECTIVE: Social impairment is a long-recognized core feature of schizophrenia and is common in other psychotic disorders. Still, to date the long-term trajectories of social impairment in psychotic disorders have rarely been studied systematically. METHODS: Data came from the Suffolk County Mental Health Project, a 20-year prospective study of first-admission patients with psychotic disorders. A never-psychotic comparison group was also assessed. Latent class growth analysis was applied to longitudinal data on social functioning from 485 respondents with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and psychotic mood disorders, and associations of the empirically derived trajectories with premorbid social adjustment, diagnosis, and 20-year outcomes were examined...
December 16, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919183/accelerated-gray-and-white-matter-deterioration-with-age-in-schizophrenia
#9
Vanessa L Cropley, Paul Klauser, Rhoshel K Lenroot, Jason Bruggemann, Suresh Sundram, Chad Bousman, Avril Pereira, Maria A Di Biase, Thomas W Weickert, Cynthia Shannon Weickert, Christos Pantelis, Andrew Zalesky
OBJECTIVE: Although brain changes in schizophrenia have been proposed to mirror those found with advancing age, the trajectory of gray matter and white matter changes during the disease course remains unclear. The authors sought to measure whether these changes in individuals with schizophrenia remain stable, are accelerated, or are diminished with age. METHOD: Gray matter volume and fractional anisotropy were mapped in 326 individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and in 197 healthy comparison subjects aged 20-65 years...
December 6, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919182/treatment-resistant-schizophrenia-treatment-response-and-resistance-in-psychosis-trrip-working-group-consensus-guidelines-on-diagnosis-and-terminology
#10
Oliver D Howes, Rob McCutcheon, Ofer Agid, Andrea de Bartolomeis, Nico J M van Beveren, Michael L Birnbaum, Michael A P Bloomfield, Rodrigo A Bressan, Robert W Buchanan, William T Carpenter, David J Castle, Leslie Citrome, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Michael Davidson, Richard J Drake, Serdar Dursun, Bjørn H Ebdrup, Helio Elkis, Peter Falkai, W Wolfgang Fleischacker, Ary Gadelha, Fiona Gaughran, Birte Y Glenthøj, Ariel Graff-Guerrero, Jaime E C Hallak, William G Honer, James Kennedy, Bruce J Kinon, Stephen M Lawrie, Jimmy Lee, F Markus Leweke, James H MacCabe, Carolyn B McNabb, Herbert Meltzer, Hans-Jürgen Möller, Shinchiro Nakajima, Christos Pantelis, Tiago Reis Marques, Gary Remington, Susan L Rossell, Bruce R Russell, Cynthia O Siu, Takefumi Suzuki, Iris E Sommer, David Taylor, Neil Thomas, Alp Üçok, Daniel Umbricht, James T R Walters, John Kane, Christoph U Correll
OBJECTIVE: Research and clinical translation in schizophrenia is limited by inconsistent definitions of treatment resistance and response. To address this issue, the authors evaluated current approaches and then developed consensus criteria and guidelines. METHOD: A systematic review of randomized antipsychotic clinical trials in treatment-resistant schizophrenia was performed, and definitions of treatment resistance were extracted. Subsequently, consensus operationalized criteria were developed through 1) a multiphase, mixed methods approach, 2) identification of key criteria via an online survey, and 3) meetings to achieve consensus...
December 6, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855483/prediction-of-relapse-after-discontinuation-of-antipsychotic-treatment-in-alzheimer-s-disease-the-role-of-hallucinations
#11
Anjali N Patel, Seonjoo Lee, Howard F Andrews, Gregory H Pelton, Susan K Schultz, David L Sultzer, Jacobo Mintzer, Danilo de la Pena, Sanjay Gupta, Sylvia Colon, Corbett Schimming, Bruce Levin, D P Devanand
OBJECTIVE: In Alzheimer's disease, antipsychotic medications are often used for a period, with relief of symptoms, and then discontinued, after which relapse may occur. The authors sought to determine which neuropsychiatric symptoms predict relapse. METHOD: In the Antipsychotic Discontinuation in Alzheimer's Disease trial, 180 patients with Alzheimer's disease and symptoms of agitation or psychosis were treated with risperidone for 16 weeks, after which patients who responded (N=110) were randomly assigned to continue risperidone for 32 weeks, to continue risperidone for 16 weeks followed by switch to placebo for 16 weeks, or to receive placebo for 32 weeks...
November 18, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838936/computerized-cognitive-training-in-older-adults-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-or-dementia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
Nicole T M Hill, Loren Mowszowski, Sharon L Naismith, Verity L Chadwick, Michael Valenzuela, Amit Lampit
OBJECTIVE: Previous meta-analyses indicate that computerized cognitive training (CCT) is a safe and efficacious intervention for cognition in older adults. However, efficacy varies across populations and cognitive domains, and little is known about the efficacy of CCT in people with mild cognitive impairment or dementia. METHOD: The authors searched Medline, Embase, PsychINFO, CINAHL, and CENTRAL through July 1, 2016, for randomized controlled trials of CCT in older adults with mild cognitive impairment or dementia...
November 14, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838935/mental-health-and-social-networks-after-disaster
#13
Richard A Bryant, H Colin Gallagher, Lisa Gibbs, Philippa Pattison, Colin MacDougall, Louise Harms, Karen Block, Elyse Baker, Vikki Sinnott, Greg Ireton, John Richardson, David Forbes, Dean Lusher
OBJECTIVE: Although disasters are a major cause of mental health problems and typically affect large numbers of people and communities, little is known about how social structures affect mental health after a disaster. The authors assessed the extent to which mental health outcomes after disaster are associated with social network structures. METHOD: In a community-based cohort study of survivors of a major bushfire disaster, participants (N=558) were assessed for probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and probable depression...
November 14, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838934/fetal-origins-of-mental-health-the-developmental-origins-of-health-and-disease-hypothesis
#14
Kieran J O'Donnell, Michael J Meaney
The quality of fetal growth and development predicts the risk for a range of noncommunicable, chronic illnesses. These observations form the basis of the "developmental origins of health and disease" hypothesis, which suggests that the intrauterine signals that compromise fetal growth also act to "program" tissue differentiation in a manner that predisposes to later illness. Fetal growth also predicts the risk for later psychopathology. These findings parallel studies showing that antenatal maternal emotional well-being likewise predicts the risk for later psychopathology...
November 14, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809572/identification-of-two-heritable-cross-disorder-endophenotypes-for-tourette-syndrome
#15
Sabrina M Darrow, Matthew E Hirschtritt, Lea K Davis, Cornelia Illmann, Lisa Osiecki, Marco Grados, Paul Sandor, Yves Dion, Robert King, David Pauls, Cathy L Budman, Danielle C Cath, Erica Greenberg, Gholson J Lyon, Dongmei Yu, Lauren M McGrath, William M McMahon, Paul C Lee, Kevin L Delucchi, Jeremiah M Scharf, Carol A Mathews
OBJECTIVE: Phenotypic heterogeneity in Tourette syndrome is partly due to complex genetic relationships among Tourette syndrome, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Identifying symptom-based endophenotypes across diagnoses may aid gene-finding efforts. METHOD: Assessments for Tourette syndrome, OCD, and ADHD symptoms were conducted in a discovery sample of 3,494 individuals recruited for genetic studies. Symptom-level factor and latent class analyses were conducted in Tourette syndrome families and replicated in an independent sample of 882 individuals...
November 4, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809571/internet-gaming-disorder-investigating-the-clinical-relevance-of-a-new-phenomenon
#16
Andrew K Przybylski, Netta Weinstein, Kou Murayama
OBJECTIVE: The American Psychiatric Association (APA) identified Internet gaming disorder as a new potential psychiatric disorder and has recognized that little is known about the prevalence, validity, or cross-cultural robustness of proposed Internet gaming disorder criteria. In response to this gap in our understanding, the present study, a first for this research topic, estimated the period prevalence of this new potential psychiatric disorder using APA guidance, examined the validity of its proposed indicators, evaluated reliability cross-culturally and across genders, compared it to gold-standard research on gambling addiction and problem gaming, and estimated its impact on physical, social, and mental health...
November 4, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794691/the-origins-of-cognitive-deficits-in-victimized-children-implications-for-neuroscientists-and-clinicians
#17
Andrea Danese, Terrie E Moffitt, Louise Arseneault, Ben A Bleiberg, Perry B Dinardo, Stephanie B Gandelman, Renate Houts, Antony Ambler, Helen L Fisher, Richie Poulton, Avshalom Caspi
OBJECTIVE: Individuals reporting a history of childhood violence victimization have impaired brain function. However, the clinical significance, reproducibility, and causality of these findings are disputed. The authors used data from two large cohort studies to address these research questions directly. METHOD: The authors tested the association between prospectively collected measures of childhood violence victimization and cognitive functions in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood among 2,232 members of the U...
October 31, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794690/neural-substrates-of-overgeneralized-conditioned-fear-in-ptsd
#18
Antonia N Kaczkurkin, Philip C Burton, Shai M Chazin, Adrienne B Manbeck, Tori Espensen-Sturges, Samuel E Cooper, Scott R Sponheim, Shmuel Lissek
OBJECTIVE: Heightened generalization of fear from an aversively reinforced conditioned stimulus (CS+, a conditioned danger cue) to resembling stimuli is widely accepted as a pathogenic marker of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Indeed, a distress response to benign stimuli that "resemble" aspects of the trauma is a central feature of the disorder. To date, the link between overgeneralization of conditioned fear and PTSD derives largely from clinical observations, with limited empirical work on the subject...
October 31, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041006/bariatric-surgery-and-psychiatric-care
#19
Sanjeev Sockalingam, Weronika Micula-Gondek, Wynne Lundblad, Alexis M Fertig, Raed Hawa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041005/improving-firearm-safety-in-the-united-states-response-to-kapusta-and-cramer
#20
J John Mann, Christina A Michel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
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