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American Journal of Psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919183/accelerated-gray-and-white-matter-deterioration-with-age-in-schizophrenia
#1
Vanessa L Cropley, Paul Klauser, Rhoshel K Lenroot, Jason Bruggemann, Suresh Sundram, Chad Bousman, Avril Pereira, Maria A Di Biase, Thomas W Weickert, Cynthia Shannon Weickert, Christos Pantelis, Andrew Zalesky
OBJECTIVE: Although brain changes in schizophrenia have been proposed to mirror those found with advancing age, the trajectory of gray matter and white matter changes during the disease course remains unclear. The authors sought to measure whether these changes in individuals with schizophrenia remain stable, are accelerated, or are diminished with age. METHOD: Gray matter volume and fractional anisotropy were mapped in 326 individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and in 197 healthy comparison subjects aged 20-65 years...
December 6, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919182/treatment-resistant-schizophrenia-treatment-response-and-resistance-in-psychosis-trrip-working-group-consensus-guidelines-on-diagnosis-and-terminology
#2
Oliver D Howes, Rob McCutcheon, Ofer Agid, Andrea de Bartolomeis, Nico J M van Beveren, Michael L Birnbaum, Michael A P Bloomfield, Rodrigo A Bressan, Robert W Buchanan, William T Carpenter, David J Castle, Leslie Citrome, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Michael Davidson, Richard J Drake, Serdar Dursun, Bjørn H Ebdrup, Helio Elkis, Peter Falkai, W Wolfgang Fleischacker, Ary Gadelha, Fiona Gaughran, Birte Y Glenthøj, Ariel Graff-Guerrero, Jaime E C Hallak, William G Honer, James Kennedy, Bruce J Kinon, Stephen M Lawrie, Jimmy Lee, F Markus Leweke, James H MacCabe, Carolyn B McNabb, Herbert Meltzer, Hans-Jürgen Möller, Shinchiro Nakajima, Christos Pantelis, Tiago Reis Marques, Gary Remington, Susan L Rossell, Bruce R Russell, Cynthia O Siu, Takefumi Suzuki, Iris E Sommer, David Taylor, Neil Thomas, Alp Üçok, Daniel Umbricht, James T R Walters, John Kane, Christoph U Correll
OBJECTIVE: Research and clinical translation in schizophrenia is limited by inconsistent definitions of treatment resistance and response. To address this issue, the authors evaluated current approaches and then developed consensus criteria and guidelines. METHOD: A systematic review of randomized antipsychotic clinical trials in treatment-resistant schizophrenia was performed, and definitions of treatment resistance were extracted. Subsequently, consensus operationalized criteria were developed through 1) a multiphase, mixed methods approach, 2) identification of key criteria via an online survey, and 3) meetings to achieve consensus...
December 6, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855484/mechanisms-of-diminished-attention-to-eyes-in-autism
#3
Jennifer M Moriuchi, Ami Klin, Warren Jones
OBJECTIVE: Two hypotheses, gaze aversion and gaze indifference, are commonly cited to explain a diagnostic hallmark of autism: reduced attention to others' eyes. The two posit different areas of atypical brain function, different pathogenic models of disability, and different possible treatments. Evidence for and against each hypothesis is mixed but has thus far focused on older children and adults. The authors evaluated both mechanistic hypotheses in two sets of experiments at the time of initial diagnosis...
November 18, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855483/prediction-of-relapse-after-discontinuation-of-antipsychotic-treatment-in-alzheimer-s-disease-the-role-of-hallucinations
#4
Anjali N Patel, Seonjoo Lee, Howard F Andrews, Gregory H Pelton, Susan K Schultz, David L Sultzer, Jacobo Mintzer, Danilo de la Pena, Sanjay Gupta, Sylvia Colon, Corbett Schimming, Bruce Levin, D P Devanand
OBJECTIVE: In Alzheimer's disease, antipsychotic medications are often used for a period, with relief of symptoms, and then discontinued, after which relapse may occur. The authors sought to determine which neuropsychiatric symptoms predict relapse. METHOD: In the Antipsychotic Discontinuation in Alzheimer's Disease trial, 180 patients with Alzheimer's disease and symptoms of agitation or psychosis were treated with risperidone for 16 weeks, after which patients who responded (N=110) were randomly assigned to continue risperidone for 32 weeks, to continue risperidone for 16 weeks followed by switch to placebo for 16 weeks, or to receive placebo for 32 weeks...
November 18, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838936/computerized-cognitive-training-in-older-adults-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-or-dementia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
Nicole T M Hill, Loren Mowszowski, Sharon L Naismith, Verity L Chadwick, Michael Valenzuela, Amit Lampit
OBJECTIVE: Previous meta-analyses indicate that computerized cognitive training (CCT) is a safe and efficacious intervention for cognition in older adults. However, efficacy varies across populations and cognitive domains, and little is known about the efficacy of CCT in people with mild cognitive impairment or dementia. METHOD: The authors searched Medline, Embase, PsychINFO, CINAHL, and CENTRAL through July 1, 2016, for randomized controlled trials of CCT in older adults with mild cognitive impairment or dementia...
November 14, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838935/mental-health-and-social-networks-after-disaster
#6
Richard A Bryant, H Colin Gallagher, Lisa Gibbs, Philippa Pattison, Colin MacDougall, Louise Harms, Karen Block, Elyse Baker, Vikki Sinnott, Greg Ireton, John Richardson, David Forbes, Dean Lusher
OBJECTIVE: Although disasters are a major cause of mental health problems and typically affect large numbers of people and communities, little is known about how social structures affect mental health after a disaster. The authors assessed the extent to which mental health outcomes after disaster are associated with social network structures. METHOD: In a community-based cohort study of survivors of a major bushfire disaster, participants (N=558) were assessed for probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and probable depression...
November 14, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838934/fetal-origins-of-mental-health-the-developmental-origins-of-health-and-disease-hypothesis
#7
Kieran J O'Donnell, Michael J Meaney
The quality of fetal growth and development predicts the risk for a range of noncommunicable, chronic illnesses. These observations form the basis of the "developmental origins of health and disease" hypothesis, which suggests that the intrauterine signals that compromise fetal growth also act to "program" tissue differentiation in a manner that predisposes to later illness. Fetal growth also predicts the risk for later psychopathology. These findings parallel studies showing that antenatal maternal emotional well-being likewise predicts the risk for later psychopathology...
November 14, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809572/identification-of-two-heritable-cross-disorder-endophenotypes-for-tourette-syndrome
#8
Sabrina M Darrow, Matthew E Hirschtritt, Lea K Davis, Cornelia Illmann, Lisa Osiecki, Marco Grados, Paul Sandor, Yves Dion, Robert King, David Pauls, Cathy L Budman, Danielle C Cath, Erica Greenberg, Gholson J Lyon, Dongmei Yu, Lauren M McGrath, William M McMahon, Paul C Lee, Kevin L Delucchi, Jeremiah M Scharf, Carol A Mathews
OBJECTIVE: Phenotypic heterogeneity in Tourette syndrome is partly due to complex genetic relationships among Tourette syndrome, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Identifying symptom-based endophenotypes across diagnoses may aid gene-finding efforts. METHOD: Assessments for Tourette syndrome, OCD, and ADHD symptoms were conducted in a discovery sample of 3,494 individuals recruited for genetic studies. Symptom-level factor and latent class analyses were conducted in Tourette syndrome families and replicated in an independent sample of 882 individuals...
November 4, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809571/internet-gaming-disorder-investigating-the-clinical-relevance-of-a-new-phenomenon
#9
Andrew K Przybylski, Netta Weinstein, Kou Murayama
OBJECTIVE: The American Psychiatric Association (APA) identified Internet gaming disorder as a new potential psychiatric disorder and has recognized that little is known about the prevalence, validity, or cross-cultural robustness of proposed Internet gaming disorder criteria. In response to this gap in our understanding, the present study, a first for this research topic, estimated the period prevalence of this new potential psychiatric disorder using APA guidance, examined the validity of its proposed indicators, evaluated reliability cross-culturally and across genders, compared it to gold-standard research on gambling addiction and problem gaming, and estimated its impact on physical, social, and mental health...
November 4, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794691/the-origins-of-cognitive-deficits-in-victimized-children-implications-for-neuroscientists-and-clinicians
#10
Andrea Danese, Terrie E Moffitt, Louise Arseneault, Ben A Bleiberg, Perry B Dinardo, Stephanie B Gandelman, Renate Houts, Antony Ambler, Helen L Fisher, Richie Poulton, Avshalom Caspi
OBJECTIVE: Individuals reporting a history of childhood violence victimization have impaired brain function. However, the clinical significance, reproducibility, and causality of these findings are disputed. The authors used data from two large cohort studies to address these research questions directly. METHOD: The authors tested the association between prospectively collected measures of childhood violence victimization and cognitive functions in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood among 2,232 members of the U...
October 31, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794690/neural-substrates-of-overgeneralized-conditioned-fear-in-ptsd
#11
Antonia N Kaczkurkin, Philip C Burton, Shai M Chazin, Adrienne B Manbeck, Tori Espensen-Sturges, Samuel E Cooper, Scott R Sponheim, Shmuel Lissek
OBJECTIVE: Heightened generalization of fear from an aversively reinforced conditioned stimulus (CS+, a conditioned danger cue) to resembling stimuli is widely accepted as a pathogenic marker of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Indeed, a distress response to benign stimuli that "resemble" aspects of the trauma is a central feature of the disorder. To date, the link between overgeneralization of conditioned fear and PTSD derives largely from clinical observations, with limited empirical work on the subject...
October 31, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771973/dopaminergic-enhancement-of-striatal-response-to-reward-in-major-depression
#12
Roee Admon, Roselinde H Kaiser, Daniel G Dillon, Miranda Beltzer, Franziska Goer, David P Olson, Gordana Vitaliano, Diego A Pizzagalli
OBJECTIVE: Major depressive disorder is characterized by reduced reward-related striatal activation and dysfunctional reward learning, putatively reflecting decreased dopaminergic signaling. The goal of this study was to test whether a pharmacological challenge designed to facilitate dopaminergic transmission can enhance striatal responses to reward and improve reward learning in depressed individuals. METHOD: In a double-blind placebo-controlled design, 46 unmedicated depressed participants and 43 healthy control participants were randomly assigned to receive either placebo or a single low dose (50 mg) of the D2/D3 receptor antagonist amisulpride, which is believed to increase dopamine signaling through presynaptic autoreceptor blockade...
October 24, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771972/the-epidemiology-of-first-episode-psychosis-in-early-intervention-in-psychosis-services-findings-from-the-social-epidemiology-of-psychoses-in-east-anglia-sepea-study
#13
James B Kirkbride, Yasir Hameed, Gayatri Ankireddypalli, Konstantinos Ioannidis, Carolyn M Crane, Mukhtar Nasir, Nikolett Kabacs, Antonio Metastasio, Oliver Jenkins, Ashkan Espandian, Styliani Spyridi, Danica Ralevic, Suneetha Siddabattuni, Ben Walden, Adewale Adeoye, Jesus Perez, Peter B Jones
OBJECTIVE: Few studies have characterized the epidemiology of first-episode psychoses in rural or urban settings since the introduction of early intervention psychosis services. To address this, the authors conducted a naturalistic cohort study in England, where such services are well established. METHOD: All new first-episode psychosis cases, 16-35 years old, presenting to early intervention psychosis services in the East of England were identified during 2 million person-years follow-up...
October 24, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771971/temporal-diagnostic-and-tissue-specific-regulation-of-nrg3-isoform-expression-in-human-brain-development-and-affective-disorders
#14
Clare Paterson, Yanhong Wang, Thomas M Hyde, Daniel R Weinberger, Joel E Kleinman, Amanda J Law
OBJECTIVE: Genes implicated in schizophrenia are enriched in networks differentially regulated during human CNS development. Neuregulin 3 (NRG3), a brain-enriched neurotrophin, undergoes alternative splicing and is implicated in several neurological disorders with developmental origins. Isoform-specific increases in NRG3 are observed in schizophrenia and associated with rs10748842, a NRG3 risk polymorphism, suggesting NRG3 transcriptional dysregulation as a molecular mechanism of risk...
October 24, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690518/you-seldom-get-a-second-chance-with-a-gunshot-lethality-of-suicidal-acts
#15
Merete Nordentoft, Trine Madsen, Annette Erlangsen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 3, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690517/the-risk-of-treatment-emergent-mania-with-methylphenidate-in-bipolar-disorder
#16
Alexander Viktorin, Eleonore Rydén, Michael E Thase, Zheng Chang, Cecilia Lundholm, Brian M D'Onofrio, Catarina Almqvist, Patrik K E Magnusson, Paul Lichtenstein, Henrik Larsson, Mikael Landén
OBJECTIVE: The authors sought to determine the risk of treatment-emergent mania associated with methylphenidate, used in monotherapy or with a concomitant mood-stabilizing medication, in patients with bipolar disorder. METHOD: Using linked Swedish national registries, the authors identified 2,307 adults with bipolar disorder who initiated therapy with methylphenidate between 2006 and 2014. The cohort was divided into two groups: those with and those without concomitant mood-stabilizing treatment...
October 3, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27631964/randomized-trial-of-an-integrated-behavioral-health-home-the-health-outcomes-management-and-evaluation-home-study
#17
Benjamin G Druss, Silke A von Esenwein, Gretl E Glick, Emily Deubler, Cathy Lally, Martha C Ward, Kimberly J Rask
OBJECTIVE: Behavioral health homes provide primary care health services to patients with serious mental illness treated in community mental health settings. The objective of this study was to compare quality and outcomes of care between an integrated behavioral health home and usual care. METHOD: The study was a randomized trial of a behavioral health home developed as a partnership between a community mental health center and a Federally Qualified Health Center...
September 15, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27631963/prediction-error-representation-in-individuals-with-generalized-anxiety-disorder-during-passive-avoidance
#18
Stuart F White, Marilla Geraci, Elizabeth Lewis, Joseph Leshin, Cindy Teng, Bruno Averbeck, Harma Meffert, Monique Ernst, James R Blair, Christian Grillon, Karina S Blair
OBJECTIVE: Deficits in reinforcement-based decision making have been reported in generalized anxiety disorder. However, the pathophysiology of these deficits is largely unknown; published studies have mainly examined adolescents, and the integrity of core functional processes underpinning decision making remains undetermined. In particular, it is unclear whether the representation of reinforcement prediction error (PE) (the difference between received and expected reinforcement) is disrupted in generalized anxiety disorder...
September 15, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27631962/norepinephrine-transporter-in-major-depressive-disorder-a-pet-study
#19
Sho Moriguchi, Makiko Yamada, Harumasa Takano, Tomohisa Nagashima, Keisuke Takahata, Keita Yokokawa, Takehito Ito, Tatsuya Ishii, Yasuyuki Kimura, Ming-Rong Zhang, Masaru Mimura, Tetsuya Suhara
OBJECTIVE: The norepinephrine transporter has been suggested to play a crucial role in major depressive disorder. However, norepinephrine transporter availability in major depressive disorder and its role with clinical symptoms are not known. The authors tested norepinephrine transporter availability in patients with major depressive disorder with the aim to identify any associations between test results and clinical symptoms. METHOD: The present research was a cross-sectional study in which 19 patients with major depressive disorder and 19 age- and sex-matched healthy comparison subjects underwent positron emission tomography scanning to evaluate the norepinephrine transporter availability measured by the radioligand (S,S)-[(18)F]FMeNER-D2...
September 15, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609244/using-neuroscience-to-help-understand-fear-and-anxiety-a-two-system-framework
#20
Joseph E LeDoux, Daniel S Pine
Tremendous progress has been made in basic neuroscience in recent decades. One area that has been especially successful is research on how the brain detects and responds to threats. Such studies have demonstrated comparable patterns of brain-behavior relationships underlying threat processing across a range of mammalian species, including humans. This would seem to be an ideal body of information for advancing our understanding of disorders in which altered threat processing is a key factor, namely, fear and anxiety disorders...
September 9, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
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