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American Journal of Psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427286/incomes-and-outcomes-social-security-disability-benefits-in-first-episode-psychosis
#1
Robert A Rosenheck, Sue E Estroff, Kyaw Sint, Haiqun Lin, Kim T Mueser, Delbert G Robinson, Nina R Schooler, Patricia Marcy, John M Kane
OBJECTIVE: Social Security Administration (SSA) disability benefits are an important source of income for people with psychoses and confer eligibility for health insurance. The authors examined the impact of coordinated specialty care on receipt of such benefits in first-episode psychosis, along with the correlates and consequences of receiving them. METHOD: The Recovery After an Initial Schizophrenia Episode-Early Treatment Program (RAISE-ETP) study, a 34-site cluster-randomized trial, compared NAVIGATE, a coordinated specialty care program, to usual community care over 2 years...
April 21, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427285/premenstrual-dysphoric-disorder-symptoms-following-ovarian-suppression-triggered-by-change-in-ovarian-steroid-levels-but-not-continuous-stable-levels
#2
Peter J Schmidt, Pedro E Martinez, Lynnette K Nieman, Deloris E Koziol, Karla D Thompson, Linda Schenkel, Paul G Wakim, David R Rubinow
OBJECTIVE: Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) symptoms are eliminated by ovarian suppression and stimulated by administration of ovarian steroids, yet they appear with ovarian steroid levels indistinguishable from those in women without PMDD. Thus, symptoms could be precipitated either by an acute change in ovarian steroid levels or by stable levels above a critical threshold playing a permissive role in expression of an underlying infradian affective "pacemaker." The authors attempted to determine which condition triggers PMDD symptoms...
April 21, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407727/randomized-clinical-trial-of-real-time-fmri-amygdala-neurofeedback-for-major-depressive-disorder-effects-on-symptoms-and-autobiographical-memory-recall
#3
Kymberly D Young, Greg J Siegle, Vadim Zotev, Raquel Phillips, Masaya Misaki, Han Yuan, Wayne C Drevets, Jerzy Bodurka
OBJECTIVE: Patients with depression show blunted amygdala hemodynamic activity to positive stimuli, including autobiographical memories. The authors examined the therapeutic efficacy of real-time functional MRI neurofeedback (rtfMRI-nf) training aimed at increasing the amygdala's hemodynamic response to positive memories in patients with depression. METHOD: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial, unmedicated adults with depression (N=36) were randomly assigned to receive two sessions of rtfMRI-nf either from the amygdala (N=19) or from a parietal control region not involved in emotional processing (N=17)...
April 14, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407726/complementary-features-of-attention-bias-modification-therapy-and-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-in-pediatric-anxiety-disorders
#4
Lauren K White, Stefanie Sequeira, Jennifer C Britton, Melissa A Brotman, Andrea L Gold, Erin Berman, Kenneth Towbin, Rany Abend, Nathan A Fox, Yair Bar-Haim, Ellen Leibenluft, Daniel S Pine
OBJECTIVE: In the treatment of anxiety disorders, attention bias modification therapy (ABMT) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) may have complementary effects by targeting different aspects of perturbed threat responses and behaviors. ABMT may target rapid, implicit threat reactions, whereas CBT may target slowly deployed threat responses. The authors used amygdala-based connectivity during a threat-attention task and a randomized controlled trial design to evaluate potential complementary features of these treatments in pediatric anxiety disorders...
April 14, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359201/a-5-year-observational-study-of-patients-with-treatment-resistant-depression-treated-with-vagus-nerve-stimulation-or-treatment-as-usual-comparison-of-response-remission-and-suicidality
#5
Scott T Aaronson, Peter Sears, Francis Ruvuna, Mark Bunker, Charles R Conway, Darin D Dougherty, Frederick W Reimherr, Thomas L Schwartz, John M Zajecka
OBJECTIVE: The Treatment-Resistant Depression Registry investigated whether adjunctive vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) with treatment as usual in depression has superior long-term outcomes compared with treatment as usual only. METHOD: This 5-year, prospective, open-label, nonrandomized, observational registry study was conducted at 61 U.S. sites and included 795 patients who were experiencing a major depressive episode (unipolar or bipolar depression) of at least 2 years' duration or had three or more depressive episodes (including the current episode), and who had failed four or more depression treatments (including ECT)...
March 31, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359200/selective-loss-of-smaller-spines-in-schizophrenia
#6
Matthew L MacDonald, Jamil Alhassan, Jason T Newman, Michelle Richard, Hong Gu, Ryan M Kelly, Alan R Sampson, Kenneth N Fish, Peter Penzes, Zachary P Wills, David A Lewis, Robert A Sweet
OBJECTIVE: Decreased density of dendritic spines in adult schizophrenia subjects has been hypothesized to result from increased pruning of excess synapses in adolescence. In vivo imaging studies have confirmed that synaptic pruning is largely driven by the loss of large or mature synapses. Thus, increased pruning throughout adolescence would likely result in a deficit of large spines in adulthood. Here, the authors examined the density and volume of dendritic spines in deep layer 3 of the auditory cortex of 20 schizophrenia and 20 matched comparison subjects as well as aberrant voltage-gated calcium channel subunit protein expression linked to spine loss...
March 31, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335624/effects-of-patient-preferences-on-outcomes-in-the-predictors-of-remission-in-depression-to-individual-and-combined-treatments-predict-study
#7
Boadie W Dunlop, Mary E Kelley, Vivianne Aponte-Rivera, Tanja Mletzko-Crowe, Becky Kinkead, James C Ritchie, Charles B Nemeroff, W Edward Craighead, Helen S Mayberg
OBJECTIVE: The Predictors of Remission in Depression to Individual and Combined Treatments [PReDICT] study aimed to identify clinical and biological factors predictive of treatment outcomes in major depressive disorder among treatment-naive adults. The authors evaluated the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and two antidepressant medications (escitalopram and duloxetine) in patients with major depression and examined the moderating effect of patients' treatment preferences on outcomes...
March 24, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335623/genetic-heterogeneity-in-depressive-symptoms-following-the-death-of-a-spouse-polygenic-score-analysis-of-the-u-s-health-and-retirement-study
#8
Benjamin W Domingue, Hexuan Liu, Aysu Okbay, Daniel W Belsky
OBJECTIVE: Experience of stressful life events is associated with risk of depression. Yet many exposed individuals do not become depressed. A controversial hypothesis is that genetic factors influence vulnerability to depression following stress. This hypothesis is often tested with a "diathesis-stress" model, in which genes confer excess vulnerability. The authors tested an alternative formulation of this model: genes may buffer against depressogenic effects of life stress. METHOD: The hypothesized genetic buffer was measured using a polygenic score derived from a published genome-wide association study of subjective well-being...
March 24, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335622/functional-connectivity-of-the-subcallosal-cingulate-cortex-and-differential-outcomes-to-treatment-with-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-or-antidepressant-medication-for-major-depressive-disorder
#9
Boadie W Dunlop, Justin K Rajendra, W Edward Craighead, Mary E Kelley, Callie L McGrath, Ki Sueng Choi, Becky Kinkead, Charles B Nemeroff, Helen S Mayberg
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article was to inform the first-line treatment choice between cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or an antidepressant medication for treatment-naive adults with major depressive disorder by defining a neuroimaging biomarker that differentially identifies the outcomes of remission and treatment failure to these interventions. METHOD: Functional MRI resting-state functional connectivity analyses using a bilateral subcallosal cingulate cortex (SCC) seed was applied to 122 patients from the Prediction of Remission to Individual and Combined Treatments (PReDICT) study who completed 12 weeks of randomized treatment with CBT or antidepressant medication...
March 24, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320226/functional-neuroimaging-predictors-of-self-reported-psychotic-symptoms-in-adolescents
#10
Josiane Bourque, Philip A Spechler, Stéphane Potvin, Robert Whelan, Tobias Banaschewski, Arun L W Bokde, Uli Bromberg, Christian Büchel, Erin Burke Quinlan, Sylvane Desrivières, Herta Flor, Vincent Frouin, Penny Gowland, Andreas Heinz, Bernd Ittermann, Jean-Luc Martinot, Marie-Laure Paillère-Martinot, Sarah C McEwen, Frauke Nees, Dimitri Papadopoulos Orfanos, Tomáš Paus, Luise Poustka, Michael N Smolka, Nora C Vetter, Henrik Walter, Gunter Schumann, Hugh Garavan, Patricia J Conrod
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the neural correlates of psychotic-like experiences in youths during tasks involving inhibitory control, reward anticipation, and emotion processing. A secondary aim was to test whether these neurofunctional correlates of risk were predictive of psychotic symptoms 2 years later. METHOD: Functional imaging responses to three paradigms-the stop-signal, monetary incentive delay, and faces tasks-were collected in youths at age 14, as part of the IMAGEN study...
March 21, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320225/suicide-following-deliberate-self-harm
#11
Mark Olfson, Melanie Wall, Shuai Wang, Stephen Crystal, Tobias Gerhard, Carlos Blanco
OBJECTIVE: The authors sought to identify risk factors for repeat self-harm and completed suicide over the following year among adults with deliberate self-harm. METHOD: A national cohort of Medicaid-financed adults clinically diagnosed with deliberate self-harm (N=61,297) was followed for up to 1 year. Repeat self-harm per 1,000 person-years and suicide rates per 100,000 person-years (based on cause of death information from the National Death Index) were determined...
March 21, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320224/identification-of-common-neural-circuit-disruptions-in-cognitive-control-across-psychiatric-disorders
#12
Lisa M McTeague, Julia Huemer, David M Carreon, Ying Jiang, Simon B Eickhoff, Amit Etkin
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive deficits are a common feature of psychiatric disorders. The authors investigated the nature of disruptions in neural circuitry underlying cognitive control capacities across psychiatric disorders through a transdiagnostic neuroimaging meta-analysis. METHOD: A PubMed search was conducted for whole-brain functional neuroimaging articles published through June 2015 that compared activation in patients with axis I disorders and matched healthy control participants during cognitive control tasks...
March 21, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320223/kinect-3-a-phase-3-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial-of-valbenazine-for-tardive-dyskinesia
#13
Robert A Hauser, Stewart A Factor, Stephen R Marder, Mary Ann Knesevich, Paul M Ramirez, Roland Jimenez, Joshua Burke, Grace S Liang, Christopher F O'Brien
OBJECTIVE: Tardive dyskinesia is a persistent movement disorder induced by dopamine receptor blockers, including antipsychotics. Valbenazine (NBI-98854) is a novel, highly selective vesicular monoamine transporter 2 inhibitor that demonstrated favorable efficacy and tolerability in the treatment of tardive dyskinesia in phase 2 studies. This phase 3 study further evaluated the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of valbenazine as a treatment for tardive dyskinesia. METHOD: This 6-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial included patients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or a mood disorder who had moderate or severe tardive dyskinesia...
March 21, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263661/perspective-on-selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors-in-children-and-adolescents
#14
Daniel S Pine, Robert Freedman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 6, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253736/identification-of-developmental-and-behavioral-markers-associated-with-genetic-abnormalities-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#15
Somer L Bishop, Cristan Farmer, Vanessa Bal, Elise B Robinson, A Jeremy Willsey, Donna M Werling, Karoline Alexandra Havdahl, Stephan J Sanders, Audrey Thurm
OBJECTIVE: Aside from features associated with risk of neurogenetic syndromes in general (e.g., cognitive impairment), limited progress has been made in identifying phenotype-genotype relationships in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The objective of this study was to extend work in the Simons Simplex Collection by comparing the phenotypic profiles of ASD probands with or without identified de novo loss of function mutations or copy number variants in high-confidence ASD-associated genes or loci...
March 3, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253735/antidepressant-efficacy-for-depression-in-children-and-adolescents-industry-and-nimh-funded-studies
#16
John T Walkup
Significant controversy surrounds the efficacy of the newer antidepressants for children and adolescents with depression. The controversy largely hinges on meta-analyses of studies that suggest that antidepressants are minimally effective, not effective, or equivalent to placebo. In this review, the author discusses several scientific and clinical complexities that are important to understand in reviewing the antidepressant literature: the strengths and weaknesses of meta-analyses; the scientific and regulatory context for the large number of antidepressant trials in the late 1990s and early 2000s; and the distinction between a negative trial, where the treatment does not demonstrate efficacy, and a failed trial, where methodological problems make it impossible to draw any conclusion about efficacy...
March 3, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231717/association-of-elevated-reward-prediction-error-response-with-weight-gain-in-adolescent-anorexia-nervosa
#17
Marisa DeGuzman, Megan E Shott, Tony T Yang, Justin Riederer, Guido K W Frank
OBJECTIVE: Anorexia nervosa is a psychiatric disorder of unknown etiology. Understanding associations between behavior and neurobiology is important in treatment development. Using a novel monetary reward task during functional magnetic resonance brain imaging, the authors tested how brain reward learning in adolescent anorexia nervosa changes with weight restoration. METHOD: Female adolescents with anorexia nervosa (N=21; mean age, 16.4 years [SD=1.9]) underwent functional MRI (fMRI) before and after treatment; similarly, healthy female control adolescents (N=21; mean age, 15...
February 24, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231716/low-intensity-transcranial-current-stimulation-in-psychiatry
#18
Noah S Philip, Brent G Nelson, Flavio Frohlich, Kelvin O Lim, Alik S Widge, Linda L Carpenter
Neurostimulation is rapidly emerging as an important treatment modality for psychiatric disorders. One of the fastest-growing and least-regulated approaches to noninvasive therapeutic stimulation involves the application of weak electrical currents. Widespread enthusiasm for low-intensity transcranial electrical current stimulation (tCS) is reflected by the recent surge in direct-to-consumer device marketing, do-it-yourself enthusiasm, and an escalating number of clinical trials. In the wake of this rapid growth, clinicians may lack sufficient information about tCS to inform their clinical practices...
February 24, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135847/common-dimensional-reward-deficits-across-mood-and-psychotic-disorders-a-connectome-wide-association-study
#19
Anup Sharma, Daniel H Wolf, Rastko Ciric, Joseph W Kable, Tyler M Moore, Simon N Vandekar, Natalie Katchmar, Aylin Daldal, Kosha Ruparel, Christos Davatzikos, Mark A Elliott, Monica E Calkins, Russell T Shinohara, Danielle S Bassett, Theodore D Satterthwaite
OBJECTIVE: Anhedonia is central to multiple psychiatric disorders and causes substantial disability. A dimensional conceptualization posits that anhedonia severity is related to a transdiagnostic continuum of reward deficits in specific neural networks. Previous functional connectivity studies related to anhedonia have focused on case-control comparisons in specific disorders, using region-specific seed-based analyses. Here, the authors explore the entire functional connectome in relation to reward responsivity across a population of adults with heterogeneous psychopathology...
January 31, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135846/switch-rates-during-acute-treatment-for-bipolar-ii-depression-with-lithium-sertraline-or-the-two-combined-a-randomized-double-blind-comparison
#20
Lori L Altshuler, Catherine A Sugar, Susan L McElroy, Brian Calimlim, Michael Gitlin, Paul E Keck, Ana Aquino-Elias, Brian E Martens, E Grace Fischer, Teri L English, Janine Roach, Trisha Suppes
OBJECTIVE: The authors compared medication-induced mood switch risk (primary outcome), as well as treatment response and side effects (secondary outcomes) with three acute-phase treatments for bipolar II depression. METHOD: In a 16-week, double-blind, multisite comparison study, 142 participants with bipolar II depression were randomly assigned to receive lithium monotherapy (N=49), sertraline monotherapy (N=45), or combination treatment with lithium and sertraline (N=48)...
January 31, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
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