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American Journal of Psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774194/vulnerability-for-alcohol-use-disorder-and-rate-of-alcohol-consumption
#1
Joshua L Gowin, Matthew E Sloan, Bethany L Stangl, Vatsalya Vatsalya, Vijay A Ramchandani
OBJECTIVE: Although several risk factors have been identified for alcohol use disorder, many individuals with these factors do not go on to develop the disorder. Identifying early phenotypic differences between vulnerable individuals and healthy control subjects could help identify those at higher risk. Binge drinking, defined as reaching a blood alcohol level of 80 mg%, carries a risk of negative legal and health outcomes and may be an early marker of vulnerability. Using a carefully controlled experimental paradigm, the authors tested the hypothesis that risk factors for alcohol use disorder, including family history of alcoholism, male sex, impulsivity, and low level of response to alcohol, would predict rate of binging during an individual alcohol consumption session...
August 4, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774193/declining-clinical-course-of-psychotic-disorders-over-the-two-decades-following-first-hospitalization-evidence-from-the-suffolk-county-mental-health-project
#2
Roman Kotov, Laura Fochtmann, Kaiqiao Li, Marsha Tanenberg-Karant, Eduardo A Constantino, Joan Rubinstein, Greg Perlman, Eva Velthorst, Anne-Kathrin J Fett, Gabrielle Carlson, Evelyn J Bromet
OBJECTIVE: Kraepelin considered declining course a hallmark of schizophrenia, but others have suggested that outcomes usually stabilize or improve after treatment initiation. The authors investigated this question in an epidemiologically defined cohort with psychotic disorders followed for 20 years after first hospitalization. METHOD: The Suffolk County Mental Health Project recruited first-admission patients with psychosis from all inpatient units of Suffolk County, New York (response rate, 72%)...
August 4, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774192/cortical-functional-connectivity-evident-after-birth-and-behavioral-inhibition-at-age-2
#3
Chad M Sylvester, Christopher D Smyser, Tara Smyser, Jeanette Kenley, Joseph J Ackerman, Joshua S Shimony, Steve E Petersen, Cynthia E Rogers
OBJECTIVE: The infant temperament behavioral inhibition is a potent risk factor for development of an anxiety disorder. It is difficult to predict risk for behavioral inhibition at birth, however, and the neural underpinnings are poorly understood. The authors hypothesized that neonatal functional connectivity of the ventral attention network is related to behavioral inhibition at age 2 years beyond sociodemographic and familial factors. This hypothesis is supported by the ventral attention network's role in attention to novelty, a key feature of behavioral inhibition...
August 4, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750583/association-of-a-history-of-child-abuse-with-impaired-myelination-in-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex-convergent-epigenetic-transcriptional-and-morphological-evidence
#4
Pierre-Eric Lutz, Arnaud Tanti, Alicja Gasecka, Sarah Barnett-Burns, John J Kim, Yi Zhou, Gang G Chen, Marina Wakid, Meghan Shaw, Daniel Almeida, Marc-Aurele Chay, Jennie Yang, Vanessa Larivière, Marie-Noël M'Boutchou, Léon C van Kempen, Volodymyr Yerko, Josée Prud'homme, Maria Antonietta Davoli, Kathryn Vaillancourt, Jean-François Théroux, Alexandre Bramoullé, Tie-Yuan Zhang, Michael J Meaney, Carl Ernst, Daniel Côté, Naguib Mechawar, Gustavo Turecki
OBJECTIVE: Child abuse has devastating and long-lasting consequences, considerably increasing the lifetime risk of negative mental health outcomes such as depression and suicide. Yet the neurobiological processes underlying this heightened vulnerability remain poorly understood. The authors investigated the hypothesis that epigenetic, transcriptomic, and cellular adaptations may occur in the anterior cingulate cortex as a function of child abuse. METHOD: Postmortem brain samples from human subjects (N=78) and from a rodent model of the impact of early-life environment (N=24) were analyzed...
July 28, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750582/efficacy-and-safety-of-min-101-a-12-week-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial-of-a-new-drug-in-development-for-the-treatment-of-negative-symptoms-in-schizophrenia
#5
Michael Davidson, Jay Saoud, Corinne Staner, Nadine Noel, Elisabeth Luthringer, Sandra Werner, Joseph Reilly, Jean-Yves Schaffhauser, Jonathan Rabinowitz, Mark Weiser, Remy Luthringer
OBJECTIVE: The authors assessed the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of MIN-101, a compound with affinities for sigma-2 and 5-HT2A receptors and no direct dopamine affinities, in comparison with placebo in treating negative symptoms in stabilized patients with schizophrenia. METHOD: The trial enrolled 244 patients who had been symptomatically stable for at least 3 months and had scores of at least 20 on the negative subscale of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS)...
July 28, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750581/rare-genome-wide-copy-number-variation-and-expression-of-schizophrenia-in-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome
#6
Anne S Bassett, Chelsea Lowther, Daniele Merico, Gregory Costain, Eva W C Chow, Therese van Amelsvoort, Donna McDonald-McGinn, Raquel E Gur, Ann Swillen, Marianne Van den Bree, Kieran Murphy, Doron Gothelf, Carrie E Bearden, Stephan Eliez, Wendy Kates, Nicole Philip, Vandana Sashi, Linda Campbell, Jacob Vorstman, Joseph Cubells, Gabriela M Repetto, Tony Simon, Erik Boot, Tracy Heung, Rens Evers, Claudia Vingerhoets, Esther van Duin, Elaine Zackai, Elfi Vergaelen, Koen Devriendt, Joris R Vermeesch, Michael Owen, Clodagh Murphy, Elena Michaelovosky, Leila Kushan, Maude Schneider, Wanda Fremont, Tiffany Busa, Stephen Hooper, Kathryn McCabe, Sasja Duijff, Karin Isaev, Giovanna Pellecchia, John Wei, Matthew J Gazzellone, Stephen W Scherer, Beverly S Emanuel, Tingwei Guo, Bernice E Morrow, Christian R Marshall
OBJECTIVE: Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is associated with a more than 20-fold increased risk for developing schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to identify additional genetic factors (i.e., "second hits") that may contribute to schizophrenia expression. METHOD: Through an international consortium, the authors obtained DNA samples from 329 psychiatrically phenotyped subjects with 22q11.2DS. Using a high-resolution microarray platform and established methods to assess copy number variation (CNV), the authors compared the genome-wide burden of rare autosomal CNV, outside of the 22q11...
July 28, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750580/mortality-and-self-harm-in-association-with-clozapine-in-treatment-resistant-schizophrenia
#7
Theresa Wimberley, James H MacCabe, Thomas M Laursen, Holger J Sørensen, Aske Astrup, Henriette T Horsdal, Christiane Gasse, Henrik Støvring
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated rates of all-cause mortality and self-harm in association with clozapine treatment in individuals with treatment-resistant schizophrenia. METHOD: A population-based cohort of 2,370 individuals with treatment-resistant schizophrenia after Jan. 1, 1996, was followed until death, first episode of self-harm, emigration, or June 1, 2013. Time to all-cause death and time to first episode of self-harm were analyzed in Cox regression models with time-varying treatment, adjusted for clinical and sociodemographic covariates...
July 28, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715908/ptsd-psychotherapy-outcome-predicted-by-brain-activation-during-emotional-reactivity-and-regulation
#8
Gregory A Fonzo, Madeleine S Goodkind, Desmond J Oathes, Yevgeniya V Zaiko, Meredith Harvey, Kathy K Peng, M Elizabeth Weiss, Allison L Thompson, Sanno E Zack, Steven E Lindley, Bruce A Arnow, Booil Jo, James J Gross, Barbara O Rothbaum, Amit Etkin
OBJECTIVE: Exposure therapy is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but many patients do not respond. Brain functions governing treatment outcome are not well characterized. The authors examined brain systems relevant to emotional reactivity and regulation, constructs that are thought to be central to PTSD and exposure therapy effects, to identify the functional traits of individuals most likely to benefit from treatment. METHOD: Individuals with PTSD underwent functional MRI (fMRI) while completing three tasks assessing emotional reactivity and regulation...
July 18, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715907/selective-effects-of-psychotherapy-on-frontopolar-cortical-function-in-ptsd
#9
Gregory A Fonzo, Madeleine S Goodkind, Desmond J Oathes, Yevgeniya V Zaiko, Meredith Harvey, Kathy K Peng, M Elizabeth Weiss, Allison L Thompson, Sanno E Zack, Colleen E Mills-Finnerty, Benjamin M Rosenberg, Raleigh Edelstein, Rachael N Wright, Carena A Kole, Steven E Lindley, Bruce A Arnow, Booil Jo, James J Gross, Barbara O Rothbaum, Amit Etkin
OBJECTIVE: Exposure therapy is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but a comprehensive, emotion-focused perspective on how psychotherapy affects brain function is lacking. The authors assessed changes in brain function after prolonged exposure therapy across three emotional reactivity and regulation paradigms. METHOD: Individuals with PTSD underwent functional MRI (fMRI) at rest and while completing three tasks assessing emotional reactivity and regulation...
July 18, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659040/defining-the-neural-substrate-of-the-adult-outcome-of-childhood-adhd-a-multimodal-neuroimaging-study-of-response-inhibition
#10
Eszter Szekely, Gustavo P Sudre, Wendy Sharp, Ellen Leibenluft, Philip Shaw
OBJECTIVE: Understanding the neural processes tied to the adult outcome of childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) could guide novel interventions to improve its clinical course. It has been argued that normalization of prefrontal cortical activity drives remission from ADHD, while anomalies in subcortical processes are "fixed," present even in remission. Using multimodal neuroimaging of inhibitory processes, the authors tested these hypotheses in adults followed since childhood, contrasting remitted against persistent ADHD...
June 29, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659039/adhd-medication-and-substance-related-problems
#11
Patrick D Quinn, Zheng Chang, Kwan Hur, Robert D Gibbons, Benjamin B Lahey, Martin E Rickert, Arvid Sjölander, Paul Lichtenstein, Henrik Larsson, Brian M D'Onofrio
OBJECTIVE: Substance use disorders are major contributors to excess mortality among individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), yet associations between pharmacological ADHD treatment and substance-related problems remain unclear. This study investigated concurrent and long-term associations between ADHD medication treatment and substance-related events. METHOD: The authors analyzed 2005-2014 commercial health care claims from 2,993,887 (47...
June 29, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618857/state-independent-and-dependent-neural-responses-to-psychosocial-stress-in-current-and-remitted-depression
#12
Qingsen Ming, Xue Zhong, Xiaocui Zhang, Weidan Pu, Daifeng Dong, Yali Jiang, Yidian Gao, Xiang Wang, John A Detre, Shuqiao Yao, Hengyi Rao
OBJECTIVE: Stress is a strong risk factor for major depressive disorder, while sensitization to stress in remitted individuals plays a key role in depression recurrence. The present study explored the state-independent (trait) and dependent (state) neural responses to psychosocial stress in major depressive disorder. METHOD: Thirty-six patients with medication-naive first-episode current depression, 33 patients with remitted depression, and 36 demographically matched healthy control participants were administered the Montreal Imaging Stress Task during functional MRI...
June 16, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618855/stability-of-and-factors-related-to-medical-student-specialty-choice-of-psychiatry
#13
Matthew N Goldenberg, D Keith Williams, John J Spollen
OBJECTIVE: Targeted efforts are needed to increase the number of medical students choosing psychiatry, but little is known about when students decide on their specialty or what factors influence their choice. The authors examined the timing and stability of student career choice of psychiatry compared with other specialties and determined what pre- and intra-medical school factors were associated with choosing a career in psychiatry. METHOD: Using survey data from students who graduated from U...
June 16, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595490/the-protective-effect-of-pregnancy-on-risk-for-drug-abuse-a-population-co-relative-co-spouse-and-within-individual-analysis
#14
Kenneth S Kendler, Henrik Ohlsson, Dace S Svikis, Kristina Sundquist, Jan Sundquist
OBJECTIVE: The authors sought to determine whether pregnancy is an intrinsic motivator for cessation of drug abuse. METHOD: The authors conducted prospective cohort, co-relative, co-spouse, and within-person analyses of registration for drug abuse during pregnancy among Swedish women born between 1980 and 1990 who gave birth between ages 20 and 35 (N=149,512). Drug abuse was assessed from medical, criminal, and pharmacy registries. RESULTS: In the population, rates of drug abuse were lower during pregnancy (unadjusted odds ratio=0...
June 9, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595489/a-brain-model-of-disturbed-self-appraisal-in-depression
#15
Christopher G Davey, Michael Breakspear, Jesus Pujol, Ben J Harrison
OBJECTIVE: A disturbed sense of self is a core feature of depression. The medial prefrontal cortex, which has a central role in self-appraisal processes, is often implicated in the illness, although it remains unclear how functional alterations of the region contribute to the observed disturbances. The aim of this study was to clarify the role of the medial prefrontal cortex in self-appraisal processes in depression. METHOD: The authors applied a recently developed dynamic network model of self-directed cognition to functional MRI data from 71 adolescents and young adults with moderate to severe major depressive disorder, none of whom were being treated with medication, and 88 healthy control participants...
June 9, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541091/psychodynamic-therapy-as-efficacious-as-other-empirically-supported-treatments-a-meta-analysis-testing-equivalence-of-outcomes
#16
Christiane Steinert, Thomas Munder, Sven Rabung, Jürgen Hoyer, Falk Leichsenring
OBJECTIVE: Pharmacotherapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), and psychodynamic therapy are most frequently applied to treat mental disorders. However, whether psychodynamic therapy is as efficacious as other empirically supported treatments is not yet clear. Thus, for the first time the equivalence of psychodynamic therapy to treatments established in efficacy was formally tested. The authors controlled for researcher allegiance effects by including representatives of psychodynamic therapy and CBT, the main rival psychotherapeutic treatments (adversarial collaboration)...
May 25, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541090/sixty-years-of-placebo-controlled-antipsychotic-drug-trials-in-acute-schizophrenia-systematic-review-bayesian-meta-analysis-and-meta-regression-of-efficacy-predictors
#17
Stefan Leucht, Claudia Leucht, Maximilian Huhn, Anna Chaimani, Dimitris Mavridis, Bartosz Helfer, Myrto Samara, Matteo Rabaioli, Susanne Bächer, Andrea Cipriani, John R Geddes, Georgia Salanti, John M Davis
OBJECTIVE: Antipsychotic drug efficacy may have decreased over recent decades. The authors present a meta-analysis of all placebo-controlled trials in patients with acute exacerbations of schizophrenia, and they investigate which trial characteristics have changed over the years and which are moderators of drug-placebo efficacy differences. METHOD: The search included multiple electronic databases. The outcomes were overall efficacy (primary outcome); responder and dropout rates; positive, negative, and depressive symptoms; quality of life; functioning; and major side effects...
May 25, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760026/amygdala-guided-neurofeedback-for-major-depression
#18
Leanne M Williams
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760025/commentary-on-the-risk-of-treatment-emergent-mania-with-methylphenidate-in-bipolar-disorder
#19
Terence A Ketter, Bernardo Dell'Osso
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760024/removing-firearms-from-the-home-after-attempted-suicide-can-be-life-saving
#20
Merete Nordentoft, Annette Erlangsen, Trine Madsen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
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