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American Journal of Psychiatry

Roee Admon, Roselinde H Kaiser, Daniel G Dillon, Miranda Beltzer, Franziska Goer, David P Olson, Gordana Vitaliano, Diego A Pizzagalli
OBJECTIVE: Major depressive disorder is characterized by reduced reward-related striatal activation and dysfunctional reward learning, putatively reflecting decreased dopaminergic signaling. The goal of this study was to test whether a pharmacological challenge designed to facilitate dopaminergic transmission can enhance striatal responses to reward and improve reward learning in depressed individuals. METHOD: In a double-blind placebo-controlled design, 46 unmedicated depressed participants and 43 healthy control participants were randomly assigned to receive either placebo or a single low dose (50 mg) of the D2/D3 receptor antagonist amisulpride, which is believed to increase dopamine signaling through presynaptic autoreceptor blockade...
October 24, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
James B Kirkbride, Yasir Hameed, Gayatri Ankireddypalli, Konstantinos Ioannidis, Carolyn M Crane, Mukhtar Nasir, Nikolett Kabacs, Antonio Metastasio, Oliver Jenkins, Ashkan Espandian, Styliani Spyridi, Danica Ralevic, Suneetha Siddabattuni, Ben Walden, Adewale Adeoye, Jesus Perez, Peter B Jones
OBJECTIVE: Few studies have characterized the epidemiology of first-episode psychoses in rural or urban settings since the introduction of early intervention psychosis services. To address this, the authors conducted a naturalistic cohort study in England, where such services are well established. METHOD: All new first-episode psychosis cases, 16-35 years old, presenting to early intervention psychosis services in the East of England were identified during 2 million person-years follow-up...
October 24, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
Clare Paterson, Yanhong Wang, Thomas M Hyde, Daniel R Weinberger, Joel E Kleinman, Amanda J Law
OBJECTIVE: Genes implicated in schizophrenia are enriched in networks differentially regulated during human CNS development. Neuregulin 3 (NRG3), a brain-enriched neurotrophin, undergoes alternative splicing and is implicated in several neurological disorders with developmental origins. Isoform-specific increases in NRG3 are observed in schizophrenia and associated with rs10748842, a NRG3 risk polymorphism, suggesting NRG3 transcriptional dysregulation as a molecular mechanism of risk...
October 24, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
Meaghan L O'Donnell, Nathan Alkemade, Mark Creamer, Alexander C McFarlane, Derrick Silove, Richard A Bryant, Kim Felmingham, Zachery Steel, David Forbes
OBJECTIVE: Adjustment disorder has been recategorized as a trauma- and stressor-related disorder in DSM-5. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of adjustment disorder in the first 12 months after severe injury; to determine whether adjustment disorder was a less severe disorder compared with other disorders in terms of disability and quality of life; to investigate the trajectory of adjustment disorder; and to examine whether the subtypes described in DSM-5 are distinguishable...
October 24, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
Merete Nordentoft, Trine Madsen, Annette Erlangsen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 3, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
Alexander Viktorin, Eleonore Rydén, Michael E Thase, Zheng Chang, Cecilia Lundholm, Brian M D'Onofrio, Catarina Almqvist, Patrik K E Magnusson, Paul Lichtenstein, Henrik Larsson, Mikael Landén
OBJECTIVE: The authors sought to determine the risk of treatment-emergent mania associated with methylphenidate, used in monotherapy or with a concomitant mood-stabilizing medication, in patients with bipolar disorder. METHOD: Using linked Swedish national registries, the authors identified 2,307 adults with bipolar disorder who initiated therapy with methylphenidate between 2006 and 2014. The cohort was divided into two groups: those with and those without concomitant mood-stabilizing treatment...
October 3, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
Benjamin G Druss, Silke A von Esenwein, Gretl E Glick, Emily Deubler, Cathy Lally, Martha C Ward, Kimberly J Rask
OBJECTIVE: Behavioral health homes provide primary care health services to patients with serious mental illness treated in community mental health settings. The objective of this study was to compare quality and outcomes of care between an integrated behavioral health home and usual care. METHOD: The study was a randomized trial of a behavioral health home developed as a partnership between a community mental health center and a Federally Qualified Health Center...
September 15, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
Stuart F White, Marilla Geraci, Elizabeth Lewis, Joseph Leshin, Cindy Teng, Bruno Averbeck, Harma Meffert, Monique Ernst, James R Blair, Christian Grillon, Karina S Blair
OBJECTIVE: Deficits in reinforcement-based decision making have been reported in generalized anxiety disorder. However, the pathophysiology of these deficits is largely unknown; published studies have mainly examined adolescents, and the integrity of core functional processes underpinning decision making remains undetermined. In particular, it is unclear whether the representation of reinforcement prediction error (PE) (the difference between received and expected reinforcement) is disrupted in generalized anxiety disorder...
September 15, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
Sho Moriguchi, Makiko Yamada, Harumasa Takano, Tomohisa Nagashima, Keisuke Takahata, Keita Yokokawa, Takehito Ito, Tatsuya Ishii, Yasuyuki Kimura, Ming-Rong Zhang, Masaru Mimura, Tetsuya Suhara
OBJECTIVE: The norepinephrine transporter has been suggested to play a crucial role in major depressive disorder. However, norepinephrine transporter availability in major depressive disorder and its role with clinical symptoms are not known. The authors tested norepinephrine transporter availability in patients with major depressive disorder with the aim to identify any associations between test results and clinical symptoms. METHOD: The present research was a cross-sectional study in which 19 patients with major depressive disorder and 19 age- and sex-matched healthy comparison subjects underwent positron emission tomography scanning to evaluate the norepinephrine transporter availability measured by the radioligand (S,S)-[(18)F]FMeNER-D2...
September 15, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
Veerle Bergink, Natalie Rasgon, Katherine L Wisner
OBJECTIVE: Psychosis or mania after childbirth is a psychiatric emergency with risk for suicide and infanticide. METHOD: The authors reviewed the epidemiologic and genetic research and physiological postpartum triggers (endocrine, immunological, circadian) of psychosis. They also summarized all systematic reviews and synthesized the sparse clinical studies to provide diagnostic recommendations, treatment options, and strategies for prevention. RESULTS: The incidence of first-lifetime onset postpartum psychosis/mania from population-based register studies of psychiatric admissions varies from 0...
September 9, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
Joseph E LeDoux, Daniel S Pine
Tremendous progress has been made in basic neuroscience in recent decades. One area that has been especially successful is research on how the brain detects and responds to threats. Such studies have demonstrated comparable patterns of brain-behavior relationships underlying threat processing across a range of mammalian species, including humans. This would seem to be an ideal body of information for advancing our understanding of disorders in which altered threat processing is a key factor, namely, fear and anxiety disorders...
September 9, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
W Vaughn McCall, Ruth M Benca, Peter B Rosenquist, Mary Anne Riley, Laryssa McCloud, Jill C Newman, Doug Case, Meredith Rumble, Andrew D Krystal
OBJECTIVE: Insomnia is associated with increased risk for suicide. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has mandated that warnings regarding suicide be included in the prescribing information for hypnotic medications. The authors conducted a review of the evidence for and against the claim that hypnotics increase the risk of suicide. METHOD: This review focused on modern, FDA-approved hypnotics, beginning with the introduction of benzodiazepines, limiting its findings to adults...
September 9, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
Bret R Rutherford, Melanie M Wall, Patrick J Brown, Tse-Hwei Choo, Tor D Wager, Bradley S Peterson, Sarah Chung, Irving Kirsch, Steven P Roose
OBJECTIVE: Causes of placebo effects in antidepressant trials have been inferred from observational studies and meta-analyses, but their mechanisms have not been directly established. The goal of this study was to examine in a prospective, randomized controlled trial whether patient expectancy mediates placebo effects in antidepressant studies. METHOD: Adult outpatients with major depressive disorder were randomly assigned to open or placebo-controlled citalopram treatment...
September 9, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
Premika S W Boedhoe, Lianne Schmaal, Yoshinari Abe, Stephanie H Ameis, Paul D Arnold, Marcelo C Batistuzzo, Francesco Benedetti, Jan C Beucke, Irene Bollettini, Anushree Bose, Silvia Brem, Anna Calvo, Yuqi Cheng, Kang Ik K Cho, Sara Dallaspezia, Damiaan Denys, Kate D Fitzgerald, Jean-Paul Fouche, Mònica Giménez, Patricia Gruner, Gregory L Hanna, Derrek P Hibar, Marcelo Q Hoexter, Hao Hu, Chaim Huyser, Keisuke Ikari, Neda Jahanshad, Norbert Kathmann, Christian Kaufmann, Kathrin Koch, Jun Soo Kwon, Luisa Lazaro, Yanni Liu, Christine Lochner, Rachel Marsh, Ignacio Martínez-Zalacaín, David Mataix-Cols, José M Menchón, Luciano Minuzzi, Takashi Nakamae, Tomohiro Nakao, Janardhanan C Narayanaswamy, Fabrizio Piras, Federica Piras, Christopher Pittenger, Y C Janardhan Reddy, Joao R Sato, H Blair Simpson, Noam Soreni, Carles Soriano-Mas, Gianfranco Spalletta, Michael C Stevens, Philip R Szeszko, David F Tolin, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian, Susanne Walitza, Zhen Wang, Guido A van Wingen, Jian Xu, Xiufeng Xu, Je-Yeon Yun, Qing Zhao, Paul M Thompson, Dan J Stein, Odile A van den Heuvel
OBJECTIVE: Structural brain imaging studies in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have produced inconsistent findings. This may be partially due to limited statistical power from relatively small samples and clinical heterogeneity related to variation in illness profile and developmental stage. To address these limitations, the authors conducted meta- and mega-analyses of data from OCD sites worldwide. METHOD: T1 images from 1,830 OCD patients and 1,759 control subjects were analyzed, using coordinated and standardized processing, to identify subcortical brain volumes that differ between OCD patients and healthy subjects...
September 9, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
Sina Hafizi, Huai-Hsuan Tseng, Naren Rao, Thiviya Selvanathan, Miran Kenk, Richard P Bazinet, Ivonne Suridjan, Alan A Wilson, Jeffrey H Meyer, Gary Remington, Sylvain Houle, Pablo M Rusjan, Romina Mizrahi
OBJECTIVE: Neuroinflammation and abnormal immune responses are increasingly implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Previous positron emission tomography (PET) studies targeting the translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) have been limited by high nonspecific binding of the first-generation radioligand, low-resolution scanners, small sample sizes, and psychotic patients being on antipsychotics or not being in the first episode of their illness. The present study uses the novel second-generation TSPO PET radioligand [(18)F]FEPPA to evaluate whether microglial activation is elevated in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of untreated patients with first-episode psychosis...
September 9, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
Yuval Barak-Corren, Victor M Castro, Solomon Javitt, Alison G Hoffnagle, Yael Dai, Roy H Perlis, Matthew K Nock, Jordan W Smoller, Ben Y Reis
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article was to determine whether longitudinal historical data, commonly available in electronic health record (EHR) systems, can be used to predict patients' future risk of suicidal behavior. METHOD: Bayesian models were developed using a retrospective cohort approach. EHR data from a large health care database spanning 15 years (1998-2012) of inpatient and outpatient visits were used to predict future documented suicidal behavior (i...
September 9, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
François-Laurent De Winter, Louise Emsell, Filip Bouckaert, Lene Claes, Saurabh Jain, Gill Farrar, Thibo Billiet, Stephan Evers, Jan Van den Stock, Pascal Sienaert, Jasmien Obbels, Stefan Sunaert, Katarzyna Adamczuk, Rik Vandenberghe, Koen Van Laere, Mathieu Vandenbulcke
OBJECTIVE: Hippocampal volume is commonly decreased in late-life depression. According to the depression-as-late-life-neuropsychiatric-disorder model, lower hippocampal volume in late-life depression is associated with neurodegenerative changes. The purpose of this prospective study was to examine whether lower hippocampal volume in late-life depression is associated with Alzheimer's disease pathology. METHOD: Of 108 subjects who participated, complete, good-quality data sets were available for 100: 48 currently depressed older adults and 52 age- and gender-matched healthy comparison subjects who underwent structural MRI, [(18)F]flutemetamol amyloid positron emission tomography imaging, apolipoprotein E genotyping, and neuropsychological assessment...
August 19, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
Lindsay M Squeglia, Tali M Ball, Joanna Jacobus, Ty Brumback, Benjamin S McKenna, Tam T Nguyen-Louie, Scott F Sorg, Martin P Paulus, Susan F Tapert
OBJECTIVE: Underage drinking is widely recognized as a leading public health and social problem for adolescents in the United States. Being able to identify at-risk children before they initiate heavy alcohol use could have immense clinical and public health implications; however, few investigations have explored individual-level precursors of adolescent substance use. This prospective investigation used machine learning with demographic, neurocognitive, and neuroimaging data in substance-naive adolescents to predict alcohol use initiation by age 18...
August 19, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
Kenneth S Kendler, Eric J Engstrom
The nosology for major psychiatric disorders developed by Emil Kraepelin in the 1890s has substantially shaped psychiatry. His theories, however, did not arise de novo, being strongly influenced by Karl Kahlbaum and Ewald Hecker. From the 1860-1880s, they articulated a paradigm shift in the conceptualization of psychiatric diagnosis, from symptom-based syndromes, popular since the late 18th century, to proto-disease entities. This effort was influenced by parallel developments in general medicine, especially the rise of bacterial theories of disease where different syndromes had distinctive symptoms, courses, and etiologies...
August 13, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
Dibyadeep Datta, Dominique Arion, Kaitlyn M Roman, David W Volk, David A Lewis
OBJECTIVE: Lower dendritic spine density on layer 3 pyramidal cells in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) appears to contribute to cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia, whereas psychosis is associated with excessive dopamine release in the striatum. These findings may be related via excitatory projections from the DLPFC to the ventral mesencephalon, the location of dopamine cells projecting to the striatum. Consistent with this hypothesis, deletion of the actin-related protein-2/3 (ARP2/3) complex, which regulates the actin cytoskeleton supporting dendritic spines, produced spine loss in cortical pyramidal cells and striatal hyperdopaminergia in mice...
August 13, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
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