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American Journal of Psychiatry

Sarah E Bergen, Alexander Ploner, Daniel Howrigan, Michael C O'Donovan, Jordan W Smoller, Patrick F Sullivan, Jonathan Sebat, Benjamin Neale, Kenneth S Kendler
OBJECTIVE: Both rare copy number variants (CNVs) and common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) contribute to liability to schizophrenia, but their etiological relationship has not been fully elucidated. The authors evaluated an additive model whereby risk of schizophrenia requires less contribution from common SNPs in the presence of a rare CNV, and tested for interactions. METHOD: Genetic data from 21,094 case subjects with schizophrenia and 20,227 control subjects from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium were examined...
November 5, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Jian-Ping Zhang, Delbert Robinson, Jin Yu, Juan Gallego, W Wolfgang Fleischhacker, Rene S Kahn, Benedicto Crespo-Facorro, Javier Vazquez-Bourgon, John M Kane, Anil K Malhotra, Todd Lencz
OBJECTIVE: Pharmacogenomic studies of antipsychotics have typically examined effects of individual polymorphisms. By contrast, polygenic risk scores (PRSs) derived from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) can quantify the influence of thousands of common alleles of small effect in a single measure. The authors examined whether PRSs for schizophrenia were predictive of antipsychotic efficacy in four independent cohorts of patients with first-episode psychosis (total N=510). METHOD: All study subjects received initial treatment with antipsychotic medication for first-episode psychosis, and all were genotyped on standard single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays imputed to the 1000 Genomes Project reference panel...
November 5, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Scott Mackey, Nicholas Allgaier, Bader Chaarani, Philip Spechler, Catherine Orr, Janice Bunn, Nicholas B Allen, Nelly Alia-Klein, Albert Batalla, Sara Blaine, Samantha Brooks, Elisabeth Caparelli, Yann Ying Chye, Janna Cousijn, Alain Dagher, Sylvane Desrivieres, Sarah Feldstein-Ewing, John J Foxe, Rita Z Goldstein, Anna E Goudriaan, Mary M Heitzeg, Robert Hester, Kent Hutchison, Ozlem Korucuoglu, Chiang-Shan R Li, Edythe London, Valentina Lorenzetti, Maartje Luijten, Rocio Martin-Santos, April May, Reza Momenan, Angelica Morales, Martin P Paulus, Godfrey Pearlson, Marc-Etienne Rousseau, Betty Jo Salmeron, Renée Schluter, Lianne Schmaal, Gunter Schumann, Zsuzsika Sjoerds, Dan J Stein, Elliot A Stein, Rajita Sinha, Nadia Solowij, Susan Tapert, Anne Uhlmann, Dick Veltman, Ruth van Holst, Sarah Whittle, Margaret J Wright, Murat Yücel, Sheng Zhang, Deborah Yurgelun-Todd, Derrek P Hibar, Neda Jahanshad, Alan Evans, Paul M Thompson, David C Glahn, Patricia Conrod, Hugh Garavan
OBJECTIVE: Although lower brain volume has been routinely observed in individuals with substance dependence compared with nondependent control subjects, the brain regions exhibiting lower volume have not been consistent across studies. In addition, it is not clear whether a common set of regions are involved in substance dependence regardless of the substance used or whether some brain volume effects are substance specific. Resolution of these issues may contribute to the identification of clinically relevant imaging biomarkers...
October 19, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Wan-Ling Tseng, Christen M Deveney, Joel Stoddard, Katharina Kircanski, Anna E Frackman, Jennifer Y Yi, Derek Hsu, Elizabeth Moroney, Laura Machlin, Laura Donahue, Alexandra Roule, Gretchen Perhamus, Richard C Reynolds, Roxann Roberson-Nay, John M Hettema, Kenneth E Towbin, Argyris Stringaris, Daniel S Pine, Melissa A Brotman, Ellen Leibenluft
OBJECTIVE: Childhood irritability is a common, impairing problem with changing age-related manifestations that predict long-term adverse outcomes. However, more investigation of overall and age-specific neural correlates is needed. Because youths with irritability exhibit exaggerated responses to frustrating stimuli, the authors used a frustration functional MRI (fMRI) paradigm to examine associations between irritability and neural activation and tested the moderating effect of age. METHOD: The authors studied a transdiagnostic sample of 195 youths with varying levels of irritability (disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, N=52; anxiety disorder, N=42; attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, N=40; and healthy volunteers, N=61)...
October 19, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Maria A Sullivan, Adam Bisaga, Martina Pavlicova, Kenneth M Carpenter, C Jean Choi, Kaitlyn Mishlen, Frances R Levin, John J Mariani, Edward V Nunes
OBJECTIVE: The oral formulation of the opioid antagonist naltrexone has shown limited effectiveness for treatment of opioid use disorder due to poor adherence. Long-acting injection naltrexone (XR-naltrexone), administered monthly, circumvents the need for daily pill taking, potentially improving adherence, and has been shown to be superior to placebo in reducing opioid use over 6 months of treatment. This open-label trial compared the outcomes of patients with opioid use disorder treated with XR-naltrexone or oral naltrexone in combination with behavioral therapy...
October 19, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Lori A Zoellner, Peter P Roy-Byrne, Matig Mavissakalian, Norah C Feeny
OBJECTIVE: The authors examined the effect of patient treatment preference on the differential effectiveness of prolonged exposure and sertraline for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). METHOD: In a doubly randomized preference trial, 200 patients with PTSD viewed standardized treatment rationales prior to randomization. Patients were first randomized to choice of treatment or no choice. Those assigned to no choice were then randomized to prolonged exposure or sertraline...
October 19, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Sandra Sanchez-Roige, Abraham A Palmer, Pierre Fontanillas, Sarah L Elson, Mark J Adams, David M Howard, Howard J Edenberg, Gail Davies, Richard C Crist, Ian J Deary, Andrew M McIntosh, Toni-Kim Clarke
OBJECTIVE: Alcohol use disorders are common conditions that have enormous social and economic consequences. Genome-wide association analyses were performed to identify genetic variants associated with a proxy measure of alcohol consumption and alcohol misuse and to explore the shared genetic basis between these measures and other substance use, psychiatric, and behavioral traits. METHOD: This study used quantitative measures from the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) from two population-based cohorts of European ancestry (UK Biobank [N=121,604] and 23andMe [N=20,328]) and performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis...
October 19, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Patsy Di Prinzio, Vera A Morgan, Jonas Björk, Maxine Croft, Ashleigh Lin, Assen Jablensky, Thomas F McNeil
OBJECTIVE: Children of mothers with severe mental illness are at significantly increased risk of developing intellectual disability. Obstetric complications are also implicated in the risk for intellectual disability. Moreover, children of mothers with severe mental illness are more likely to be exposed to obstetric complications. The purpose of this study was to examine the independent and joint contributions of familial severe mental illness and obstetric complications to the risk of intellectual disability...
October 3, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Antígona Martínez, Pablo A Gaspar, Steven A Hillyard, Søren K Andersen, Javier Lopez-Calderon, Cheryl M Corcoran, Daniel C Javitt
OBJECTIVE: The ability to perceive the motion of biological objects, such as faces, is a critical component of daily function and correlates with the ability to successfully navigate social situations (social cognition). Deficits in motion perception in schizophrenia were first demonstrated about 20 years ago but remain understudied, especially in the early, potentially prodromal, stages of the illness. The authors examined the neural bases of visual sensory processing impairments, including motion, in patients with schizophrenia (N=63) and attenuated psychosis (clinical high risk) (N=32) compared with age-matched healthy control subjects (N=67)...
October 3, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Jean-François G Morin, Mohammad H Afzali, Josiane Bourque, Sherry H Stewart, Jean R Séguin, Maeve O'Leary-Barrett, Patricia J Conrod
OBJECTIVE: Alcohol and cannabis misuse are related to impaired cognition. When inferring causality, four nonexclusive theoretical models can account for this association: 1) a common underlying vulnerability model; 2) a neuroplasticity model in which impairment is concurrent with changes in substance use but temporary because of neuroplastic brain processes that restore function; 3) a neurotoxicity model of long-term impairment consequential to substance use; and 4) a developmental sensitivity hypothesis of age-specific effects...
October 3, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Alik S Widge, M Taha Bilge, Rebecca Montana, Weilynn Chang, Carolyn I Rodriguez, Thilo Deckersbach, Linda L Carpenter, Ned H Kalin, Charles B Nemeroff
OBJECTIVE: Reducing unsuccessful treatment trials could improve depression treatment. Quantitative EEG (QEEG) may predict treatment response and is being commercially marketed for this purpose. The authors sought to quantify the reliability of QEEG for response prediction in depressive illness and to identify methodological limitations of the available evidence. METHOD: The authors conducted a meta-analysis of diagnostic accuracy for QEEG in depressive illness, based on articles published between January 2000 and November 2017...
October 3, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Alan S Brown, Urs Meyer
Epidemiologic studies, including prospective birth cohort investigations, have implicated maternal immune activation in the etiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. Maternal infectious pathogens and inflammation are plausible risk factors for these outcomes and have been associated with schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder, and bipolar disorder. Concurrent with epidemiologic research are animal models of prenatal immune activation, which have documented behavioral, neurochemical, neuroanatomic, and neurophysiologic disruptions that mirror phenotypes observed in these neuropsychiatric disorders...
September 17, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Gareth Ball, Charles B Malpas, Sila Genc, Daryl Efron, Emma Sciberras, Vicki Anderson, Jan M Nicholson, Timothy J Silk
OBJECTIVE: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a multifactorial disorder with diverse associated risk factors and comorbidities. In this study, the authors sought to understand ADHD from a dimensional perspective and to identify neuroanatomical correlates of traits and behaviors that span diagnostic criteria. METHODS: Multimodal neuroimaging data and multi-informant cognitive and clinical data were collected in a densely phenotyped pediatric cohort (N=160; 70 with ADHD; age range, 9-12 years)...
September 17, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
A John Rush, Michael E Thase
Specific challenges that profoundly affect the outcome of treatment for depression include 1) patient engagement and retention in care and optimization of treatment adherence, 2) optimization of symptom and side effect control by medication adjustments using measurement-based care procedures, 3) restoration of daily functioning and quality of life, and 4) prevention or at least mitigation of symptomatic relapse or recurrence. According to data from the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression study, some 10%-15% of patients will not return for treatment after an initial thorough evaluation visit; an additional 20%-35% will not complete the first acute-phase treatment step, and another 20%-50% will not complete 6 months of continuation treatment...
September 17, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Tracy L Simpson, Andrew J Saxon, Cynthia Stappenbeck, Carol A Malte, Robert Lyons, Dana Tell, Steven P Millard, Murray Raskind
OBJECTIVE: Current medications for alcohol use disorder do not target brain noradrenergic pathways. Theoretical and preclinical evidence suggests that noradrenergic circuits may be involved in alcohol reinforcement and relapse. After a positive pilot study, the authors tested the α-1 adrenergic receptor antagonist prazosin to treat alcohol use disorder in a larger sample. METHOD: Ninety-two participants with alcohol use disorder but without posttraumatic stress disorder were randomly assigned to receive prazosin or placebo in a 12-week double-blind study...
August 29, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Nolan R Williams, Boris D Heifets, Christine Blasey, Keith Sudheimer, Jaspreet Pannu, Heather Pankow, Jessica Hawkins, Justin Birnbaum, David M Lyons, Carolyn I Rodriguez, Alan F Schatzberg
OBJECTIVE: In addition to N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonism, ketamine produces opioid system activation. The objective of this study was to determine whether opioid receptor antagonism prior to administration of intravenous ketamine attenuates its acute antidepressant or dissociative effects. METHOD: In a proposed double-blind crossover study of 30 adults with treatment-resistant depression, the authors performed a planned interim analysis after studying 14 participants, 12 of whom completed both conditions in randomized order: placebo or 50 mg of naltrexone preceding intravenous infusion of 0...
August 29, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Mark S George
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 29, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Lee S Cohen, Lina Góez-Mogollón, Alexandra Z Sosinsky, Gina M Savella, Adele C Viguera, David Chitayat, Sonia Hernández-Díaz, Marlene P Freeman
OBJECTIVE: Second-generation antipsychotics are commonly prescribed to reproductive-age women for the treatment of a spectrum of psychiatric disorders. Quetiapine is the most commonly prescribed medication in this class, and therefore a better understanding of its reproductive safety profile is critical. The goal of this study was to determine the risk of major malformations among infants exposed to quetiapine during pregnancy compared with a group of infants whose mothers had a history of psychiatric morbidity but who did not use a second-generation antipsychotic during pregnancy...
August 16, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Hélène Vulser, Marie-Laure Paillère Martinot, Eric Artiges, Ruben Miranda, Jani Penttilä, Yvonne Grimmer, Betteke M van Noort, Argyris Stringaris, Maren Struve, Tahmine Fadai, Viola Kappel, Robert Goodman, Eleni Tzavara, Charbel Massaad, Tobias Banaschewski, Gareth J Barker, Arun L W Bokde, Uli Bromberg, Rüdiger Brühl, Christian Büchel, Anna Cattrell, Patricia Conrod, Sylvane Desrivières, Herta Flor, Vincent Frouin, Juergen Gallinat, Hugh Garavan, Penny Gowland, Andreas Heinz, Frauke Nees, Dimitri Papadopoulos-Orfanos, Tomas Paus, Luise Poustka, Sarah Rodehacke, Michael N Smolka, Henrik Walter, Robert Whelan, Gunter Schumann, Jean-Luc Martinot, Hervé Lemaitre
OBJECTIVE: White matter microstructure alterations have recently been associated with depressive episodes during adolescence, but it is unknown whether they predate depression. The authors investigated whether subthreshold depression in adolescence is associated with white matter microstructure variations and whether they relate to depression outcome. METHOD: Adolescents with subthreshold depression (N=96) and healthy control subjects (N=336) drawn from a community-based cohort were compared using diffusion tensor imaging and whole brain tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) at age 14 to assess white matter microstructure...
August 16, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Alan S Brown, Keely Cheslack-Postava, Panu Rantakokko, Hannu Kiviranta, Susanna Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Ian W McKeague, Heljä-Marja Surcel, Andre Sourander
OBJECTIVE: Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder with a largely unknown etiology. To date, few studies have investigated prenatal exposure to toxins and risk of autism by using maternal biomarkers of exposure. Persistent organic pollutants are lipophilic halogenated organic compounds and include the insecticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), as well as its metabolite p,p'-dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The objective of this study was to test whether elevated maternal levels of persistent organic pollutants are associated with autism among offspring...
August 16, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
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