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American Journal of Psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838251/increased-risk-of-smoking-in-female-adolescents-who-had-childhood-adhd
#1
Irene J Elkins, Gretchen R B Saunders, Stephen M Malone, Margaret A Keyes, Diana R Samek, Matt McGue, William G Iacono
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the effects of childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, on the development of smoking in male and female adolescents. METHOD: Twin difference methods were used to control for shared genetic and environmental confounders in three population-based, same-sex twin samples (N=3,762; 64% monozygotic). One cohort oversampled female adolescents with ADHD beginning in childhood...
August 25, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817956/the-role-of-intrinsic-brain-functional-connectivity-in-vulnerability-and-resilience-to-bipolar-disorder
#2
Gaelle E Doucet, Danielle S Bassett, Nailin Yao, David C Glahn, Sophia Frangou
OBJECTIVE: Bipolar disorder is a heritable disorder characterized by mood dysregulation associated with brain functional dysconnectivity. Previous research has focused on the detection of risk- and disease-associated dysconnectivity in individuals with bipolar disorder and their first-degree relatives. The present study seeks to identify adaptive brain connectivity features associated with resilience, defined here as avoidance of illness or delayed illness onset in unaffected siblings of patients with bipolar disorder...
August 18, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817944/tracking-brain-development-and-dimensional-psychiatric-symptoms-in-children-a-longitudinal-population-based-neuroimaging-study
#3
Ryan L Muetzel, Laura M E Blanken, Jan van der Ende, Hanan El Marroun, Philip Shaw, Gustavo Sudre, Aad van der Lugt, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Frank C Verhulst, Henning Tiemeier, Tonya White
OBJECTIVE: Psychiatric symptomatology during childhood predicts persistent mental illness later in life. While neuroimaging methodologies are routinely applied cross-sectionally to the study of child and adolescent psychopathology, the nature of the relationship between childhood symptoms and the underlying neurodevelopmental processes remains unclear. The authors used a prospective population-based cohort to delineate the longitudinal relationship between childhood psychiatric problems and brain development...
August 18, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774194/vulnerability-for-alcohol-use-disorder-and-rate-of-alcohol-consumption
#4
Joshua L Gowin, Matthew E Sloan, Bethany L Stangl, Vatsalya Vatsalya, Vijay A Ramchandani
OBJECTIVE: Although several risk factors have been identified for alcohol use disorder, many individuals with these factors do not go on to develop the disorder. Identifying early phenotypic differences between vulnerable individuals and healthy control subjects could help identify those at higher risk. Binge drinking, defined as reaching a blood alcohol level of 80 mg%, carries a risk of negative legal and health outcomes and may be an early marker of vulnerability. Using a carefully controlled experimental paradigm, the authors tested the hypothesis that risk factors for alcohol use disorder, including family history of alcoholism, male sex, impulsivity, and low level of response to alcohol, would predict rate of binging during an individual alcohol consumption session...
August 4, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774193/declining-clinical-course-of-psychotic-disorders-over-the-two-decades-following-first-hospitalization-evidence-from-the-suffolk-county-mental-health-project
#5
Roman Kotov, Laura Fochtmann, Kaiqiao Li, Marsha Tanenberg-Karant, Eduardo A Constantino, Joan Rubinstein, Greg Perlman, Eva Velthorst, Anne-Kathrin J Fett, Gabrielle Carlson, Evelyn J Bromet
OBJECTIVE: Kraepelin considered declining course a hallmark of schizophrenia, but others have suggested that outcomes usually stabilize or improve after treatment initiation. The authors investigated this question in an epidemiologically defined cohort with psychotic disorders followed for 20 years after first hospitalization. METHOD: The Suffolk County Mental Health Project recruited first-admission patients with psychosis from all inpatient units of Suffolk County, New York (response rate, 72%)...
August 4, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774192/cortical-functional-connectivity-evident-after-birth-and-behavioral-inhibition-at-age-2
#6
Chad M Sylvester, Christopher D Smyser, Tara Smyser, Jeanette Kenley, Joseph J Ackerman, Joshua S Shimony, Steve E Petersen, Cynthia E Rogers
OBJECTIVE: The infant temperament behavioral inhibition is a potent risk factor for development of an anxiety disorder. It is difficult to predict risk for behavioral inhibition at birth, however, and the neural underpinnings are poorly understood. The authors hypothesized that neonatal functional connectivity of the ventral attention network is related to behavioral inhibition at age 2 years beyond sociodemographic and familial factors. This hypothesis is supported by the ventral attention network's role in attention to novelty, a key feature of behavioral inhibition...
August 4, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750583/association-of-a-history-of-child-abuse-with-impaired-myelination-in-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex-convergent-epigenetic-transcriptional-and-morphological-evidence
#7
Pierre-Eric Lutz, Arnaud Tanti, Alicja Gasecka, Sarah Barnett-Burns, John J Kim, Yi Zhou, Gang G Chen, Marina Wakid, Meghan Shaw, Daniel Almeida, Marc-Aurele Chay, Jennie Yang, Vanessa Larivière, Marie-Noël M'Boutchou, Léon C van Kempen, Volodymyr Yerko, Josée Prud'homme, Maria Antonietta Davoli, Kathryn Vaillancourt, Jean-François Théroux, Alexandre Bramoullé, Tie-Yuan Zhang, Michael J Meaney, Carl Ernst, Daniel Côté, Naguib Mechawar, Gustavo Turecki
OBJECTIVE: Child abuse has devastating and long-lasting consequences, considerably increasing the lifetime risk of negative mental health outcomes such as depression and suicide. Yet the neurobiological processes underlying this heightened vulnerability remain poorly understood. The authors investigated the hypothesis that epigenetic, transcriptomic, and cellular adaptations may occur in the anterior cingulate cortex as a function of child abuse. METHOD: Postmortem brain samples from human subjects (N=78) and from a rodent model of the impact of early-life environment (N=24) were analyzed...
July 28, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750582/efficacy-and-safety-of-min-101-a-12-week-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial-of-a-new-drug-in-development-for-the-treatment-of-negative-symptoms-in-schizophrenia
#8
Michael Davidson, Jay Saoud, Corinne Staner, Nadine Noel, Elisabeth Luthringer, Sandra Werner, Joseph Reilly, Jean-Yves Schaffhauser, Jonathan Rabinowitz, Mark Weiser, Remy Luthringer
OBJECTIVE: The authors assessed the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of MIN-101, a compound with affinities for sigma-2 and 5-HT2A receptors and no direct dopamine affinities, in comparison with placebo in treating negative symptoms in stabilized patients with schizophrenia. METHOD: The trial enrolled 244 patients who had been symptomatically stable for at least 3 months and had scores of at least 20 on the negative subscale of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS)...
July 28, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750581/rare-genome-wide-copy-number-variation-and-expression-of-schizophrenia-in-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome
#9
Anne S Bassett, Chelsea Lowther, Daniele Merico, Gregory Costain, Eva W C Chow, Therese van Amelsvoort, Donna McDonald-McGinn, Raquel E Gur, Ann Swillen, Marianne Van den Bree, Kieran Murphy, Doron Gothelf, Carrie E Bearden, Stephan Eliez, Wendy Kates, Nicole Philip, Vandana Sashi, Linda Campbell, Jacob Vorstman, Joseph Cubells, Gabriela M Repetto, Tony Simon, Erik Boot, Tracy Heung, Rens Evers, Claudia Vingerhoets, Esther van Duin, Elaine Zackai, Elfi Vergaelen, Koen Devriendt, Joris R Vermeesch, Michael Owen, Clodagh Murphy, Elena Michaelovosky, Leila Kushan, Maude Schneider, Wanda Fremont, Tiffany Busa, Stephen Hooper, Kathryn McCabe, Sasja Duijff, Karin Isaev, Giovanna Pellecchia, John Wei, Matthew J Gazzellone, Stephen W Scherer, Beverly S Emanuel, Tingwei Guo, Bernice E Morrow, Christian R Marshall
OBJECTIVE: Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is associated with a more than 20-fold increased risk for developing schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to identify additional genetic factors (i.e., "second hits") that may contribute to schizophrenia expression. METHOD: Through an international consortium, the authors obtained DNA samples from 329 psychiatrically phenotyped subjects with 22q11.2DS. Using a high-resolution microarray platform and established methods to assess copy number variation (CNV), the authors compared the genome-wide burden of rare autosomal CNV, outside of the 22q11...
July 28, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750580/mortality-and-self-harm-in-association-with-clozapine-in-treatment-resistant-schizophrenia
#10
Theresa Wimberley, James H MacCabe, Thomas M Laursen, Holger J Sørensen, Aske Astrup, Henriette T Horsdal, Christiane Gasse, Henrik Støvring
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated rates of all-cause mortality and self-harm in association with clozapine treatment in individuals with treatment-resistant schizophrenia. METHOD: A population-based cohort of 2,370 individuals with treatment-resistant schizophrenia after Jan. 1, 1996, was followed until death, first episode of self-harm, emigration, or June 1, 2013. Time to all-cause death and time to first episode of self-harm were analyzed in Cox regression models with time-varying treatment, adjusted for clinical and sociodemographic covariates...
July 28, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715908/ptsd-psychotherapy-outcome-predicted-by-brain-activation-during-emotional-reactivity-and-regulation
#11
Gregory A Fonzo, Madeleine S Goodkind, Desmond J Oathes, Yevgeniya V Zaiko, Meredith Harvey, Kathy K Peng, M Elizabeth Weiss, Allison L Thompson, Sanno E Zack, Steven E Lindley, Bruce A Arnow, Booil Jo, James J Gross, Barbara O Rothbaum, Amit Etkin
OBJECTIVE: Exposure therapy is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but many patients do not respond. Brain functions governing treatment outcome are not well characterized. The authors examined brain systems relevant to emotional reactivity and regulation, constructs that are thought to be central to PTSD and exposure therapy effects, to identify the functional traits of individuals most likely to benefit from treatment. METHOD: Individuals with PTSD underwent functional MRI (fMRI) while completing three tasks assessing emotional reactivity and regulation...
July 18, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715907/selective-effects-of-psychotherapy-on-frontopolar-cortical-function-in-ptsd
#12
Gregory A Fonzo, Madeleine S Goodkind, Desmond J Oathes, Yevgeniya V Zaiko, Meredith Harvey, Kathy K Peng, M Elizabeth Weiss, Allison L Thompson, Sanno E Zack, Colleen E Mills-Finnerty, Benjamin M Rosenberg, Raleigh Edelstein, Rachael N Wright, Carena A Kole, Steven E Lindley, Bruce A Arnow, Booil Jo, James J Gross, Barbara O Rothbaum, Amit Etkin
OBJECTIVE: Exposure therapy is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but a comprehensive, emotion-focused perspective on how psychotherapy affects brain function is lacking. The authors assessed changes in brain function after prolonged exposure therapy across three emotional reactivity and regulation paradigms. METHOD: Individuals with PTSD underwent functional MRI (fMRI) at rest and while completing three tasks assessing emotional reactivity and regulation...
July 18, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859514/books-received
#13
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859513/correction
#14
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859512/new-genetic-discoveries-in-anorexia-nervosa-implications-for-the-field
#15
Pamela B Mahon, Thomas B Hildebrandt, Katherine E Burdick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859511/why-are-innovative-drugs-failing-in-phase-iii
#16
Stephen R Marder, Thomas Laughren, Steven J Romano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859510/on-the-road-to-physiological-models-of-brain-function-in-adhd
#17
Francisco X Castellanos, Shereen E Elmaghrabi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859509/tele-operating-an-android-robot-to-promote-the-understanding-of-facial-expressions-and-to-increase-facial-expressivity-in-individuals-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#18
Hirokazu Kumazaki, Taro Muramatsu, Yuichiro Yoshikawa, Yoshio Matsumoto, Masutomo Miyao, Hiroshi Ishiguro, Masaru Mimura, Yoshio Minabe, Mitsuru Kikuchi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859508/an-unexpected-sight-in-the-rearview-mirror
#19
Lawrence D Blum
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859507/association-between-low-barometric-pressure-and-completed-suicides
#20
Rif S El-Mallakh, Kanwar Brar, Claire Watkins, Sharon Nuss, Stephen S O'Connor, Yonglin Gao, Jesse H Wright
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
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