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American Journal of Psychiatry

Valentina Escott-Price, Antonio F Pardiñas, Enrique Santiago, James Walters, George Kirov, Michael J Owen, Michael C O'Donovan
OBJECTIVE: Schizophrenia is associated with a marked reduction in reproductive success, yet alleles that are common contribute substantially to the liability of the disorder. Among several possible explanations for this, it has been postulated that individuals who carry risk alleles but are unaffected are at some reproductive advantage, offsetting the effects of negative selection among those who are affected. The authors sought to test this hypothesis, isolating the effects of risk alleles on fecundity from the effects that are contingent on expressing schizophrenia...
January 4, 2019: American Journal of Psychiatry
Sarah W Yip, Dustin Scheinost, Marc N Potenza, Kathleen M Carroll
OBJECTIVE: The authors sought to identify a brain-based predictor of cocaine abstinence by using connectome-based predictive modeling (CPM), a recently developed machine learning approach. CPM is a predictive tool and a method of identifying networks that underlie specific behaviors ("neural fingerprints"). METHODS: Fifty-three individuals participated in neuroimaging protocols at the start of treatment for cocaine use disorder, and again at the end of 12 weeks of treatment...
January 4, 2019: American Journal of Psychiatry
Leah S Richmond-Rakerd, Avshalom Caspi, Louise Arseneault, Jessie R Baldwin, Andrea Danese, Renate M Houts, Timothy Matthews, Jasmin Wertz, Terrie E Moffitt
OBJECTIVE: Self-harm is associated with violent offending. However, little is known about young people who engage in "dual-harm" behavior. The authors investigated antecedents, clinical features, and life characteristics distinguishing dual-harming adolescents from those who self-harm only. METHODS: Participants were from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally representative U.K. cohort of 2,232 twins born in 1994 and 1995...
January 4, 2019: American Journal of Psychiatry
Laura E Kwako, Melanie L Schwandt, Vijay A Ramchandani, Nancy Diazgranados, George F Koob, Nora D Volkow, Carlos Blanco, David Goldman
OBJECTIVE: The authors evaluated whether three neurofunctional domains proposed to be critical in the addiction cycle, namely, incentive salience, negative emotionality, and executive function, could be identified through factor analysis of a deeply phenotyped clinical sample. METHODS: Clinical, behavioral, and self-report measures of addiction, personality, cognition, behavior, and exposure to early-life stress were collected as part of a screening and natural history study of alcohol use disorders in 454 individuals representing the spectrum of alcohol use and use disorders...
January 4, 2019: American Journal of Psychiatry
Satoshi Deyama, Eunyoung Bang, Eric S Wohleb, Xiao-Yuan Li, Taro Kato, Danielle M Gerhard, Sophie Dutheil, Jason M Dwyer, Seth R Taylor, Marina R Picciotto, Ronald S Duman
OBJECTIVE: The N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist ketamine produces rapid and sustained antidepressant actions even in patients with treatment-resistant depression. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been implicated in the effects of conventional monoamine-based antidepressants, but the role of VEGF in the rapid antidepressant actions of ketamine remains unclear. The authors examined whether neuronal VEGF signaling in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) mediates the rapid antidepressant actions of ketamine...
January 4, 2019: American Journal of Psychiatry
Colin Hawco, Robert W Buchanan, Navona Calarco, Benoit H Mulsant, Joseph D Viviano, Erin W Dickie, Miklos Argyelan, James M Gold, Marco Iacoboni, Pamela DeRosse, George Foussias, Anil K Malhotra, Aristotle N Voineskos
OBJECTIVE: Case-control study design and disease heterogeneity may impede biomarker discovery in brain disorders, including serious mental illnesses. To identify biologically and/or behaviorally driven as opposed to diagnostically driven subgroups of individuals, the authors used hierarchical clustering to identify individuals with similar patterns of brain activity during a facial imitate/observe functional MRI task. METHODS: Participants in the Social Processes Initiative in Neurobiology of the Schizophrenia(s) study (N=179; 109 with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder and 70 healthy control participants) underwent MRI scanning at three sites...
January 4, 2019: American Journal of Psychiatry
Anne Duffy, Sarah Goodday, Charles Keown-Stoneman, Paul Grof
OBJECTIVE: The authors sought to describe the emergent course of bipolar disorder in offspring of affected parents subgrouped by parental response to lithium prophylaxis. METHODS: Parent bipolar disorder was confirmed by the best-estimate procedure and lithium response by research protocol. High-risk offspring (N=279) and control subjects (N=87) were blindly assessed, annually on average, with the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime version or the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Lifetime version...
December 11, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Nicole Tay, Christine Macare, Yun Liu, Barbara Ruggeri, Tianye Jia, Congying Chu, Francesca Biondo, Alex Ing, Qiang Luo, Daniil Sarkysian, Tobias Banaschewski, Gareth J Barker, Arun L W Bokde, Uli Bromberg, Christian Büchel, Erin Burke Quinlan, Sylvane Desrivières, Herta Flor, Vincent Frouin, Hugh Garavan, Penny Gowland, Andreas Heinz, Bernd Ittermann, Jean-Luc Martinot, Eric Artiges, Frauke Nees, Dimitri Papadopoulos Orfanos, Tomáš Paus, Luise Poustka, Sarah Hohmann, Juliane H Fröhner, Michael N Smolka, Henrik Walter, Robert Whelan, Helge Frieling, Stefan Bleich, Edward D Barker, Ann-Christine Syvänen, Joëlle Rüegg, Tomas J Ekström, Georgy Bakalkin, Gunter Schumann
OBJECTIVE: Psychosocial stress is a key risk factor for substance abuse among adolescents. Recently, epigenetic processes such as DNA methylation have emerged as potential mechanisms that could mediate this relationship. The authors conducted a genome-wide methylation analysis to investigate whether differentially methylated regions are associated with psychosocial stress in an adolescent population. METHODS: A methylome-wide analysis of differentially methylated regions was used to examine a sample of 1,287 14-year-old adolescents (50...
December 11, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Silvan Licher, Maarten J G Leening, Pinar Yilmaz, Frank J Wolters, Jan Heeringa, Patrick J E Bindels, Meike W Vernooij, Blossom C M Stephan, Ewout W Steyerberg, M Kamran Ikram, M Arfan Ikram
OBJECTIVE: Identification of individuals at high risk of dementia is essential for development of prevention strategies, but reliable tools are lacking for risk stratification in the population. The authors developed and validated a prediction model to calculate the 10-year absolute risk of developing dementia in an aging population. METHODS: In a large, prospective population-based cohort, data were collected on demographic, clinical, neuropsychological, genetic, and neuroimaging parameters from 2,710 nondemented individuals age 60 or older, examined between 1995 and 2011...
December 11, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Lucy Riglin, Gemma Hammerton, Jon Heron, Stephan Collishaw, Louise Arseneault, Ajay K Thapar, Barbara Maughan, Michael C O'Donovan, Anita Thapar
OBJECTIVE: Twin studies suggest that genetic factors contribute to continuity in mental health problems and that environmental factors are the major contributor to developmental change. The authors investigated the influence of psychiatric risk alleles on early-onset mental health trajectories and whether the trajectories were subsequently modified by exposure to childhood victimization. METHODS: The sample was a prospective U.K. population-based cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children...
November 29, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Alexis C Edwards, Henrik Ohlsson, Dace S Svikis, Jan Sundquist, Kristina Sundquist, Kenneth S Kendler
OBJECTIVE: The authors sought to clarify the etiology of the association between pregnancy and reduced risk of alcohol use disorder. METHODS: The authors used data from longitudinal population-wide Swedish medical, pharmacy, and criminal registries to evaluate whether rates of alcohol use disorder are lower during pregnancy. They compared pregnant women born between 1975 and 1992 (N=322,029) with matched population controls, with female relatives discordant for pregnancy, and with pre- and postpregnancy periods within individuals...
November 29, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Sarah E Bergen, Alexander Ploner, Daniel Howrigan, Michael C O'Donovan, Jordan W Smoller, Patrick F Sullivan, Jonathan Sebat, Benjamin Neale, Kenneth S Kendler
OBJECTIVE: Both rare copy number variants (CNVs) and common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) contribute to liability to schizophrenia, but their etiological relationship has not been fully elucidated. The authors evaluated an additive model whereby risk of schizophrenia requires less contribution from common SNPs in the presence of a rare CNV, and tested for interactions. METHOD: Genetic data from 21,094 case subjects with schizophrenia and 20,227 control subjects from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium were examined...
November 5, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Jian-Ping Zhang, Delbert Robinson, Jin Yu, Juan Gallego, W Wolfgang Fleischhacker, Rene S Kahn, Benedicto Crespo-Facorro, Javier Vazquez-Bourgon, John M Kane, Anil K Malhotra, Todd Lencz
OBJECTIVE: Pharmacogenomic studies of antipsychotics have typically examined effects of individual polymorphisms. By contrast, polygenic risk scores (PRSs) derived from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) can quantify the influence of thousands of common alleles of small effect in a single measure. The authors examined whether PRSs for schizophrenia were predictive of antipsychotic efficacy in four independent cohorts of patients with first-episode psychosis (total N=510). METHOD: All study subjects received initial treatment with antipsychotic medication for first-episode psychosis, and all were genotyped on standard single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays imputed to the 1000 Genomes Project reference panel...
November 5, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Scott Mackey, Nicholas Allgaier, Bader Chaarani, Philip Spechler, Catherine Orr, Janice Bunn, Nicholas B Allen, Nelly Alia-Klein, Albert Batalla, Sara Blaine, Samantha Brooks, Elisabeth Caparelli, Yann Ying Chye, Janna Cousijn, Alain Dagher, Sylvane Desrivieres, Sarah Feldstein-Ewing, John J Foxe, Rita Z Goldstein, Anna E Goudriaan, Mary M Heitzeg, Robert Hester, Kent Hutchison, Ozlem Korucuoglu, Chiang-Shan R Li, Edythe London, Valentina Lorenzetti, Maartje Luijten, Rocio Martin-Santos, April May, Reza Momenan, Angelica Morales, Martin P Paulus, Godfrey Pearlson, Marc-Etienne Rousseau, Betty Jo Salmeron, Renée Schluter, Lianne Schmaal, Gunter Schumann, Zsuzsika Sjoerds, Dan J Stein, Elliot A Stein, Rajita Sinha, Nadia Solowij, Susan Tapert, Anne Uhlmann, Dick Veltman, Ruth van Holst, Sarah Whittle, Margaret J Wright, Murat Yücel, Sheng Zhang, Deborah Yurgelun-Todd, Derrek P Hibar, Neda Jahanshad, Alan Evans, Paul M Thompson, David C Glahn, Patricia Conrod, Hugh Garavan
OBJECTIVE: Although lower brain volume has been routinely observed in individuals with substance dependence compared with nondependent control subjects, the brain regions exhibiting lower volume have not been consistent across studies. In addition, it is not clear whether a common set of regions are involved in substance dependence regardless of the substance used or whether some brain volume effects are substance specific. Resolution of these issues may contribute to the identification of clinically relevant imaging biomarkers...
October 19, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Wan-Ling Tseng, Christen M Deveney, Joel Stoddard, Katharina Kircanski, Anna E Frackman, Jennifer Y Yi, Derek Hsu, Elizabeth Moroney, Laura Machlin, Laura Donahue, Alexandra Roule, Gretchen Perhamus, Richard C Reynolds, Roxann Roberson-Nay, John M Hettema, Kenneth E Towbin, Argyris Stringaris, Daniel S Pine, Melissa A Brotman, Ellen Leibenluft
OBJECTIVE: Childhood irritability is a common, impairing problem with changing age-related manifestations that predict long-term adverse outcomes. However, more investigation of overall and age-specific neural correlates is needed. Because youths with irritability exhibit exaggerated responses to frustrating stimuli, the authors used a frustration functional MRI (fMRI) paradigm to examine associations between irritability and neural activation and tested the moderating effect of age. METHOD: The authors studied a transdiagnostic sample of 195 youths with varying levels of irritability (disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, N=52; anxiety disorder, N=42; attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, N=40; and healthy volunteers, N=61)...
October 19, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Maria A Sullivan, Adam Bisaga, Martina Pavlicova, Kenneth M Carpenter, C Jean Choi, Kaitlyn Mishlen, Frances R Levin, John J Mariani, Edward V Nunes
OBJECTIVE: The oral formulation of the opioid antagonist naltrexone has shown limited effectiveness for treatment of opioid use disorder due to poor adherence. Long-acting injection naltrexone (XR-naltrexone), administered monthly, circumvents the need for daily pill taking, potentially improving adherence, and has been shown to be superior to placebo in reducing opioid use over 6 months of treatment. This open-label trial compared the outcomes of patients with opioid use disorder treated with XR-naltrexone or oral naltrexone in combination with behavioral therapy...
October 19, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Lori A Zoellner, Peter P Roy-Byrne, Matig Mavissakalian, Norah C Feeny
OBJECTIVE: The authors examined the effect of patient treatment preference on the differential effectiveness of prolonged exposure and sertraline for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). METHOD: In a doubly randomized preference trial, 200 patients with PTSD viewed standardized treatment rationales prior to randomization. Patients were first randomized to choice of treatment or no choice. Those assigned to no choice were then randomized to prolonged exposure or sertraline...
October 19, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Sandra Sanchez-Roige, Abraham A Palmer, Pierre Fontanillas, Sarah L Elson, Mark J Adams, David M Howard, Howard J Edenberg, Gail Davies, Richard C Crist, Ian J Deary, Andrew M McIntosh, Toni-Kim Clarke
OBJECTIVE: Alcohol use disorders are common conditions that have enormous social and economic consequences. Genome-wide association analyses were performed to identify genetic variants associated with a proxy measure of alcohol consumption and alcohol misuse and to explore the shared genetic basis between these measures and other substance use, psychiatric, and behavioral traits. METHOD: This study used quantitative measures from the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) from two population-based cohorts of European ancestry (UK Biobank [N=121,604] and 23andMe [N=20,328]) and performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis...
October 19, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
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January 1, 2019: American Journal of Psychiatry
Jari Tiihonen, Antti Tanskanen, Heidi Taipale
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
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