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American Journal of Public Health

Mohammad Y Yakoob, Renata Micha, Shahab Khatibzadeh, Gitanjali M Singh, Peilin Shi, Habibul Ahsan, Nagalla Balakrishna, Ginnela N V Brahmam, Yu Chen, Ashkan Afshin, Saman Fahimi, Goodarz Danaei, John W Powles, Majid Ezzati, Dariush Mozaffarian
OBJECTIVES: To quantify cardiovascular disease and diabetes deaths attributable to dietary and metabolic risks by country, age, sex, and time in South Asian countries. METHODS: We used the 2010 Global Burden of Disease national surveys to characterize risk factor levels by age and sex. We derived etiological effects of risk factors-disease endpoints, by age, from meta-analyses. We defined optimal levels. We combined these inputs with cause-specific mortality rates to compute population-attributable fractions as a percentage of total cardiometabolic deaths...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Public Health
Sandi Rowland, Jonathon P Leider, Clare Davidson, Joanne Brady, Alana Knudson
OBJECTIVES: To characterize the expansion of a community dental access program (CDP) in rural Maryland providing urgent dental care to low-income individuals, as well as the CDP's impact on dental-related visits to a regional emergency department (ED). METHODS: We used de-identified CDP and ED claims data to construct a data set of weekly counts of CDP visits and dental-related ED visits among Maryland adults. A time series model examined the association over time between visits to the CDP and ED visits for fiscal years (FYs) 2011 through 2015...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Public Health
Charles C Branas, Michelle C Kondo, Sean M Murphy, Eugenia C South, Daniel Polsky, John M MacDonald
OBJECTIVES: To determine if blight remediation of abandoned buildings and vacant lots can be a cost-beneficial solution to firearm violence in US cities. METHODS: We performed quasi-experimental analyses of the impacts and economic returns on investment of urban blight remediation programs involving 5112 abandoned buildings and vacant lots on the occurrence of firearm and nonfirearm violence in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, from 1999 to 2013. We adjusted before-after percent changes and returns on investment in treated versus control groups for sociodemographic factors...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Public Health
Kathleen P Conte, Michelle C Odden, Natalie M Linton, S Marie Harvey
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of Walk With Ease (WWE), an evidence-based arthritis self-management program that was scaled up in Oregon in 2012 to 2014. METHODS: Guided by the RE-AIM (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance) framework, we collected participant surveys and attendance records and conducted observations. Preprogram and postprogram, participants self-reported pain and fatigue (scale: 0-10 points; high scores indicate more pain and fatigue) and estimated episodes of physical activity per week in the last month...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Public Health
Matthew Cushing, Jonathan Hooshmand, Bryan Pomares, Gillian Hotz
Inspired by Swedish legislation, Vision Zero policies are being adopted in the United States with increasing frequency. Although some view the goal of eliminating serious injury and death on the road system as impractical, Sweden's lower rates of road-related injury and death provide compelling evidence that more can be done to improve US cycling safety. We examine existing Vision Zero and cycling-related literature to highlight the central components of the Swedish policy, with the goal of providing evidence-based recommendations for successful implementation of similar policies in the United States...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Public Health
Timothy F Leslie, Erica J Street, Paul L Delamater, Y Tony Yang, Kathryn H Jacobsen
OBJECTIVES: To compile substate-level data on US school-age children's vaccination rates. METHODS: For states that did not have suitable data online, in 2015 we submitted information requests to the state health department and followed up with the state's Freedom of Information Act when necessary. RESULTS: The accessibility, scale, and types of vaccination data varied considerably. Whereas 26 states provided data online, 14 released data only after a Freedom of Information Act request...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Public Health
Brittany M Charlton, Heather L Corliss, Donna Spiegelman, Kerry Williams, S Bryn Austin
OBJECTIVES: To compare changes in self-reported sexual orientation of women living in states with any recognition of same-sex relationships (e.g., hospital visitation, domestic partnerships) with those of women living in states without such recognition. METHODS: We calculated the likelihood of women in the Nurses' Health Study II (n = 69 790) changing their reported sexual orientation between 1995 and 2009. RESULTS: We used data from the Nurses' Health Study II and found that living in a state with same-sex relationship recognition was associated with changing one's reported sexual orientation, particularly from heterosexual to sexual minority...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Public Health
Dianne Rios, Susan Magasi, Catherine Novak, Mark Harniss
People with disabilities are largely absent from mainstream health research. Exclusion of people with disabilities may be explicit, attributable to poorly justified exclusion criteria, or implicit, attributable to inaccessible study documents, interventions, or research measures. Meanwhile, people with disabilities experience poorer health, greater incidence of chronic conditions, and higher health care expenditure than people without disabilities. We outline our approach to "accessible research design"-research accessible to and inclusive of people with disabilities...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Public Health
Raj Chetty, David Cutler, Michael Stepner
Earlier this year, the three of us, along with several colleagues, published new research on the relationship between income and life expectancy in the United States, drawing on population-level data drawn from tax and Social Security records.(1) As part of that research, we created new, publicly available data sets with estimates of (1) life expectancy at age 40 years by gender, area (county and commuting zone), income level, and year (2001-2014); and (2) estimates of mortality rates by age (≥ 40 years), gender, area, income level, and year...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Public Health
Christopher Hartmann
Several Latin American countries are implementing a suite of so-called "postneoliberal" social and political economic policies to counter neoliberal models that emerged in the 1980s. This article considers the influence of postneoliberalism on public health discourses, policies, institutions, and practices in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Venezuela. Social medicine and neoliberal public health models are antecedents of postneoliberal public health care models. Postneoliberal public health governance models neither fully incorporate social medicine nor completely reject neoliberal models...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Public Health
Bernadet Garcia-Silva, Eric Handler, Julia Wolfe
Food insecurity is a global issue that arises owing to systemic socioeconomic inequities and environmental constraints. To highlight the existence and the extent of food insecurity and food waste, the Orange County Health Department in Orange County, California, created a coalition called "Waste Not Orange County." Orange County is the sixth most populous county in California and has the highest median income, yet 11.4% of those residing in Orange County are food insecure, and 24.0% live in poverty. The overall vision of the coalition is to mitigate hunger in Orange County by educating the community about food donations, identifying food-insecure individuals, and connecting those individuals to sources of food...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Public Health
Elaine W Flagg, Elizabeth A Torrone, Hillard Weinstock
OBJECTIVES: To examine prevalence of low- and high-grade cervical lesions over time in a large cohort of US female adolescents and women. METHODS: We used health care claims data from 9 million privately insured female patients aged 15 to 39 years to estimate annual prevalence of cytologically detected cervical low-grade (LSIL) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) and high-grade histologically detected cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades 2 and 3 (CIN2+) during 2007 through 2014...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Public Health
Sharrelle Barber, DeMarc A Hickson, Xu Wang, Mario Sims, Cheryl Nelson, Ana V Diez-Roux
OBJECTIVES: To examine the impact of neighborhood conditions resulting from racial residential segregation on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in a socioeconomically diverse African American sample. METHODS: The study included 4096 African American women (n = 2652) and men (n = 1444) aged 21 to 93 years from the Jackson Heart Study (Jackson, Mississippi; 2000-2011). We assessed neighborhood disadvantage with a composite measure of 8 indicators from the 2000 US Census...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Public Health
Adolfo G Cuevas, Beverly Araujo Dawson, David R Williams
We examined 22 articles to compare Black Latinos/as' with White Latinos/as' health and highlight findings and limitations in the literature. We searched 1153 abstracts, from the earliest on record to those available in 2016. We organized the articles into domains grounded on a framework that incorporates the effects of race on Latinos/as' health and well-being: health and well-being, immigration, psychosocial factors, and contextual factors. Most studies in this area are limited by self-reported measures of health status, inconsistent use of race and skin color measures, and omission of a wider range of immigration-related and contextual factors...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Public Health
Pooja K Mehta, Marcus A Bachhuber, Roy Hoffman, Sindhu K Srinivas
OBJECTIVES: To understand the effect of unintentional injuries (e.g., drug overdose), suicide, and homicide on pregnancy-associated death (death during or within 1 year of pregnancy). METHODS: We analyzed all cases of pregnancy-associated death among Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, residents from 2010 to 2014, examining cause of death, contributing factors, and history of health care use. RESULTS: Approximately half (49%; 42 of 85) of pregnancy-associated deaths were from unintentional injuries (n = 31), homicide (n = 8), or suicide (n = 3); drug overdose was the leading cause (n = 18)...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Public Health
Kevin Khamarko, Mi-Suk Kang Dufour, Sara Bodach, Janet J Myers
OBJECTIVES: To examine the extent to which the AIDS Education and Training Centers (AETCs) are increasing the number and racial/ethnic diversity of HIV medical providers, in accordance with the US National HIV/AIDS Strategy (NHAS). METHODS: We used administrative data from funding year 2012-2013 to describe AETC trainee characteristics, including the types of medical providers trained, compared with national estimates of available US medical providers to estimate the proportion of providers trained for every 1000 available providers by professional group and race/ethnicity...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Public Health
Felipe E Pedroso, Federico Angriman, Alexandra L Bellows, Kathryn Taylor
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate changes in bicycle use and cyclist safety in Boston, Massachusetts, following the rapid expansion of its bicycle infrastructure between 2007 and 2014. METHODS: We measured bicycle lane mileage, a surrogate for bicycle infrastructure expansion, and quantified total estimated number of commuters. In addition, we calculated the number of reported bicycle accidents from 2009 to 2012. Bicycle accident and injury trends over time were assessed via generalized linear models...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Public Health
Mary F Cwik, Lauren Tingey, Alexandra Maschino, Novalene Goklish, Francene Larzelere-Hinton, John Walkup, Allison Barlow
OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the impact of a comprehensive, multitiered youth suicide prevention program among the White Mountain Apache of Arizona since its implementation in 2006. METHODS: Using data from the tribally mandated Celebrating Life surveillance system, we compared the rates, numbers, and characteristics of suicide deaths and attempts from 2007 to 2012 with those from 2001 to 2006. RESULTS: The overall Apache suicide death rates dropped from 40...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Public Health
Lauren A Lambert, Lori R Armstrong, Mark N Lobato, Christine Ho, Anne Marie France, Maryam B Haddad
OBJECTIVES: To describe cases and estimate the annual incidence of tuberculosis in correctional facilities. METHODS: We analyzed 2002 to 2013 National Tuberculosis Surveillance System case reports to characterize individuals who were employed or incarcerated in correctional facilities at time they were diagnosed with tuberculosis. Incidence was estimated with Bureau of Justice Statistics denominators. RESULTS: Among 299 correctional employees with tuberculosis, 171 (57%) were US-born and 82 (27%) were female...
September 15, 2016: American Journal of Public Health
Peter J Neumann, Megan Farquhar, Colby L Wilkinson, Mackenzie Lowry, Marthe Gold
OBJECTIVES: To examine the extent to which recently published cost-utility analyses (cost-effectiveness analyses using quality-adjusted life-years to measure health benefits) have covered the leading health concerns in the US Department of Health and Human Services Healthy People 2020 report. METHODS: We examined data in the Tufts Medical Center Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Registry, a database containing 5000 published cost-utility analyses published in the MEDLINE literature through 2014...
September 15, 2016: American Journal of Public Health
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