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American Journal of Public Health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644037/lower-risk-cannabis-use-guidelines-a-comprehensive-update-of-evidence-and-recommendations
#1
Benedikt Fischer, Cayley Russell, Pamela Sabioni, Wim van den Brink, Bernard Le Foll, Wayne Hall, Jürgen Rehm, Robin Room
BACKGROUND: Cannabis use is common in North America, especially among young people, and is associated with a risk of various acute and chronic adverse health outcomes. Cannabis control regimes are evolving, for example toward a national legalization policy in Canada, with the aim to improve public health, and thus require evidence-based interventions. As cannabis-related health outcomes may be influenced by behaviors that are modifiable by the user, evidence-based Lower-Risk Cannabis Use Guidelines (LRCUG)-akin to similar guidelines in other health fields-offer a valuable, targeted prevention tool to improve public health outcomes...
June 23, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640689/deciphering-suicide-and-other-manners-of-death-associated-with-drug-intoxication-a-centers-for-disease-control-and-prevention-consultation-meeting-summary
#2
Deborah M Stone, Kristin M Holland, Brad Bartholow, Joseph Logan, Wendy LiKamWa McIntosh, Aimee Trudeau, Ian R H Rockett
Manner of death (MOD) classification (i.e., natural, accident, suicide, homicide, or undetermined cause) affects mortality surveillance and public health research, policy, and practice. Determination of MOD in deaths caused by drug intoxication is challenging, with marked variability across states. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention hosted a multidisciplinary meeting to discuss drug intoxication deaths as they relate to suicide and other MOD. The meeting objectives were to identify individual-level, system-level, and place-based factors affecting MOD classification and identify potential solutions to classification barriers...
June 22, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640688/unintentional-poisoning-in-china-1990-to-2015-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#3
Yumeng Tang, Lan Zhang, Jingju Pan, Qingjun Zhang, Tianjing He, Zeni Wu, Jian Zhan, Qian Li
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the unintentional poisoning burden and risk factors in China from 1990 to 2015. METHODS: We extracted data from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015 to compare mortality, prevalence, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), years of life lost, years lived with a disability, and risk factors of unintentional poisoning in China. We determined the median of the percent change and 95% uncertainty interval for the period between 1990 and 2015...
June 22, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640687/dust-exposure-and-coccidioidomycosis-prevention-among-solar-power-farm-construction-workers-in-california
#4
Gail L Sondermeyer Cooksey, Jason A Wilken, Jennifer McNary, Debra Gilliss, Dennis Shusterman, Barbara L Materna, Duc J Vugia
OBJECTIVES: To investigate if work activities, dust exposure, and protection measures were associated with a 2011 to 2014 coccidioidomycosis outbreak among workers constructing 2 solar farms in California. METHODS: In 2013, we mailed self-administered questionnaires to employees who were onsite at the solar farms where the outbreak occurred to identify cases of clinical coccidioidomycosis and compare with asymptomatic workers by using multivariate logistic regression...
June 22, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640686/prevalence-of-financial-fraud-and-scams-among-older-adults-in-the-united-states-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
David Burnes, Charles R Henderson, Christine Sheppard, Rebecca Zhao, Karl Pillemer, Mark S Lachs
BACKGROUND: The financial exploitation of older adults was recently recognized by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as a serious public health problem. Knowledge of the prevalence of elder financial exploitation is mostly limited to the category of financial abuse, which occurs in relationships involving an expectation of trust. Little is known about the other major category of elder financial exploitation-elder financial fraud and scams, which is perpetrated by strangers...
June 22, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640685/understanding-and-improving-arterial-roads-to-support-public-health-and-transportation-goals
#6
Carolyn McAndrews, Keshia M Pollack, David Berrigan, Andrew L Dannenberg, Ed J Christopher
Arterials are types of roads designed to carry high volumes of motorized traffic. They are an integral part of transportation systems worldwide and exposure to them is ubiquitous, especially in urban areas. Arterials provide access to diverse commercial and cultural resources, which can positively influence community health by supporting social cohesion as well as economic and cultural opportunities. They can negatively influence health via safety issues, noise, air pollution, and lack of economic development...
June 22, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640684/judicial-bypass-for-minors-seeking-abortions-in-arkansas-versus-other-states
#7
Onur Altindag, Ted Joyce
OBJECTIVES: To describe demographic characteristics and abortion timing of minors in Arkansas who obtained an abortion through a judicial bypass, and to contrast the frequency of judicial bypass in other states in the United States. METHODS: We used individual-level data on all abortions to minors (n = 2624) performed in Arkansas from 2005 to 2014 and aggregated data from 10 additional states on abortions obtained through a judicial bypass. We characterized correlates of the judicial bypass and its association with the timing of abortion...
June 22, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640683/the-public-health-practitioner-of-the-future
#8
Paul Campbell Erwin, Ross C Brownson
The requisite capacities and capabilities of the public health practitioner of the future are being driven by multiple forces of change, including public health agency accreditation, climate change, health in all policies, social media and informatics, demographic transitions, globalized travel, and the repercussions of the Affordable Care Act. We describe five critical capacities and capabilities that public health practitioners can build on to successfully prepare for and respond to these forces of change: systems thinking and systems methods, communication capacities, an entrepreneurial orientation, transformational ethics, and policy analysis and response...
June 22, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640682/vocal-timbre-and-the-classification-of-respondent-sex-in-us-phone-based-surveys
#9
Noah C Riley, John R Blosnich, Todd M Bear, Sari L Reisner
OBJECTIVES: To characterize the conflict of sex and gender identity variables in the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) sample and examine how this may affect the administration of sex-related health behavior items to transgender participants. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of the 2014 BRFSS gender identity, sex, and sex-related health behavior variables. Twenty states administered the gender-identity variables (n = 154 062), and 691 respondents identified as transgender in the survey (0...
June 22, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640681/crowdsourced-health-data-comparability-to-a-us-national-survey-2013-2015
#10
Veronica Yank, Sanjhavi Agarwal, Pooja Loftus, Steven Asch, David Rehkopf
OBJECTIVES: To determine the generalizability of crowdsourced, electronic health data from self-selected individuals using a national survey as a reference. METHODS: Using the world's largest crowdsourcing platform in 2015, we collected data on characteristics known to influence cardiovascular disease risk and identified comparable data from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. We used age-stratified logistic regression models to identify differences among groups...
June 22, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640680/polysubstance-use-among-us-women-of-reproductive-age-who-use-opioids-for-nonmedical-reasons
#11
Marian Jarlenski, Colleen L Barry, Sarah Gollust, Amy J Graves, Alene Kennedy-Hendricks, Katy Kozhimannil
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence and patterns of polysubstance use among US reproductive-aged women who use opioids for nonmedical purposes. METHODS: We used the National Survey of Drug Use and Health (2005-2014) data on female respondents aged 18 to 44 years reporting nonmedical opioid use in the past 30 days (unweighted n = 4498). We categorized patterns of polysubstance use in the past 30 days, including cigarettes, binge drinking, and other legal and illicit substances and reported prevalence adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, and educational attainment...
June 22, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640679/crash-fatality-rates-after-recreational-marijuana-legalization-in-washington-and-colorado
#12
Jayson D Aydelotte, Lawrence H Brown, Kevin M Luftman, Alexandra L Mardock, Pedro G R Teixeira, Ben Coopwood, Carlos V R Brown
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate motor vehicle crash fatality rates in the first 2 states with recreational marijuana legalization and compare them with motor vehicle crash fatality rates in similar states without recreational marijuana legalization. METHODS: We used the US Fatality Analysis Reporting System to determine the annual numbers of motor vehicle crash fatalities between 2009 and 2015 in Washington, Colorado, and 8 control states. We compared year-over-year changes in motor vehicle crash fatality rates (per billion vehicle miles traveled) before and after recreational marijuana legalization with a difference-in-differences approach that controlled for underlying time trends and state-specific population, economic, and traffic characteristics...
June 22, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640678/hurricane-sandy-new-jersey-mortality-rates-in-the-following-month-and-quarter
#13
Soyeon Kim, Prathit A Kulkarni, Mangala Rajan, Pauline Thomas, Stella Tsai, Christina Tan, Amy Davidow
OBJECTIVES: To describe changes in mortality after Hurricane Sandy made landfall in New Jersey on October 29, 2012. METHODS: We used electronic death records to describe changes in all-cause and cause-specific mortality overall, in persons aged 76 years or older, and by 3 Sandy impact levels for the month and quarter following Hurricane Sandy compared with the same periods in earlier years adjusted for trends. RESULTS: All-cause mortality increased 6% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2%, 11%) for the month, 5%, 8%, and 12% by increasing Sandy impact level; and 7% (95% CI = 5%, 10%) for the quarter, 5%, 8%, and 15% by increasing Sandy impact level...
June 22, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640677/constant-lethality-of-gunshot-injuries-from-firearm-assault-united-states-2003-2012
#14
Philip J Cook, Ariadne E Rivera-Aguirre, Magdalena Cerdá, Garen Wintemute
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the validity of the apparent downward trend in the national case-fatality rate for gunshot wounds from assault. METHODS: We reanalyzed the estimated annual number of nonfatal firearm injuries the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System reported from 2003 to 2012. We adjusted the estimates for discontinuities created by the substitution of 1 hospital for another in the sample and for a downward trend in the percentage of gunshot injuries classified as "unknown circumstance...
June 22, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640676/personally-identifiable-information-in-state-laws-use-release-and-collaboration-at-health-departments
#15
Elin B Begley, Jamie M Ware, Sarah A Hexem, Karina Rapposelli, Kelly Thompson, Matthew S Penn, Gustavo A Aquino
Despite benefits to sharing data among public health programs, confidentiality laws are often presumed to obstruct collaboration or data sharing. We present an overview of the use and release of confidential, personally identifiable information as consistent with public health interests and identify opportunities to align data-sharing procedures with use and release provisions in state laws to improve program outcomes. In August 2013, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention staff and legal researchers from the National Nurse-Led Care Consortium conducted a review of state laws regulating state and local health departments in 50 states and the District of Columbia...
June 22, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640675/health-related-quality-of-life-among-us-workers-variability-across-occupation-groups
#16
Taylor M Shockey, Matthew Zack, Aaron Sussell
OBJECTIVES: To examine the health-related quality of life among workers in 22 standard occupation groups using data from the 2013-2014 US Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. METHODS: We examined the health-related quality of life measures of self-rated health, frequent physical distress, frequent mental distress, frequent activity limitation, and frequent overall unhealthy days by occupation group for 155 839 currently employed adults among 17 states. We performed multiple logistic regression analyses that accounted for the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System's complex survey design to obtain prevalence estimates adjusted for potential confounders...
June 22, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640674/racial-ethnic-minority-older-adults-perspectives-on-proposed-medicaid-reforms-effects-on-dental-care-access
#17
Mary E Northridge, Ivette Estrada, Eric W Schrimshaw, Ariel P Greenblatt, Sara S Metcalf, Carol Kunzel
To examine how proposed Medicaid reform plans are experienced by racial/ethnic minority older adults and what the implications are for their ability to access dental care through Medicaid, from 2013 to 2015 we conducted focus groups in northern Manhattan, New York, New York, among African American, Dominican, and Puerto Rican adults aged 50 years and older. Participants reported problems with affording copayments for care, complicated health and social issues, the need for vision and dental care close to home, and confusion about and stigmatization with Medicaid coverage...
June 22, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640673/the-end-of-written-informed-consent-for-hiv-testing-not-with-a-bang-but-a-whimper
#18
Ronald Bayer, Morgan Philbin, Robert H Remien
In 2014, only two states in the United States still mandated specific written informed consent for HIV testing and, after years of controversy, New York ended this requirement, leaving only Nebraska. New York's shift to opt-out testing meant that a singular feature of what had characterized the exceptionalism surrounding HIV testing was eliminated. We trace the history of debates on written informed consent nationally and in New York State. Over the years of dispute from when HIV testing was initiated in 1985 to 2014, the evidence about the benefits and burdens of written informed consent changed...
June 22, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590875/increasing-availability-of-prevention-to-communities-disproportionately-affected-by-hiv
#19
Donna Hubbard McCree, David W Purcell, Janet C Cleveland, John T Brooks
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590874/us-hospital-awards-and-community-health-improvement
#20
Michael K Poku, Alexander B Blum, Joshua M Sharfstein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: American Journal of Public Health
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