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American Journal of Public Health

André Szklo, Roberto Magno Iglesias, Mirian Carvalho de Souza, Moysés Szklo, Liz Maria de Almeida
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the proportions of illicit cigarette consumption in Brazil from 2012 to 2016, a period of sharp increases in cigarette taxes. METHODS: We used an approach based on legal sales provided by the Secretariat of Federal Revenues and self-reported consumption data from an annually conducted telephone survey (VIGITEL) to estimate the changes over time in illegal cigarette use in Brazil. For that purpose, we also used available information on the proportion of illegal cigarette consumption from a nationwide household survey conducted in 2013 to calculate a constant proportion of underreporting from VIGITEL in relation to total consumption and sales in Brazil...
December 21, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
Tami Gurley-Calvez, Lindsey Bullinger, Kandice A Kapinos
OBJECTIVES: To assess how the 2012 Affordable Care Act (ACA) policy change, which required most private health insurance plans to cover lactation-support services and breastfeeding equipment (without cost-sharing), affected breastfeeding outcomes. METHODS: We used a regression-adjusted difference-in-differences approach with cross-sectional observational data from the US National Immunization Survey from 2008 to 2014 to estimate the effect of the ACA policy change on breastfeeding outcomes, including initiation, duration, and age at first formula feeding...
December 21, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
Walid F Gellad, Joshua M Thorpe, Xinhua Zhao, Carolyn T Thorpe, Florentina E Sileanu, John P Cashy, Jennifer A Hale, Maria K Mor, Thomas R Radomski, Leslie R M Hausmann, Julie M Donohue, Adam J Gordon, Katie J Suda, Kevin T Stroupe, Joseph T Hanlon, Francesca E Cunningham, Chester B Good, Michael J Fine
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence and consequences of receiving prescription opioids from both the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) and Medicare Part D. METHODS: Among US veterans enrolled in both VA and Part D filling 1 or more opioid prescriptions in 2012 (n = 539 473), we calculated 3 opioid safety measures using morphine milligram equivalents (MME): (1) proportion receiving greater than 100 MME for 1 or more days, (2) mean days receiving greater than 100 MME, and (3) proportion receiving greater than 120 MME for 90 consecutive days...
December 21, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
Richard Dunville, Amy Peterson, Nicole Liddon, Mary Roach, Kenneth Coleman, Patricia Dittus
We describe school-based screening events in four Detroit, Michigan public high schools. To examine trends, we analyzed Chlamydia trachomatis data from 2010 to 2015. Prevalence of C. trachomatis decreased significantly (P < .01): from 10.24% to 6.27%. Future school-based screening events may bring about similar results if the program is instituted in a high-prevalence area and can achieve high student participation. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print December 21, 2017: e1-e3. doi:10...
December 21, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
Maryam Ibrahim Buba, Mahmood Muazu Dalhat, Patrick Mboya Nguku, Ndadilnasiya Waziri, Jibreel Omar Mohammad, Idriss Mohammed Bomoi, Amaka Pamela Onyiah, Jude Onwujei, Muhammad Shakir Balogun, Adebobola Toluwalashe Bashorun, Peter Nsubuga, Abdulsalami Nasidi
OBJECTIVES: To determine factors associated with mortality among confirmed Lassa fever cases. METHODS: We reviewed line lists and clinical records of laboratory-confirmed cases of Lassa fever during the 2016 outbreak in Nigeria to determine factors associated with mortality. We activated an incident command system to coordinate response. RESULTS: We documented 47 cases, 28 of whom died (case fatality rate [CFR] = 59.6%; mean age 31.4 years; SD = ±18...
December 21, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
Mithuna Srinivasan, Jennifer A Pooler
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the impact of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participation on cost-related medication nonadherence (CRN) for older adults in the United States, with a particular focus on those who are food insecure and those threatened by hunger. METHODS: We used propensity score matching to create matched intervention and comparison groups of SNAP-eligible US adults aged 60 years and older with data from the 2013-2015 National Health Interview Survey...
December 21, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
Jon E Zibbell, Alice K Asher, Rajiv C Patel, Ben Kupronis, Kashif Iqbal, John W Ward, Deborah Holtzman
OBJECTIVES: To compare US trends in rates of injection drug use (IDU), specifically opioid injection, with national trends in the incidence of acute HCV infection to assess whether these events correlated over time. METHODS: We calculated the annual incidence rate and demographic and risk characteristics of reported cases of acute HCV infection using surveillance data from 2004 to 2014 and the annual percentage of admissions to substance use disorder treatment facilities reporting IDU for the same time period by type of drug injected and demographic characteristics...
December 21, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
Nabarun Dasgupta, Leo Beletsky, Daniel Ciccarone
The accepted wisdom about the US overdose crisis singles out prescribing as the causative vector. Although drug supply is a key factor, we posit that the crisis is fundamentally fueled by economic and social upheaval, its etiology closely linked to the role of opioids as a refuge from physical and psychological trauma, concentrated disadvantage, isolation, and hopelessness. Overreliance on opioid medications is emblematic of a health care system that incentivizes quick, simplistic answers to complex physical and mental health needs...
December 21, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
Ping He, Xu Wen, Xiangyang Hu, Rui Gong, Yanan Luo, Chao Guo, Gong Chen, Xiaoying Zheng
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence and associated factors of hearing aid acquisition in Chinese older adults. METHODS: We obtained data from a population-based survey on ear and hearing disorders, which was conducted in 4 provinces of China in 2014 to 2015. Trained examiners conducted pure tone audiometry and audiologists further ascertained for hearing loss. We relied on hearing conditions and audiologists' recommendations to identify 1503 participants who needed to wear hearing aids...
December 21, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
Aparna Soni, Kosali Simon, John Cawley, Lindsay Sabik
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the 2014 Medicaid expansions facilitated by the Affordable Care Act affected overall and early-stage cancer diagnosis for nonelderly adults. METHODS: We used Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Cancer Registry data from 2010 through 2014 to estimate a difference-in-differences model of cancer diagnosis rates, both overall and by stage, comparing changes in county-level diagnosis rates in US states that expanded Medicaid in 2014 with those that did not expand Medicaid...
December 21, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
Melvin D Livingston, Kelli A Komro, Alexander C Wagenaar, Terrence K Kominsky, Dallas W Pettigrew, Brady A Garrett
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate effects of 2 alcohol prevention interventions-Communities Mobilizing for Change on Alcohol (CMCA), a community organizing intervention designed to reduce youth alcohol access, and CONNECT, an individual-level screening and brief intervention approach-on other drug use outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a community intervention trial with quarterly surveys over 3 years (2012-2015) of high school students living within the jurisdictional service area of the Cherokee Nation in Oklahoma...
December 21, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
Brad Wright, Natoshia M Askelson, Monica Ahrens, Elizabeth Momany, Suzanne Bentler, Peter Damiano
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate rates of member compliance with Iowa's Medicaid expansion premium disincentive program. METHODS: We used 2014 to 2015 Iowa Medicaid data to construct rolling 12-month cohorts of Wellness Plan and Marketplace Choice members (Iowa's 2 Medicaid expansion waiver programs for individuals ≤ 100% and 101%-138% of the federal poverty level, respectively), calculated completion rates for required activities (i.e., wellness examinations and health risk assessments), and identified factors associated with program compliance...
December 21, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
Amy S Katz, Benjamin Brisbois, Suzanne Zerger, Stephen W Hwang
Social Impact Bonds (SIBs) represent a new way to finance social service and health promotion programs whereby different types of investors provide an upfront investment of capital. If a given program meets predetermined criteria for a successful outcome, the government pays back investors with interest. Introduced in the United Kingdom in 2010, SIBs have since been implemented in the United States and across Europe, with some uptake in other jurisdictions. We identify and explore selected areas of concern related to SIBs, drawing from literature examining market-based reforms to health and social services and the evolution of the SIB funding mechanism...
December 21, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
Juyoung Park, Angelico Mendy, Edgar R Vieira
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence trends of osteoarthritis (OA), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and other types of arthritis in the United States from 1999 to 2014. METHODS: We analyzed data on 43 706 community-dwelling adults aged 20 years and older who participated in the 1999-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. We accounted for survey design and sampling weights so that estimates were nationally representative. We assessed temporal trends in age-standardized arthritis prevalence by using joinpoint regression...
December 21, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
Stanley Kotey, Ruth Carrico, Timothy Lee Wiemken, Stephen Furmanek, Rahel Bosson, Florence Nyantakyi, Sarah VanHeiden, William Mattingly, Kristina M Zierold
OBJECTIVES: To examine elevated blood lead levels (EBLLs) in refugee children by postrelocation duration with control for several covariates. METHODS: We assessed EBLLs (≥ 5µg/dL) between 2012 and 2016 of children younger than 15 years (n = 1950) by the duration of resettlement to health screening by using logistic regression, with control for potential confounders (gender, region of birth, age of housing, and intestinal infestation) in a cross-sectional study...
December 21, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
Sophie F Reda, Seif M Reda, W Murray Thomson, Falk Schwendicke
BACKGROUND: Dental diseases are among the most prevalent conditions worldwide, with universal access to dental care being one key to tackling them. Systematic quantification of inequalities in dental service utilization is needed to identify where these are most pronounced, assess factors underlying the inequalities, and evaluate changes in inequalities with time. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the presence and extent of inequalities in dental services utilization. SEARCH METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis by searching 3 electronic databases (MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Central Database), covering the period from January 2005 to April 2017...
December 21, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
Jessie Gruner, Robin S DeWeese, Cori Lorts, Michael J Yedidia, Punam Ohri-Vachaspati
OBJECTIVES: To determine the proportion of restaurants that will be required to post calorie information under the Food and Drug Administration's menu-labeling regulations in 4 New Jersey cities. METHODS: We classified geocoded 2014 data on 1753 restaurant outlets in accordance with the Food and Drug Administration's guidelines, which will require restaurants with 20 or more locations nationwide to post calorie information. We used multivariate logistic regression analyses to assess the association between menu-labeling requirements and census tract characteristics...
December 21, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
Jennifer L Pomeranz
Discrimination causes health inequities for stigmatized groups. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals, in particular, are at significantly increased risk for disparate health outcomes when they reside in states that fail to extend equal protections to them or that actively deprive equal rights to them. Several states and the federal government have proposed or enacted laws that permit residents to discriminate against LGBTQ individuals. One such law, Arkansas's Intrastate Commerce Improvement Act of 2015, preempts or prohibits local governments from enacting civil rights protections for LGBTQ individuals that are also lacking at the state level...
November 21, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
Laura Widman, Carol E Golin, Kristyn Kamke, Jeni L Burnette, Mitchell J Prinstein
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of an interactive, Web-based sexual health program (Health Education and Relationship Training [HEART]) for developing sexual assertiveness skills and enhancing sexual decision-making in adolescent girls. METHODS: Participants were 222 tenth-grade girls (mean age = 15.2; 38% White, 29% Hispanic, 25% Black) in the Southeastern United States who were randomized in fall 2015 to the HEART intervention or an attention-matched control...
November 21, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
Richard A Campbell, Stephanie A Gorman, Robert J Thoma, Robert D Annett, Christopher A McGrew, Ronald A Yeo, Andrew R Mayer, John H King, Andrew S Rowland
OBJECTIVES: To measure the risk of concussion among New Mexico middle and high school students during both sports and physical education. METHODS: Athletic directors or athletic trainers in 147 schools were asked to report the number of concussions occurring during sports and physical education in the 2013 to 2014 school year. We calculated 1-year cumulative incidence rates. RESULTS: Of the 147 schools, 99 responded (67%). During the school year, 598 students were removed from athletics because of a concussion, a 1-year cumulative incidence of 3...
November 21, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
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