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American Journal of Public Health

Jamila M Porter, Stephen L Rathbun, Shenée J Bryan, Katie Arseniadis, Lauren P Caldwell, Phaedra S Corso, Joel M Lee, Marsha Davis
OBJECTIVES: To examine the effect of Florida's adoption of Statute 335.065-a law requiring the routine accommodation of nonmotorized road users (i.e., a "Complete Streets" policy)-on pedestrian fatalities and to identify factors influencing its implementation. METHODS: We used a multimethod design (interrupted time-series quasi-experiment and interviews) to calculate Florida's pedestrian fatality rates from 1975 to 2013-39 quarters before and 117 quarters after adoption of the law...
February 22, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
Jörg Pont, Stefan Enggist, Heino Stöver, Brie Williams, Robert Greifinger, Hans Wolff
Clinical independence is an essential component of good health care and health care professionalism, particularly in correctional settings (jails, prisons, and other places of detention), where the relationship between patients and caregivers is not based on free choice and where the punitive correctional setting can challenge optimal medical care. Independence for the delivery of health care services is defined by international standards as a critical element for quality health care in correctional settings, yet many correctional facilities do not meet these standards because of a lack of awareness, persisting legal regulations, contradictory terms of employment for health professionals, or current health care governance structures...
February 22, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
Cassandra K Crifasi, Mitchell L Doucette, Emma E McGinty, Daniel W Webster, Colleen L Barry
OBJECTIVES: To examine gun storage practices and factors influencing those practices among gun owners. METHODS: We conducted a nationally representative online survey of US gun owners (n = 1444) in 2016 to assess gun storage practices and attitudes, factors influencing storage practices, and groups that might effectively communicate regarding safe storage. We generated descriptive statistics by using cross-tabulations and used logistic regression to estimate characteristics that influenced safe storage practices...
February 22, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
Zewditu Demissie, Catherine N Rasberry, Riley J Steiner, Nancy Brener, Tim McManus
OBJECTIVES: To examine trends in the percentage of US secondary schools that implemented practices related to the support of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) students. METHODS: This analysis used data from 4 cycles (2008-2014) of School Health Profiles, a surveillance system that provides results representative of secondary schools in each state. Each school completed 2 self-administered questionnaires (principal and teacher) per cycle...
February 22, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
Megan C Roberts, Taylor Murphy, Jennifer L Moss, Christopher W Wheldon, Wayne Psek
OBJECTIVES: To examine how combinations of state policies, rather than single policies, are related to uptake of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. METHODS: Using publicly available records and the literature, we characterized policies for each US state and Washington, DC, in 2015 (n = 51), including (1) Medicaid expansion, (2) policies permitting HPV vaccination in pharmacies, (3) school-entry requirements, (4) classroom sex education mandates, and (5) parental education mandates...
February 22, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
Ihab Mikati, Adam F Benson, Thomas J Luben, Jason D Sacks, Jennifer Richmond-Bryant
OBJECTIVES: To quantify nationwide disparities in the location of particulate matter (PM)-emitting facilities by the characteristics of the surrounding residential population and to illustrate various spatial scales at which to consider such disparities. METHODS: We assigned facilities emitting PM in the 2011 National Emissions Inventory to nearby block groups across the 2009 to 2013 American Community Survey population. We calculated the burden from these emissions for racial/ethnic groups and by poverty status...
February 22, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
Aurora VanGarde, Jangho Yoon, Jeff Luck, Carolyn A Mendez-Luck
OBJECTIVES: To examine the impact of the Affordable Care Act's (ACA's) 2010 parental insurance coverage extension to young adults aged 19 to 25 years on health insurance coverage and access to care, including racial/ethnic disparities. METHODS: We pooled data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System for the periods 2007 to 2009 and 2011 to 2013 (n = 402 777). We constructed quasiexperimental difference-in-differences models in which adults aged 26 to 35 years served as a control group...
February 22, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
Jessica N Sanders, Kyl Myers, Lori M Gawron, Rebecca G Simmons, David K Turok
OBJECTIVES: To describe a community-wide contraception initiative and assess changes in method use when cost and access barriers are removed in an environment with client-centered counseling. METHODS: HER Salt Lake is a prospective cohort study occurring during three 6-month periods (September 2015 through March 2017) and nested in a quasiexperimental observational study. The sample was women aged 16 to 45 years receiving new contraceptive services at health centers in Salt Lake County, Utah...
February 22, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
Cesar Gomes Victora, Gary Joseph, Inacio C M Silva, Fatima S Maia, J Patrick Vaughan, Fernando C Barros, Aluisio J D Barros
OBJECTIVES: To test the inverse equity hypothesis, which postulates that new health interventions are initially adopted by the wealthy and thus increase inequalities-as population coverage increases, only the poorest will lag behind all other groups. METHODS: We analyzed the proportion of births occurring in a health facility by wealth quintile in 286 surveys from 89 low- and middle-income countries (1993-2015) and developed an inequality pattern index. Positive values indicate that inequality is driven by early adoption by the wealthy (top inequality), whereas negative values signal bottom inequality...
February 22, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
Stéphane Darbeda, Bruno Falissard, Massimiliano Orri, Caroline Barry, Maria Melchior, Pierre Chauvin, Stéphanie Vandentorren
OBJECTIVES: To describe the adaptive behaviors in a large sample of homeless children and identify factors associated with developmental delay. METHODS: Data were from a cross-sectional survey of 557 children younger than 6 years randomly sampled among homeless sheltered families in the Paris, France, region (January-May 2013). An interviewer and a psychologist conducted face-to-face interviews to collect information on sociodemographic and health characteristics...
February 22, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
Brittany N Morey
Anti-immigrant rhetoric and political actions gained prominence and public support before, during, and after the 2016 presidential election. This anti-immigrant political environment threatens to increase health disparities among undocumented persons, immigrant groups, and people of color. I discuss the mechanisms by which anti-immigrant stigma exacerbates racial/ethnic health disparities through increasing multilevel discrimination and stress, deportation and detention, and policies that limit health resources...
February 22, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
Nicole K Valtorta, Danielle Collingridge Moore, Lynn Barron, Daniel Stow, Barbara Hanratty
BACKGROUND: Deficiencies in older people's social relationships (including loneliness, social isolation, and low social support) have been implicated as a cause of premature mortality and increased morbidity. Whether they affect service use is unclear. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether social relationships are associated with older adults' use of health services, independently of health-related needs. SEARCH METHODS: We searched 8 electronic databases (MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, Web of Science, PsycINFO, Scopus, the Cochrane Library, and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination) for data published between 1983 and 2016...
February 22, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
Bonnie S Jones, Sara Daniel, Lindsay K Cloud
OBJECTIVES: To compare the prevalence and characteristics of facility laws governing abortion provision specifically (targeted regulation of abortion providers [TRAP] laws); office-based surgeries, procedures, sedation or anesthesia (office interventions) generally (OBS laws); and other procedures specifically. METHODS: We conducted cross-sectional legal assessments of state facility laws for office interventions in effect as of August 1, 2016. We coded characteristics for each law and compared characteristics across categories of laws...
February 22, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
Michelle M Hughes, Nazia S Saiyed, Tiffany S Chen
OBJECTIVES: To investigate local-level adult influenza and pneumococcal vaccination disparities to inform targeted interventions. METHODS: Questions on influenza and pneumococcal vaccination uptake were included in a door-to-door community-based representative survey conducted in 10 Chicago, Illinois, neighborhoods in 2015 and 2016. A total of 1543 adults completed the survey, including 172 adults aged 65 years or older. We calculated adult influenza (≥ 18 years) and pneumococcal (≥ 65 years) vaccination coverage by community area and respondent characteristics...
February 22, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
Bénédicte Rouland, Rhema Vaithianathan
OBJECTIVES: To document, via linked administrative data, the cumulative prevalence among New Zealand children of notifications to child protective services (CPS), substantiated maltreatment cases, and out-of-home placements. METHODS: We followed all children born in New Zealand in 1998 until the end of 2015 (an overall sample of 55 443 children). We determined the cumulative frequencies of notifications, substantiated maltreatment cases (by subtype), and first entries into foster care from birth through the age of 17 years...
February 22, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
Frida Gyllenberg, Mikael Juselius, Mika Gissler, Oskari Heikinheimo
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether a public program providing long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods free of charge increases the LARC initiation rate and reduces the unintended pregnancy rate in the general population. METHODS: Since 2013, all women in Vantaa, Finland, have been entitled to 1 LARC method free of charge. With time-series analysis between 2000 and 2015, we assessed whether this public program was associated with changes in steady-state mean rates of LARC initiation and abortions...
February 22, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
Martin Gorsky, Christopher Sirrs
The UN Sustainable Development Goals of 2015 have restored universal health coverage (UHC) to prominence in the international health agenda. Can understanding the past illuminate the prospects for UHC in the present? This article traces an earlier history of UHC as an objective of international health politics. Its focus is the efforts of the International Labor Organization (ILO), whose Philadelphia Declaration (1944) announced the goal of universal social security, including medical coverage and care. After World War II, the ILO attempted to enshrine this in an international convention, which nation states would ratify...
January 18, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
Emily D'Agostino
Epidemiology instruction has expanded at the undergraduate level in part because it increases student critical thinking and scientific literacy, promotes students' perception of public health as both practical and relevant, and empowers students as independent, lifelong learners. Why then are more high schools not adopting epidemiology as a course requirement for students? Although prior iterations of high school epidemiology courses are noteworthy for incorporating active and participatory learning, embedding them into existing and continually shifting curricula is challenging and time-consuming, especially for teachers not trained in the field...
January 18, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
Sara B McMenamin, Sarah P Hiller, Erin Shigekawa, Troy Melander, Riti Shimkhada
OBJECTIVES: To estimate potential impacts of California Assembly Bill (AB) 1316: a requirement for universal screening and insurance coverage for child blood lead testing. METHODS: In April 2017 the California Health Benefits Review Program (Oakland, CA) analyzed AB 1316 for the California legislature, including a systematic review of lead screening effectiveness, commercial insurer surveys regarding screening coverage, and actuarial utilization and cost implication assessments...
January 18, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
Chintan B Bhatt, Consuelo M Beck-Sagué
OBJECTIVES: To explore the effect of Medicaid expansion on US infant mortality rate. METHODS: We examined data from 2010 to 2016 and 2014 to 2016 to compare infant mortality rates in states and Washington, DC, that accepted the Affordable Care Act Medicaid expansion (Medicaid expansion states) and states that did not (non-Medicaid expansion states), stratifying data by race/ethnicity. RESULTS: Mean infant mortality rate in non-Medicaid expansion states rose (6...
January 18, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
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