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American Journal of Public Health

Emily E White, Jordan Downey, Vidiya Sathananthan, Zahir Kanjee, Avi Kenny, Ami Waters, Jenny Rabinowich, Mallika Raghavan, Lorenzo Dorr, Amal Halder, Joseph Nyumah, Derry Duokie, Tamba Boima, Raj Panjabi, Mark J Siedner, John D Kraemer
OBJECTIVES: To assess a community health worker (CHW) program's impact on childhood illness treatment in rural Liberia. METHODS: We deployed CHWs in half of Rivercess County in August 2015 with the other half constituting a comparison group until July 2016. All CHWs were provided cash incentives, supply chain support, and monthly clinical supervision. We conducted stratified cluster-sample population-based surveys at baseline (March-April 2015) and follow-up (April-June 2016) and performed a difference-in-differences analysis, adjusted by inverse probability of treatment weighting, to assess changes in treatment of fever, diarrhea, and acute respiratory infection by a qualified provider...
July 19, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
Candace C Nelson, Rachel Colchamiro, Meghan Perkins, Elsie M Taveras, Peggy Leung-Strle, JoAnn Kwass, Jennifer A Woo Baidal
OBJECTIVES: To investigate racial/ethnic and language differences in the effectiveness of the Massachusetts Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (MA-CORD) study among children aged 2 to 4 years enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). METHODS: We performed a multisector quasiexperimental study in 2 MA-CORD intervention communities and 1 comparison community. Using WIC data from 2010 to 2015, we examined intervention effect on child weight and behavior outcomes by child race/ethnicity and parental primary language using multilevel linear regression models with an interaction term...
July 19, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
Lyndsey A Rolheiser, Jack Cordes Bsph, S V Subramanian
OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which opioid prescribing rates vary across US congressional districts. METHODS: In an observational cross-sectional framework using secondary data, we constructed 2016 congressional district-level opioid prescribing rate estimates using a population-weighted methodology. RESULTS: High prescribing rate districts were concentrated in the South, Appalachia, and the rural West. Low-rate districts were concentrated in urban centers...
July 19, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
Martin McKee, David Stuckler
We trace the development of the concept of the corporate determinants of health. We argue that these determinants are predicated on the unchecked power of corporations and that the means by which corporations exert power is increasingly unseen. We identify four of the ways corporations influence health: defining the dominant narrative; setting the rules by which society, especially trade, operates; commodifying knowledge; and undermining political, social, and economic rights. We identify how public health professionals can respond to these manifestations of power...
July 19, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
Brittany L Brown-Podgorski, Ann M Holmes, Elizabeth H Golembiewski, Joanna R Jackson, Nir Menachemi
OBJECTIVES: To examine postgraduation employment trends among graduates of doctoral programs in public health from 2003 to 2015. METHODS: We analyzed pooled cross-sectional data from a census of graduates receiving a research doctorate from US accredited institutions. The outcome of interest was employment status. Covariates included public health discipline, sociodemographic characteristics, and institutional attributes. RESULTS: Of 11 771 graduates, nearly two thirds secured employment in either academic (34...
July 19, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
Drew Capone, Anna Ferguson, Matthew O Gribble, Joe Brown
OBJECTIVES: To survey the spatial distribution and enteric pathogen profile of discarded human feces in the city of Atlanta, Georgia. METHODS: After defining priority search areas in central Atlanta, we conducted 5 searches of open defecation sites totaling 15 hours during the period from October 2017 to January 2018. We collected fresh stools for analysis via multiplex reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction to identify presence of 15 common parasitic, bacterial, and viral enteric pathogens...
July 19, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
Aileen Chang, Elizabeth Patberg, Victor Cueto, Hua Li, Bhavana Singh, Sonjia Kenya, Yisel Alonzo, Olveen Carrasquillo
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether a 1-year community health worker intervention improves access to care and service utilization among Latinos with diabetes. METHODS: We conducted a single-blind randomized trial of 300 adults with poorly controlled diabetes treated in 2 public hospital clinics in Miami, Florida. We began enrollment in 2010 and completed follow-up in 2015. We examined access and utilization using self-reported measures and data from electronic medical records...
July 19, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
Donna Spiegelman, Xin Zhou
We provide an overview of classical and newer methods for the control of confounding of time-invariant interventions to permit causal inference in public health evaluations. We estimated the causal effect of gender on all-cause mortality in a large HIV care and treatment program supported by the President's Emergency Program for AIDS Relief in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, between 2004 and 2012. We compared results from multivariable modeling, three propensity score methods, inverse-probability weighting, doubly robust methods, and targeted maximum likelihood estimation...
July 19, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
Erika L Thompson, Melvin D Livingston, Ellen M Daley, Gregory D Zimet
OBJECTIVES: To assess changes in human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine initiation for adolescent girls and boys in Rhode Island compared with all other states. METHODS: We estimated the gender-specific effects of Rhode Island's school-entry HPV vaccination policy on self-reported HPV vaccination initiation by using a difference-in-differences design with the National Immunization Survey-Teen from 2010 through 2016. RESULTS: Compared with boys in other states, boys in Rhode Island increased their HPV vaccine initiation rate by 11% (b = 0...
July 19, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
Julia L Marcus, Kenneth Levine, Chris Grasso, Douglas S Krakower, Victoria Powell, Kyle T Bernstein, Stephen Boswell, Kenneth H Mayer
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use is associated with use of non-HIV-related health care. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of potential PrEP candidates at a Boston, Massachusetts, community health clinic during 2012 to 2016, comparing the proportion of PrEP users and non-PrEP users receiving primary care. RESULTS: Of 5857 PrEP candidates, 2047 (35%) were prescribed PrEP. After adjustment for demographics and number of visits, more PrEP users received influenza vaccination (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1...
July 19, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
Lindsey M Hutchison, Francis P Boscoe, Beth J Feingold
OBJECTIVES: To summarize what is known about cancer among the transgender population in New York State. METHODS: We identified transgender patients diagnosed between 1979 and 2016 in the New York State Cancer Registry using reported sex, text search of the case abstract, and linkage to statewide hospitalization records. RESULTS: We identified 230 transgender patients, including 125 natal males, 48 natal females, and 57 with unknown natal sex...
July 19, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
Yong Gan, Liqing Li, Heng Jiang, Kai Lu, Shijiao Yan, Shiyi Cao, Wenning Fu, Sai Hu, Yan Qiao, Tingting Yang, Chao Wang, Yawen Chen, Yudi Yang, Hui Li, Pengqian Fang, Xiaoxv Yin, Zuxun Lu
OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence and factors associated with physical and nonphysical violence in a sample of general practitioners (GPs). METHODS: We used a cross-sectional design to collect data from December 2014 to March 2015 with a structured self-administered questionnaire from 1015 GPs in Hubei Province, Central China (response rate, 85.6%). We used a multivariable logistic regression model to identify the predictors associated with workplace violence toward GPs...
July 19, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
David J Blackley, Cara N Halldin, A Scott Laney
OBJECTIVES: To update prevalence estimates for coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) among working underground coal miners in the United States. METHODS: We conducted a prevalence study using radiographs collected from 1970 to 2017. We classified each radiograph using international standards. We defined CWP as the presence of small opacities, with profusion greater than or equal to subcategory 1/0, or the presence of a large opacity larger than 1 centimeter. RESULTS: Following a low point in the late 1990s, the national prevalence of CWP in miners with 25 years or more of tenure now exceeds 10%...
July 19, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
Hilary K Seligman, Morgan Smith, Sophie Rosenmoss, Michelle Berger Marshall, Elaine Waxman
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether food bank provision of self-management support and diabetes-appropriate food improves glycemic control among clients with diabetes. METHODS: We screened 5329 adults for diabetes at food pantries (n = 27) affiliated with food banks in Oakland, California; Detroit, Michigan; and Houston, Texas, between October 2015 and September 2016. We individually randomized 568 participants with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) 7.5% or greater to waitlist control or 6-month intervention including food, diabetes education, health care referral, and glucose monitoring...
July 19, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
Frank Edwards, Michael H Esposito, Hedwig Lee
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the risk of mortality from police homicide by race/ethnicity and place in the United States. METHODS: We used novel data on police-involved fatalities and Bayesian models to estimate mortality risk for Black, Latino, and White men for all US counties by Census division and metropolitan area type. RESULTS: Police kill, on average, 2.8 men per day. Police were responsible for about 8% of all homicides with adult male victims between 2012 and 2018...
July 19, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
Jason J Wilson, Deepti Adlakha, Conor Cunningham, Paul Best, Chris R Cardwell, Aoife Stephenson, Marie H Murphy, Mark A Tully
OBJECTIVES: To examine the impact of environmental restructuring on attendees at a physical activity conference when provided with standing tables and given point-of-decision prompts (PODPs; e.g., health messages). METHODS: This randomized controlled trial took place at the Health-Enhancing Physical Activity Europe 2016 conference in Belfast, United Kingdom, September 2016. We randomly allocated 14 oral sessions to either the intervention group (standing tables + PODPs; n = 7) or the control group (PODPs only; n = 7)...
July 19, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
Shabbar I Ranapurwala, Meghan E Shanahan, Apostolos A Alexandridis, Scott K Proescholdbell, Rebecca B Naumann, Daniel Edwards, Stephen W Marshall
OBJECTIVES: To examine differences in rates of opioid overdose death (OOD) between former North Carolina (NC) inmates and NC residents and evaluate factors associated with postrelease OOD. METHODS: We linked NC inmate release data to NC death records, calculated OOD standardized mortality ratios to compare former inmates with NC residents, and calculated hazard ratios to identify predictors of time to OOD. RESULTS: Of the 229 274 former inmates released during 2000 to 2015, 1329 died from OOD after release...
July 19, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
Jean P Hall, Adele Shartzer, Noelle K Kurth, Kathleen C Thomas
Before the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), many Americans with disabilities were locked into poverty to maintain eligibility for Medicaid coverage. US Medicaid expansion under the ACA allows individuals to qualify for coverage without first going through a disability determination process and declaring an inability to work to obtain Supplemental Security Income. Medicaid expansion coverage also allows for greater income and imposes no asset tests. In this article, we share updates to our previous work documenting greater employment among people with disabilities living in Medicaid expansion states...
July 19, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
Zan M Dodson, Eun-Hye Enki Yoo, Christian Martin-Gill, Ronald Roth
OBJECTIVES: To improve public health surveillance and response by using spatial optimization. METHODS: We identified cases of suspected nonfatal opioid overdose events in which naloxone was administered from April 2013 through December 2016 treated by the city of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Bureau of Emergency Medical Services. We used spatial modeling to identify areas hardest hit to spatially optimize naloxone distribution among pharmacies in Pittsburgh. RESULTS: We identified 3182 opioid overdose events with our classification approach, which generated spatial patterns of opioid overdoses within Pittsburgh...
July 19, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
Amar J Mehta, Daniel P Dooley, John Kane, Margaret Reid, Snehal N Shah
OBJECTIVES: To examine whether subsidized housing, specifically public housing and rental assistance, is associated with asthma in the Boston, Massachusetts, adult population. METHODS: We analyzed a pooled cross-sectional sample of 9554 adults taking part in 3 Boston Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys from 2010 to 2015. We estimated odds ratios for current asthma in association with housing status (public housing development [PHD] resident, rental assistance [RA] renter, non-RA renter, nonrenter nonowner, homeowner as reference) in logistic regression analyses adjusting for year, age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and income...
June 21, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
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