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Emerging Infectious Diseases

Marie Souvestre, Claire Guinat, Eric Niqueux, Luc Robertet, Guillaume Croville, Mathilde Paul, Audrey Schmitz, Anne Bronner, Nicolas Eterradossi, Jean-Luc Guérin
Highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) clade spread in France during 2016-2017. We assessed the biosecurity and avian influenza virus infection status of 70 backyard flocks near H5N8-infected commercial farms. One flock was seropositive for clade Backyard flocks linked to commercial farms had elevated risk for H5 infection.
March 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Mohammad H Alharbi, Charlotte Condemine, Rosie Christiansen, E James LaCourse, Peter Makaula, Michelle C Stanton, Lazarus Juziwelo, Seke Kayuni, J Russell Stothard
Two surveys conducted in 2017 and 2018 demonstrated Biomphalaria pfeifferi snails in Lake Malawi in Africa. Epidemiologic examination of 175 local children at 3 primary schools confirmed emergence of intestinal schistosomiasis. These findings highlight autochthonous transmission of Schistosoma mansoni flukes in Lake Malawi and the need to revise international travel advice.
March 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Vicky Watts, Sooria Balasegaram, Colin S Brown, Suzanna Mathew, Rachel Mearkle, Derren Ready, Vanessa Saliba, Theresa Lamagni
The incidence of scarlet fever in England and Wales is at its highest in 50 years. We estimated secondary household risk for invasive group A Streptococcus (iGAS) disease within 60 days after onset of scarlet fever. Reports of scarlet fever in England during 2011-2016 were matched by residential address to persons with laboratory-confirmed iGAS infections. We identified 11 iGAS cases in ≈189,684 household contacts and a 60-day incidence rate of 35.3 cases/100,000 person-years, which was 12.2-fold higher than the background rate (2...
March 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Carolina M Carballo, Marcela García Erro, Nora Sordelli, Gabriel Vazquez, Alicia S Mistchenko, Claudia Cejas, Manlio Rodriguez, Daniel M Cisterna, Maria Ceclilia Freire, Maria M Contrini, Eduardo L Lopez
After a 2014 outbreak of severe respiratory illness caused by enterovirus D68 in the United States, sporadic cases of acute flaccid myelitis have been reported worldwide. We describe a cluster of acute flaccid myelitis cases in Argentina in 2016, adding data to the evidence of association between enterovirus D68 and this polio-like illness.
March 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Yohann Le Govic, Julien Kincaid-Smith, Jean-François Allienne, Olivier Rey, Ludovic de Gentile, Jérôme Boissier
Schistosomiasis is frequently detected in persons entering Europe. In 2017, we detected a Schistosoma mansoni-Schistosoma haematobium hybrid parasite infection in a migrant boy from Côte d'Ivoire entering France. Because such parasites might be established in Europe, as illustrated by an outbreak on Corsica Island, vectors of these parasites should be investigated.
February 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Vito Colella, Adnan Hodžić, Roberta Iatta, Gad Baneth, Amer Alić, Domenico Otranto
Leishmania infantum causes potentially life-threatening disease in humans. To determine the extent of the animal reservoir for this pathogen in Bosnia and Herzegovina, we tested dogs and cats. We found that a large proportion of dogs were exposed to or infected with L. infantum, indicating endemicity in dogs and zoonotic risk for humans.
February 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Nicole P Lindsey, Jay E Menitove, Brad J Biggerstaff, George Turabelidze, Pat Parton, Kim Peck, Alison J Basile, Olga I Kosoy, Marc Fischer, J Erin Staples
We estimated the seroprevalence of Heartland virus antibodies to be 0.9% (95% CI 0.4%-4.2%) in a convenience sample of blood donors from northwestern Missouri, USA, where human cases and infected ticks have been identified. Although these findings suggest that some past human infections were undetected, the estimated prevalence is low.
February 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Saskia Den Boon, Barbara J Marston, Tolbert G Nyenswah, Amara Jambai, Moumie Barry, Sakoba Keita, Kara Durski, Schabbethai S Senesie, Devin Perkins, Anita Shah, Hugh H Green, Esther L Hamblion, Margaret Lamunu, Alex Gasasira, Nuha O Mahmoud, Mamadou H Djingarey, Oliver Morgan, Ian Crozier, Christopher Dye
Ebola virus (EBOV) can persist in immunologically protected body sites in survivors of Ebola virus disease, creating the potential to initiate new chains of transmission. From the outbreak in West Africa during 2014-2016, we identified 13 possible events of viral persistence-derived transmission of EBOV (VPDTe) and applied predefined criteria to classify transmission events based on the strength of evidence for VPDTe and source and route of transmission. For 8 events, a recipient case was identified; possible source cases were identified for 5 of these 8...
February 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Emmanouil A Fotakis, Ioannis A Giantsis, Aimilia Avgerinou, Sofoklis Kourtidis, Evangelia Agathaggelidou, Christina Kapoula, Glykeria Dadakou, John Vontas, Alexandra Chaskopoulou
High infection rates of Leishmania donovani and L. tropica were detected in Phlebotomus spp. sand flies collected from refugee camps in Greece, indicating increased risk of infection among local populations. Detection and treatment of leishmaniasis, community education, and vector control are essential measures to prevent pathogen transmission and protect public health.
February 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Edward D Nicol, Stephen Mepham, Jonathan Naylor, Ian Mollan, Matthew Adam, Joanna d'Arcy, Philip Gillen, Emma Vincent, Belinda Mollan, David Mulvaney, Andrew Green, Michael Jacobs
For >40 years, the British Royal Air Force has maintained an aeromedical evacuation facility, the Deployable Air Isolator Team (DAIT), to transport patients with possible or confirmed highly infectious diseases to the United Kingdom. Since 2012, the DAIT, a joint Department of Health and Ministry of Defence asset, has successfully transferred 1 case-patient with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, 5 case-patients with Ebola virus disease, and 5 case-patients with high-risk Ebola virus exposure. Currently, no UK-published guidelines exist on how to transfer such patients...
January 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Yanli Lyu, Shikai Song, Liwei Zhou, Guoxia Bing, Qian Wang, Haoran Sun, Mingyue Chen, Junyi Hu, Mingyang Wang, Honglei Sun, Juan Pu, Zhaofei Xia, Jinhua Liu, Yipeng Sun
During 2012-2017, we collected throat swabs from dogs in China to characterize canine influenza virus (CIV) A(H3N2) isolates. A new antigenically and genetically distinct CIV H3N2 clade possessing mutations associated with mammalian adaptation emerged in 2016 and replaced previously circulating strains. This clade probably poses a risk for zoonotic infection.
January 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Alexandra Rockstroh, Luisa Barzon, Widuranga Kumbukgolla, Hoang Xuan Su, Erley Lizarazo, Maria Fernanda Vincenti-Gonzalez, Adriana Tami, Alice M M Ornelas, Renato Santana Aguiar, Daniel Cadar, Jonas Schmidt-Chanasit, Sebastian Ulbert
We developed an IgM-based ELISA that identifies the dengue virus serotype of recent infections. Dominant serotypes were detectable in 91.1% of samples from travelers and 86.5% of samples from residents of endemic regions; 97.1% corresponded to the serotype identified by PCR. This ELISA enables more accurate reporting of epidemiologic findings.
January 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Mutien Garigliany, Daniel Desmecht, Marylène Tignon, Dominique Cassart, Christophe Lesenfant, Julien Paternostre, Rosario Volpe, Ann Brigitte Cay, Thierry van den Berg, Annick Linden
In September 2018, African swine fever in wild boars was detected in Belgium. We used African swine fever-infected spleen samples to perform a phylogenetic analysis of the virus. The causative strain belongs to genotype II, and its closest relatives are viruses previously isolated in Ukraine, Belarus, Estonia, and European Russia.
January 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Jie Wu, Changwen Ke, Eric H Y Lau, Yingchao Song, Kit Ling Cheng, Lirong Zou, Min Kang, Tie Song, Malik Peiris, Hui-Ling Yen
We compared the detection frequency of avian influenza H7 subtypes at live poultry markets in Guangdong Province, China, before and after the introduction of a bivalent H5/H7 vaccine in poultry. The vaccine was associated with a 92% reduction in H7 positivity rates among poultry and a 98% reduction in human H7N9 cases.
January 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Helene M De Nys, Placide Mbala Kingebeni, Alpha K Keita, Christelle Butel, Guillaume Thaurignac, Christian-Julian Villabona-Arenas, Thomas Lemarcis, Mare Geraerts, Nicole Vidal, Amandine Esteban, Mathieu Bourgarel, François Roger, Fabian Leendertz, Ramadan Diallo, Simon-Pierre Ndimbo-Kumugo, Justus Nsio-Mbeta, Nikki Tagg, Lamine Koivogui, Abdoulaye Toure, Eric Delaporte, Steve Ahuka-Mundeke, Jean-Jacques Muyembe Tamfum, Eitel Mpoudi-Ngole, Ahidjo Ayouba, Martine Peeters
To clarify the role of bats in the ecology of Ebola viruses, we assessed the prevalence of Ebola virus antibodies in a large-scale sample of bats collected during 2015-2017 from countries in Africa that have had previous Ebola outbreaks (Guinea, the Democratic Republic of the Congo) or are at high risk for outbreaks (Cameroon). We analyzed 4,022 blood samples of bats from >12 frugivorous and 27 insectivorous species; 2-37 (0.05%-0.92%) bats were seropositive for Zaire and 0-30 (0%-0.75%) bats for Sudan Ebola viruses...
December 17, 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
André Ricardo Ribas Freitas, Maria Rita Donalisio, Pedro María Alarcón-Elbal
During 2014-2015, a total of 31 deaths were associated with the first chikungunya epidemic in Puerto Rico. We analyzed excess mortality from various causes for the same months during the previous 4 years and detected 1,310 deaths possibly attributable to chikungunya. Our findings raise important questions about increased mortality rates associated with chikungunya.
December 17, 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Caroline Swanink, Johan Reimerink, Jet Gisolf, Ankje de Vries, Mark Claassen, Liesbeth Martens, Toos Waegemaekers, Harry Rozendaal, Stasja Valkenburgh, Tabitha Hoornweg, Miriam Maas
Orthohantaviruses are a group of rodentborne viruses with a worldwide distribution. The orthohantavirus Seoul virus (SEOV) can cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in humans and is distributed worldwide, like its reservoir host, the rat. Cases of SEOV in wild and pet rats have been described in several countries, and human cases have been reported in the United Kingdom, France, Canada, and the United States. In the Netherlands, SEOV has previously been found in wild brown rats. We describe an autochthonous human case of SEOV infection in the Netherlands...
December 17, 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Maya Nadimpalli, Yith Vuthy, Agathe de Lauzanne, Laetitia Fabre, Alexis Criscuolo, Malika Gouali, Bich-Tram Huynh, Thierry Naas, Thong Phe, Laurence Borand, Jan Jacobs, Alexandra Kerléguer, Patrice Piola, Didier Guillemot, Simon Le Hello, Elisabeth Delarocque-Astagneau
We compared extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli isolates from meat and fish, gut-colonized women, and infected patients in Cambodia. Nearly half of isolates from women were phylogenetically related to food-origin isolates; a subset had identical multilocus sequence types, extended-spectrum β-lactamase types, and antimicrobial resistance patterns. Eating sun-dried poultry may be an exposure route.
January 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Romolo Nonno, Silvio Notari, Michele Angelo Di Bari, Ignazio Cali, Laura Pirisinu, Claudia d'Agostino, Laura Cracco, Diane Kofskey, Ilaria Vanni, Jody Lavrich, Piero Parchi, Umberto Agrimi, Pierluigi Gambetti
Variably protease-sensitive prionopathy (VPSPr), a recently described human sporadic prion disease, features a protease-resistant, disease-related prion protein (resPrPD ) displaying 5 fragments reminiscent of Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease. Experimental VPSPr transmission to human PrP-expressing transgenic mice, although replication of the VPSPr resPrPD profile succeeded, has been incomplete because of second passage failure. We bioassayed VPSPr in bank voles, which are susceptible to human prion strains...
January 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Oscar Noya-Alarcón, Maríapía Bevilacqua, Alfonso J Rodríguez-Morales
Trachoma is among the most common infectious causes of blindness. During January-May 2018, a total of 4 trachoma cases were diagnosed among Amerindians of the Yanomami ethnic group in 3 communities of southern Venezuela. This country has social and environmental conditions conducive to the endemicity of this neglected tropical disease.
January 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
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