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Emerging Infectious Diseases

Emmanouil A Fotakis, Ioannis A Giantsis, Aimilia Avgerinou, Sofoklis Kourtidis, Evangelia Agathaggelidou, Christina Kapoula, Glykeria Dadakou, John Vontas, Alexandra Chaskopoulou
High infection rates of Leishmania donovani and L. tropica were detected in Phlebotomus spp. sand flies collected from refugee camps in Greece, indicating increased risk of infection among local populations. Detection and treatment of leishmaniasis, community education, and vector control are essential measures to prevent pathogen transmission and protect public health.
February 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Yanli Lyu, Shikai Song, Liwei Zhou, Guoxia Bing, Qian Wang, Haoran Sun, Mingyue Chen, Junyi Hu, Mingyang Wang, Honglei Sun, Juan Pu, Zhaofei Xia, Jinhua Liu, Yipeng Sun
During 2012-2017, we collected throat swabs from dogs in China to characterize canine influenza virus (CIV) A(H3N2) isolates. A new antigenically and genetically distinct CIV H3N2 clade possessing mutations associated with mammalian adaptation emerged in 2016 and replaced previously circulating strains. This clade probably poses a risk for zoonotic infection.
January 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Alexandra Rockstroh, Luisa Barzon, Widuranga Kumbukgolla, Hoang Xuan Su, Erley Lizarazo, Maria Fernanda Vincenti-Gonzalez, Adriana Tami, Alice M M Ornelas, Renato Santana Aguiar, Daniel Cadar, Jonas Schmidt-Chanasit, Sebastian Ulbert
We developed an IgM-based ELISA that identifies the dengue virus serotype of recent infections. Dominant serotypes were detectable in 91.1% of samples from travelers and 86.5% of samples from residents of endemic regions; 97.1% corresponded to the serotype identified by PCR. This ELISA enables more accurate reporting of epidemiologic findings.
January 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Mutien Garigliany, Daniel Desmecht, Marylène Tignon, Dominique Cassart, Christophe Lesenfant, Julien Paternostre, Rosario Volpe, Ann Brigitte Cay, Thierry van den Berg, Annick Linden
In September 2018, African swine fever in wild boars was detected in Belgium. We used African swine fever-infected spleen samples to perform a phylogenetic analysis of the virus. The causative strain belongs to genotype II, and its closest relatives are viruses previously isolated in Ukraine, Belarus, Estonia, and European Russia.
January 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Jie Wu, Changwen Ke, Eric H Y Lau, Yingchao Song, Kit Ling Cheng, Lirong Zou, Min Kang, Tie Song, Malik Peiris, Hui-Ling Yen
We compared the detection frequency of avian influenza H7 subtypes at live poultry markets in Guangdong Province, China, before and after the introduction of a bivalent H5/H7 vaccine in poultry. The vaccine was associated with a 92% reduction in H7 positivity rates among poultry and a 98% reduction in human H7N9 cases.
January 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Helene M De Nys, Placide Mbala Kingebeni, Alpha K Keita, Christelle Butel, Guillaume Thaurignac, Christian-Julian Villabona-Arenas, Thomas Lemarcis, Mare Geraerts, Nicole Vidal, Amandine Esteban, Mathieu Bourgarel, François Roger, Fabian Leendertz, Ramadan Diallo, Simon-Pierre Ndimbo-Kumugo, Justus Nsio-Mbeta, Nikki Tagg, Lamine Koivogui, Abdoulaye Toure, Eric Delaporte, Steve Ahuka-Mundeke, Jean-Jacques Muyembe Tamfum, Eitel Mpoudi-Ngole, Ahidjo Ayouba, Martine Peeters
To clarify the role of bats in the ecology of Ebola viruses, we assessed the prevalence of Ebola virus antibodies in a large-scale sample of bats collected during 2015-2017 from countries in Africa that have had previous Ebola outbreaks (Guinea, the Democratic Republic of the Congo) or are at high risk for outbreaks (Cameroon). We analyzed 4,022 blood samples of bats from >12 frugivorous and 27 insectivorous species; 2-37 (0.05%-0.92%) bats were seropositive for Zaire and 0-30 (0%-0.75%) bats for Sudan Ebola viruses...
December 17, 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
André Ricardo Ribas Freitas, Maria Rita Donalisio, Pedro María Alarcón-Elbal
During 2014-2015, a total of 31 deaths were associated with the first chikungunya epidemic in Puerto Rico. We analyzed excess mortality from various causes for the same months during the previous 4 years and detected 1,310 deaths possibly attributable to chikungunya. Our findings raise important questions about increased mortality rates associated with chikungunya.
December 17, 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Caroline Swanink, Johan Reimerink, Jet Gisolf, Ankje de Vries, Mark Claassen, Liesbeth Martens, Toos Waegemaekers, Harry Rozendaal, Stasja Valkenburgh, Tabitha Hoornweg, Miriam Maas
Orthohantaviruses are a group of rodentborne viruses with a worldwide distribution. The orthohantavirus Seoul virus (SEOV) can cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in humans and is distributed worldwide, like its reservoir host, the rat. Cases of SEOV in wild and pet rats have been described in several countries, and human cases have been reported in the United Kingdom, France, Canada, and the United States. In the Netherlands, SEOV has previously been found in wild brown rats. We describe an autochthonous human case of SEOV infection in the Netherlands...
December 17, 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Alessandra Lemos de Carvalho, Carlos Brites, Tânia Barreto Taguchi, Suely Fernandes Pinho, Gúbio Campos, Rita Lucena
We describe a case of a 20-month-old girl with probable congenital Zika virus infection and normal neurodevelopment, despite microcephaly and abnormal neuroimaging. This case raises questions about early prognostic markers and draws attention to the need for investigation in suspected Zika cases, even if the child's early neurodevelopment is normal.
November 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Scott W Olesen, Yonatan H Grad
Using a US nationwide survey, we measured disparities in antimicrobial drug acquisition by race/ethnicity for 2014-2015. White persons reported twice as many antimicrobial drug prescription fills per capita as persons of other race/ethnicities. Characterizing antimicrobial drug use by demographic might improve antimicrobial drug stewardship and help address antimicrobial drug resistance.
November 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Htin Lin Aung, Wint Wint Nyunt, Yang Fong, Bruce Russell, Gregory M Cook, Si Thu Aung
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Rachel Mearkle, Sooria Balasegaram, Shiranee Sriskandan, Vicki Chalker, Theresa Lamagni
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Michel Kaswa Kayomo, Epco Hasker, Muriel Aloni, Léontine Nkuku, Marcel Kazadi, Thierry Kabengele, Dorcas Muteteke, François Kapita, Alphonse Lufulwabo, Ya Diul Mukadi, Jean-Jacques Muyembe-Tamfum, Margareta Ieven, Bouke C de Jong, Marleen Boelaert
After an alert regarding ≈31 tuberculosis (TB) cases, 3 of which were rifampin-resistant TB cases, in Mbuji-Mayi Central Prison, Democratic Republic of the Congo, we conducted an outbreak investigation in January 2015. We analyzed sputum of presumptive TB patients by using the Xpert MTB/RIF assay. We also assessed the Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates' drug-susceptibility patterns and risk factors for TB infection. Among a prison population of 918 inmates, 29 TB case-patients were already undergoing treatment...
November 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Edson Delatorre, Jorge Fernández, Gonzalo Bello
The role of Easter Island in the dissemination of Zika virus from the Pacific islands into the Americas remains unclear. We analyzed new Zika virus sequences from Eastern Island and found that Zika virus was independently disseminated from French Polynesia into the Americas and Easter Island at around the same time.
November 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Haiyan Zeng, Tao Lei, Wenjing He, Jumei Zhang, Bingshao Liang, Chengsi Li, Na Ling, Yu Ding, Shi Wu, Juan Wang, Qingping Wu
We report a case of meningitis in a neonate in China, which was caused by a novel multidrug-resistant Cronobacter sakazakii strain, sequence type 256, capsular profile K1:CA1. We identified genetic factors associated with bacterial pathogenicity and antimicrobial drug resistance in the genome and plasmids. Enhanced surveillance of this organism is warranted.
November 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Yingqi Lai, Parthasarathy Purnima, Marc Ho, Michelle Ang, Rama N Deepak, Ka Lip Chew, Shawn Vasoo, Dimatatac F Capulong, Vernon Lee
We report a fatal autochthonous diphtheria case in a migrant worker in Singapore. This case highlights the risk for individual cases in undervaccinated subpopulations, despite high vaccination coverage in the general population. Prompt implementation of public health measures and maintaining immunization coverage are critical to prevent reemergence of diphtheria.
November 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Tomoyasu Nishimura, Masaki Ota, Masaaki Mori, Naoki Hasegawa, Hiroshi Kawabe, Seiya Kato
We estimated the latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) rate for foreign-born students at Keio University, Tokyo, Japan, using an interferon-γ release assay. The LTBI rate for students from countries with estimated tuberculosis incidence >100 cases/100,000 persons was high (10.0%). Universities should screen for LTBI in students from countries with high tuberculosis incidence.
November 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Ross M Boyce, Alan M Sanfilippo, John M Boulos, Meghan Cleinmark, John Schmitz, Steve Meshnick
Nearly two thirds of persons suspected of having tickborne illness in central North Carolina, USA, were not tested for Ehrlichia. Failure to test may have resulted in a missed diagnosis for ≈13% of these persons, who were therefore substantially less likely to receive antimicrobial treatment and to have follow-up testing performed.
November 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Jeanne P Vincent, Kanako Komaki-Yasuda, Alexandre V Existe, Jacques Boncy, Shigeyuki Kano
We obtained 78 human blood samples from areas in Haiti with high transmission of malaria and found no drug resistance-associated mutations in Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter and Kelch 13 genes. We recommend maintaining chloroquine as the first-line drug for malaria in Haiti. Artemisinin-based therapy can be used as alternative therapy.
November 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Sheikh Taslim Ali, Benjamin J Cowling, Eric H Y Lau, Vicky J Fang, Gabriel M Leung
In winter 2018, schools in Hong Kong were closed 1 week before the scheduled Chinese New Year holiday to mitigate an influenza B virus epidemic. The intervention occurred after the epidemic peak and reduced overall incidence by ≈4.2%. School-based vaccination programs should be implemented to more effectively reduce influenza illnesses.
November 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
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