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Emerging Infectious Diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980523/increased-severity-and-spread-of-mycobacterium-ulcerans-southeastern-australia
#1
Alex Y C Tai, Eugene Athan, N Deborah Friedman, Andrew Hughes, Aaron Walton, Daniel P O'Brien
Reported cases of Mycobacterium ulcerans disease (Buruli ulcer) have been increasing in southeastern Australia and spreading into new geographic areas. We analyzed 426 cases of M. ulcerans disease during January 1998-May 2017 in the established disease-endemic region of the Bellarine Peninsula and the emerging endemic region of the Mornington Peninsula. A total of 20.4% of cases-patients had severe disease. Over time, there has been an increase in the number of cases managed per year and the proportion associated with severe disease...
January 15, 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980894/influenza-a-h9n2-virus-burkina-faso
#2
Bianca Zecchin, Germaine Minoungou, Alice Fusaro, Sidi Moctar, Anne Ouedraogo-Kaboré, Alessia Schivo, Annalisa Salviato, Sabrina Marciano, Isabella Monne
We identified influenza A(H9N2) virus G1 lineage in poultry in Burkina Faso. Urgent actions are needed to raise awareness about the risk associated with spread of this zoonotic virus subtype in the area and to construct a strategy for effective prevention and control of influenza caused by this virus.
December 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975882/fatal-outbreak-in-tonkean-macaques-caused-by-possibly-novel-orthopoxvirus-italy-january-2015-1
#3
Giusy Cardeti, Cesare Ernesto Maria Gruber, Claudia Eleni, Fabrizio Carletti, Concetta Castilletti, Giuseppe Manna, Francesca Rosone, Emanuela Giombini, Marina Selleri, Daniele Lapa, Vincenzo Puro, Antonino Di Caro, Raniero Lorenzetti, Maria Teresa Scicluna, Goffredo Grifoni, Annapaola Rizzoli, Valentina Tagliapietra, Lorenzo De Marco, Maria Rosaria Capobianchi, Gian Luca Autorino
In January 2015, during a 3-week period, 12 captive Tonkean macacques at a sanctuary in Italy died. An orthopoxvirus infection was suspected because of negative-staining electron microscopy results. The diagnosis was confirmed by histology, virus isolation, and molecular analysis performed on different organs from all animals. An epidemiologic investigation was unable to define the infection source in the surrounding area. Trapped rodents were negative by virologic testing, but specific IgG was detected in 27...
December 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953451/detection-of-zika-virus-in-april-2013-patient-samples-rio-de-janeiro-brazil
#4
Sonia R Lambert Passos, Maria A Borges Dos Santos, José Cerbino-Neto, Sibelle N Buonora, Thiago M L Souza, Raquel V C de Oliveira, Alexandre Vizzoni, Giselle Barbosa-Lima, Yasmine R Vieira, Marcondes Silva de Lima, Yara H M Hökerberg
We tested 210 dengue virus‒negative samples collected from febrile patients during a dengue virus type 4 outbreak in Rio de Janeiro in April 2013 and found 3 samples positive for Zika virus. Our findings support previously published entomological data suggesting Zika virus was introduced into Brazil during October 2012-May 2013.
December 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858604/spread-of-canine-influenza-a-h3n2-virus-united-states
#5
Ian E H Voorhees, Amy L Glaser, Kathy Toohey-Kurth, Sandra Newbury, Benjamin D Dalziel, Edward J Dubovi, Keith Poulsen, Christian Leutenegger, Katriina J E Willgert, Laura Brisbane-Cohen, Jill Richardson-Lopez, Edward C Holmes, Colin R Parrish
A canine influenza A(H3N2) virus emerged in the United States in February-March 2015, causing respiratory disease in dogs. The virus had previously been circulating among dogs in Asia, where it originated through the transfer of an avian-origin influenza virus around 2005 and continues to circulate. Sequence analysis suggests the US outbreak was initiated by a single introduction, in Chicago, of an H3N2 canine influenza virus circulating among dogs in South Korea in 2015. Despite local control measures, the virus has continued circulating among dogs in and around Chicago and has spread to several other areas of the country, particularly Georgia and North Carolina, although these secondary outbreaks appear to have ended within a few months...
December 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841405/experimental-infection-of-common-eider-ducklings-with-wellfleet-bay-virus-a-newly-characterized-orthomyxovirus
#6
Valerie Shearn-Bochsler, Hon Sang Ip, Anne Ballmann, Jeffrey S Hall, Andrew B Allison, Jennifer Ballard, Julie C Ellis, Robert Cook, Samantha E J Gibbs, Chris Dwyer
Wellfleet Bay virus (WFBV), a novel orthomyxovirus in the genus Quaranjavirus, was first isolated in 2006 from carcasses of common eider (Somateria mollissima) during a mortality event in Wellfleet Bay (Barnstable County, Massachusetts, USA) and has since been repeatedly isolated during recurrent mortality events in this location. Hepatic, pancreatic, splenic, and intestinal necrosis were observed in dead eiders. We inoculated 6-week-old common eider ducklings with WFBV in an attempt to recreate the naturally occurring disease...
December 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949285/lineage-specific-real-time-rt-pcr-for-yellow-fever-virus-outbreak-surveillance-brazil
#7
Carlo Fischer, Maria C Torres, Pranav Patel, Andres Moreira-Soto, Ernest A Gould, Rémi N Charrel, Xavier de Lamballerie, Rita Maria Ribeiro Nogueira, Patricia C Sequeira, Cintia D S Rodrigues, Beate M Kümmerer, Christian Drosten, Olfert Landt, Ana Maria Bispo de Filippis, Jan Felix Drexler
The current yellow fever outbreak in Brazil prompted widespread yellow fever virus (YFV) vaccination campaigns, imposing a responsibility to distinguish between vaccine- and wild-type YFV-associated disease. We developed novel multiplex real-time reverse transcription PCRs that differentiate between vaccine and American wild-type YFV. We validated these highly specific and sensitive assays in an outbreak setting.
November 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930015/zika-virus-persistence-and-higher-viral-loads-in-cutaneous-capillaries-than-in-venous-blood
#8
Séverine Matheus, Franck de Laval, David Moua, Christophe N'Guyen, Enguerrane Martinez, Dominique Rousset, Sébastien Briolant
We collected venous and capillary serum samples from 21 Zika virus‒infected patients on multiple days after symptom onset and found RNA load was higher and median duration of virus detection significantly longer in capillary than in venous blood. These findings raise questions about the role of the capillary compartment in virus transmission dynamics.
November 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880836/highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-a-h7n9-virus-tennessee-usa-march-2017
#9
Dong-Hun Lee, Mia K Torchetti, Mary Lea Killian, Yohannes Berhane, David E Swayne
In March 2017, highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H7N9) was detected at 2 poultry farms in Tennessee, USA. Surveillance data and genetic analyses indicated multiple introductions of low pathogenicity avian influenza virus before mutation to high pathogenicity and interfarm transmission. Poultry surveillance should continue because low pathogenicity viruses circulate and spill over into commercial poultry.
November 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840821/dengue-virus-type-2-in-travelers-returning-to-japan-from-sri-lanka-2017
#10
Motoyuki Tsuboi, Satoshi Kutsuna, Takahiro Maeki, Satoshi Taniguchi, Shigeru Tajima, Fumihiro Kato, Chang-Kweng Lim, Masayuki Saijo, Saho Takaya, Yuichi Katanami, Yasuyuki Kato, Norio Ohmagari
In June 2017, dengue virus type 2 infection was diagnosed in 2 travelers returned to Japan from Sri Lanka, where the country's largest dengue fever outbreak is ongoing. Travelers, especially those previously affected by dengue fever, should take measures to avoid mosquito bites.
November 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930031/spread-of-chikungunya-virus-east-central-south-african-genotype-in-northeast-brazil
#11
Antonio Charlys da Costa, Julien Thézé, Shirley Cavalcante Vasconcelos Komninakis, Rodrigo Lopes Sanz-Duro, Marta Rejane Lemos Felinto, Lúcia Cristina Corrêa Moura, Ivoneide Moreira de Oliveira Barroso, Lucineide Eliziario Correia Santos, Mardjane Alves de Lemos Nunes, Adriana Avila Moura, José Lourenço, Xutao Deng, Eric L Delwart, Maria Raquel Dos Anjos Silva Guimarães, Oliver G Pybus, Ester C Sabino, Nuno R Faria
We investigated an outbreak of exanthematous illness in Maceió by using molecular surveillance; 76% of samples tested positive for chikungunya virus. Genetic analysis of 23 newly generated genomes identified the East/Central/South African genotype, suggesting that this lineage has persisted since mid-2014 in Brazil and may spread in the Americas and beyond.
October 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930030/mild-illness-during-outbreak-of-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-o157-infections-associated-with-agricultural-show-australia
#12
Bhakti R Vasant, Russell J Stafford, Amy V Jennison, Sonya M Bennett, Robert J Bell, Christine J Doyle, Jeannette R Young, Susan A Vlack, Paul Titmus, Debra El Saadi, Kari A J Jarvinen, Patricia Coward, Janine Barrett, Megan Staples, Rikki M A Graham, Helen V Smith, Stephen B Lambert
During a large outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli illness associated with an agricultural show in Australia, we used whole-genome sequencing to detect an IS1203v insertion in the Shiga toxin 2c subunit A gene of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli. Our study showed that clinical illness was mild, and hemolytic uremic syndrome was not detected.
October 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930029/berlin-squirrelpox-virus-a-new-poxvirus-in-red-squirrels-berlin-germany
#13
Gudrun Wibbelt, Simon H Tausch, Piotr W Dabrowski, Olivia Kershaw, Andreas Nitsche, Livia Schrick
Near Berlin, Germany, several juvenile red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) were found with moist, crusty skin lesions. Histology, electron microscopy, and cell culture isolation revealed an orthopoxvirus-like infection. Subsequent PCR and genome analysis identified a new poxvirus (Berlin squirrelpox virus) that could not be assigned to any known poxvirus genera.
October 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930028/mycobacterium-riyadhense-in-saudi-arabia
#14
Bright Varghese, Mushirah Abdulaziz Enani, Sahar Althawadi, Sameera Johani, Grace Mary Fernandez, Hawra Al-Ghafli, Sahal Al-Hajoj
We explored in detail the nationwide existence of Mycobacterium riyadhense in Saudi Arabia. In 18 months, 12 new cases of M. riyadhense infection were observed, predominantly among Saudi nationals, as a cause of pulmonary disease. M. riyadhense may be emerging as a more common pathogen in Saudi Arabia.
October 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930027/autochthonous-transmission-of-east-central-south-african-genotype-chikungunya-virus-brazil
#15
Marcela S Cunha, Nádia V G Cruz, Laila C Schnellrath, Maria Luiza Gomes Medaglia, Michele E Casotto, Rodolpho M Albano, Luciana J Costa, Clarissa R Damaso
We isolated East/Central/South African genotype chikungunya virus during the 2016 epidemic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Genome sequencing revealed unique mutations in the nonstructural protein 4 (NSP4-A481D) and envelope protein 1 (E1-K211T). Moreover, all Brazil East/Central/South isolates shared the exclusive mutations E1-M407L and E2-A103T.
October 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930026/macrolide-resistant-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-infection-japan-2008-2015
#16
Takaaki Tanaka, Tomohiro Oishi, Ippei Miyata, Shoko Wakabayashi, Mina Kono, Sahoko Ono, Atsushi Kato, Yoko Fukuda, Aki Saito, Eisuke Kondo, Hideto Teranishi, Yuhei Tanaka, Tokio Wakabayashi, Hiroto Akaike, Satoko Ogita, Naoki Ohno, Takashi Nakano, Kihei Terada, Kazunobu Ouchi
We evaluated isolates obtained from children with Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection throughout Japan during 2008-2015. The highest prevalence of macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae was 81.6% in 2012, followed by 59.3% in 2014 and 43.6% in 2015. The prevalence of macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae among children in Japan has decreased.
October 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930025/unrecognized-subclinical-infection-with-tickborne-encephalitis-virus-japan
#17
Kentaro Yoshii, Reiji Kojima, Hiroshi Nishiura
During early 2017, we conducted a seroepidemiologic investigation for tickborne encephalitis virus among 291 Japan Self-Defense Forces members in Hokkaido. Two (0.7%) tested positive. Neither had clinically apparent symptoms after removing ticks.
October 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930024/enterovirus-d68-associated-acute-flaccid-myelitis-in-immunocompromised-woman-italy
#18
Emanuela Giombini, Martina Rueca, Walter Barberi, Anna Paola Iori, Maurizio Inghilleri, Concetta Castilletti, Paola Scognamiglio, Francesco Vairo, Giuseppe Ippolito, Maria Rosaria Capobianchi, Maria Beatrice Valli
In Italy in 2016, acute flaccid myelitis developed in a woman who had received a hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Enterovirus D68 viral genome was detected in respiratory and cerebrospinal fluid samples, and the viral protein 1 sequence clustered with lineage B3. Immunocompromised adults may be at risk for enterovirus D68-associated neurologic complications.
October 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930023/familial-transmission-of-emm12-group-a-streptococcus
#19
Claire Duployez, Anne Vachée, Olivier Robineau, François Giraud, Anthony Deny, Eric Senneville, Frédéric Wallet, Caroline Loïez
Incidence and severity of invasive group A Streptococcus infections are of increasing concern in France and worldwide. The risk for secondary infection of close contacts is known but rarely described. We report a case of intrafamilial and life-threatening transmission of emm12 group A Streptococcus.
October 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930022/diagnosis-of-fatal-human-case-of-st-louis-encephalitis-virus-infection-by-metagenomic-sequencing-california-2016
#20
Charles Y Chiu, Lark L Coffey, Jamie Murkey, Kelly Symmes, Hannah A Sample, Michael R Wilson, Samia N Naccache, Shaun Arevalo, Sneha Somasekar, Scot Federman, Doug Stryke, Paul Vespa, Gary Schiller, Sharon Messenger, Romney Humphries, Steve Miller, Jeffrey D Klausner
We used unbiased metagenomic next-generation sequencing to diagnose a fatal case of meningoencephalitis caused by St. Louis encephalitis virus in a patient from California in September 2016. This case is associated with the recent 2015-2016 reemergence of this virus in the southwestern United States.
October 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
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