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Emerging Infectious Diseases

Diya Surie, Othusitse Fane, Alyssa Finlay, Matsiri Ogopotse, James L Tobias, Eleanor S Click, Chawangwa Modongo, Nicola M Zetola, Patrick K Moonan, John E Oeltmann
During 2012-2015, 10 of 24 patients infected with matching genotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis received care at the same hospital in Gaborone, Botswana. Nosocomial transmission was initially suspected, but we discovered plausible sites of community transmission for 20 (95%) of 21 interviewed patients. Active case-finding at these sites could halt ongoing transmission.
March 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Júlia Vergara-Alert, Judith M A van den Brand, W Widagdo, Marta Muñoz, Stalin Raj, Debby Schipper, David Solanes, Ivan Cordón, Albert Bensaid, Bart L Haagmans, Joaquim Segalés
Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) cases continue to be reported, predominantly in Saudi Arabia and occasionally other countries. Although dromedaries are the main reservoir, other animal species might be susceptible to MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection and potentially serve as reservoirs. To determine whether other animals are potential reservoirs, we inoculated MERS-CoV into llamas, pigs, sheep, and horses and collected nasal and rectal swab samples at various times. The presence of MERS-CoV in the nose of pigs and llamas was confirmed by PCR, titration of infectious virus, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization; seroconversion was detected in animals of both species...
February 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Veasna Duong, Sivuth Ong, Rithea Leang, Rekol Huy, Sowath Ly, Ugo Mounier, Teyputita Ou, Saraden In, Borin Peng, Sreymom Ken, Philippe Buchy, Arnaud Tarantola, Paul F Horwood, Philippe Dussart
We describe a retrospective study on circulation of Zika virus in Cambodia during 2007-2016 among patients with dengue-like symptoms and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Our findings suggest that Zika virus in Cambodia belongs to the Asia genotype, is endemic, has low prevalence, and has had low-level impact on public health.
February 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Dong-Hun Lee, Kirill Sharshov, David E Swayne, Olga Kurskaya, Ivan Sobolev, Marsel Kabilov, Alexander Alekseev, Victor Irza, Alexander Shestopalov
The emergence of novel avian influenza viruses in migratory birds is of concern because of the potential for virus dissemination during fall migration. We report the identification of novel highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses of subtype H5N8, clade, and their reassortment with other avian influenza viruses in waterfowl and shorebirds of Siberia.
February 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Hongbo Guo, Erik de Vries, Ryan McBride, Jojanneke Dekkers, Kim M Bouwman, Corwin Nycholat, M Helene Verheije, James C Paulson, Frank J M van Kuppeveld, Cornelis A M de Haan
Emergence and intercontinental spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5Nx) virus clade is unprecedented. H5N8 and H5N2 viruses have caused major economic losses in the poultry industry in Europe and North America, and lethal human infections with H5N6 virus have occurred in Asia. Knowledge of the evolution of receptor-binding specificity of these viruses, which might affect host range, is urgently needed. We report that emergence of these viruses is accompanied by a change in receptor-binding specificity...
February 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
George Shirreff, Mufti Zubair Wadood, Rui Gama Vaz, Roland W Sutter, Nicholas C Grassly
In 2014, inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) campaigns were implemented in Nigeria and Pakistan after clinical trials showed that IPV boosts intestinal immunity in children previously given oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). We estimated the effect of these campaigns by using surveillance data collected during January 2014-April 2016. In Nigeria, campaigns with IPV and trivalent OPV (tOPV) substantially reduced the incidence of poliomyelitis caused by circulating serotype-2 vaccine-derived poliovirus (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 0...
February 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Siraj A Khan, Trishna Bora, Basanta Laskar, Abdul M Khan, Prafulla Dutta
To determine the contribution of Orientia tsutsugamushi, the agent of scrub typhus, as a cause of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) in Assam, India, we conducted a retrospective study of hospital patients with symptoms of AES during 2013-2015. Our findings suggest that O. tsutsugamushi infection leads to AES and the resulting illness and death.
January 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Kate Whittemore, Anna Tate, Alex Illescas, Alhaji Saffa, Austin Collins, Jay K Varma, Neil M Vora
We surveyed women in New York, New York, USA, who were in areas with active Zika virus transmission while pregnant. Of 99 women who were US residents, 30 were unaware of the government travel advisory to areas with active Zika virus transmission while pregnant, and 37 were unaware of their pregnancies during travel.
January 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Rui Li, Katharine B Simmons, Jeanne Bertolli, Brenda Rivera-Garcia, Shanna Cox, Lisa Romero, Lisa M Koonin, Miguel Valencia-Prado, Nabal Bracero, Denise J Jamieson, Wanda Barfield, Cynthia A Moore, Cara T Mai, Lauren C Korhonen, Meghan T Frey, Janice Perez-Padilla, Ricardo Torres-Muñoz, Scott D Grosse
We modeled the potential cost-effectiveness of increasing access to contraception in Puerto Rico during a Zika virus outbreak. The intervention is projected to cost an additional $33.5 million in family planning services and is likely to be cost-saving for the healthcare system overall. It could reduce Zika virus-related costs by $65.2 million ($2.8 million from less Zika virus testing and monitoring and $62.3 million from avoided costs of Zika virus-associated microcephaly [ZAM]). The estimates are influenced by the contraception methods used, the frequency of ZAM, and the lifetime incremental cost of ZAM...
January 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Eyal Meltzer, Yael Paran, Yaniv Lustig, Shmuel Stienlauf, Miriam Weinberger, Eli Schwartz
During 2006-2014, four tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) cases occurred among Israeli travelers. We calculated TBE incidence at 321.0, 45.0, 13.2, and 7.5 cases/100,000 travelers/year of travel to Sweden, Switzerland, Austria, and Germany, respectively. TBE incidence among travelers to these destinations appears to justify TBE vaccination in accordance with World Health Organization recommendations.
January 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Emilio Dirlikov, Krista Kniss, Chelsea Major, Dana Thomas, Cesar A Virgen, Marrielle Mayshack, Jason Asher, Luis Mier-Y-Teran-Romero, Jorge L Salinas, Daniel M Pastula, Tyler M Sharp, James Sejvar, Michael A Johansson, Brenda Rivera-Garcia
To assist with public health preparedness activities, we estimated the number of expected cases of Zika virus in Puerto Rico and associated healthcare needs. Estimated annual incidence is 3.2-5.1 times the baseline, and long-term care needs are predicted to be 3-5 times greater than in years with no Zika virus.
January 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Nakia S Clemmons, Zachary D McCormic, Joel C Gaydos, Anthony W Hawksworth, Nikki N Jordan
The 1999 cessation of vaccination against adenovirus types 4 and 7 among US Army trainees resulted in reemergence of acute respiratory disease (ARD) outbreaks. The 2011 implementation of a replacement vaccine led to dramatic and sustained decreases in ARD cases, supporting continuation of vaccination in this population at high risk for ARD.
January 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Katherine M Gaskell, Catherine Houlihan, Eleni Nastouli, Anna M Checkley
Zika virus is normally transmitted by mosquitos, but cases of sexual transmission have been reported. We describe a patient with symptomatic Zika virus infection in whom the virus was detected in semen for 92 days. Our findings support recommendations for 6 months of barrier contraceptive use after symptomatic Zika virus infection.
January 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Kristy O Murray, Rodion Gorchakov, Anna R Carlson, Rebecca Berry, Lilin Lai, Muktha Natrajan, Melissa N Garcia, Armando Correa, Shital M Patel, Kjersti Aagaard, Mark J Mulligan
Infection with Zika virus is an emerging public health crisis. We observed prolonged detection of virus RNA in vaginal mucosal swab specimens and whole blood for a US traveler with acute Zika virus infection who had visited Honduras. These findings advance understanding of Zika virus infection and provide data for additional testing strategies.
January 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Marjolein Knoester, Elisabeth H Schölvinck, Randy Poelman, Sylvia Smit, Clementien L Vermont, Hubert G M Niesters, Coretta C Van Leer-Buter
In June and July 2016, we identified 8 adults and 17 children with respiratory enterovirus D68 infections. Thirteen children required intensive care unit admission because of respiratory insufficiency, and 1 had concomitant acute flaccid myelitis. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all of 20 sequences obtained belong to the recently described clade B3.
January 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Kate Zinszer, Kathryn Morrison, John S Brownstein, Fatima Marinho, Alexandre F Santos, Elaine O Nsoesie
We estimated the speed of Zika virus introduction in Brazil by using confirmed cases at the municipal level. Our models indicate a southward pattern of introduction starting from the northeastern coast and a pattern of movement toward the western border with an average speed of spread of 42 km/day or 15,367 km/year.
January 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Diana Faour Kassem, Yoav Hoffmann, Naama Shahar, Smadar Ocampo, Liora Salomon, Zeev Zonis, Daniel Glikman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Raafat F Alhakeem, Claire M Midgley, Abdullah M Assiri, Mohammed Alessa, Hassan Al Hawaj, Abdulaziz Bin Saeed, Malak M Almasri, Xiaoyan Lu, Glen R Abedi, Osman Abdalla, Mutaz Mohammed, Homoud S Algarni, Hail M Al-Abdely, Ali Abraheem Alsharef, Randa Nooh, Dean D Erdman, Susan I Gerber, John T Watson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 15, 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Lorenzo Zammarchi, Claudia Fortuna, Giulietta Venturi, Francesca Rinaldi, Teresa Capobianco, Maria Elena Remoli, Gian Maria Rossolini, Giovanni Rezza, Alessandro Bartoloni
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 15, 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Xiao-Ai Zhang, Teng Zhu, Pan-He Zhang, Hao Li, Yan Li, En-Mei Liu, Wei Liu, Wu-Chun Cao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 15, 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
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