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Emerging Infectious Diseases

Jangsup Moon, Yoonhyuk Jang, Narae Kim, Wan Beom Park, Kyung-Il Park, Soon-Tae Lee, Keun-Hwa Jung, Manho Kim, Sang Kun Lee, Kon Chu
We used deep sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene from sputum to identify Haemophilus influenza in a patient with community-acquired pneumonia. This method may be more effective than conventional diagnostic tests in pneumonia patients because of its speed and sensitivity.
October 17, 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Cornelia Adlhoch, Gavin Dabrera, Pasi Penttinen, Richard Pebody
We sought to better understand national approaches for managing potential human health risks during outbreaks of infection with avian influenza A(H5N8) virus during 2017-17. Twenty-three countries in the Union/European Economic Area and Israel participated in this study. Risk to the general public was assessed as low in 18 countries and medium in 1 country. Of 524 exposed persons identified, 274 were passively monitored and 250 were actively monitored. Of 29 persons tested, all were negative for H5N8 virus...
October 17, 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Hussain Al-Ghadeer, Daniel K W Chu, Ehab A Rihan, Ehab A Abd-Allah, Haogao Gu, Alex W H Chin, Ibrahim A Qasim, Ali Aldoweriej, Sanad S Alharbi, Marshad A Al-Aqil, Ali Al-Sahaf, Salah S Abdel Rahman, Ali H Aljassem, Ali Abdul-Al, Mohammed R Aljasir, Yousef M O Alhammad, Samy Kasem, Malik Peiris, Ahmed Z S A Zaki, Leo L M Poon
Highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) viruses have been detected in several continents. However, limited viral sequence data is available from countries in the Middle East. We report full-genome analyses of highly pathogenic H5N8 viruses recently detected in different provinces in Saudi Arabia.
October 17, 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Thidathip Wongsurawat, Niracha Athipanyasilp, Piroon Jenjaroenpun, Se-Ran Jun, Bualan Kaewnapan, Trudy M Wassenaar, Nuttawut Leelahakorn, Nasikarn Angkasekwinai, Wannee Kantakamalakul, David W Ussery, Ruengpung Sutthent, Intawat Nookaew, Navin Horthongkham
We sequenced the virus genomes from 3 pregnant women in Thailand with Zika virus diagnoses. All had infections with the Asian lineage. The woman infected at gestational week 9, and not those infected at weeks 20 and 24, had a fetus with microcephaly. Asian lineage Zika viruses can cause microcephaly.
September 17, 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Kyle Rosenke, Heinz Feldmann, Jonna B Westover, Patrick William Hanley, Cynthia Martellaro, Friederike Feldmann, Greg Saturday, Jamie Lovaglio, Dana P Scott, Yousuke Furuta, Takashi Komeno, Brian B Gowen, David Safronetz
Lassa virus, the cause of Lassa fever in humans, is endemic to West Africa. Treatment of Lassa fever is primarily supportive, although ribavirin has shown limited efficacy if administered early during infection. We tested favipiravir in Lassa virus-viremic macaques and found that 300 mg/kg daily for 2 weeks successfully treated infection.
September 17, 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Holly R Hughes, John Kayiwa, Eric C Mossel, Julius Lutwama, J Erin Staples, Amy J Lambert
In April 2016, a yellow fever outbreak was detected in Uganda. Removal of contaminating ribosomal RNA in a clinical sample improved the sensitivity of next-generation sequencing. Molecular analyses determined the Uganda yellow fever outbreak was distinct from the concurrent yellow fever outbreak in Angola, improving our understanding of yellow fever epidemiology.
August 17, 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Jean Popovici, Amelie Vantaux, Lyse Primault, Reingsey Samreth, Eak Por Piv, Sophalai Bin, Saorin Kim, Dysoley Lek, David Serre, Didier Menard
We assessed the efficacy of standard 3-day courses of chloroquine and dihydroartemisinin/piperaquine against Plasmodium vivax malaria. Compared with chloroquine, dihydroartemisinin/piperaquine was faster in clearing asexual P. vivax parasites and blocking human-to-mosquito transmission. This drug combination was also more effective in preventing potential recurrences for >2 months.
August 17, 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Juliana Inoue, Miguel Silva, Bakary Fofana, Kassim Sanogo, Andreas Mårtensson, Issaka Sagara, Anders Björkman, Maria Isabel Veiga, Pedro Eduardo Ferreira, Abdoulaye Djimde, José Pedro Gil
Dihydroartemisinin/piperaquine (DHA/PPQ) is increasingly deployed as antimalaria drug in Africa. We report the detection in Mali of Plasmodium falciparum infections carrying plasmepsin 2 duplications (associated with piperaquine resistance) in 7/65 recurrent infections within 2 months after DHA/PPQ treatment. These findings raise concerns about the long-term efficacy of DHA/PPQ treatment in Africa.
August 17, 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Yoshihiko Ogawa, Kei Kasahara, Sang-Tae Lee, Takamitsu Ito, Hideo Hasegawa, Sachie Hirose, Shigeru Santo, Atsushi Yoshida, Ryuichi Nakano, Hisakazu Yano, Keiichi Mikasa
We report a case of rat-bite fever in a 94-year-old woman with Streptobacillus notomytis infection. We established an epidemiologic link between exposure to rats and human infection by performing nested PCRs that detected S. notomytis in the intraoral swab specimens obtained from rats captured in the patient's house.
August 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Anne Schuchat, Larry J Anderson, Lance E Rodewald, Nancy J Cox, Rana Hajjeh, Mark A Pallansch, Nancy E Messonnier, Daniel B Jernigan, Melinda Wharton
The need for closer linkages between scientific and programmatic areas focused on addressing vaccine-preventable and acute respiratory infections led to establishment of the National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. During its first 10 years (2006-2015), NCIRD worked with partners to improve preparedness and response to pandemic influenza and other emergent respiratory infections, provide an evidence base for addition of 7 newly recommended vaccines, and modernize vaccine distribution...
July 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Timothy J J Inglis, Chantal Spittle, Hilary Carmichael, Jaala Downes, Marilina Chiari, Adrian McQueen-Mason, Adam J Merritt, Meredith Hodge, Ronan J Murray, Gary K Dowse
Two cases of Legionnaires' disease and 1 of Pontiac fever occurred among the crew of a merchant ship operating off the shores of Australia. PCR assays identified potential sources in the ship's cabins. Modification of maritime regulations for Legionnaires' disease prevention in commercial vessels is needed for nonpassenger merchant ships.
July 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Jung Yeon Heo, Ji Yun Noh, Hye Won Jeong, Kang-Won Choe, Joon Young Song, Woo Joo Kim, Hee Jin Cheong
During January 2013-April 2014, we subjected nasopharyngeal specimens collected from patients with acute febrile respiratory illness in a military hospital to PCR testing to detect 12 respiratory viruses and sequence a partial hexon gene for human adenovirus (HAdV) molecular typing. We analyzed the epidemiologic characteristics of HAdV infections and compared clinical characteristics of HAdV types. Among the 305 patients with acute febrile respiratory illness, we detected respiratory viruses in 139 (45.6%) patients; HAdV was the most prevalent virus (69 cases)...
July 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Catalino Demetria, Ina Smith, Titus Tan, Daniel Villarico, Edson Michael Simon, Rex Centeno, Mary Tachedjian, Satoshi Taniguchi, Masayuki Shimojima, Noel Lee J Miranda, Mary Elizabeth Miranda, Melissa Marie R Rondina, Rowena Capistrano, Amado Tandoc, Glenn Marsh, Debbie Eagles, Ramses Cruz, Shuetsu Fukushi
In August 2015, a nonhuman primate facility south of Manila, the Philippines, noted unusual deaths of 6 cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis), characterized by generalized rashes, inappetence, or sudden death. We identified Reston ebolavirus (RESTV) infection in monkeys by using serologic and molecular assays. We isolated viruses in tissues from infected monkeys and determined viral genome sequences. RESTV found in the 2015 outbreak is genetically closer to 1 of the 4 RESTVs that caused the 2008 outbreak among swine...
July 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Zhijun Yu, Kaihui Cheng, Yuwei Gao
Migratory birds may play a role in transmission of avian influenza virus. We report the infection of black-tailed gulls and chickens in eastern China with avian influenza (H13N2) and (H13N8) viruses. We found that these H13 viruses were transmitted from migratory birds to domestic poultry.
July 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Abel Wade, Simon Dickmu Jumbo, Bianca Zecchin, Alice Fusaro, Taiga Taiga, Alice Bianco, Poueme N Rodrigue, Angela Salomoni, Jean Marc Feussom Kameni, Gianpiero Zamperin, Robert Nenkam, Yacouba Foupouapouognigni, Souley Abdoulkadiri, Yaya Aboubakar, Lidewij Wiersma, Giovanni Cattoli, Isabella Monne
Highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) viruses of clade spread into West Africa in late 2016 during the autumn bird migration. Genetic characterization of the complete genome of these viruses detected in wild and domestic birds in Cameroon in January 2017 demonstrated the occurrence of multiple virus introductions.
July 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Alexandra Dangel, Anja Berger, Regina Konrad, Heribert Bischoff, Andreas Sing
From 2016 through the middle of 2017, the German Consiliary Laboratory on Diphtheria noted an increase in nontoxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae isolates submitted from cities in northern Germany. Many patients for whom epidemiologic data were available were homeless, alcohol or drug abusers, or both. After performing routine diagnostics and multilocus sequence typing (MLST), we analyzed isolates of sequence type (ST) 8 and previously submitted isolates by whole-genome sequencing. Results were analyzed for phylogenetic relationship by core genome MLST (cg-MLST) and whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism profiles...
July 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Mai-Juan Ma, Teng Zhao, Shan-Hui Chen, Xian Xia, Xiao-Xian Yang, Guo-Lin Wang, Li-Qun Fang, Guan-Yuan Ma, Meng-Na Wu, Yan-Hua Qian, Natalie E Dean, Yang Yang, Bing Lu, Wu-Chun Cao
We conducted a 3-year longitudinal serologic survey on an open cohort of poultry workers, swine workers, and general population controls to assess avian influenza A virus (AIV) seroprevalence and seroincidence and virologic diversity at live poultry markets (LPMs) in Wuxi City, Jiangsu Province, China. Of 964 poultry workers, 9 (0.93%) were seropositive for subtype H7N9 virus, 18 (1.87%) for H9N2, and 18 (1.87%) for H5N1. Of 468 poultry workers followed longitudinally, 2 (0.43%), 13 (2.78%), and 7 (1.5%) seroconverted, respectively; incidence was 1...
July 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Augustin T Twabela, Georges M Tshilenge, Yoshiro Sakoda, Masatoshi Okamatsu, Ezekiel Bushu, Philippe Kone, Lidewij Wiersma, Gianpiero Zamperin, Alessandra Drago, Bianca Zecchin, Isabella Monne
In 2017, highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) virus was detected in poultry in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Whole-genome phylogeny showed the virus clustered with H5N8 clade strains from birds in central and southern Asia. Emergence of this virus in central Africa represents a threat for animal health and food security.
July 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Ana Saksida, Nina Jakopin, Mateja Jelovšek, Nataša Knap, Luka Fajs, Lara Lusa, Stanka Lotrič-Furlan, Petra Bogovič, Maja Arnež, Franc Strle, Tatjana Avšič-Županc
We determined levels of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus (TBEV) RNA in serum samples obtained from 80 patients during the initial phase of TBE in Slovenia. For most samples, levels were within the range of 3-6 log10 copies RNA/mL. Levels were higher in female patients than in male patients, but we found no association between virus load and several laboratory and clinical parameters, including severity of TBE. However, a weak humoral immune response was associated with a more severe disease course, suggesting that inefficient clearance of virus results in a more serious illness...
July 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Imelda K Moise, Joseph Kangmennaang, Tricia Caroline S G Hutchings, Ira M Sheskin, Douglas O Fuller
We conducted a survey on Zika virus perceptions and behaviors during the 2016 outbreak in Miami-Dade County, Florida, USA. Among women, Zika knowledge was associated with having a bachelor's degree. Among men, knowledge was associated with knowing someone at risk. Interventions during future outbreaks could be targeted by sex and education level.
July 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
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