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Emerging Infectious Diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192072/persistence-of-zika-virus-in-breast-milk-after-infection-in-late-stage-of-pregnancy
#1
José R Sotelo, Andre B Sotelo, Fabio J B Sotelo, André M Doi, Joao R R Pinho, Rita de Cassia Oliveira, Alanna M P S Bezerra, Alice D Deutsch, Lucy S Villas-Boas, Alvina C Felix, Camila M Romano, Clarisse M Machado, Maria C J Mendes-Correa, Rubia A F Santana, Fernando G Menezes, Cristovao L P Mangueira
We detected Zika virus in breast milk of a woman in Brazil infected with the virus during the 36th week of pregnancy. Virus was detected 33 days after onset of signs and symptoms and 9 days after delivery. No abnormalities were found during fetal assessment or after birth of the infant.
May 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169827/highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-a-h5n8-virus-in-wild-migratory-birds-qinghai-lake-china
#2
Mingxin Li, Haizhou Liu, Yuhai Bi, Jianqing Sun, Gary Wong, Di Liu, Laixing Li, Juxiang Liu, Quanjiao Chen, Hanzhong Wang, Yubang He, Weifeng Shi, George F Gao, Jianjun Chen
In May 2016, a highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) virus strain caused deaths among 3 species of wild migratory birds in Qinghai Lake, China. Genetic analysis showed that the novel reassortant virus belongs to group B H5N8 viruses and that the reassortment events likely occurred in early 2016.
April 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117032/assessing-sensitivity-and-specificity-of-surveillance-case-definitions-for-zika-virus-disease
#3
Angela Chow, Hanley Ho, Mar-Kyaw Win, Yee-Sin Leo
We evaluated performance of 5 case definitions for Zika virus disease surveillance in a human cohort during an outbreak in Singapore, August 26-September 5, 2016. Because laboratory tests are largely inaccessible, use of case definitions that include rash as a required clinical feature are useful in identifying this disease.
April 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117031/novel-reassortant-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-h5n8-virus-in-zoos-india
#4
Shanmugasundaram Nagarajan, Manoj Kumar, Harshad V Murugkar, Sushil Tripathi, Shweta Shukla, Sonam Agarwal, Garima Dubey, Raunaq Singh Nagi, Vijendra Pal Singh, Chakradhar Tosh
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N8) viruses were detected in waterfowl at 2 zoos in India in October 2016. Both viruses were different 7:1 reassortants of H5N8 viruses isolated in May 2016 from wild birds in the Russian Federation and China, suggesting virus spread during southward winter migration of birds.
April 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084987/zika-virus-seroprevalence-french-polynesia-2014-2015
#5
Maite Aubry, Anita Teissier, Michael Huart, Sébastien Merceron, Jessica Vanhomwegen, Claudine Roche, Anne-Laure Vial, Sylvianne Teururai, Sébastien Sicard, Sylvie Paulous, Philippe Desprès, Jean-Claude Manuguerra, Henri-Pierre Mallet, Didier Musso, Xavier Deparis, Van-Mai Cao-Lormeau
During 2013-2014, French Polynesia experienced an outbreak of Zika virus infection. Serosurveys conducted at the end of the outbreak and 18 months later showed lower than expected disease prevalence rates (49%) and asymptomatic:symptomatic case ratios (1:1) in the general population but significantly different prevalence rates (66%) and asymptomatic:symptomatic ratios (1:2) in schoolchildren.
April 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075325/detection-of-zika-virus-in-desiccated-mosquitoes-by-real-time-reverse-transcription-pcr-and-plaque-assay
#6
Kristen L Burkhalter, Harry M Savage
We assayed Zika virus-infected mosquitoes stored at room temperature for <30 days for live virus by using plaque assay and virus RNA by using real-time reverse transcription PCR. Viable virus was detected in samples stored <10 days, and virus RNA was detected in samples held for 30 days.
April 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055819/outbreaks-among-wild-birds-and-domestic-poultry-caused-by-reassorted-influenza-a-h5n8-clade-2-3-4-4-viruses-germany-2016
#7
Anne Pohlmann, Elke Starick, Timm Harder, Dirk Höper, Anja Globig, Christoph Staubach, Klaas Dietze, Christian Grund, Günter Strebelow, Reiner G Ulrich, Jan Schinköthe, Jens P Teifke, Franz J Conraths, Thomas C Mettenleiter, Martin Beer
In November 2016, an influenza A(H5N8) outbreak caused deaths of wild birds and domestic poultry in Germany. Clade 2.3.4.4 virus was closely related to viruses at the Russia-Mongolia border in 2016 but had new polymerase acidic and nucleoprotein segments. These new strains may be more efficiently transmitted to and shed by birds.
April 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997333/presence-and-persistence-of-zika-virus-rna-in-semen-united-kingdom-2016
#8
Barry Atkinson, Fiona Thorburn, Christina Petridou, Daniel Bailey, Roger Hewson, Andrew J H Simpson, Timothy J G Brooks, Emma J Aarons
Zika virus RNA has been detected in semen collected several months after onset of symptoms of infection. Given the potential for sexual transmission of Zika virus and for serious fetal abnormalities resulting from infection during pregnancy, information regarding the persistence of Zika virus in semen is critical for advancing our understanding of potential risks. We tested serial semen samples from symptomatic male patients in the United Kingdom who had a diagnosis of imported Zika virus infection. Among the initial semen samples from 23 patients, Zika virus RNA was detected at high levels in 13 (56...
April 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035898/mycobacterium-chimaera-in-heater-cooler-units-in-denmark-related-to-isolates-from-the-united-states-and-united-kingdom
#9
Erik Svensson, Elsebeth Tvenstrup Jensen, Erik Michael Rasmussen, Dorte Bek Folkvardsen, Anders Norman, Troels Lillebaek
Mycobacterium chimaera was present at high rates (>80%) in heater-cooler units (HCUs) from all 5 thoracic surgery departments in Denmark. Isolates were clonal to HCU-associated isolates from the United States (including some from patients) and United Kingdom. However, M. chimaera from 2 brands of HCU were genetically distinct.
March 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005002/zika-virus-vector-competency-of-mosquitoes-gulf-coast-united-states
#10
Charles E Hart, Christopher M Roundy, Sasha R Azar, Jing H Huang, Ruimei Yun, Erin Reynolds, Grace Leal, Martin R Nava, Jeremy Vela, Pamela M Stark, Mustapha Debboun, Shannan Rossi, Nikos Vasilakis, Saravanan Thangamani, Scott C Weaver
Zika virus has recently spread throughout the Americas. Although Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are considered the primary vector, Culex quinquefasciatus and mosquitoes of other species may also be vectors. We tested Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. taeniorhynchus mosquitoes from the US Gulf Coast; both were refractory to infection and incapable of transmission.
March 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959260/zika-virus-rna-replication-and-persistence-in-brain-and-placental-tissue
#11
Julu Bhatnagar, Demi B Rabeneck, Roosecelis B Martines, Sarah Reagan-Steiner, Yokabed Ermias, Lindsey B C Estetter, Tadaki Suzuki, Jana Ritter, M Kelly Keating, Gillian Hale, Joy Gary, Atis Muehlenbachs, Amy Lambert, Robert Lanciotti, Titilope Oduyebo, Dana Meaney-Delman, Fernando Bolaños, Edgar Alberto Parra Saad, Wun-Ju Shieh, Sherif R Zaki
Zika virus is causally linked with congenital microcephaly and may be associated with pregnancy loss. However, the mechanisms of Zika virus intrauterine transmission and replication and its tropism and persistence in tissues are poorly understood. We tested tissues from 52 case-patients: 8 infants with microcephaly who died and 44 women suspected of being infected with Zika virus during pregnancy. By reverse transcription PCR, tissues from 32 (62%) case-patients (brains from 8 infants with microcephaly and placental/fetal tissues from 24 women) were positive for Zika virus...
March 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869604/molecular-spatial-and-field-epidemiology-suggesting-tb-transmission-in-community-not-hospital-gaborone-botswana
#12
Diya Surie, Othusitse Fane, Alyssa Finlay, Matsiri Ogopotse, James L Tobias, Eleanor S Click, Chawangwa Modongo, Nicola M Zetola, Patrick K Moonan, John E Oeltmann
During 2012-2015, 10 of 24 patients infected with matching genotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis received care at the same hospital in Gaborone, Botswana. Nosocomial transmission was initially suspected, but we discovered plausible sites of community transmission for 20 (95%) of 21 interviewed patients. Active case-finding at these sites could halt ongoing transmission.
March 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997330/severe-thrombocytopenia-after-zika-virus-infection-guadeloupe-2016
#13
Timothée Boyer Chammard, Kinda Schepers, Sébastien Breurec, Thierry Messiaen, Anne-Laure Destrem, Matthieu Mahevas, Adrien Soulillou, Ludovic Janaud, Elodie Curlier, Cécile Herrmann-Storck, Bruno Hoen
Severe thrombocytopenia during or after the course of Zika virus infection has been rarely reported. We report 7 cases of severe thrombocytopenia and hemorrhagic signs and symptoms in Guadeloupe after infection with this virus. Clinical course and laboratory findings strongly suggest a causal link between Zika virus infection and immune-mediated thrombocytopenia.
15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221133/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-transmission-among-elderly-persons-yamagata-prefecture-japan-2009-2015
#14
Junji Seto, Takayuki Wada, Yu Suzuki, Tatsuya Ikeda, Katsumi Mizuta, Taro Yamamoto, Tadayuki Ahiko
In many countries with low to moderate tuberculosis (TB) incidence, cases have shifted to elderly persons. It is unclear, however, whether these cases are associated with recent Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission or represent reactivation of past disease. During 2009-2015, we performed a population-based TB investigation in Yamagata Prefecture, Japan, using in-depth contact tracing and 24-loci variable-number tandem-repeat typing optimized for Beijing family M. tuberculosis strains. We analyzed 494 strains, of which 387 (78...
March 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221132/mycobacterium-bovis-in-a-free-ranging-black-rhinoceros-kruger-national-park-south-africa-2016
#15
Michele A Miller, Peter E Buss, Paul D van Helden, Sven D C Parsons
In 2016, an emaciated black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) was found in Kruger National Park, South Africa. An interferon-γ response was detected against mycobacterial antigens, and lung tissue was positive for Mycobacterium bovis. This case highlights the risk that tuberculosis presents to rhinoceros in M. bovis-endemic areas.
March 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221131/spatiotemporal-fluctuations-and-triggers-of-ebola-virus-spillover
#16
John Paul Schmidt, Andrew W Park, Andrew M Kramer, Barbara A Han, Laura W Alexander, John M Drake
Because the natural reservoir of Ebola virus remains unclear and disease outbreaks in humans have occurred only sporadically over a large region, forecasting when and where Ebola spillovers are most likely to occur constitutes a continuing and urgent public health challenge. We developed a statistical modeling approach that associates 37 human or great ape Ebola spillovers since 1982 with spatiotemporally dynamic covariates including vegetative cover, human population size, and absolute and relative rainfall over 3 decades across sub-Saharan Africa...
March 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221130/whole-genome-analysis-of-bartonella-ancashensis-a-novel-pathogen-causing-verruga-peruana-rural-ancash-region-peru
#17
Kristin E Mullins, Jun Hang, Robert J Clifford, Fatma Onmus-Leone, Yu Yang, Ju Jiang, Mariana Leguia, Matthew R Kasper, Ciro Maguina, Emil P Lesho, Richard G Jarman, Allen Richards, David Blazes
The genus Bartonella contains >40 species, and an increasing number of these Bartonella species are being implicated in human disease. One such pathogen is Bartonella ancashensis, which was isolated in blood samples from 2 patients living in Caraz, Peru, during a clinical trial of treatment for bartonellosis. Three B. ancashensis strains were analyzed by using whole-genome restriction mapping and high-throughput pyrosequencing. Genome-wide comparative analysis of Bartonella species showed that B. ancashensis has features seen in modern and ancient lineages of Bartonella species and is more related to B...
March 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221129/new-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex-sublineage-brazzaville-congo
#18
Sven Malm, Laure S Ghoma Linguissi, Emmanuel M Tekwu, Jeannhey C Vouvoungui, Thomas A Kohl, Patrick Beckert, Anissa Sidibe, Sabine Rüsch-Gerdes, Igor K Madzou-Laboum, Sylvie Kwedi, Véronique Penlap Beng, Matthias Frank, Francine Ntoumi, Stefan Niemann
Tuberculosis is a leading cause of illness and death in Congo. No data are available about the population structure and transmission dynamics of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains prevalent in this central Africa country. On the basis of single-nucleotide polymorphisms detected by whole-genome sequencing, we phylogenetically characterized 74 MTBC isolates from Brazzaville, the capital of Congo. The diversity of the study population was high; most strains belonged to the Euro-American lineage, which split into Latin American Mediterranean, Uganda I, Uganda II, Haarlem, X type, and a new dominant sublineage named Congo type (n = 26)...
March 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221128/epidemiology-of-nontuberculous-mycobacterial-lung-disease-and-tuberculosis-hawaii-usa
#19
Jennifer Adjemian, Timothy B Frankland, Yihe G Daida, Jennifer R Honda, Kenneth N Olivier, Adrian Zelazny, Stacey Honda, D Rebecca Prevots
Previous studies found Hawaiians and Asian-Americans/Pacific Islanders to be independently at increased risk for nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease (NTMPD) and tuberculosis (TB). To better understand NTM infection and TB risk patterns in Hawaii, USA, we evaluated data on a cohort of patients in Hawaii for 2005-2013. Period prevalence of NTMPD was highest among Japanese, Chinese, and Vietnamese patients (>300/100,000 persons) and lowest among Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders (50/100,000)...
March 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221127/serologic-evidence-for-mers-cov-infection-in-dromedary-camels-punjab-pakistan-2012-2015
#20
Muhammad Saqib, Andrea Sieberg, Muhammad Hammad Hussain, Muhammad Khalid Mansoor, Ali Zohaib, Erik Lattwein, Marcel Alexander Müller, Christian Drosten, Victor Max Corman
Dromedary camels from Africa and Arabia are an established source for zoonotic Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection among humans. In Pakistan, we found specific neutralizing antibodies in samples from 39.5% of 565 dromedaries, documenting significant expansion of the enzootic range of MERS-CoV to Asia.
March 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
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