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Emerging Infectious Diseases

Caroline Swanink, Johan Reimerink, Jet Gisolf, Ankje de Vries, Mark Claassen, Liesbeth Martens, Toos Waegemaekers, Harry Rozendaal, Stasja Valkenburgh, Tabitha Hoornweg, Miriam Maas
Orthohantaviruses are a group of rodentborne viruses with a worldwide distribution. The orthohantavirus Seoul virus (SEOV) can cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in humans and is distributed worldwide, like its reservoir host, the rat. Cases of SEOV in wild and pet rats have been described in several countries, and human cases have been reported in the United Kingdom, France, Canada, and the United States. In the Netherlands, SEOV has previously been found in wild brown rats. We describe an autochthonous human case of SEOV infection in the Netherlands...
December 17, 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Basel Karo, Christopher Haskew, Ali S Khan, Jonathan A Polonsky, Md Khadimul Anam Mazhar, Nilesh Buddha
The Early Warning, Alert, and Response System (EWARS) is a web-based system and mobile application for outbreak detection and response in emergency settings. EWARS provided timely information on epidemic-potential diseases among >700,000 Rohingya refugees across settlements. EWARS helped in targeting new measles vaccination campaigns and detecting outbreaks of acute jaundice syndrome.
November 17, 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Jack D Bissett, Suzanne Ledet, Aparna Krishnavajhala, Brittany A Armstrong, Anna Klioueva, Christopher Sexton, Adam Replogle, Martin E Schriefer, Job E Lopez
In March 2017, a patient became febrile within 4 days after visiting a rustic conference center in Austin, Texas, USA, where Austin Public Health suspected an outbreak of tickborne relapsing fever a month earlier. Evaluation of a patient blood smear and molecular diagnostic assays identified Borrelia turicatae as the causative agent. We could not gain access to the property to collect ticks. Thus, we focused efforts at a nearby public park, <1 mile from the suspected exposure site. We trapped Ornithodoros turicata ticks from 2 locations in the park, and laboratory evaluation resulted in cultivation of 3 B...
November 17, 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Shengqiang Ge, Jinming Li, Xiaoxu Fan, Fuxiao Liu, Lin Li, Qinghua Wang, Weijie Ren, Jingyue Bao, Chunju Liu, Hua Wang, Yutian Liu, Yongqiang Zhang, Tiangang Xu, Xiaodong Wu, Zhiliang Wang
On August 3, 2018, an outbreak of African swine fever in pigs was reported in China. We subjected a virus from an African swine fever-positive pig sample to phylogenetic analysis. This analysis showed that the causative strain belonged to the p72 genotype II and CD2v serogroup 8.
November 17, 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Jangsup Moon, Yoonhyuk Jang, Narae Kim, Wan Beom Park, Kyung-Il Park, Soon-Tae Lee, Keun-Hwa Jung, Manho Kim, Sang Kun Lee, Kon Chu
We used deep sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene from sputum to identify Haemophilus influenza in a patient with community-acquired pneumonia. This method may be more effective than conventional diagnostic tests in pneumonia patients because of its speed and sensitivity.
October 17, 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Hussain Al-Ghadeer, Daniel K W Chu, Ehab A Rihan, Ehab A Abd-Allah, Haogao Gu, Alex W H Chin, Ibrahim A Qasim, Ali Aldoweriej, Sanad S Alharbi, Marshad A Al-Aqil, Ali Al-Sahaf, Salah S Abdel Rahman, Ali H Aljassem, Ali Abdul-Al, Mohammed R Aljasir, Yousef M O Alhammad, Samy Kasem, Malik Peiris, Ahmed Z S A Zaki, Leo L M Poon
Highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) viruses have been detected in several continents. However, limited viral sequence data is available from countries in the Middle East. We report full-genome analyses of highly pathogenic H5N8 viruses recently detected in different provinces in Saudi Arabia.
October 17, 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Martin C W Chan, Maggie H Wang, Zigui Chen, David S C Hui, Angela K Kwok, Apple C M Yeung, Kun M Liu, Yun Kit Yeoh, Nelson Lee, Paul K S Chan
The World Health Organization selects influenza vaccine compositions biannually to cater to peaks in temperate regions. In tropical and subtropical regions, where influenza seasonality varies and epidemics can occur year-round, the choice of vaccine remains uncertain. Our 17-year molecular epidemiologic survey showed that most influenza A(H3N2) (9/11) and B (6/7) vaccine strains had circulated in East Asia >1 year before inclusion into vaccines. Northern Hemisphere vaccine strains and circulating strains in East Asia were closely matched in 7 (20...
October 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Amelia W Maiga, Stephen Deppen, Beth Koontz Scaffidi, John Baddley, Melinda C Aldrich, Robert S Dittus, Eric L Grogan
Maps of Histoplasma capsulatum infection prevalence were created 50 years ago; since then, the environment, climate, and anthropogenic land use have changed drastically. Recent outbreaks of acute disease in Montana and Nebraska, USA, suggest shifts in geographic distribution, necessitating updated prevalence maps. To create a weighted overlay geographic suitability model for Histoplasma, we used a geographic information system to combine satellite imagery integrating land cover use (70%), distance to water (20%), and soil pH (10%)...
October 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Cláudia Elizabeth Volpe Chaves, Marcelo Luiz Lima Brandão, Mara Luci Gonçalves Galiz Lacerda, Caroline Aparecida Barbosa Coelho Rocha, Sandra Maria do Valle Leone de Oliveira, Tânia Cristina Parpinelli, Luiza Vasconcellos, Stephen James Forsythe, Anamaria Mello Miranda Paniago
We describe a case of infection with Cronobacter sakazakii sequence type 494 causing bacteremia and meningitis in a hospitalized late premature infant in Brazil. We conducted microbiological analyses on samples of powdered infant formula from the same batch as formula ingested by the infant but could not identify the source of contamination.
October 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Andrew M Ramey, Andrew B Reeves, Tyrone Donnelly, Rebecca L Poulson, David E Stallknecht
We identified a Eurasian-origin influenza A(H8N4) virus in North America by sampling wild birds in western Alaska, USA. Evidence for repeated introductions of influenza A viruses into North America by migratory birds suggests that intercontinental dispersal might not be exceedingly rare and that our understanding of viral establishment is incomplete.
October 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Ashley Makwana, Shamez N Ladhani, Georgia Kapatai, Ella Campion, Norman K Fry, Carmen Sheppard
We observed a sudden and rapid increase in rare invasive pneumococcal disease serotype 7C, from an annual average of 3 cases during 2000-01 through 2015-16 to 29 cases in 2016-17. The increase was caused almost entirely by clonal expansion of sequence type 177, previously associated with vaccine serotype 19F.
October 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Shamanth A Shankarnarayan, Shivaprakash M Rudramurthy, Arunaloke Chakrabarti, Dipika Shaw, Saikat Paul, Nandini Sethuraman, Harsimran Kaur, Anup K Ghosh
We report invasive candidiasis caused by Candida viswanathii over 2 time periods during 2013-2015 in a tertiary care hospital in Chandigarh, India. Molecular typing revealed multiple clusters of the isolates. We detected high MICs for fluconazole in the second time period.
October 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Josselin Rigaill, Florence Grattard, Sylvain Grange, Fabien Forest, Elie Haddad, Anne Carricajo, Anne Tristan, Frederic Laurent, Elisabeth Botelho-Nevers, Paul O Verhoeven
We report a rare case of Staphylococcus argenteus bone and joint infection in a 9-year-old boy in France. His finger arthritis was complicated by osteitis 5 weeks later, which resulted in a secondary intervention. This case indicates the virulence of S. argenteus, an emerging pathogen whose clinical effects are poorly described.
October 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Jung-Hoon Kwon, Sol Jeong, Dong-Hun Lee, David E Swayne, Yu-Jin Kim, Sun-Hak Lee, Jin-Yong Noh, Tseren-Ochir Erdene-Ochir, Jei-Hyun Jeong, Chang-Seon Song
We isolated new reassortant avian influenza A(H5N6) viruses from feces of wild waterfowl in South Korea during 2017-18. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that reassortment occurred between clade H5N8 and Eurasian low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses circulating in wild birds. Dissemination to South Korea during the 2017 fall migratory season followed.
October 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Gregory Hovan, Andrew Hollinger
A clinical case study involving a man (35-49 years of age) with wounds to his lower right extremity. An isolate was sent to the Delaware Public Health Laboratory for confirmatory testing by genetic analysis of the 16S gene. Testing identified the isolate as a novel genus and species, Haematospirillum jordaniae.
October 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Stephanie Perniciaro, Matthias Imöhl, Mark van der Linden
Refugee children in Germany are not routinely given a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Cases of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in 21 refugee children were compared with those in 405 Germany-born children for 3 pneumococcal seasons. Refugee children had significantly higher odds of vaccine-type IPD and multidrug-resistant IPD than did Germany-born children.
October 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Margaret Ryan, Laurie Duran, Rachel Lee, Sengkham Wu
Serious adverse events after immunizations are rare. We review the case of a man who, 50 years earlier, experienced a serious adverse neurologic event 2 weeks after receiving influenza vaccine. He had received no subsequent seasonal influenza vaccinations, but after the risks and benefits were considered, he was vaccinated without adverse event that season.
October 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Daisuke Hagiwara, Teppei Arai, Hiroki Takahashi, Yoko Kusuya, Akira Watanabe, Katsuhiko Kamei
The recent increase in azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus is a global concern. Identifying the mutations that confer azole resistance is essential for developing novel methods for prompt diagnosis and effective drug treatment. We screened A. fumigatus clinical isolates for novel mutations conferring azole resistance. We compared the genomic sequences of susceptible and resistant isolates without mutations in cyp51A (non-cyp51A) and found mutations in hmg1 and erg6 involved in ergosterol biosynthesis. We also found the novel mutations in these genes in azole-resistant isolates with different genetic backgrounds...
October 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Alefiya Neemuchwala, Sarah Teatero, Lindsay Liang, Irene Martin, Walter Demzcuk, Allison McGeer, Nahuel Fittipaldi
Two genetically dissimilar sequence type 1 clades dominate the serotype VI group B Streptococcus population of strains causing invasive disease in Canada. Isolates of this rare serotype, recovered mainly from adult patients, were all susceptible to penicillin and vancomycin. However, we observed resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin.
October 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Hewei Zhang, Elizabeth Porter, Molly Lohman, Nanyan Lu, Lalitha Peddireddi, Gregg Hanzlicek, Douglas Marthaler, Xuming Liu, Jianfa Bai
We identified influenza C virus (ICV) in samples from US cattle with bovine respiratory disease through real-time PCR testing and sequencing. Bovine ICV isolates had high nucleotide identities (≈98%) with each other and were closely related to human ICV strains (≈95%). Further research is needed to determine bovine ICV's zoonotic potential.
October 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
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