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Emerging Infectious Diseases

Ahmen H Salaheldin, Hatem Salah Abd El-Hamid, Ahmed R Elbestawy, Jutta Veits, Hafez M Hafez, Thomas C Mettenleiter, Elsayed M Abd El-Whab
After high mortality rates among commercial poultry were reported in Egypt in 2017, we genetically characterized 4 distinct influenza A(H5N8) viruses isolated from poultry. Full-genome analysis indicated separate introductions of H5N8 clade reassortants from Europe and Asia into Egypt, which poses a serious threat for poultry and humans.
May 17, 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Carlo Fischer, Celia Pedroso, Alfredo Mendrone, Ana Maria Bispo de Filippis, Antonio Carlos Rosário Vallinoto, Bergmann Morais Ribeiro, Edison Luiz Durigon, Ernesto T A Marques, Gubio S Campos, Isabelle F T Viana, José Eduardo Levi, Luciano Cesar Scarpelli, Mauricio Lacerda Nogueira, Michele de Souza Bastos, Nathalia C Santiago Souza, Ricardo Khouri, Sanny Lira, Shirley Vasconcelos Komninakis, Cécile Baronti, Rémi N Charrel, Beate M Kümmerer, Christian Drosten, Carlos Brites, Xavier de Lamballerie, Matthias Niedrig, Eduardo Martins Netto, Jan Felix Drexler
We conducted an external quality assessment of Zika virus molecular diagnostic tests in Brazil using a new Zika virus standard. Of 15 laboratories, 73% showed limited sensitivity and specificity. Viral load estimates varied significantly. Continuous quality assurance is needed to adequately estimate risk for Zika virus-associated disease and determine patient care.
May 17, 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Mai-Juan Ma, Cheng Liu, Meng-Na Wu, Teng Zhao, Guo-Lin Wang, Yang Yang, Hong-Jing Gu, Peng-Wei Cui, Yuan-Yuan Pang, Ya-Yun Tan, Hui Hang, Bao Lin, Jiang-Chun Qin, Li-Qun Fang, Wu-Chun Cao, Li-Ling Cheng
Avian influenza A(H7N9) virus has caused 5 epidemic waves in China since its emergence in 2013. We investigated the dynamic changes of antibody response to this virus over 1 year postinfection in 25 patients in Suzhou City, Jiangsu Province, China, who had laboratory-confirmed infections during the fifth epidemic wave, Oct 1, 2016-February 14, 2017. Most survivors had relatively robust antibody responses that decreased but remained detectable at 1 year. Antibody response was variable; several survivors had low or undetectable antibody titers...
April 17, 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
John-Paul Mutebi, Holly R Hughes, Kristen L Burkhalter, Linda Kothera, Chalmers Vasquez, Joan L Kenney
We isolated a strain of Zika virus, MB16-23, from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes collected in Miami Beach, Florida, USA, on September 2, 2016. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that MB16-23 most likely originated from the Caribbean region.
April 17, 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Nancy Beerens, Guus Koch, Rene Heutink, Frank Harders, D P Edwin Vries, Cynthia Ho, Alex Bossers, Armin Elbers
A novel highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N6) virus affecting wild birds and commercial poultry was detected in the Netherlands in December 2017. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the virus is a reassortant of H5N8 clade viruses and not related to the Asian H5N6 viruses that caused human infections.
April 17, 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Martin Chi-Wai Chan, Kirsty Kwok, Lin-Yao Zhang, Kirran N Mohammad, Nelson Lee, Grace C Y Lui, E Anthony S Nelson, Raymond W M Lai, Ting F Leung, Paul K S Chan
We report emerging subtropical bimodal seasonality and alternating predominance of norovirus GII.4 and non-GII.4 genotypes in Hong Kong. GII.4 predominated in summer and autumn months and affected young children, whereas emergent non-GII.4 genotypes predominated in winter months and affected all age groups. This highly dynamic epidemiology should inform vaccination strategies.
April 17, 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Muhammad A Saifullin, Victor P Laritchev, Yana E Grigorieva, Nadezhda N Zvereva, Anna M Domkina, Ruslan F Saifullin, Marina V Bazarova, Yulia A Akinshina, Ludmila S Karan, Aleksandr M Butenko
In 2017, two cases of dengue fever were imported from Hurghada, Egypt, where dengue fever was not considered endemic, to Moscow. These cases show how emergence of dengue fever in popular resort regions on the coast of the Red Sea can spread infection to countries where it is not endemic.
April 17, 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Lei Zhou, Enfu Chen, Changjun Bao, Nijuan Xiang, Jiabing Wu, Shengen Wu, Jian Shi, Xianjun Wang, Yaxu Zheng, Yi Zhang, Ruiqi Ren, Carolyn M Greene, Fiona Havers, A Danielle Iuliano, Ying Song, Chao Li, Tao Chen, Yali Wang, Dan Li, Daxin Ni, Yanping Zhang, Zijian Feng, Timothy M Uyeki, Qun Li
To detect changes in human-to-human transmission of influenza A(H7N9) virus, we analyzed characteristics of 40 clusters of case-patients during 5 epidemics in China in 2013-2017. Similarities in number and size of clusters and proportion of clusters with probable human-to-human transmission across all epidemics suggest no change in human-to-human transmission risk.
February 17, 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Licia Bordi, Fabrizio Carletti, Eleonora Lalle, Francesca Colavita, Silvia Meschi, Antonino Di Caro, Emanuele Nicastri, Paola Scognamiglio, Francesco Vairo, Domenico Di Lallo, Vincenzo Panella, Maria R Capobianchi, Giuseppe Ippolito, Concetta Castilletti
We report partial molecular characterization of isolates from an autochthonous chikungunya virus cluster in Latium Region. E1 sequences from 3 patients differ substantially from sequences from the 2007 outbreak in Italy and lack the A226V substitution associated with increased viral fitness in the Aedes albopictus mosquito vector.
January 15, 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Carla M Barbosa, Nicholas Di Paola, Marielton P Cunha, Mônica J Rodrigues-Jesus, Danielle B Araujo, Vanessa B Silveira, Fabyano B Leal, Flávio S Mesquita, Viviane F Botosso, Paolo M A Zanotto, Edison L Durigon, Marcos V Silva, Danielle B L Oliveira
Yellow fever virus RNA is usually detected in blood of infected humans. We detected virus RNA in urine and semen samples from a convalescent patient. A complete virus genome was sequenced for an isolate from a urine sample. This virus had a South American I genotype and unique synapomorphic changes.
January 15, 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Alex Y C Tai, Eugene Athan, N Deborah Friedman, Andrew Hughes, Aaron Walton, Daniel P O'Brien
Reported cases of Mycobacterium ulcerans disease (Buruli ulcer) have been increasing in southeastern Australia and spreading into new geographic areas. We analyzed 426 cases of M. ulcerans disease during January 1998-May 2017 in the established disease-endemic region of the Bellarine Peninsula and the emerging endemic region of the Mornington Peninsula. A total of 20.4% of cases-patients had severe disease. Over time, there has been an increase in the number of cases managed per year and the proportion associated with severe disease...
January 15, 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Fan Yang, Kevin Chan, Paul E Marek, Philip M Armstrong, Pengcheng Liu, Jacob E Bova, Joshua N Bernick, Benjamin E McMillan, Benjamin G Weidlich, Sally L Paulson
We detected Cache Valley virus in Aedes japonicus, a widely distributed invasive mosquito species, in an Appalachian forest in the United States. The forest contained abundant white-tailed deer, a major host of the mosquito and virus. Vector competence trials indicated that Ae. j. japonicus mosquitoes can transmit this virus in this region.
March 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Clara Crespillo-Andujar, Marta Díaz-Menéndez, Marta Mora-Rillo
Knowing the mode of transmission of a disease can affect its control and prevention. Here, we identify 5 protozoan parasites with demonstrated presence in seminal fluid, only 1 of which has been identified as a sexually transmitted disease among humans.
March 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Mini Kamboj, Jennifer Brite, Anoshe Aslam, Jessica Kennington, N Esther Babady, David Calfee, Yoko Furuya, Donald Chen, Michael Augenbraun, Belinda Ostrowsky, Gopi Patel, Monica Mircescu, Vivek Kak, Roman Tuma, Teresa A Karre, Deborah A Fry, Yola P Duhaney, Amber Moyer, Denise Mitchell, Sherry Cantu, Candace Hsieh, Nancy Warren, Stacy Martin, Jill Willson, Jeanne Dickman, Julie Knight, Kim Delahanty, Annemarie Flood, Jennifer Harrington, Deborah Korenstein, Janet Eagan, Kent Sepkowitz
In 2015, Clostridium difficile testing rates among 30 US community, multispecialty, and cancer hospitals were 14.0, 16.3, and 33.9/1,000 patient-days, respectively. Pooled hospital onset rates were 0.56, 0.84, and 1.57/1,000 patient-days, respectively. Higher testing rates may artificially inflate reported rates of C. difficile infection. C. difficile surveillance should consider testing frequency.
March 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Michela Sabbatucci, Anna Maria Dionisi, Patrizio Pezzotti, Claudia Lucarelli, Lisa Barco, Marzia Mancin, Ida Luzzi
Human infections with Salmonella enterica serovar Napoli are uncommon in Europe. However, these infections represented 5.9% of salmonellosis cases in Italy during 2014-2015. The source of infection is unknown. We analyzed surveillance data and compared strain genetic similarities and found that contaminated vegetables and surface water are probable sources of human infection.
March 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Shannon L M Whitmer, Thomas Strecker, Daniel Cadar, Hans-Peter Dienes, Kelly Faber, Ketan Patel, Shelley M Brown, William G Davis, John D Klena, Pierre E Rollin, Jonas Schmidt-Chanasit, Elisabeth Fichet-Calvet, Bernd Noack, Petra Emmerich, Toni Rieger, Svenja Wolff, Sarah Katharina Fehling, Markus Eickmann, Jan Philipp Mengel, Tilman Schultze, Torsten Hain, William Ampofo, Kofi Bonney, Juliana Naa Dedei Aryeequaye, Bruce Ribner, Jay B Varkey, Aneesh K Mehta, G Marshall Lyon, Gerrit Kann, Philipp De Leuw, Gundolf Schuettfort, Christoph Stephan, Ulrike Wieland, Jochen W U Fries, Matthias Kochanek, Colleen S Kraft, Timo Wolf, Stuart T Nichol, Stephan Becker, Ute Ströher, Stephan Günther
We describe a strain of Lassa virus representing a putative new lineage that was isolated from a cluster of human infections with an epidemiologic link to Togo. This finding extends the known range of Lassa virus to Togo.
March 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Sankha S Basu, Mary L Delaney, Ning Li, Andrew Bruce Onderdonk, Lynn Bry
We report a case of Acetobacter indonesiensis pneumonia in a 51-year-old woman after bilateral lung transplantation. We found 2 other A. indonesiensis pneumonia cases reported in the literature. All 3 cases involved complex patients exposed to broad-spectrum antimicrobial drugs, suggesting that this pathogen may be opportunistic and highly drug-resistant.
March 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Duc T Nguyen, Larry D Teeter, Julie Graves, Edward A Graviss
Interferon-γ release assays (IGRAs) are the preferred diagnostic test for tuberculosis (TB) infection in at-risk populations in developed countries. However, IGRAs have high false-negative rates in patients with TB disease. Population-based studies assessing the factors associated with negative IGRA results in TB patients have not been performed. Using statewide TB surveillance data of culture-confirmed TB patients in Texas, USA, during 2013-2015, we describe the patient characteristics and treatment outcomes associated with false-negative IGRA results...
March 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Ikkoh Yasuda, Hisayo Matsuyama, Tomoko Ishifuji, Yoshiro Yamashita, Masahiro Takaki, Konosuke Morimoto, Motohiro Sekino, Katsunori Yanagihara, Tatsuya Fujii, Masaaki Iwaki, Akihiko Yamamoto, Koya Ariyoshi, Takeshi Tanaka
Corynebacterium ulcerans infection was recently recognized as a zoonosis. We present 2 cases of severe pneumonia complicated by diffuse pseudomembrane formation on the bronchus caused by C. ulcerans-producing diphtheria toxin. Our purpose is to alert medical professionals to the virulence of Corynebacterium species other than C. diphtheriae.
March 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Alexandre Ranc, Grégory Dubourg, Pierre Edouard Fournier, Didier Raoult, Florence Fenollar
Delftia tsuruhatensis, which was first isolated in environmental samples, was rarely associated with human infections. We report on pneumonia caused by D. tsuruhatensis in an infant who underwent cardiac surgery. Retrospective analyses detected 9 other isolates from 8 patients. D. tsuruhatensis is an emergent pathogen, at least for immunocompromised patients.
March 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
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