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Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639740/declining-rates-of-hip-fracture-in-end-stage-renal-disease-analysis-from-the-2003-2011-nationwide-inpatient-sample
#1
Sun Moon Kim, Sai Liu, Jin Long, Maria E Montez-Rath, Mary B Leonard, Glenn M Chertow
The incidence of hip fracture in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is considerably higher than that in the general age- and sex-matched population. Although medical therapy for chronic kidney disease mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD) has changed considerably over the last decade, rates of hip fracture in the entire ESRD population have not been well-characterized. Herein, we evaluated temporal trends in rates of hip fracture, in-hospital mortality, and costs of associated hospital stay in ESRD. We identified hospitalizations for hip fracture from 2003 to 2011 using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, a representative national database inclusive of all ages and payers...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621492/tendons-and-ligaments-connecting-developmental-biology-to-musculoskeletal-disease-pathogenesis
#2
REVIEW
Hiroshi Asahara, Masafumi Inui, Martin K Lotz
Tendons and ligaments provide connections between muscle and bone or bone and bone to enable locomotion. Damage to tendons and ligaments caused by acute or chronic injury or associated with aging and arthritis is a prevalent cause of disability. Improvements in approaches for the treatment of these conditions depend on a better understanding of tendon and ligament development, cell biology and pathophysiology. This review focuses on recent advances in the discovery of transcription factors that control ligament and tendon cell differentiation, how cell and extracellular matrix homeostasis are altered in disease and how this new insight can lead to novel therapeutic approaches...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608571/effects-of-denosumab-and-teriparatide-transitions-on-bone-microarchitecture-and-estimated-strength-the-data-switch-hr-pqct-study
#3
Tsai J N, Nishiyama K K, Lin D, Yuan A, Lee H, Bouxsein M L, Leder B Z
In postmenopausal osteoporosis, switching from teriparatide to denosumab results in continued bone mineral density (BMD) gains whereas switching from denosumab to teriparatide results in BMD loss. To assess the effects of these transitions on bone microarchitecture and strength, we performed high-resolution peripheral QCT (HR-pQCT) at the distal tibia and radius in postmenopausal osteoporotic women who received 24-months of teriparatide 20-mcg daily followed by 24-months of denosumab 60-mg every 6 months, 24-months of denosumab followed by 24-months of teriparatide, or 24-months of both medications followed by 24-months of denosumab...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603900/mitochondrial-point-mutation-m-3243a%C3%A2-%C3%A2-g-associates-with-lower-bone-mineral-density-thinner-cortices-and-reduced-bone-strength-a-case-control-study
#4
Jakob Høgild Langdahl, Anja Lisbeth Frederiksen, Stinus Jørn Hansen, Per Heden Andersen, Knud Bonnet Yderstraede, Morten Dunø, John Vissing, Morten Frost
Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with several clinical manifestations including diabetes, neurological disorders, renal and hepatic diseases and myopathy. While mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with increased bone resorption and decreased bone formation in mouse models, effects of alterations in mitochondrial function on bone remodelling and mass have not been investigated in humans. We recruited 45 carriers (29 females, 16 males) with the m.3243A > G mutation and healthy controls matched for gender, age, height and menopausal status...
June 11, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600887/therapeutic-effects-of-fgf23-c-tail-fc-in-a-murine-pre-clinical-model-of-x-linked-hypophosphatemia-via-the-selective-modulation-of-phosphate-reabsorption
#5
Kristen Johnson, Kymberly Levine, Joseph Sergi, Jean Chamoun, Rachel Roach, Jackie Vekich, Mike Favis, Mark Horn, Xianjun Cao, Brian Miller, William Snyder, Dikran Aivazian, William Reagan, Edwin Berryman, Jennifer Colangelo, Victoria Markiewicz, Cedo Bagi, Thomas P Brown, Anthony Coyle, Moosa Mohammadi, Jeanne Magram
Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is the causative factor of X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH), a genetic disorder effecting 1:20,000 that is characterized by excessive phosphate excretion, elevated FGF23 levels and a rickets/osteomalacia phenotype. FGF23 inhibits phosphate reabsorption and suppresses 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D) biosynthesis, analytes that differentially contribute to bone integrity and deleterious soft tissue mineralization. As inhibition of ligand broadly modulates downstream targets, balancing efficacy and unwanted toxicity is difficult when targeting the FGF23 pathway...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600880/klotho-lacks-a-fgf23-independent-role-in-mineral-homeostasis
#6
Olena Andrukhova, Jessica Bayer, Christiane Schüler, Ute Zeitz, Sathish K Murali, Sibel Ada, Jose M Alvarez-Pez, Alina Smorodchenko, Reinhold G Erben
Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) is a bone-derived hormone regulating vitamin D hormone production and renal handling of minerals by signaling through a FGF receptor/αKlotho (Klotho) receptor complex. Whether Klotho has FGF23-independent effects on mineral homeostasis is a controversial issue. Here, we aimed to shed more light on this controversy by comparing male and female triple knockout mice with simultaneous deficiency in Fgf23 and Klotho and a nonfunctioning vitamin D receptor (VDR) (Fgf23/Klotho/VDR) with double (Fgf23/VDR, Klotho/VDR, and Fgf23/Klotho) and single Fgf23, Klotho and VDR mutants...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600866/bone-mass-is-compromised-by-the-chemotherapeutic-trabectedin-in-association-with-effects-on-osteoblasts-and-macrophage-efferocytosis
#7
Benjamin P Sinder, Laura Zweifler, Amy J Koh, Megan N Michalski, Lorenz C Hofbauer, Jose Ignacio Aguirre, Hernan Roca, Laurie K McCauley
Macrophages have established roles supporting bone formation. Despite their professional phagocytic nature, the role of macrophage phagocytosis in bone homeostasis is not well understood. Interestingly, apoptosis is a pivotal feature of cellular regulation and the primary fate of osteoblasts is apoptosis. Efferocytosis (phagocytosis of apoptotic cells) is a key physiologic process for the homeostasis of many tissues, and is associated with expression of osteoinductive factors. To test effects of macrophage depletion and compromised phagocytosis on bone, 16 wk old male C57BL/6J mice were treated with trabectedin - a chemotherapeutic with established anti-macrophage effects...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585700/evaluation-of-the-treatment-strategies-for-medication-related-osteonecrosis-of-the-jaws-mronj-and-the-factors-affecting-treatment-outcome-a-multicenter-retrospective-study-with-propensity-score-matching-analysis
#8
Saki Hayashida, Sakiko Soutome, Souichi Yanamoto, Shigeyuki Fujita, Takumi Hasegawa, Takahide Komori, Yuka Kojima, Hironori Miyamoto, Yasuyuki Shibuya, Nobuhiro Ueda, Tadaaki Kirita, Hirokazu Nakahara, Mitsuyo Shinohara, Masahiro Umeda
Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) is an adverse event which may inhibit the treatment of primary disease and remarkably influence the patient's quality of life. The treatment methods for MRONJ, nonsurgical and surgical, are controversial, with no agreement as to which method provides the best outcome and should therefore be recommended. This multicenter retrospective study aimed to investigate the treatment methods and outcome in a large number of patients with MRONJ in Japan, utilizing propensity score matching analysis...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585695/the-rhogap-myo9b-promotes-bone-growth-by-mediating-osteoblastic-responsiveness-to-igf-1
#9
Brooke K McMichael, Yong-Hoon Jeong, Justin A Auerbach, Cheol-Min Han, Ryan Sedlar, Vikram Shettigar, Martin Bähler, Sudha Agarwal, Do-Gyoon Kim, Beth S Lee
The RhoA subfamily of Rho GTPases regulates actin-based cellular functions in bone such as differentiation, migration, and mechanotransduction. Polymorphisms or genetic ablation of RHOA and some of its regulatory guanine exchange factors (GEFs) have been linked to poor bone health in humans and mice, but the effects of RhoA-specific GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) on bone quality have not yet been identified. Therefore, we examined the consequences of RhoGAP Myo9b gene knockout on bone growth, phenotype and cellular activity...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574653/cortical-and-trabecular-bone-microstructure-did-not-recover-at-weight-bearing-skeletal-sites-and-progressively-deteriorated-at-non-weight-bearing-sites-during-the-year-following-international-space-station-missions
#10
Laurence Vico, Bert Van Rietbergen, Nicolas Vilayphiou, Marie-Thérèse Linossier, Hervé Locrelle, Myriam Normand, Mohamed Zouch, Maude Gerbaix, Nicolas Bonnet, Valery Novikov, Thierry ThomC, Galina Vassilieva
Risk for premature osteoporosis is a major health concern in astronauts and cosmonauts and the reversibility of the bone lost at the weight-bearing bone sites is not established although it is suspected to take longer than the mission length. The bone three-dimensional structure and strength which could be uniquely affected by weightlessness, is currently unknown. Our objective is to evaluate bone mass, microarchitecture and strength of weight- and non-weight-bearing bone in 13 cosmonauts before and for 12 months after 4-6-month sojourn in the International Space Station (ISS)...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574605/b-vitamins-and-hip-fracture-secondary-analyses-and-extended-follow-up-of-two-large-randomized-controlled-trials
#11
M Garcia Lopez, K H Bønaa, M Ebbing, E F Eriksen, C G Gjesdal, O Nygård, G S Tell, P M Ueland, H E Meyer
Elevated plasma homocysteine levels are associated with increased risk of fractures in observational studies. However, it is unsettled if homocysteine-lowering treatment affects fracture risk. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an intervention with B-vitamins on the risk of hip fracture in a secondary analysis of combined data from two large randomized controlled trials originally designed to study cardiovascular diseases. Both trials had identical design, intervention and primary objective...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574598/integrin-linked-kinase-regulates-bone-formation-by-controlling-cytoskeletal-organization-and-modulating-bmp-and-wnt-signaling-in-osteoprogenitors
#12
Marian Dejaeger, Anna-Marei Böhm, Naomi Dirckx, Joke Devriese, Elena Nefyodova, Ruben Cardoen, René St-Arnaud, Jos Tournoy, Frank P Luyten, Christa Maes
Cell-matrix interactions constitute a fundamental aspect of skeletal cell biology and play essential roles in bone homeostasis. These interactions are primarily mediated by transmembrane integrin receptors, which mediate cell adhesion and transduce signals from the extracellular matrix to intracellular responses via various downstream effectors, including integrin-linked kinase (ILK). ILK functions as adaptor protein at focal adhesion sites, linking integrins to the actin cytoskeleton, and has been reported to act as a kinase phosphorylating signaling molecules such as GSK-3β and Akt...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569405/sex-dependent-osteoblast-stage-specific-effects-of-progesterone-receptor-on-bone-acquisition
#13
Zhendong A Zhong, Alexander Kot, Yu-An E Lay, Hongliang Zhang, Junjing Jia, Nancy E Lane, Wei Yao
The role of the progesterone receptor (PR) in the regulation of sexual dimorphism in bone has yet to be determined. Here we utilized genetic fate mapping and western blotting to demonstrate age-dependent PR expression in the mouse femoral metaphysis and diaphysis. To define sex-dependent and osteoblast stage-specific effects of PR on bone acquisition, we selectively deleted PR at different stages of osteoblast differentiation. We found that when Prx1-Cre mice were crossed with PR floxed mice to generate a MSC conditional KO model (Prx1; PRcKO), the mutant mice developed greater trabecular bone volume with higher mineral apposition rate and bone formation...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561380/functional-adaptation-of-the-calcaneus-in-historical-foot-binding
#14
Natalie Reznikov, Carina Phillips, Martyn Cooke, Amin Garbout, Farah Ahmed, Molly M Stevens
The normal structure of human feet is optimized for shock dampening during walking and running. Foot binding was a historical practice in China aimed at restricting the growth of female feet for aesthetic reasons. In a bound foot the shock-dampening function normally facilitated by the foot arches is withdrawn, resulting in the foot functioning as a rigid extension of the lower leg. An interesting question inspiring this study regards the nature of adaptation of the heel bone to this non-physiological function using the parameters of cancellous bone anisotropy and 3D fabric topology using a novel inter-trabecular angle (ITA) analysis...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561373/c-jun-n-terminal-kinases-jnks-are-critical-mediators-of-osteoblast-activity-in-vivo
#15
Ren Xu, Chao Zhang, Dong Yeon Shin, Jung-Min Kim, Sarfaraz Lalani, Na Li, Yeon-Suk Yang, Yifang Liu, Mark Eiseman, Roger J Davis, Jae-Hyuck Shim, Matthew B Greenblatt
The c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) are ancient and evolutionarily conserved regulators of proliferation, differentiation and cell death responses. Currently, in vitro studies offer conflicting data about whether the JNK pathway augments or represses osteoblast differentiation, and the contribution of the JNK pathway to regulation of bone mass in vivo remains unclear. Here we show that Jnk1(-/-) mice display severe osteopenia due to impaired bone formation, whereas Jnk2(-/-) mice display a mild osteopenia only evident in long bones...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556967/teriparatide-treatment-improves-bone-defect-healing-via-anabolic-effects-on-new-bone-formation-and-non-anabolic-effects-on-inhibition-of-mast-cells-in-a-murine-cranial-window-model
#16
Longze Zhang, Tao Wang, Martin Chang, Claire Kaiser, Jason D Kim, Tianyu Wu, Xiaoyi Cao, Xinping Zhang, Edward M Schwarz
Investigations of teriparatide (rPTH) as a potential treatment for critical defects have demonstrated the predicted anabolic effects on bone formation, and significant non-anabolic effects on healing via undefined mechanisms. Specifically, studies in murine models of structural allograft healing demonstrated that rPTH treatment increased angiogenesis (vessels <30μm), and decreased arteriogenesis (>30 μm) and mast cell numbers, which lead to decreased fibrosis and accelerated healing. To better understand these non-anabolic effects, we interrogated osteogenesis, vasculogenesis and mast cell accumulation in mice randomized to placebo (saline), rPTH (20µg/kg/2days), or the mast cell inhibitor sodium cromolyn (SC) (24µg/kg/2days), via longitudinal micro-CT and multiphoton laser scanning microscopy (MPLSM), in a critical calvaria defect model...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556236/osteoporosis-in-crisis-it-s-time-to-focus-on-fracture
#17
Neil Binkley, Robert D Blank, William D Leslie, E Michael Lewiecki, John A Eisman, John P Bilezikian
A crisis in osteoporosis treatment exists; the majority of those who sustain fracture do not receive treatment to reduce future fracture risk. This crisis presents an opportunity to focus the field from osteoporosis to fracture, the outcome of consequence. Proposed here is a change in focus suggesting that 1) attempts to define the level of trauma leading to fracture are counterproductive and that all fractures in older adults merit consideration of evaluation and 2) bone loss is not the entire problem but rather part of a broader syndrome including osteoporosis, sarcopenia, and other factors leading to fracture...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548312/vitamin-d-dependent-rickets-type-1b-25-hydroxylase-deficiency-a-rare-condition-or-a-misdiagnosed-condition
#18
Molin A, Wiedemann A, Demers N, Kaufmann M, Do Cao J, Mainard L, Dousset B, Journeau P, Abeguile G, Coudray N, Mittre H, Richard N, Weryha G, Sorlin A, Jones G, Kottler Ml, Feillet F
Vitamin D requires a two-step activation by hydroxylation: the first step is catalyzed by hepatic 25-hydroxylase (CYP2R1, 11p15.2), and the second one is catalyzed by renal 1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1, 12q13.1), which produces the active hormonal form of 1,25-(OH)2 D. Mutations of CYP2R1 have been associated with Vitamin D-dependent rickets type 1B (VDDR1B), a very rare condition that has only been reported to affect 4 families to date. We describe 7 patients from two unrelated families who presented with homozygous loss-of-function mutations of CYP2R1...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548290/metacarpal-growth-during-adolescence-in-a-longitudinal-south-african-cohort
#19
A Magan, L H Nyati, L K Micklesfield, S A Norris, J M Pettifor
To monitor the drift of the periosteal and endocortical surfaces during metacarpal growth longitudinally, radiogrammetry was carried out on hand-wrist x-rays of 572 children from the Birth to Twenty Bone Health Cohort annually from ages 9-21 years. This is the largest collection of longitudinal x-rays in African children. The 2(nd) metacarpal bone length, bone width and medullary width were measured using digital vernier callipers on a total of 4730 x-rays. Superimposition by Translation and Rotation (SITAR) was used to obtain age at peak metacarpal length velocity (PLV)...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548288/hypermineralization-and-high-osteocyte-lacunar-density-in-osteogenesis-imperfecta-type-v-bone-indicate-exuberant-primary-bone-formation
#20
Stéphane Blouin, Nadja Fratzl-Zelman, Francis H Glorieux, Paul Roschger, Klaus Klaushofer, Joan C Marini, Frank Rauch
In contrast to "classical" forms of Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) types I to IV, caused by a mutation in COL1A1/A2, OI type V is due to a gain-of-function mutation in the IFITM5 gene, encoding the interferon-induced transmembrane protein 5, or bone-restricted ifitm-like protein (BRIL). Its phenotype distinctly differs from OI types I to IV by absence of blue sclerae and dentinogenesis imperfecta, by the occurrence of ossification disorders like hyperplastic callus and forearm interosseous membrane ossification...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
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