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Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084657/femoral-neck-external-size-but-not-abmd-predicts-structural-and-mass-changes-for-women-transitioning-through-menopause
#1
Karl J Jepsen, Andrew Kozminski, Erin M R Bigelow, Stephen H Schlecht, Robert W Goulet, Sioban D Harlow, Jane A Cauley, Carrie Karvonen-Gutierrez
The impact of adult bone traits on changes in bone structure and mass during aging is not well understood. Having shown that intracortical remodeling correlates with external size of adult long bones lead us to hypothesize that age-related changes in bone traits also depend on external bone size. We analyzed hip dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry images acquired longitudinally over 14 years for 198 mid-life women transitioning through menopause. The 14-year change in bone mineral content, BMC (R(2)  = 0.03, p = 0...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084650/a-large-inversion-involving-gnas-exon-a-b-and-all-exons-encoding-gs%C3%AE-is-associated-with-autosomal-dominant-pseudohypoparathyroidism-type-ib-php1b
#2
Giedre Grigelioniene, Pasi I Nevalainen, Monica Reyes, Susanne Thiele, Olta Tafaj, Angelo Molinaro, Rieko Takatani, Marja Ala-Houhala, Daniel Nilsson, Jesper Eisfeldt, Anna Lindstrand, Marie-Laure Kottler, Outi Mäkitie, Harald Jüppner
Pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib (PHP1B) is characterized primarily by resistance to parathyroid hormone (PTH) and thus hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia, in most case without evidence for Albright Hereditary Osteodystrophy (AHO). PHP1B is associated with epigenetic changes at one or several differentially methylated regions (DMR) within GNAS, which encodes the α-subunit of the stimulatory G protein (Gsα) and splice variants thereof. Heterozygous, maternally inherited STX16 or GNAS deletions leading to isolated loss-of-methylation (LOM) at exon A/B alone or at all maternal DMRs are the cause of autosomal dominant PHP1B (AD-PHP1B)...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084648/hypophosphatasia-enzyme-replacement-therapy-brings-new-opportunities-and-new-challenges
#3
Michael P Whyte
At this time last year, 2015, our field achieved a milestone in the management of rickets and osteomalacia. Among the disorders that feature generalized impairment of hard tissue mineralization and its consequences, the final entity lacking a medical treatment acquired one sanctioned internationally by regulatory agencies. The holdout was hypophosphatasia (HPP), the inborn-error-of-metabolism identified in 1948 and caused by loss-of-function mutation(s) of the TNSALP (ALPL) gene that encodes the "tissue-nonspecific" isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP)...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071822/responses-to-treatment-with-teriparatide-in-patients-with-atypical-femur-fractures-previously-treated-with-bisphosphonates
#4
Nelson B Watts, Deborah Aggers, Edward F McCarthy, Tina Savage, Stephanie Martinez, Rachel Patterson, Erin Carrithers, Paul D Miller
If over-suppression of bone turnover explained the association between bisphosphonate use and atypical subtrochanteric femur fractures (AFF), this could be reversed with anabolic treatment such as teriparatide. We conducted a prospective, open label study in patients previously treated with bisphosphonates who sustained AFF, examining the response to 24 months treatment with teriparatide on bone mineral density (BMD), trabecular bone score (TBS), bone turnover markers (BTM) and fracture healing as well as quantitative histomorphometry...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067411/understanding-bone-strength-is-not-enough
#5
C J Hernandez, M C H van der Meulen
Increases in fracture risk beyond what are expected from bone mineral density (BMD) are often attributed to poor "bone quality" such as impaired bone tissue strength. Recent studies, however, have highlighted the importance of tissue material properties other than strength, such as fracture toughness. Here we review the concepts behind failure properties other than strength and the physical mechanisms through which they cause mechanical failure: strength describes failure from a single overload; fracture toughness describes failure from a modest load combined with a pre-existing flaw or damage; and fatigue strength describes failure from thousands to millions of cycles of small loads...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052488/lymphatic-endothelial-cells-produce-m-csf-causing-massive-bone-loss-in-mice
#6
Wensheng Wang, Hua Wang, Xichao Zhou, Xing Li, Sun Wen, Michael Dellinger, Brendan F Boyce, Lianping Xing
Gorham-Stout disease (GSD) is a rare bone disorder characterized by aggressive osteolysis associated with lymphatic vessel invasion within bone marrow cavities. The etiology of GSD is not known and there is no effective therapy or animal model for the disease. Here, we investigated if lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) affect osteoclasts (OCs) to cause a GSD osteolytic phenotype in mice. We examined the effect of a mouse LEC line on osteoclastogenesis in co-cultures. LECs significantly increased RANKL-mediated OC formation and bone resorption...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052439/an-hdac-inhibitor-entinostat-ms-275-partially-prevents-delayed-cranial-suture-closure-in-heterozygous-runx2-null-mice
#7
H S Bae, W J Yoon, Y D Cho, R Islam, H R Shin, B S Kim, J M Lim, M S Seo, S A Cho, K Y Choi, S H Baek, H G Kim, K M Woo, J H Baek, Y S Lee, H M Ryoo
Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) is an autosomal dominant skeletal disorder caused by mutations in RUNX2, coding a key transcription factor of early osteogenesis. CCD patients suffer from the developmental defects in cranial bones. Despite numerous investigations and clinical approaches, no therapeutic strategy has been suggested to prevent CCD. Here, we show that fetal administration of Entinostat/MS-275, a class I histone deacetylase (HDAC)-specific inhibitor, partially prevents delayed closure of cranial sutures in Runx2(+/-) mice strain of C57BL/6J by two mechanisms: (1) post-translational acetylation of Runx2 protein, which stabilized the protein and activated its transcriptional activity; and (2) epigenetic regulation of Runx2 and other bone marker genes...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099754/addressing-the-crisis-in-the-treatment-of-osteoporosis-a-path-forward
#8
Sundeep Khosla, Jane A Cauley, Juliet Compston, Douglas P Kiel, Clifford Rosen, Kenneth G Saag, Elizabeth Shane
Considerable data and media attention have highlighted a potential "crisis" in the treatment of osteoporosis. Specifically, despite the availability of several effective drugs to prevent fractures, many patients who need pharmacological therapy are either not being prescribed these medications or if prescribed a medication, are simply not taking it. Although there are many reasons for this "gap" in the treatment of osteoporosis, a major factor is physician and patient concerns over the risk of side effects, especially atypical femur fractures (AFFs) related to bisphosphonate (and perhaps other antiresorptive) drug therapy...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029186/adipokine-chemerin-bridges-metabolic-dyslipidemia-and-alveolar-bone-loss-in-mice
#9
Erivan S Ramos-Junior, Gisele A Leite, Cecilia C Carmo-Silva, Thaise M Taira, Karla B Neves, David F Colón, Lea Ab da Silva, Sergio L Salvador, Rita C Tostes, Fernando Q Cunha, Sandra Y Fukada
Chemerin is an adipokine that regulates adipogenesis and metabolic functions of mature adipocytes mainly through the activation of chemokine-like receptor 1 (CMKLR1). Elevated levels of chemerin have been found in individuals with obesity, type-2 diabetes, and osteoporosis. This adipokine was identified as an inflammatory and metabolic syndrome marker. Considering that the association between metabolic syndrome and bone health remains unclear, the present study aimed to clarify the role of chemerin in the pathophysiology of bone loss induced by dyslipidemia, particularly modulating osteoclastogenesis...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029182/nedd4-deficiency-in-vascular-smooth-muscle-promotes-vascular-calcification-by-stabilizing-psmad1
#10
Ji-Hyun Lee, Seon-Ae Jeon, Byung-Gyu Kim, Michiko Takeda, Jae-Jin Cho, Dong-Ik Kim, Hiroshi Kawabe, Je-Yoel Cho
The nonosseous calcification process such as atherosclerosis is one of the major complications in several types of metabolic diseases. In previous study, we uncovered that aberrant activity of TGF-β signaling pathway could contribute the vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) calcification process. Also, we identified NEDD4 E3 ligase as a key suppressor of BMP/Smad pathway via a polyubiquitination dependent selective degradation of C-terminal phosphorylated Smad1 (pSmad1) activated by TGF-β⋅ Here, we further validated and confirmed the role of Nedd4 in in vivo vascular calcification progression...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019700/assessment-of-sex-differences-in-fracture-risk-among-patients-with-anorexia-nervosa-a-population-based-cohort-study-using-the-health-improvement-network
#11
Jason M Nagata, Neville H Golden, Mary B Leonard, Lawrence Copelovitch, Michelle R Denburg
Though previous studies have demonstrated an increased fracture risk in females with anorexia nervosa (AN), fracture risk in males is not well characterized. The objective of this study was to examine sex differences in fracture risk and site-specific fracture incidence in AN. We performed a population-based retrospective cohort study using The Health Improvement Network (THIN; a large database of anonymized electronic medical records collected at primary care clinics throughout the United Kingdom). The median calendar year for the start of the observation period was 2004-2005...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019696/crmp4-inhibits-bone-formation-by-negatively-regulating-bmp-and-rhoa-signaling
#12
Basem M Abdallah, Florence Figeac, Kenneth H Larsen, Nicholas Ditzel, Pankaj Keshari, Adiba Isa, Abbas Jafari, Thomas L Andersen, Jean-Marie Delaisse, Yoshio Goshima, Toshio Ohshima, Moustapha Kassem
We identified the neuro-protein CRMP4 (collapsing response mediator protein-4) as a non-canonical osteogenic factor that regulating the differentiation of mouse bone marrow skeletal stem cells (bone marrow stromal stem cells, mBMSCs) into osteoblastic cells. CRMP4 is the only member of the CRMP 1-5 family to be expressed by mBMSCs and in osteoprogenitors of both adult mouse and human bones. In vitro gain and loss function of CRMP4 in murine stromal cells revealed its inhibitory effect on osteoblast differentiation...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019686/dietary-inflammatory-index-bone-mineral-density-and-risk-of-fracture-in-postmenopausal-women-results-from-the-women-s-health-initiative
#13
Tonya Orchard, Vedat Yildiz, Susan E Steck, James R Hébert, Yunsheng Ma, Jane A Cauley, Wenjun Li, Yasmin Mossavar-Rahmani, Karen C Johnson, Maryam Sattari, Meryl LeBoff, Jean Wactawski-Wende, Rebecca D Jackson
Previous studies suggest that bone loss and fracture risk are associated with higher inflammatory milieu, potentially modifiable by diet. The primary objective of this analysis was to evaluate the association of the dietary inflammatory index (DII(TM) ), a measure of the inflammatory potential of diet, with risk of hip, lower-arm and total fracture using longitudinal data from the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study and Clinical Trials. Secondarily, we evaluated changes in bone mineral density (BMD) and DII scores...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019684/diaphyseal-femur-fractures-in-osteogenesis-imperfecta-characteristics-and-relationship-with-bisphosphonate-treatment
#14
Pamela Trejo, François Fassier, Francis H Glorieux, Frank Rauch
Several recent case reports have suggested that bisphosphonate treatment in individuals with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is causally related to atypical femur fractures. However, it is not known whether atypical femur fractures are actually more frequent in patients who have received bisphosphonates. In the present study, we retrospectively analyzed 166 femur fractures in 119 children with a diagnosis of OI that had not undergone intramedullary rodding procedures. A total of 130 fractures in 90 patients occurred in femurs with pre-existing deformities (age at fracture between 1 month and 19...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019683/effect-of-teriparatide-or-risedronate-in-elderly-patients-with-a-recent-pertrochanteric-hip-fracture-final-results-of-a-78-week-randomized-clinical-trial
#15
Jorge Malouf-Sierra, Umberto Tarantino, Pedro A García-Hernández, Costantino Corradini, Søren Overgaard, Jan J Stepan, Lars Borris, Eric Lespessailles, Frede Frihagen, Kyriakos Papavasiliou, Helmut Petto, Per Aspenberg, José Ramón Caeiro, Fernando Marin
We present final results of a study comparing teriparatide 20 µg QD with risedronate 35 mg QW started within 2 weeks after surgery for a pertrochanteric hip fracture. Patients with BMD T-score ≤-2.0 and 25OHD >9.2 ng/mL were randomized to receive 26-week double-dummy treatment plus calcium and vitamin D, followed by 52-week open-label treatment with the same assigned active drug. Primary endpoint was change from baseline in lumbar spine (LS) BMD at 78 weeks. Secondary and exploratory endpoints were change in BMD at the proximal femur, function, hip pain (Charnley score and 100 mm Visual Analog Scale [VAS]), quality of life (short form-36), radiology outcomes, and safety...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012217/association-of-increased-urinary-albumin-with-risk-of-incident-clinical-fracture-and-rate-of-hip-bone-loss-the-osteoporotic-fractures-in-men-study
#16
Howard A Fink, Tien N Vo, Lisa Langsetmo, Joshua I Barzilay, Jane A Cauley, John T Schousboe, Eric S Orwoll, Muna T Canales, Areef Ishani, Nancy E Lane, Kristine E Ensrud
Prior studies suggest that increased urine albumin is associated with a heightened fracture risk in women, but results in men are unclear. We used data from MrOS, a prospective cohort study of community-dwelling men aged ≥65 years, to evaluate the association of increased urine albumin with subsequent fractures and annualized rate of hip bone loss. We calculated albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) from urine collected at the 2003-05 visit. Subsequent clinical fractures were ascertained from triannual questionnaires and centrally adjudicated by review of radiographic reports...
December 24, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982478/a-mendelian-randomization-study-of-the-effect-of-type-2-diabetes-and-glycemic-traits-on-bone-mineral-density
#17
Omar S Ahmad, Aaron Leong, Julie Ann Miller, John A Morris, Vincenzo Forgetta, Muhammad Mujammami, J Brent Richards
Type-2 diabetes (T2D) is associated in observational studies with both higher bone mineral density (BMD) and higher fracture risk for given BMD. These relationships may however be confounded by factors such as body mass index (BMI). Here we used Mendelian randomization (MR) to obtain non-confounded estimates of the effect of T2D and glycemic traits on BMD. We identified genetic variants strongly associated with T2D risk (34,840 T2D cases and 114,981 controls) and fasting glucose (133,010 nondiabetic individuals), but not associated with BMI, and determined the effects of these variants on BMD (up to 83,894 individuals)...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976803/cd31-cells-from-peripheral-blood-facilitate-bone-regeneration-in-biologically-impaired-conditions-through-synergistic-combined-effects-on-immunomodulation-and-angiogenesis
#18
F Andrea Sass, Katharina Schmidt-Bleek, Agnes Ellinghaus, Sebastian Filter, Alexander Rose, Bernd Preininger, Simon Reinke, Sven Geissler, Hans-Dieter Volk, Georg N Duda, Anke Dienelt
Controlled revascularization and inflammation are key elements regulating endogenous regeneration after (bone) tissue trauma. Peripheral blood-derived cell subsets, such as regulatory T-helper cells and circulating (endothelial) progenitor cells, respectively, can support endogenous tissue healing, whereas effector T-cells that are associated with an aged immune system can hinder bone regeneration. CD31 is expressed by diverse leukocytes and is well recognized as a marker of circulating endothelial (precursor) cells; however, CD31 is absent from the surface of differentiated effector T-cells...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976802/progress-in-publishing-benefits-for-jbmr-authors-reviewers-and-readers
#19
EDITORIAL
Juliet E Compston
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 15, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958659/differences-in-trabecular-microstructure-between-black-and-white-women-assessed-by-individual-trabecular-segmentation-analysis-of-hr-pqct-images
#20
Melissa S Putman, Elaine W Yu, David Lin, Karin Darakananda, Joel S Finkelstein, Mary L Bouxsein
Black women have lower fracture risk compared with white women, which may be partly explained by improved volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and bone microarchitecture primarily within the cortical bone compartment. To determine if there are differences in trabecular microstructure, connectivity, and alignment according to race/ethnicity, we performed individual trabecular segmentation (ITS) analyses on high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) scans of the distal radius and tibia in 273 peri- and postmenopausal black (n = 100) and white (n = 173) women participating in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation in Boston...
December 13, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
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