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Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30328145/organized-sport-participation-from-childhood-to-adolescence-is-associated-with-bone-mass-in-young-adults-from-the-raine-study
#1
Joanne A McVeigh, Erin K Howie, Kun Zhu, John P Walsh, Leon Straker
There is a critical need for longitudinal cohort studies to consider the association of the cumulative exposure of physical activity during childhood and adolescence and bone mass. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between organized sports trajectories (that capture distinct and potentially meaningful patterns over critical developmental periods) and bone mass at age 20 years. Participation in organized sport was recorded by parental report at ages 5, 8, 10, 14, and 17 years in 984 offspring (48% female) of a pregnancy cohort (Raine Study)...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321476/gestational-vitamin-d-supplementation-leads-to-reduced-perinatal-rxra-dna-methylation-results-from-the-mavidos-trial
#2
Elizabeth M Curtis, Nevena Krstic, Eloïse Cook, Stefania D'Angelo, Sarah R Crozier, Rebecca J Moon, Robert Murray, Emma Garratt, Paula Costello, Jane Cleal, Brogan Ashley, Nicholas J Bishop, Stephen Kennedy, Aris T Papageorghiou, Inez Schoenmakers, Robert Fraser, Saurabh V Gandhi, Ann Prentice, M Kassim Javaid, Hazel M Inskip, Keith M Godfrey, Christopher G Bell, Karen A Lillycrop, Cyrus Cooper, Nicholas C Harvey
We have previously demonstrated inverse associations between maternal 25(OH)-vitamin D status and perinatal DNA methylation at the retinoid-X-receptor-alpha (RXRA) locus and between RXRA methylation and offspring bone mass. We therefore used an existing randomised trial to test the hypothesis that maternal gestational vitamin D supplementation would lead to reduced perinatal RXRA locus DNA methylation. The Maternal Vitamin D Osteoporosis Study (MAVIDOS) was a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial of 1000IU/day cholecalciferol or matched placebo from 14 weeks' gestation until delivery...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321475/mir-219a-5p-regulates-ror%C3%AE-during-osteoblast-differentiation-and-in-age-related-bone-loss
#3
Ruben Aquino-Martinez, Joshua N Farr, Megan M Weivoda, Brittany A Negley, Jennifer L Onken, Brianne S Thicke, McKenzie M Fulcer, Daniel G Fraser, Andre J van Wijnen, Sundeep Khosla, David G Monroe
Developing novel approaches to treat skeletal disorders requires an understanding of how critical molecular factors regulate osteoblast differentiation and bone remodeling. We have reported that (1) retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor beta (Rorβ) is upregulated in bone samples isolated from aged mice and humans in vivo; (2) Rorβ expression is inhibited during osteoblastic differentiation in vitro; and (3) genetic deletion of Rorβ in mice results in preservation of bone mass during aging. These data establish that Rorβ inhibits osteogenesis and that strict control of Rorβ expression is essential for bone homeostasis...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30320955/identification-of-novel-loci-associated-with-hip-shape-a-meta-analysis-of-genome-wide-association-studies
#4
Denis A Baird, Daniel S Evans, Frederick K Kamanu, Jennifer S Gregory, Fiona R Saunders, Claudiu V Giuraniuc, Rebecca J Barr, Richard M Aspden, Deborah Jenkins, Douglas P Kiel, Eric S Orwoll, Steven R Cummings, Nancy E Lane, Benjamin H Mullin, Frances Mk Williams, J Brent Richards, Scott G Wilson, Tim D Spector, Benjamin G Faber, Deborah A Lawlor, Elin Grundberg, Claes Ohlsson, Ulrika Pettersson-Kymmer, Terence D Capellini, Daniel Richard, Thomas J Beck, David M Evans, Lavinia Paternoster, David Karasik, Jonathan H Tobias
We aimed to report the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-derived hip shape, which is thought to be related to the risk of both hip osteoarthritis and hip fracture. Ten hip shape modes (HSMs) were derived by statistical shape modelling using SHAPE software, from hip DXA scans in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; adult females), TwinsUK (mixed-sex), Framingham Osteoporosis Study (FOS; mixed), Osteoporotic Fractures in Men study (MrOS) and Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF; females) (total n = 15,934)...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30320929/a-novel-rhein-derivative-modulates-bone-formation-and-resorption-and-ameliorates-oestrogen-dependent-bone-loss
#5
Min Jiang, Tianqi Wang, Xueming Yan, Zhuochao Liu, Yufei Yan, Kai Yang, Jin Qi, Hanbing Zhou, Niandong Qian, Qi Zhou, Bo Chen, Xing Xu, Xiaobing Xi, Chunhao Yang, Lianfu Deng
Osteoporosis, an osteolytic disease that affects millions of people worldwide, features a bone remodelling imbalance between bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone formation by osteoblasts. Identifying dual target-directed agents that inhibit excessive bone resorption and increase bone formation is considered an efficient strategy for developing new osteoporosis treatments. Rhein, a natural anthraquinone, can be isolated from various Asian herbal medicines. Rhein and its derivatives have been reported to have various beneficial pharmacological effects, especially their bone-targeting ability and anti-osteoclastogenesis activity...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30320927/preventing-and-repairing-myeloma-bone-disease-by-combining-conventional-antiresorptive-treatment-with-a-bone-anabolic-agent-in-murine-models
#6
Julia Paton-Hough, Simon Tazzyman, Holly Evans, Darren Lath, Jenny M Down, Alanna C Green, John A Snowden, Andrew D Chantry, Michelle A Lawson
Multiple myeloma is a plasma cell malignancy, which develops in the bone marrow and frequently leads to severe bone destruction. Current antiresorptive therapies to treat the bone disease do little to repair damaged bone; therefore, new treatment strategies incorporating bone anabolic therapies are urgently required. We hypothesized that combination therapy using the standard of care antiresorptive zoledronic acid (Zol) with a bone anabolic (anti-TGFβ/1D11) would be more effective at treating myeloma-induced bone disease than Zol therapy alone...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30281863/cortical-bone-material-strength-index-and-bone-microarchitecture-in-postmenopausal-women-with-atypical-femoral-fractures
#7
Kristin L Popp, Signe Caksa, Adriana Martinez-Betancourt, Amy Yuan, Joy Tsai, Elaine W Yu, Mary L Bouxsein
Atypical femoral fractures are rare fractures that occur in the subtrochanteric or diaphyseal region of the femur with minimal or no trauma. Though the association of atypical femoral fractures and bisphosphonate (BP) use is a growing concern in the management of osteoporosis, currently there is little knowledge about which patients may be at risk for an atypical femoral fracture. Given that these fractures initiate in the femoral cortex, we aimed to determine whether cortical bone tissue properties (bone material strength index; BMSi), as measured by in vivo impact microindentation, are altered in atypical fracture patients...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30280425/prevalence-and-characteristics-of-atypical-periprosthetic-femoral-fractures
#8
Jean-Thomas Leclerc, Laëtitia Michou, François Vaillancourt, Stéphane Pelet, David Simonyan, Etienne L Belzile
Bisphosphonate use has been associated with atypical femoral fractures (AFFs), defined by the American Society of Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR) Task Force criteria, which currently exclude periprosthetic fractures. The objectives of this study were to establish the prevalence of atypical periprosthetic femoral fractures (APFFs) in patients with hip and knee arthroplasties and to determine the clinical and radiological risk factors associated with these fractures. We performed a retrospective radiological review of all femoral fractures between January 1, 2006, and March 31, 2015, in Quebec City, Canada...
October 2, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30216554/acute-tissue-mineral-deposition-in-response-to-a-phosphate-pulse-in-experimental-ckd
#9
Jason Ge Zelt, Bruno A Svajger, Kieran Quinn, Mandy E Turner, Kimberly J Laverty, Bonnie Shum, Rachel M Holden, Michael A Adams
Pathogenic accumulation of calcium (Ca) and phosphate (PO4 ) in vasculature is a sentinel of advancing cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney disease (CKD). This study sought to characterize acute distribution patterns of radiolabeled 33 PO4 and 45 Ca in cardiovascular tissues of rats with CKD (0.25% dietary adenine). The disposition of 33 PO4 and 45 Ca was assessed in blood and 36 tissues after a 10-minute intravenous infusion of one of the following: (i) PO4  pulse + tracer 33 PO4 ; (ii) PO4  pulse + tracer 45 Ca; or (iii) saline + tracer 45 Ca in CKD and non-CKD animals...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30216544/mitochondrial-function-is-compromised-in-cortical-bone-osteocytes-of-long-lived-growth-hormone-receptor-null-mice
#10
Zhongbo Liu, Maria E Solesio, Mitchell B Schaffler, Dorra Frikha-Benayed, Clifford J Rosen, Haim Werner, John J Kopchick, Evgeny V Pavlov, Andrey Y Abramov, Shoshana Yakar
Despite increased longevity and resistance to multiple stressors, growth hormone receptor null (GHRKO) mice exhibit severe skeletal impairment. The role of GHR in maintaining osteocyte mitochondrial function is unknown. We found that GHR ablation was detrimental to osteocyte mitochondrial function. In vivo multiphoton microscopy revealed significant reductions of >10% in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) in GHRKO osteocytes and reduced mitochondrial volumetric density. Reductions in MMP were accompanied by reductions in glucose transporter-1 levels, steady state ATP, NADH redox index, oxygen consumption rate, and mitochondrial reserve capacity in GHRKO osteocytes...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30216540/timp-loss-activates-metalloproteinase-tnf%C3%AE-dkk1-axis-to-compromise-wnt-signaling-and-bone-mass
#11
Yan Chen, Alison Aiken, Sanjay Saw, Ashley Weiss, Hui Fang, Rama Khokha
Deregulated proteolysis invariably underlies most human diseases including bone pathologies. Metalloproteinases constitute the largest of the five protease families, and the metzincin metalloproteinases are inhibited by the four tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase called TIMPs. We hypothesized that Timp genes are essential for skeletal homeostasis. We bred individual Timp knockout mice to generate unique mouse models, the quadruple Timp null strain (QT) as well as mice harboring only a single Timp3 allele (QT3+/- )...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30189111/age-dependence-of-systemic-bone-loss-and-recovery-following-femur-fracture-in-mice
#12
Armaun J Emami, Chrisoula A Toupadakis, Stephanie M Telek, David P Fyhrie, Clare E Yellowley, Blaine A Christiansen
The most reliable predictor of future fracture risk is a previous fracture of any kind. The etiology of this increased fracture risk is not fully known, but it is possible that fracture initiates systemic bone loss leading to greater fracture risk at all skeletal sites. In this study we investigated systemic bone loss and recovery following femoral fracture in young (3 month old) and middle-aged (12 month old) mice. Transverse femur fractures were created using a controlled impact, and whole-body bone mineral density (BMD), trabecular and cortical microstructure, bone mechanical properties, bone formation and resorption rates, mouse voluntary movement, and systemic inflammation were quantified at multiple time points post-fracture...
September 6, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30189110/expression-of-concern-regarding-effect-of-deconditioning-on-cortical-and-cancellous-bone-growth-in-the-exercise-trained-young-rats
#13
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 6, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30184271/clinically-relevant-doses-of-sclerostin-antibody-do-not-induce-osteonecrosis-of-the-jaw-onj-in-rats-with-experimental-periodontitis
#14
Danny Hadaya, Ioannis Gkouveris, Akrivoula Soundia, Olga Bezouglaia, Rogely W Boyce, Marina Stolina, Denise Dwyer, Sarah M Dry, Flavia Q Pirih, Tara L Aghaloo, Sotirios Tetradis
Antiresorptive agents, such as bisphosphonates and denosumab, are frequently used for the management of osteoporosis. Indeed, both medications decrease the risk of osteoporotic fractures; however, these medications are associated with rare but potentially severe side effects, such as osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ). ONJ, defined as an area of exposed bone in the maxillofacial region that lasts for 8 weeks, often presents with significant pain and infection and can lead to serious complications. Interestingly, other treatments for osteoporosis have been developed, such as antibodies against the osteocyte-secreted protein, sclerostin...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30184270/functional-characterization-of-a-ggpps-variant-identified-in-atypical-femoral-fracture-patients-and-delineation-of-the-role-of-ggpps-in-bone-relevant-cell-types
#15
Neus Roca-Ayats, Pei Ying Ng, Natàlia Garcia-Giralt, Maite Falcó-Mascaró, Mónica Cozar, Josep Francesc Abril, José Manuel Quesada Gómez, Daniel Prieto-Alhambra, Xavier Nogués, James E Dunford, R Graham Russell, Roland Baron, Daniel Grinberg, Susana Balcells, Adolfo Díez-Pérez
Atypical femoral fractures (AFFs) are a rare but potentially devastating event, often but not always linked to bisphosphonate (BP) therapy. The pathogenic mechanisms underlying AFFs remain obscure, and there are no tests available that might assist in identifying those at high risk of AFF. We previously used exome sequencing to explore the genetic background of three sisters with AFFs and three additional unrelated AFF cases, all previously treated with BPs. We detected 37 rare mutations (in 34 genes) shared by the three sisters...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30151888/mir-27a-targets-dkk2-and-sfrp1-to-promote-reosseointegration-in-the-regenerative-treatment-of-peri-implantitis
#16
Xiaolin Wu, Qinhua Gu, Xipeng Chen, Wenxiang Mi, Tingting Wu, Hui Huang
In the inflamed microenvironment of peri-implantitis, limited osteogenesis on the implant surface impedes well-established reosseointegration using current clinical therapies. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) function as potent molecular managers that may simultaneously regulate multiple endogenous processes such as inflammation and osteogenesis. The delivery of miRNAs may provide a way to effectively treat some diseases. In this work, we showed that miR-27a was differentially downregulated in samples from a canine peri-implantitis model...
August 27, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30138550/distinct-clinical-and-pathological-features-of-melorheostosis-associated-with-somatic-map2k1-mutations
#17
Smita Jha, Nadja Fratzl-Zelman, Paul Roschger, Georgios Z Papadakis, Edward W Cowen, Heeseog Kang, Tanya J Lehky, Katharine Alter, Zuoming Deng, Aleksandra Ivovic, Lauren Flynn, James C Reynolds, Abhijit Dasgupta, Markku Miettinen, Eileen Lange, James Katz, Klaus Klaushofer, Joan C Marini, Richard M Siegel, Timothy Bhattacharyya
Melorheostosis is a rare hyperostotic disease of the long bones classically characterized by a "dripping candle-wax" radiographic appearance. We recently described somatic activating mutations in MAP2K1 as a cause of melorheostosis. Here, we report distinguishing characteristics of patients with MAP2K1-positive melorheostosis. Fifteen unrelated patients with radiographic appearance of melorheostosis underwent paired biopsies of affected and unaffected bone for whole-exome sequencing, histology, and cell culture...
August 23, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30138543/glucocorticoid-induced-insulin-resistance-in-men-is-associated-with-suppressed-undercarboxylated-osteocalcin
#18
Lewan Parker, Xuzhu Lin, Andrew Garnham, Glenn McConell, Nigel K Stepto, David L Hare, Elizabeth Byrnes, Peter R Ebeling, Ego Seeman, Tara C Brennan-Speranza, Itamar Levinger
In mice, glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance occurs largely through impaired osteoblast function and decreased circulating undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC). Whether these mechanisms contribute to glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance in humans has yet to be established. In addition, the effects of glucocorticoids on the exercise-induced increase in circulating ucOC and insulin sensitivity are also unknown. We hypothesized that acute glucocorticoid treatment would lead to basal and postexercise insulin resistance in part through decreased circulating ucOC and ucOC-mediated skeletal muscle protein signaling...
August 23, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30138538/27-hydroxycholesterol-an-endogenous-serm-and-risk-of-fracture-in-postmenopausal-women-a-nested-case-cohort-study-in-the-women-s-health-initiative
#19
Po-Yin Chang, David Feldman, Marcia L Stefanick, Donald P McDonnell, Bonne M Thompson, Jeffrey G McDonald, Jennifer S Lee
27-hydroxycholesterol (27HC) is a purported, novel endogenous SERM. In animal models, 27HC has an anti-estrogen effect in bone, and 17β-estradiol mitigates this effect. 27HC in relation to fracture risk has not been investigated in humans. Depending on the level of bioavailable 17β-estradiol (bioE2), 27HC may increase fracture risk in postmenopausal women and modify the fracture risk reduction from menopausal hormone therapy (MHT). To test these a priori hypotheses, we conducted a nested case-cohort study of 868 postmenopausal women within the Women's Health Initiative Hormone Therapy trials (WHI-HT)...
August 23, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30133922/continuing-challenges-in-advancing-preclinical-science-in-skeletal-cell-based-therapies-and-tissue-regeneration
#20
Joseph Featherall, Pamela G Robey, David W Rowe
Cell-based therapies hold much promise for musculoskeletal medicine; however, this rapidly growing field faces a number of challenges. Few of these therapies have proven clinical benefit, and an insufficient regulatory environment has allowed for widespread clinical implementation without sufficient evidence of efficacy. The technical and biological complexity of cell-based therapies has contributed to difficulties with reproducibility and mechanistic clarity. In order to aid in addressing these challenges, we aim to clarify the key issues in the preclinical cell therapy field, and to provide a conceptual framework for advancing the state of the science...
August 22, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
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