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Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30515887/increasing-risk-of-hospital-treated-infections-and-community-based-antibiotic-use-after-hip-fracture-surgery-a-nationwide-study-2005-2016
#1
Kaja E Kjørholt, Søren P Johnsen, Nickolaj R Kristensen, Daniel Prieto-Alhambra, Alma B Pedersen
We aimed to examine trends in the incidence of treated infections following hip fracture surgery in Denmark from 2005 to 2016. We conducted a nationwide cohort study using individual-level linked data from Danish population-based registries. We calculated cumulative incidence considering death as competing risk and, based on the pseudo-observation method, risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence interval (CI) using the period 2005-2006 as a reference. RRs were adjusted for age, sex, and comorbidity. A total of 74,771 patients aged 65 years or older with first-time hip fracture surgery were included...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30508319/cannabinoid-receptor-2-agonist-prevents-local-and-systemic-inflammatory-bone-destruction-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#2
Mo Zhu, Binqin Yu, Jiaxiang Bai, Ximing Wang, Xiaobin Guo, Yu Liu, Jiayi Lin, Su Hu, Wen Zhang, Yunxia Tao, Chunhong Hu, Huilin Yang, Yaozeng Xu, Dechun Geng
Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) has been implicated as an important clinical regulator of inflammation and malignant osteolysis. Here, we observed that CB2 expression was markedly higher in the collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mice synovium and bone tissues than in the non-inflamed synovium and bone tissues. The CB2 selective agonist (JWH133) but not antagonist (SR144528) suppressed CIA in mice without toxic effects, as demonstrated by the decreased synovial hyperplasia, inflammatory responses, cartilage damage, and periarticular and systemic bone destruction...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30508318/mineral-homeostasis-in-murine-fetuses-is-sensitive-to-maternal-calcitriol-but-not-to-absence-of-fetal-calcitriol
#3
Brittany A Ryan, Kamal Alhani, K Berit Sellars, Beth J Kirby, René St-Arnaud, Martin Kaufmann, Glenville Jones, Christopher S Kovacs
Vitamin D receptor (VDR) null fetuses have normal serum minerals, PTH, skeletal morphology and mineralization, but increased serum calcitriol, placental calcium transport, and placental expression of Pthrp, Trpv6, and (as reported in this study) Pdia3. We examined Cyp27b1 null fetal mice, which do not make calcitriol, to determine if loss of calcitriol has the same consequences as loss of VDR. Cyp27b1 null and WT females were mated to Cyp27b1+/- males, which generated Cyp27b1 null and Cyp27b1+/- fetuses from Cyp27b1 null mothers, and Cyp27b1+/- and WT fetuses from WT mothers...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30508316/one-year-of-romosozumab-followed-by-two-years-of-denosumab-maintains-fracture-risk-reductions-results-of-the-frame-extension-study
#4
E Michael Lewiecki, Rajani V Dinavahi, Marise Lazaretti-Castro, Peter R Ebeling, Jonathan D Adachi, Akimitsu Miyauchi, Evelien Gielen, Cassandra E Milmont, Cesar Libanati, Andreas Grauer
Romosozumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds and inhibits sclerostin, has the dual effect of increasing bone formation and decreasing bone resorption. As previously reported in the pivotal FRActure study in postmenopausal woMen with ostEoporosis (FRAME), women with a T-score of ≤ -2.5 at the total hip or femoral neck received subcutaneous placebo or romosozumab once monthly for 12 months, followed by open-label subcutaneous denosumab every 6 months for an additional 12 months. Upon completion of the 24-month primary analysis period, eligible women entered the extension phase and received denosumab for an additional 12 months...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30496623/prevention-of-injury-induced-osteoarthritis-in-rodent-temporomandibular-joint-by-targeting-chondrocyte-casr
#5
Mian Zhang, Hongxu Yang, Xianghong Wan, Lei Lu, Jing Zhang, Hongyun Zhang, Tao Ye, Qian Liu, Mianjiao Xie, Shibin Yu, Shaoxiong Guo, Wenhan Chang, Meiqing Wang
Traumatic joint injuries produce osteoarthritic cartilage manifesting accelerated chondrocyte terminal differentiation and matrix degradation via unknown cellular and molecular mechanisms. Here we report the ability of biomechanical stress to increase expression of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), a pivotal driver of chondrocyte terminal differentiation, in cultured chondrogenic cells subjected to fluid flow shear stress (FFSS) and in chondrocytes of rodent temporomandibular joint (TMJ) cartilage subjected to unilateral anterior cross-bite (UAC)...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30496619/androgen-receptor-in-neurons-slows-age-related-cortical-thinning-in-male-mice
#6
Ferran Jardí, Nari Kim, Michaël R Laurent, Rougin Khalil, Ludo Deboel, Dieter Schollaert, Harry van Lenthe, Brigitte Decallonne, Geert Carmeliet, Frank Claessens, Dirk Vanderschueren
Androgens via the androgen receptor (AR) are required for optimal male bone health. The target cell(s) for the effects of androgens on cortical bone remain(s) incompletely understood. In females, estrogen receptor alpha in neurons is a negative regulator of cortical and trabecular bone. Whether neuronal AR regulates bone mass in males remains unexplored. Here, we inactivated AR in neurons using a tamoxifen-inducible CreERT2 under the control of the neuronal promoter Thy1. Tamoxifen induced a 70-80% reduction of AR mRNA levels in Thy1-CreERT2 positive brain regions cerebral cortex and brainstem as well as in the peripheral nervous tissue of male neuronal AR knockout (N-ARKO) mice...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30496618/age-at-onset-of-walking-in-infancy-is-associated-with-hip-shape-in-early-old-age
#7
Alex Ireland, Fiona R Saunders, Stella G Muthuri, Anastasia V Pavlova, Rebecca J Hardy, Kathryn R Martin, Rebecca J Barr, Judith E Adams, Diana Kuh, Richard M Aspden, Jennifer S Gregory, Rachel Cooper
Bones' shapes and structures adapt to the muscle and reaction forces they experience during everyday movements. Onset of independent walking, at approximately 12 months, represents the first postnatal exposure of the lower limbs to the large forces associated with bipedal movements, and, accordingly, earlier walking is associated with greater bone strength. However, associations between early life loading and joint shape have not been explored. We therefore examined associations between walking age and hip shape at age 60-64y in 1423 individuals (740 women) from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development, a nationally-representative British birth cohort...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30496606/activation-of-rank-rankl-opg-pathway-is-involved-in-the-pathophysiology-of-fibrous-dysplasia-and-associated-with-disease-burden
#8
Luis F de Castro, Andrea B Burke, Howard D Wang, Jeffrey Tsai, Pablo Florenzano, Kristen S Pan, Nisan Bhattacharyya, Alison M Boyce, Rachel I Gafni, Alfredo A Molinolo, Pamela G Robey, Michael T Collins
Fibrous dysplasia of bone (FD) is a mosaic disease caused by mutations in GNAS. Constitutive activation of the α-subunit of the Gs stimulatory protein (Gαs) leads to dysregulated proliferation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), generating expansile lesions of fibrotic tissue and abnormal bone. Local bone remodeling regulation by BMSCs is also altered, and FD tissue is characterized by abundant osteoclast-like cells that may be essential for lesion expansion. Animal models show local expression of RANKL in bone lesions, and treatment with the RANKL neutralizing antibody denosumab decreased lesion expansion rate in a patient with aggressive FD...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30496603/bone-matrix-mineralization-in-patients-with-gain-of-function-calcium-sensing-receptor-mutations-is-distinctly-different-from-that-in-postsurgical-hypoparathyroidism
#9
Diana Ovejero, Barbara M Misof, Rachel I Gafni, David Dempster, Hua Zhou, Klaus Klaushofer, Michael T Collins, Paul Roschger
The role of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) as a regulator of parathyroid hormone secretion is well established, but its function in bone is less well defined. In an effort to elucidate the CaSR's skeletal role, bone tissue and material characteristics from patients with autosomal dominant hypocalcemia (ADH), a genetic form of primary hypoparathyroidism caused by CASR gain-of-function mutations, were compared to patients with postsurgical hypoparathyroidism (PSH). Bone structure and formation/resorption indices and mineralization density distribution (BMDD), were examined in transiliac biopsy samples from PSH (n = 13) and ADH (n = 6) patients by histomorphometry and quantitative backscatter electron imaging, respectively...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30489658/regulator-of-g-protein-signaling-protein-12-rgs12-controls-mouse-osteoblast-differentiation-via-calcium-channel-oscillation-and-g%C3%AE-i-erk-signaling
#10
Ziqing Li, Tongjun Liu, Alyssa Gilmore, Néstor Más Gómez, Chuanyun Fu, Jormay Lim, Shuting Yang, Claire H Mitchell, Yi-Ping Li, Merry J Oursler, Shuying Yang
Bone homeostasis is intimately relied on the balance between osteoblasts (OBs) and osteoclasts (OCs). Our previous studies have revealed that regulator of G protein signaling protein 12 (Rgs12), the largest protein in the Rgs super family, is essential for osteoclastogenesis from hematopoietic cells and OC precursors. However, how Rgs12 regulates OB differentiation and function is still unknown. To understand that, we generated an OB-targeted Rgs12 conditional knockout (CKO) mice model by crossing Rgs12fl/fl mice with Osterix (Osx)-Cre transgenic mice...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30476357/understanding-the-bone-in-cancer-metastasis
#11
REVIEW
Jaime Fornetti, Alana L Welm, Sheila A Stewart
The bone is the third most common site of metastasis for a wide range of solid tumors including lung, breast, prostate, colorectal, thyroid, gynecologic, and melanoma, with 70% of metastatic prostate and breast cancer patients harboring bone metastasis. Unfortunately, once cancer spreads to the bone, it is rarely cured and is associated with a wide range of morbidities including pain, increased risk of fracture, and hypercalcemia. This fact has driven experts in the fields of bone and cancer biology to study the bone, and has revealed that there is a great deal that each can teach the other...
November 26, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30461066/characteristics-of-self-reported-sleep-and-the-risk-of-falls-and-fractures-the-women-s-health-initiative-whi
#12
Jane A Cauley, Kathleen M Hovey, Katie L Stone, Chris A Andrews, Kamil E Barbour, Lauren Hale, Rebecca D Jackson, Karen C Johnson, Erin S LeBlanc, Wenjun Li, Oleg Zaslavsky, Heather Ochs-Balcom, Jean Wactawski-Wende, Carolyn J Crandall
Sleep disturbances are common and may influence falls and fracture directly by influencing bone turnover and muscle strength or indirectly through high comorbidity or poor physical function. To investigate the association between self-reported sleep and falls and fractures, we prospectively studied 157,306 women in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) using information on sleep quality, sleep duration, and insomnia from questionnaires. Annual self-report of falling two or more times (ie, "recurrent falling") during each year of follow-up was modeled with repeated measures logistic regression models fit by generalized estimating equations...
November 21, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30458061/a-heterozygous-splice-site-mutation-in-pthlh-causes-autosomal-dominant-shortening-of-metacarpals-and-tarsals
#13
Monica Reyes, Bert Bravenboer, Harald Jüppner
Short metacarpals and/or -tarsals are typically observed in pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) type Ia (PHP1A) or pseudo-PHP (PPHP), i.e. disorders caused by inactivating GNAS mutations involving exons encoding the alpha-subunit of the stimulatory G protein (Gsα). Skeletal abnormalities similar to those in PHP1A/PPHP were present in several members of an extended Belgian family without evidence for abnormal calcium and phosphate regulation. Direct nucleotide sequencing of genomic DNA from an affected individual (190/III-1) excluded GNAS mutations...
November 20, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30458056/mkx-deficient-mice-exhibit-hedgehog-signaling-dependent-ectopic-ossification-in-the-achilles-tendons
#14
Han Liu, Jingyue Xu, Rulang Jiang
Heterotopic ossification is the abnormal formation of mineralized bone in skin, muscle, tendon, or other soft tissues. Tendon ossification often occurs from acute tendon injury or chronic tendon degeneration, of which current treatment relies heavily on surgical removal of the ectopic bony tissues. Unfortunately, surgery creates additional trauma, which often causes recurrence of heterotopic ossification. The molecular mechanisms of heterotopic ossification are not well understood. Previous studies demonstrate that Mkx is a transcription factor crucial for postnatal tendon fibril growth...
November 20, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30452097/inhibition-of-the-oxygen-sensor-phd2-enhances-tissue-engineered-endochondral-bone-formation
#15
Pieter-Jan Stiers, Steve Stegen, Nick van Gastel, Riet Van Looveren, Sophie Torrekens, Geert Carmeliet
Tissue engineering holds great promise for bone regenerative medicine, but clinical translation remains challenging. An important factor is the low cell survival after implantation, primarily caused by the lack of functional vasculature at the bone defect. Interestingly, bone development and repair initiate predominantly via an avascular cartilage template, indicating that chondrocytes are adapted to limited vascularization. Given these advantageous properties of chondrocytes, we questioned whether tissue-engineered cartilage intermediates implanted ectopically in mice are able to form bone, even when the volume size increases...
November 19, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30427544/poor-vitamin-k-status-is-associated-with-low-bone-mineral-density-and-increased-fracture-risk-in-end-stage-renal-disease
#16
Pieter Evenepoel, Kathleen Claes, Bjorn Meijers, Michaël Laurent, Bert Bammens, Maarten Naesens, Ben Sprangers, Hans Pottel, Etienne Cavalier, Dirk Kuypers
Chronic kidney disease and osteoporosis are major public health problems associated with an aging population. Vitamin K insufficiency is prevalent among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Preliminary data indicate that poor vitamin K status may compromise bone health and that increased inflammation may be in the causal pathway. We performed an ancillary analysis of data collected in the frame of prospective observational cohort studies exploring various aspects of bone health in de novo renal transplant recipients to investigate the association between vitamin K status, inflammation, bone mineral density, and incident clinical fractures...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30402921/gestational-weight-gain-and-offspring-bone-mass-different-associations-in-healthy-weight-versus-overweight-women
#17
Teresa Monjardino, Ana Henriques, Carla Moreira, Teresa Rodrigues, Nuno Adubeiro, Luísa Nogueira, Cyrus Cooper, Ana Cristina Santos, Raquel Lucas
Weight management strategies during pregnancy reduce child cardiometabolic risk. However, because maternal weight has an overall positive correlation with offspring bone mass, pregnancy weight management could adversely affect child bone health. We aimed to estimate associations between gestational weight gain (GWG) and bone mineralization in the offspring at 7 years of age, and test early pregnancy body mass index (BMI) as an effect modifier. We analyzed prospective data from 2167 mother-child pairs from the Generation XXI birth cohort who underwent whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at 7 years of age...
November 6, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30399207/il-17-receptor-signaling-in-osteoblasts-osteocytes-mediates-pth-induced-bone-loss-and-enhances-osteocytic-rankl-production
#18
Jau-Yi Li, Mingcan Yu, Abdul Malik Tyagi, Chiara Vaccaro, Emory Hsu, Jonathan Adams, Teresita Bellido, M Neale Weitzmann, Roberto Pacifici
Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is a condition where elevated PTH levels lead to bone loss, in part through increased production of the osteoclastogenic factor IL-17A, by bone marrow (BM) T-helper 17 (Th17) cells, a subset of helper CD4+ T cells. In animals, PHPT is modeled by continuous PTH treatment (cPTH). In mice, an additional critical action of cPTH is the capacity to increase the production of RANKL by osteocytes. However, a definitive link between IL-17A and osteocytic expression of RANKL has not been made...
November 6, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30399201/reply-to-bariatric-surgery-physical-activity-and-fracture-risk
#19
LETTER
Kristian F Axelsson, Mattias Lorentzon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 6, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30395692/cardiovascular-autonomic-neuropathy-as-a-new-complication-of-post-surgical-chronic-hypoparathyroidism
#20
G Tabacco, A M Naciu, D Maggi, A Santonati, C Pedone, R Cesareo, D Bosco, G Gaspa, N Napoli, P Pozzilli, S Manfrini, A Palermo
Post-surgical hypoparathyroidism (hypoPT) increases fatigue and seems to affect the risk of mortality. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is an impairment of the cardiovascular autonomic system, a cause of increased mortality and associated with increased fatigability. The aim of this study is to evaluate CAN in hypoPT and its relationship with hypocalcemia, PTH levels and hyperphosphatemia. This is a cross-sectional study comparing 51 post-surgical hypoparathyroid patients treated with calcium and calcitriol and 43 control subjects without any PTH/calcium/phosphate disorders who underwent thyroidectomy...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
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