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PloS One

Katharina Hohlbaum, Bettina Bert, Silke Dietze, Rupert Palme, Heidrun Fink, Christa Thöne-Reineke
Within the scope of the 3Rs of Russel and Burch, the number of laboratory animals can be reduced by repeated use of an animal. This strategy only becomes relevant, if the total amount of pain, distress or harm the individual animal experiences does not exceed the severity of a single manipulation. For example, when using imaging techniques, an animal can be examined several times during a study, but it has to be anesthetized each time imaging is performed. The severity of anesthesia is thought to be mild according to the Directive 2010/63/EU...
2018: PloS One
Stephanie A Luff, Chen-Yuan Kao, Eleftherios T Papoutsakis
Megakaryocytes (Mks) derive from hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) in the bone marrow and develop into large, polyploid cells that eventually give rise to platelets. As Mks mature, they migrate from the bone marrow niche into the vasculature, where they are exposed to shear forces from blood flow, releasing Mk particles (platelet-like particles (PLPs), pro/preplatelets (PPTs), and Mk microparticles (MkMPs)) into circulation. We have previously shown that transcription factor p53 is important in Mk maturation, and that physiological levels of shear promote Mk particle generation and platelet biogenesis...
2018: PloS One
Kirstie A Fryirs, Gary J Brierley
Meaningful iteration between place-based knowledge of rivers and generalised, theoretically-framed understandings is a significant challenge in river science and management. How can we communicate knowledge of the inherent complexity of river systems in light of managerial quests for simple, easy-to-apply frameworks that can be used by a wide range of practitioners, such that we can meaningfully transfer experiences in river science and management from one situation to another? Identification, definition, classification and naming are vital parts of this process...
2018: PloS One
Amirhessam Tahmassebi, Amir H Gandomi, Simon Fong, Anke Meyer-Baese, Simon Y Foo
In this study, a multi-stage optimization procedure is proposed to develop deep neural network models which results in a powerful deep learning pipeline called intelligent deep learning (iDeepLe). The proposed pipeline is then evaluated by a challenging real-world problem, the modeling of the spectral acceleration experienced by a particle during earthquakes. This approach has three main stages to optimize the deep model topology, the hyper-parameters, and its performance, respectively. This pipeline optimizes the deep model via adaptive learning rate optimization algorithms for both accuracy and complexity in multiple stages, while simultaneously solving the unknown parameters of the regression model...
2018: PloS One
Ye Ra Choi, Jin Wook Chung, Mi Hye Yu, Myungsu Lee, Jung Hoon Kim
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy of CT for small, hypervascular hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) and assess the enhancement patterns on CT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-nine patients who underwent cone-beam CT hepatic arteriography (CBCT-HA) during initial chemoembolization for HCC suspected on CT were enrolled in this study. A total of 297 hypervascular HCCs (142 ≥ 1 cm, 155 < 1 cm) were confirmed as HCCs based on two-year follow-up CT and CBCT-HA images...
2018: PloS One
Ndeye Fatou Ngom, Mame Awa Faye, Kiné Ndiaye, Aminata Thiam, Cheikh Tidiane Ndour, Jean-François Etard, Papa Salif Sow, Moussa Seydi, Eric Delaporte, Amandine Cournil
OBJECTIVE: To examine how patient characteristics combined with ART eligibility expansions affect the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) among eligible patients attending a referral center in Senegal from 1998 to 2015. METHODS: This is a retrospective observational study carried out at the outpatient treatment Centre (Centre de Traitement Ambulatoire) in Dakar, Senegal, based on computerized medical records, gathered from 1998 to 2015, of ART-naïve patients over 15 years of age...
2018: PloS One
Chandresh Nanji Ladva, Rachel Golan, Donghai Liang, Roby Greenwald, Douglas I Walker, Karan Uppal, Amit U Raysoni, ViLinh Tran, Tianwei Yu, W Dana Flanders, Gary W Miller, Dean P Jones, Jeremy A Sarnat
INTRODUCTION: Advances in liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) have enabled high-resolution metabolomics (HRM) to emerge as a sensitive tool for measuring environmental exposures and corresponding biological response. Using measurements collected as part of a large, panel-based study of car commuters, the current analysis examines in-vehicle air pollution concentrations, targeted inflammatory biomarker levels, and metabolomic profiles to trace potential metabolic perturbations associated with on-road traffic exposures...
2018: PloS One
Ramona H Krauss, Belinda Phipson, Alicia Oshlack, Nikita Prasad-Gupta, Michael M Cheung, Joseph J Smolich, Salvatore Pepe
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified as important contributors to the regulation of early fetal cardiopulmonary development. However, miRNA expression profiles during late gestation and the early neonatal period are not fully elaborated in large mammals such as sheep (ovis aries). The aim of this study was to sequence miRNA from cardiopulmonary tissues in late gestation and neonate sheep to identify changes in miRNA expression. METHODS: Illumina HiSeq next-generation deep sequencing (NGS) was performed on ovine tissues from the left (LV) and right ventricles (RV), lungs and pulmonary artery (PA) of preterm fetuses (128 days), near-term fetuses (140 days) (term = 148 days) and neonatal lambs (5 days)...
2018: PloS One
Helgar Musyoki, Parinita Bhattacharjee, Andrea K Blanchard, Japheth Kioko, Shem Kaosa, John Anthony, Prakash Javalkar, Janet Musimbi, Serah Joy Malaba, Carol Olwande, James F Blanchard, Martin Sirengo, Shajy Isac, Stephen Moses
The Kenya National AIDS and STI Control Programme (NASCOP) conducted annual polling booth surveys (PBS) in 2014 and 2015 to measure outcomes from the national HIV prevention programme for key populations (KPs), comprising behavioural, biomedical and structural interventions. KPs included female sex workers (FSWs), men who have sex with men (MSM) and people who inject drugs (PWID). We compared survey results from the first and second rounds. Comparing the second to the first round, significantly more FSWs (93% vs...
2018: PloS One
Mushtaq Ahmad Khan, Wen Chen, Asmat Ullah, Lin Ji
Minimization functionals related to Euler's elastica energy has a broad range of applications in computer vision and image processing. This paper proposes a novel Euler's elastica and curvature-based variational model for image restoration corrupted with multiplicative noise. It combines Euler's elastica curvature with a Weberized total variation (TV) regularization and gets a novel Euler's elastica energy and TV-based minimization functional. The combined approach in this variational model can preserve edges while reducing the blocky effect in smooth regions...
2018: PloS One
Luisa Amo, Gustavo Tomás, Irene Saavedra, Marcel E Visser
Small birds use cavities for roosting to decrease the thermoregulatory costs during the winter nights. The ability of birds to detect and escape from an approaching predator is impaired during roosting and thus the selection of such cavities should take into account the risk that a predator will find the cavity. Previous evidence suggested that birds in captivity are able to detect predator scent and avoid roosting in nest-boxes containing such predator chemical cues. Here, we tested whether birds also show this avoidance response under natural conditions...
2018: PloS One
Fernando Laso-García, Jaime Ramos-Cejudo, Francisco Javier Carrillo-Salinas, Laura Otero-Ortega, Ana Feliú, MariCarmen Gómez-de Frutos, Miriam Mecha, Exuperio Díez-Tejedor, Carmen Guaza, María Gutiérrez-Fernández
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have emerged as important mediators of intercellular communication and as possible therapeutic agents in inflammation-mediated demyelinating diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS). In the present study, we investigated whether intravenously administered EVs derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from human adipose tissue might mediate recovery in Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV)-induced demyelinating disease, a progressive model of MS. SJL/J mice were subjected to EV treatment once the disease was established...
2018: PloS One
Roger Pamphlett, David P Bishop, Stephen Kum Jew, Philip A Doble
Damage to the locus ceruleus has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of neurological conditions. Locus ceruleus neurons accumulate toxic metals such as mercury selectively, however, the presence of toxic metals in locus ceruleus neurons of people of different ages, and with a variety of disorders, is not known. To demonstrate at what age toxic metals are first detectable in the locus ceruleus, and to evaluate whether their presence is more common in certain clinicopathological conditions, we looked for these metals in 228 locus ceruleus samples...
2018: PloS One
Tania Schink, Bianca Kollhorst, Cristina Varas Lorenzo, Andrea Arfè, Ron Herings, Silvia Lucchi, Silvana Romio, René Schade, Martijn J Schuemie, Huub Straatman, Vera Valkhoff, Marco Villa, Miriam Sturkenboom, Edeltraut Garbe
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: A multi-country European study using data from six healthcare databases from four countries was performed to evaluate in a large study population (>32 million) the risk of ischemic stroke (IS) associated with individual NSAIDs and to assess the impact of risk factors of IS and co-medication. METHODS: Case-control study nested in a cohort of new NSAID users. For each case, up to 100 sex- and age-matched controls were selected and confounder-adjusted odds ratios for current use of individual NSAIDs compared to past use calculated...
2018: PloS One
Yoonju Lee, Jungsu S Oh, Seok Jong Chung, Jae Jung Lee, Su Jin Chung, Hyojeong Moon, Phil Hyu Lee, Jae Seung Kim, Young H Sohn
Depression frequently accompanies Parkinson's disease and often precedes the onset of motor symptoms. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of depression on motor compensation in patients with de novo Parkinson's disease. This retrospective cohort study analyzed data from 474 non-demented patients with de novo Parkinson's disease (mean age, 64.6±9.8 years; 242 men) who underwent both dopamine transporter PET scan and depression assessment using the Beck Depression Inventory at baseline. Patients were classified into tertiles by Beck Depression Inventory score...
2018: PloS One
Thiago Bernardi Vieira, Carla Simone Pavanelli, Lilian Casatti, Welber Senteio Smith, Evanilde Benedito, Rosana Mazzoni, Jorge Iván Sánchez-Botero, Danielle Sequeira Garcez, Sergio Maia Queiroz Lima, Paulo Santos Pompeu, Carlos Sérgio Agostinho, Luciano Fogaça de Assis Montag, Jansen Zuanon, Pedro De Podestà Uchôa de Aquino, Mauricio Cetra, Francisco Leonardo Tejerina-Garro, Luiz Fernando Duboc, Ruanny Casarim Corrêa, María Angélica Pérez-Mayorga, Gabriel Lourenço Brejão, Nadayca Thayane Bonani Mateussi, Míriam Aparecida de Castro, Rafael Pereira Leitão, Fernando Pereira de Mendonça, Leandra Rose Palheta da Silva, Renata Frederico, Paulo De Marco
Several hypotheses are used to explain species richness patterns. Some of them (e.g. species-area, species-energy, environment-energy, water-energy, terrestrial primary productivity, environmental spatial heterogeneity, and climatic heterogeneity) are known to explain species richness patterns of terrestrial organisms, especially when they are combined. For aquatic organisms, however, it is unclear if these hypotheses can be useful to explain for these purposes. Therefore, we used a selection model approach to assess the predictive capacity of such hypotheses, and to determine which of them (combined or not) would be the most appropriate to explain the fish species distribution in small Brazilian streams...
2018: PloS One
Li Zeng, Dapeng Zhang, Hayley S McLoughlin, Annie J Zalon, L Aravind, Henry L Paulson
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) is a dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by a polyglutamine-encoding CAG repeat expansion in the ATXN3 gene which encodes the deubiquitinating enzyme, ATXN3. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the pathogenic role of mutant, polyQ-expanded ATXN3 in SCA3 including disease protein aggregation, impairment of ubiquitin-proteasomal degradation and transcriptional dysregulation. A better understanding of the normal functions of this protein may shed light on SCA3 disease pathogenesis...
2018: PloS One
Clemente F Arias, Miguel A Herrero, Luis F Echeverri, Gerardo E Oleaga, José M López
The human skeleton undergoes constant remodeling throughout the lifetime. Processes occurring on microscopic and molecular scales degrade bone and replace it with new, fully functional tissue. Multiple bone remodeling events occur simultaneously, continuously and independently throughout the body, so that the entire skeleton is completely renewed about every ten years.Bone remodeling is performed by groups of cells called Bone Multicellular Units (BMU). BMUs consist of different cell types, some specialized in the resorption of old bone, others encharged with producing new bone to replace the former...
2018: PloS One
Kathrin Beyer, Egija Zaura, Bernd W Brandt, Mark J Buijs, Johan G Brun, Wim Crielaard, Anne Isine Bolstad
OBJECTIVE: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and periodontitis are chronic inflammatory diseases that share common risk factors. However, the bidirectional relationship between RA and periodontal disease is not fully understood. This study was undertaken to describe the bacterial component of the subgingival microbiome in RA patients and to relate this to RA disease activity and periodontal status. METHODS: Patients with chronic established RA (N = 78) were periodontally examined and their subgingival plaque samples were collected; their clinical and laboratory data on RA status and medication were obtained from medical records...
2018: PloS One
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