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Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218991/follow-up-of-surgically-treated-patients-with-cystic-echinococcosis-can-novel-recombinant-antigens-compete-with-imaging-analysis-of-a-patient-cohort
#1
Marija Stojkovic, Hans-Micha Adt, Kerstin Rosenberger, Ghalia Boubaker, Ana Hernandez-Gonzalez, Thomas Junghanss, Marcel Zwahlen, Mar Siles Lucas
OBJECTIVE: To compare the performance of two novel recombinant antigens (EgP29, 2B2t) with imaging in a well-defined cohort of surgically treated cystic echinococcosis (CE) patients to determine whether serology reflects surgical cure as defined by imaging. METHODS: From a cohort of 223 CE-confirmed patients of a national clinical center for echinococcosis, 36 surgically treated patients were eligible for analysis. Sera were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for specific IgG and IgG4 antibodies against the EgP29 and 2B2t antigens...
February 20, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214384/placental-pathology-in-hiv-infection-at-term-a-comparison-with-hiv-uninfected-women
#2
Emma Kalk, Pawel Schubert, Julie A Bettinger, Mark F Cotton, Monika Esser, Amy Slogrove, Colleen A Wright
OBJECTIVES: To describe and correlate placental characteristics from pregnancies in HIV-infected and HIV-negative women with maternal and infant clinical and immunological data. METHODS: Prospective descriptive study of placentas from term, uncomplicated vaginal births in a cohort of HIV-infected (n=120) and HIV-negative (n=103) women in Cape Town, South Africa. Microscopic and macroscopic features were used to determine pathological cluster diagnoses. The majority of HIV-infected women received some form of drug treatment for the prevention of vertical transmission of HIV...
February 18, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214373/improved-detection-of-zika-virus-rna-in-human-and-animal-specimens-by-a-novel-highly-sensitive-and-specific-real-time-rt-pcr-assay-targeting-the-5-untranslated-region-of-zika-virus
#3
Jasper Fuk-Woo Chan, Cyril Chik-Yan Yip, Kah-Meng Tee, Zheng Zhu, Jessica Oi-Ling Tsang, Kenn Ka-Heng Chik, Terance Gi-Wai Tsang, Chris Chung-Sing Chan, Vincent Kwok-Man Poon, Siddharth Sridhar, Feifei Yin, Ivan Fan-Ngai Hung, Sandy Ka-Yee Chau, Anna Jinxia Zhang, Kwok-Hung Chan, Kwok-Yung Yuen
OBJECTIVE AND METHOD: We developed and evaluated five novel real-time RT-PCR assays targeting conserved regions in the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR), envelope (E'), non-structural protein 2A (NS2A), NS5, and 3'-UTR of the ZIKV genome. RESULTS: The ZIKV-5'-UTR assay exhibited the lowest in-vitro limit of detection (5-10 RNA copies/reaction and 3.0×10(-1) plaque-forming units/ml). Compared to the modified version of a widely adopted RT-PCR assay targeting the ZIKV-E gene, the ZIKV-5'-UTR assay showed better sensitivity in human clinical specimens, and representative mouse specimens, including many organs which are known to be involved in human ZIKV infection but difficult to obtain in clinical settings...
February 18, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196301/guinea-worm-infection-in-northern-nigeria-reflections-on-a-disease-approaching-eradication
#4
Brian Greenwood, Alice Greenwood, Andrew Bradley
Global eradication of the Guinea worm (Dracunculus medinensis) is near, although perhaps delayed a little by the discovery of a transmission cycle in dogs. It is, therefore, an appropriate time to reflect on the severe impact of this infection on the life of the communities where it was endemic prior to the start of the global eradication programme in 1981. From 1971-74, we conducted a series of unpublished studies on Guinea worm in a group of villages in Katsina State, northern Nigeria, where the infection was highly endemic...
February 14, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196298/human-to-human-transmission-of-brucella-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Felipe F Tuon, Regina B Gondolfo, Natacha Cerchiari
OBJECTIVE: The most common form of transmitting human brucellosis is through contaminated food or direct contact with infected animals. Human-to-human transmission (HHT) has been described as isolated case reports. The aim of this systematic review was to describe all cases of HHT of human brucellosis reported in the medical literature. METHODS: A literature search was conducted using PubMed, Scopus and Scielo databases using specific search terms published until March 2016...
February 14, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187247/prevalence-and-correlates-of-antibiotic-sharing-in-the-philippines-antibiotic-misconceptions-and-community-level-access-to-nonmedical-sources-of-antibiotics
#6
Daniel Barber, Efren Casquejo, Purita L Ybañez, Magdaleno T Pinote, Luz Casquejo, Lucia S Pinote, Magdalena Estorgio, April M Young
OBJECTIVE: To identify sociodemographic, knowledge, and attitudinal correlates to antibiotic-sharing among a community-based sample of adults (age 18 and older) in a low-income setting of the Philippines and to explore community-level data on informal antibiotic distribution in roadside stands (i.e., sari-sari stands). METHODS: Participants (n=307) completed self-administered surveys. Correlates to antibiotic sharing were assessed using logistic regression with Firth's bias-adjusted estimates...
February 10, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173608/prevalence-and-risk-factors-for-scrub-typhus-in-south-india
#7
Paul Trowbridge, P Divya, Prasanna S Premkumar, George M Varghese
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and risk factors of scub typhus in Tamil Nadu, South India. METHODS: We performed a clustered seroprevalence study of the areas around Vellore. All participants completed a risk factor survey, with seropositive and seronegative participants acting as cases and controls, respectively, in a risk factor analysis. After univariate analysis, variables found to be significant underwent multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Of 721 people participating in this study, 31...
February 7, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170120/physical-function-grip-strength-and-frailty-in-people-living-with-hiv-in-sub-saharan-africa-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Charlotte Bernard, François Dabis, Nathalie de Rekeneire
OBJECTIVE: To present the current knowledge on physical function, grip strength and frailty in HIV-infected patients living in sub-Saharan Africa, where the phenomenon is largely underestimated. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted on Medline, Scopus and African Index Medicus. We reviewed articles on sub-Saharan African people living with HIV (PLHIV) >18 years old, published until November 2016. RESULTS: Of 537 articles, 13 were conducted in six African countries and included in this review...
February 7, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168834/pyrethroid-and-ddt-tolerance-of-anopheles-gambiae-s-l-from-sengerema-district-an-area-of-intensive-pesticide-usage-in-northwestern-tanzania
#9
Anita Philbert, Sylvester Leonard Lyantagaye, Gabriele Pradel, Che Julius Ngwa, Gamba Nkwengulila
OBJECTIVE: To assess the susceptibility status of malaria vectors to pyrethroids and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), characterize the mechanisms underlying resistance, and to evaluate the role of agro-chemical use in resistance selection among malaria vectors in Sengerema agro ecosystem zone, Tanzania. METHODS: Mosquito larvae were collected from farms and reared to obtain adults. The susceptibility status of An. gambiae s.l. was assessed using WHO bioassay tests to permethrin, deltamethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, etofenprox, cyfluthrin, and DDT...
February 7, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164415/e-coli-contamination-of-child-complementary-foods-and-association-with-domestic-hygiene-in-rural-bangladesh
#10
Sarker Masud Parvez, Laura Kwong, Musarrat Jabeen Rahman, Ayse Ercumen, Amy J Pickering, Probir K Ghosh, Md Zahidur Rahman, Kishor Kumar Das, Stephen P Luby, Leanne Unicomb
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency and concentration of E. coli in child complementary food and its association with domestic hygiene practices in rural Bangladesh. METHOD: 608 households with children <2 years were enrolled. We collected stored complementary food samples, performed spot checks on domestic hygiene and measured ambient temperature in the food storage area. Food samples were analyzed using the IDEXX most probable number (MPN) method with Colilert-18 media to enumerate E...
February 6, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151567/first-molecular-epidemiology-of-entamoeba-histolytica-e-dispar-and-e-moshkovskii-infections-in-yemen-different-species-specific-associated-risk-factors
#11
Mona A Al-Areeqi, Hany Sady, Hesham M Al-Mekhlafi, Tengku Shahrul Anuar, Abdulelah H Al-Adhroey, Wahib M Atroosh, Salwa Dawaki, Fatin Nur Elyana, Nabil A Nasr, Init Ithoi, Yee-Ling Lau, Johari Surin
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the molecular epidemiology of Entamoeba histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii infections among rural communities in Yemen. METHODS: In a community-based study, faecal samples were collected from 605 participants and examined by wet mount, formalin-ether sedimentation, trichrome staining and nested multiplex PCR techniques. Demographic, socioeconomic and environmental information was collected by using a pre-tested questionnaire. RESULTS: Overall, 324 (53...
February 2, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151566/efficacy-of-artesunate-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine-and-artemether-lumefantrine-and-dhfr-and-dhps-mutations-in-somalia-evidence-for%C3%A2-updating-the-malaria-treatment-policy
#12
Marian Warsame, Abdikarim Hussein Hassan, Abdillahi Mohamed Hassan, Abdulkadir Mohamed Arale, Ali Mohamed Jibril, Said Abdulkadir Mohamud, Amy Barrette, Abdikarim Yusuf Muse, Fahmi Essa Yusuf Rania A Nada, Jamal Ghilan Hefzullah Amran
OBJECTIVE: To determine the therapeutic efficacy of artesunate + sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (AS + SP) and artemether + lumefantrine (AL), and to investigate the presence of molecular mutations associated with resistance, to inform national malaria treatment policy. METHODS: One-arm prospective studies were conducted in three study sites in Somalia in 2013 and 2015 to evaluate the efficacy of AS + SP and AL among patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Outcomes included clinical and parasitological response over 28 days, and the presence of dihydrofolate reductase (dfhr) and dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) and mutations...
February 2, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150899/superinfection-interference-between-dengue-2-and-dengue-4-viruses-in-aedes-aegypti-mosquitoes
#13
Ephantus J Muturi, Eva Buckner, Jeffrey Bara
OBJECTIVE: Dengue virus consists of four antigenically distinct serotypes (DENV 1-4) that are transmitted to humans by Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. In many dengue-endemic regions, co-circulation of two or more DENV serotypes is fairly common increasing the likelihood for exposure of the two vectors to multiple serotypes. We used a model system of DENV-2 and DENV-4 to investigate how prior exposure of Aedes aegypti to one DENV serotype affects its susceptibility to another serotype...
February 2, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142216/how-do-low-birth-weight-neonates-fare-two-years-after-discharge-from-a-low-technology-neonatal-care-unit-in-a-rural-district-hospital-in-burundi
#14
W van den Boogaard, I Zuniga, M Manzi, R Van den Bergh, A Lefevre, K Nanan-N'zeth, B Duchenne, W Etienne, N Juma, B Ndelema, R Zachariah, A Reid
OBJECTIVES: As neonatal care is being scaled up in economically poor settings, there is a need to know more on post-hospital discharge and longer-term outcomes. Of particular interest are mortality, prevalence of developmental impairments and malnutrition, all known to be worse in low-birth-weight neonates (LBW, <2500 grams). Getting a better handle on these parameters might justify and guide support interventions. Two years after hospital discharge, we thus assessed: mortality, developmental impairments, and nutritional status of LBW children...
January 31, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117937/addressing-tuberculosis-patients-medical-and-socio-economic-needs-a-comprehensive-programmatic-approach
#15
Carmen C Contreras, Ana K Millones, Janeth Santa Cruz, Margot Aguilar, Martin Clendenes, Miguel Toranzo, Karim Llaro, Leonid Lecca, Mercedes C Becerra, Courtney M Yuen
OBJECTIVE: For a cohort of patients with tuberculosis in Carabayllo, Peru, we describe the prevalence of medical comorbidities and socio-economic needs, the efforts required by a comprehensive support programme ('TB Cero') to address them and the success of this programme in linking patients to care. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with tuberculosis in Carabayllo underwent evaluations for HIV, diabetes, mental health and unmet basic needs. For patients initiating treatment during 14 September, 2015-15 May, 2016, we abstracted data from evaluation forms and a support request system...
January 24, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102610/outcomes-of-hiv-positive-patients-lost-to-follow-up-in-african-treatment-programmes
#16
REVIEW
Kathrin Zürcher, Anne Mooser, Nanina Anderegg, Olga Tymejczyk, Margaret J Couvillon, Denis Nash, Matthias Egger
OBJECTIVE: The retention of patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) is key to achieving global targets in response to the HIV epidemic. Loss to follow-up (LTFU) can be substantial, with unknown outcomes for patients lost to ART programmes. We examined changes in outcomes of patients LTFU over calendar time, assessed associations with other study and programme characteristics and investigated the relative success of different tracing methods. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and logistic random-effects meta-regression analysis of studies that traced adults or children who started ART and were LTFU in sub-Saharan African treatment programmes...
January 19, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102027/patient-engagement-in-hiv-care-and-treatment-in-zambia-2004-2014
#17
Neo Christopher Chung, Carolyn Bolton-Moore, Roma Chilengi, Margaret P Kasaro, Jeffrey S A Stringer, Benjamin H Chi
OBJECTIVE: To describe engagement along the HIV continuum of care using a large network of clinics in Zambia. METHODS: We employed a practical framework to describe retention along the HIV treatment cascade, using routinely collected clinical data available in resource-constrained settings. We included health facilities in four Zambian provinces with more than 300 enrolled patients over the age of 5 years. We described attrition at each step, from HIV enrolment to 720 days after ART initiation...
January 19, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102021/high-prevalence-of-diabetes-and-anthropometric-heterogeneity-among-tuberculosis-patients-in-pakistan
#18
Huma Aftab, Atiqa Ambreen, Mohammad Jamil, Peter Garred, Jørgen H Petersen, Susanne D Nielsen, Ib C Bygbjerg, Dirk L Christensen
BACKGROUND: In Pakistan the prevalence of diabetes (DM) among adults is 6.9% and expected to double by 2040. DM may facilitate transmission and halter the elimination of tuberculosis (TB). We aimed to determine the prevalence of DM among TB patients in Pakistan and to investigate anthropometric biochemical, and haemodynamic associations between TB patients with and without DM. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study at Gulab Devi Chest Hospital in Lahore, Punjab...
January 19, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102004/prevalence-and-causes-of-hearing-impairment-in-fundong-health-district-north-west-cameroon
#19
Silvia Ferrite, Islay Mactaggart, Hannah Kuper, Joseph Oye, Sarah Polack
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and causes of hearing impairment in Fundong Health District, North West Cameroon. METHODS: We selected 51 clusters of 80 people through probability proportionate to size sampling. Initial hearing screening was undertaken through an otoacoustic emission (OAE) test. Participants aged 4+ years who failed this test in both ears or for whom an OAE reading could not be taken underwent a manual pure-tone audiometry (PTA) screening...
January 18, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101954/task-sharing-with-nurses-to-enhance-access-to-hiv-treatment-in-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire
#20
Margaret L McNairy, Jules B Bashi, Hannah Chung, Louise Wemin, Marie-Nicole Akpro Lorng, Hermann Brou, Cyprien Nioble, A Lokossué, Kouame Abo, Delphine Achi, Kiyali Ouattara, Daniel Sess, Pongathie Adama Sanogo, Alexandre Ekra, Virginie Ettiegne-Traore, Conombo J Diabate, Elaine J Abrams, Wafaa M El-Sadr
OBJECTIVE: We report the first national program in Côte d'Ivoire to evaluate the feasibility of nurse-led HIV care as a model of task-sharing with nurses to increase coverage and decentralization of HIV services. METHODS: Twenty-six public HIV facilities implemented either a nurse-with-onsite-physician or a nurse-with-visiting-physician model of HIV task-sharing. Routinely collected patient data were reviewed to analyze patient characteristics of those enrolling in care and initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART)...
January 18, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
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