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Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH

Anuj Tiwari, David J Blok, Pramilesh Suryawanshi, Akash Raikwar, Mohammad Arif, Jan Hendrik Richardus
OBJECTIVES: WHO recommends inclusion of post-exposure chemoprophlaxis with single dose rifampicine in national leprosy control programs. The objective was to estimate the cost of leprosy services at primary care level in two different public-health settings. METHODS: Ingredient-based costing was performed in 8 Primary Health Centers (PHC) purposively selected in the Union Territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli (DNH) and the Umbergaon block of Valsad district, Gujarat, India...
November 16, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Virginia Kagure Wachira, Henry Maia Peixoto, Maria Regina Fernandes de Oliveira
OBJECTIVE: To describe the factors associated with the development of Guillain-Barré syndrome, both infectious and non-infectious, during and after the A(H1N1) influenza pandemic in 2009 and the recent Zika virus epidemic in the Americas. METHOD: Systematic review of literature on factors associated with the development of the Guillain-Barré syndrome published between 2007 and 2017 listed in EBSCO, MEDLINE, and LILACS databases. The quality of the studies was evaluated using the Newcastle Ottawa Scale...
November 16, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Shanon M Smith, Lorena Montero, Maritza Paez, Estefania Ortega, Eric Hall, Kate Bohnert, Xavier Sanchez, Edison Puebla, Pablo Endara, William Cevallos, Gabriel Trueba, Karen Levy
OBJECTIVES: Diarrhea is a common and well-studied cause of illness afflicting international travelers. However, traveler's diarrhea can also result from travel between high and low disease transmission regions within a country, which is the focus of this study. METHODS: We recruited participants for a case-control study of diarrhea at four sites along an urban-rural gradient in Northern Ecuador: Quito, Esmeraldas, Borbón and rural communities outside of Borbón...
November 16, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Birgitte Baldur-Felskov, Julius Mwaiselage, Mette Tuxen Faber, Myassa Kjaerem, Cecilie Dovey de la Cour, Christian Munk, Crispin Kahesa, Thomas Iftner, Vibeke Rasch, Susanne K Kjaer
OBJECTIVES: Cervical cancer screening by visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) is a widely used alternative to cytology in developing countries. This study aimed to evaluate risk factors associated with a positive VIA test and with cervical high-grade lesions on cytology. METHODS: We conducted a large cross-sectional study among 3,339 women from urban and rural Tanzania. Study participants were interviewed about socio-demographic, reproductive and lifestyle factors...
November 16, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Ane B Fisker, Amabélia Rodrigues, Stéphane Helleringer
OBJECTIVE: Improving civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS) systems is essential to monitoring health objectives locally and globally. The barriers to birth and particularly death registration in low- and middle-income countries are however poorly understood. METHODS: We conducted a survey among women of reproductive age in Bissau, the capital of Guinea-Bissau. We asked women with a birth in the past two years whether their child had been registered and had obtained a birth certificate...
November 14, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Virendra S Ligade, Tanmay M Thakar, Swapnil J Dengale
OBJECTIVE: To assess the proportion and sales of unapproved Fixed Dose Combinations (FDCs) of anti-tubercular, anti-malarial, and anti-retroviral medicines available on the Indian market. METHODS: Available FDCs of anti-tubercular, anti-malarial, and anti-retrovirals were screened against the Central Drugs Standard Control Organization (CDSCO) database of approved FDCs. The FDC sales information in the given categories was obtained from AIOCD AWACS PharmaTrac, a market data base...
November 13, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Ahmad Farooq Alsayed Hasanain, Muhammad Abbas El-Masry, Ali Abdel-Azeem Hasan Zayed, Amany Mohamed Adawi Nafee, Rasha Abdel-Monem Hassan Attia, Sherif Mohamed Abdel-Aal
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of therapeutic failure among patients with acute and subacute brucellosis and to explore the predictors of failure. METHODS: The study included 213 consecutive, naïve patients with acute and subacute brucellosis. All participants underwent clinical evaluation, chest radiography, stool microscopic examination and interferon-gamma release assay. Patients received the WHO-recommended therapy of doxycycline 200 mg/day and rifampin 900 mg/day, for six weeks...
November 9, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Alison M El Ayadi, Justus Barageine, Abner Korn, Othman Kakaire, Janet Turan, Susan Obore, Josaphat Byamugisha, Felicia Lester, Hadija Nalubwama, Haruna Mwanje, Vandana Tripathi, Suellen Miller
OBJECTIVES: To explore trajectories of physical and psychosocial health, and their interrelationship, among women completing fistula repair in Uganda for 1 year post-surgery. METHODS: We recruited a 60-woman longitudinal cohort at surgical hospitalisation from Mulago Hospital in Kampala Uganda (Dec 2014-June 2015) and followed them for 1 year. We collected survey data on physical and psychosocial health at surgery and at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months via mobile phone...
October 29, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Samuel Akech, Phillip Ayieko, Grace Irimu, Kasia Stepniewska, Mike English
OBJECTIVE: WHO recommends optimisation of available interventions to reduce deaths of under-five children with diarrhoea and dehydration (DD). Clinical networks may help improve practice across many hospitals but experience with such networks is scarce. We describe magnitude and patterns of changes in processes of care for children with DD over the first 3 years of a clinical network. METHODS: Observational study involving children aged 2-59 months with DD admitted to 13 hospitals participating in the clinical network...
October 26, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Sarah Jane Steele, Hartini Sugianto, Quentin Baglione, Sandra Sedlimaier, Aline Aurore Niyibizi, Kristal Duncan, Julia Hill, Jesper Brix, Mit Philips, Gilles Van Cutsem, Amir Shroufi
OBJECTIVE: Lesotho has one of the highest maternal mortality rates in the world. While at primary health care (PHC) level maternity care is free, at hospital level co-payments are required from patients. We describe service utilisation and delivery outcomes before and after removal of user fees and quality of delivery care, and associated costs, at St Joseph's Hospital (SJH) in Roma, Lesotho. METHODS: We compared utilisation of delivery services, stillbirths and maternal and neonatal mortality for the periods before (July 1, 2012 to December 31, 2013) and after (January 1, 2014 to June 30, 2015) user fee removal through a retrospective chart review and estimated additional costs attributed to user fee removal from provider (hospital) and patient perspectives...
October 26, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Neeraj Kohli, Soumyadeep Bhaumik, Soushieta Jagadesh, Reneepearl Kim Sales, Imelda Bates
OBJECTIVE: Blood component transfusion is increasingly promoted in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), but is resource-intensive so whole blood is often used. We examined SSA recommendations about whole blood and packed red cell transfusions for pregnancy-related bleeding or anaemia, and paediatric anaemia, and evaluated the evidence underpinning these recommendations. METHOD: Relevant SSA guidelines were identified using five electronic databases, websites for SSA Ministries of Health, blood transfusion services and WHO...
October 22, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
S Sarrassat, N Meda, H Badolo, M Ouedraogo, H Somé, S Cousens
OBJECTIVE: Although distance has been identified as an important barrier to care, evidence for an effect of distance to care on child mortality is inconsistent. We investigated the association of distance to care with self-reported care seeking behaviours, neonatal and post-neonatal under-five child mortality in rural areas of Burkina Faso. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional survey in 14 rural areas from November 2014 to March 2015. About 100,000 women were interviewed on their pregnancy history and about 5000 mothers were interviewed on their care seeking behaviours...
October 22, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Hagen Frickmann, Miriam Hanke, Andreas Hahn, Norbert G Schwarz, Olfert Landt, Annette Moter, Judith Kikhney, Rebecca Hinz, Sandra Rojak, Denise Dekker, Egbert Tannich, Andreas Podbielski
OBJECTIVE: Tropheryma whipplei, the causative agent of Whipple's disease, can also be identified in stool samples of humans without systemic disease. It is much more frequently detected in human stool samples in tropical environments than in industrialized countries. PCR-screening has been applied for point prevalence studies and environmental assessments in tropical settings, but results depend on the applied assay. We compared one commercial qPCR kit with two well-described in-house assays for detection of T...
October 22, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Malabika Sarker, Fahmida Homayra, Lal B Rawal, Razin Kabir, Afzal Aftab, Rahmatul Bari, Agnes Dzokoto, Estifanos Biru Shargie, Shayela Islam, Akramul Islam, A H M Mahbub Latif
OBJECTIVE: To assess tuberculosis mortality in Bangladesh through a population-based survey using a Verbal Autopsy tool. METHODS: Nationwide mortality survey employing the WHO-recommended Verbal Autopsy (VA) tool, and using InsilicoVA, a data-driven method, to assign the cause of death. Using a three-stage cluster sampling method, 3997 VA interviews were conducted in both urban and rural areas of Bangladesh. Cause-specific mortality fractions (CSMF) were estimated using Bayesian probabilistic models...
October 22, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Wei Cheng, Shaoyi Zhang, Yousheng Li, Jian Wang, Jieshou Li
OBJECTIVES: Intestinal tuberculosis (ITB) remains prevalent and a big health hazard in China. The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyse its clinico-pathological features. METHODS: Retrospective study of 85 consecutive ITB patients in two tertiary hospitals in East China. Relevant clinical, laboratory examination, radiological, endoscopic and histopathological features of ITB were recorded. RESULTS: The mean age was 37.3 ± 16...
October 18, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Jillian L Peters, Daniel K Cho, Adam R Aluisio, Stephen B Kennedy, Moses B F Massaquoi, Foday Sahr, Shiromi M Perera, Adam C Levine
OBJECTIVE: Fluid loss during Ebola virus disease (EVD) infections from gastrointestinal dysfunction leads to volume depletion. It is possible that high environmental temperatures may exacerbate volume depletion or interfere with the provision of medical care by providers in full personal protective equipment. We investigated the effect of environmental temperature on case fatality. METHODS: The International Medical Corps (IMC) operated five Ebola Treatment Units (ETUs) in Liberia and Sierra Leone during the 2014-2016 epidemic...
October 11, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Zongjie Li, Qinqin Feng, John Alimamy Kabba, Caijun Yang, Jie Chang, Minghuan Jiang, Mingyue Zhao, Jiale Yu, Sen Xu, Qian Li, Panpan Zhai, Yu Fang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate price, availability and affordability of insulin products in Shaanxi Province, western China. METHODS: We used a simplified and adapted WHO/Health Action International method to obtain the availability and prices of insulin products and 5 oral anti-diabetic medicines as comparators in public general hospitals and private retail outlets. In addition, we investigated the price components of 8 selected insulin products by tracing the supply chain...
October 11, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Alexei Yu Kostygov, Anzhelika Butenko, Vyacheslav Yurchenko
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 11, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Gladys Gutiérrez-Bugallo, Rosmari Rodríguez-Roche, Gisell Díaz, Magaly Pérez, María Elena Mendizábal, Iris Peraza, Antonio A Vázquez, Mayling Alvarez, Magdalena Rodríguez, Juan A Bisset, María G Guzmán
OBJECTIVE: To study the distribution of vertical transmission of dengue viruses in field-collected Aedes aegypti larvae in the municipality of Arroyo Naranjo in Havana, Cuba. METHODS: Aedes aegypti larvae and pupae were collected monthly between September 2013 and July 2014 in the seven Municipal Health Areas of Arroyo Naranjo. Pools formed of 30-55 larvae were examined through PCR and sequencing to detect the presence of each serotype. RESULTS: We analysed 111 pools of larvae and pupae (4102 individuals) of which 37 tested positive for at least one DENV...
October 11, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Frederick G B Goddard, Maryann G Delea, Gloria D Sclar, Mulat Woreta, Kassahun Zewudie, Matthew C Freeman
OBJECTIVE: To quantify stated preferences for latrine use and construction in Amhara, Ethiopia, using Discrete Choice Experiments (DCEs). METHODS: We conducted image-based DCEs to assess preferences for latrine use (stratified by gender) and construction (among men only) in Amhara, Ethiopia. Preference was quantified using a conditional logistic model to estimate utilities and corresponding odds ratios associated with a set of latrine attributes. RESULTS: For latrine use, tin roof, handwashing stations and clean latrines had the highest relative utility coefficients...
October 11, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
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