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Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627085/levels-distribution-and-correlates-of-health-insurance-coverage-in-kenya
#1
Jacob S Kazungu, Edwine W Barasa
OBJECTIVE: To examine the levels, inequalities, and factors associated with health insurance coverage in Kenya. METHODS: We analyzed secondary data from the Kenya Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS) conducted in 2009 and 2014. We examined the level of health insurance coverage overall, and by type, using an asset index to categorize households into 5 socio-economic quintiles with quintile 5 (Q5) being the richest and quintile 1 (Q1) being the poorest. The high-low ratio (Q5/Q1 ratio), concentration curve, and concentration index (CIX) were employed to assess inequalities in health insurance coverage, and logistic regression to examine correlates of health insurance coverage...
June 19, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627069/who-delivers-where-the-effect-of-obstetric-risk-on-facility-delivery-in-east-africa
#2
Sandra Virgo, Giorgia Gon, Francesca L Cavallaro, Wendy Graham, Susannah Woodd
OBJECTIVES: Skilled attendance at birth is key for the survival of pregnant women. This study investigates whether women at increased risk of maternal and newborn complications in four East African countries are more likely to deliver in a health facility than those at lower risk. METHODS: Demographic & Health Survey data for Kenya 2014, Rwanda 2014-15, Tanzania 2015-16 and Uganda 2011 were used to study women with a live birth in the three years preceding the survey...
June 19, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627038/estimating-the-number-of-female-sex-workers-in-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire-results-and-lessons-learned
#3
Bea Vuylsteke, Lazare Sika, Gisèle Semdé, Camille Anoma, Elise Kacou, Marie Laga
OBJECTIVE: To report on the results of three size estimations of the populations of female sex workers (FSW) in five cities in Côte d'Ivoire and on operational lessons learned, which may be relevant for key populations programs in other parts of the world. METHODS: We applied three methods: mapping and census, capture-recapture and service multiplier. All were applied between 2008 and 2009 in Abidjan, San Pedro, Bouaké, Yamoussoukro and Abengourou. RESULTS: Abidjan was the city with the highest number of FSW by far, with estimations between 7880 (census) and 13714 (service multiplier)...
June 19, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627004/utility-of-the-urine-reagent-strip-leukocyte-esterase-assay-for-the-diagnosis-of-meningitis-in-resource-limited-settings-meta-analysis
#4
REVIEW
William Bortcosh, Mark Siedner, Ryan W Carroll
OBJECTIVE: Diagnosis of bacterial meningitis often requires cytometry, chemistry, and/or microbiologic culture capabilities. Unfortunately, laboratory resources in low resource settings (LRS) often lack the capacity to perform these studies. We sought to determine whether the presence of white blood cells in CSF detected by commercially available urine reagent strips could aid in the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. METHODS: We searched PubMed for studies published between 1980 - 2016 that investigated the use of urine reagent strips to identify cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis...
June 19, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609809/intestinal-tuberculosis-a-diagnostic-challenge
#5
J Kentley, J L Ooi, J Potter, S Tiberi, T O'Shaughnessy, L Langmead, J Chin Aleong, M A Thaha, H Kunst
OBJECTIVE: To describe characteristics, presentation, time to diagnosis and diagnostic findings of patients with intestinal tuberculosis (ITB) in a low-burden country. METHOD: Retrospective study of 61 consecutive ITB patients diagnosed between 2008-2014 at a large East London hospital. RESULTS: 40 of 61 patients were male. Mean age was 34.6 years. 93% of patients were born abroad, mostly from TB-endemic areas (Indian subcontinent: 88%, Africa: 9%)...
June 13, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609010/submicroscopic-malaria-infections-in-pregnant-women-from-six-departments-in-haiti
#6
Maha A Elbadry, Massimiliano S Tagliamonte, Christian P Raccurt, Jean F Lemoine, Alexandre Existe, Jacques Boncy, Thomas A Weppelman, John B Dame, Bernard A Okech
OBJECTIVES: To describe the epidemiology of malaria in pregnancy in Haiti. METHODS: Cross-sectional study among pregnant women in 6 departments of Haiti. After obtaining informed consent, whole blood samples and demographic surveys were collected to investigate malaria prevalence, anemia and socio-behavioral risk factors for infection, respectively. 311 pregnant women were screened for Plasmodium falciparum infection using a rapid diagnostic test (RDT), microscopy, and a novel, quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction method (qRT-PCR)...
June 13, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594453/risk-factors-associated-with-defaulting-from-visceral-leishmaniasis-treatment-analysis-under-routine-program-conditions-in-bihar-india
#7
S Kansal, J Chakravarty, A Kumar, P Malaviya, M Boelaert, E Hasker, B Ostyn, S Sundar
OBJECTIVE: To assess the rate of default from treatment in the Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) Elimination Program and to identify risk factors and its underlying causes. METHODS: Case control study conducted between December 2009 and June 2012 in three Primary Health Centres (PHC) of Muzaffarpur District, India. Patients who defaulted from treatment from the PHCs were considered as "cases", and those who completed their treatment as "controls". Two controls were included in the study for each case...
June 8, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556586/dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine-versus-artesunate-amodiaquine-for-treatment-of-malaria-infection-in-pregnancy-in-ghana-an-open-label-randomized-non-inferiority-trial
#8
Joseph Osarfo, Harry Tagbor, Matthew Cairns, Michael Alifrangis, Pascal Magnussen
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PPQ) is non-inferior to artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ) for treating uncomplicated malaria infection in pregnancy. METHODS: 417 second/ third trimester pregnant women with confirmed asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia were randomized to receive DHA-PPQ or ASAQ over 3 days. Women were followed up on days 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 28 and 42 after treatment start and at delivery for parasitological, haematological, birth outcomes and at 6-weeks post-partum to ascertain the health status of the babies...
May 28, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556502/household-coverage-of-swaziland-s-national-community-health-worker-program-a-cross-sectional-population-based-study
#9
Pascal Geldsetzer, Maria Vaikath, Jan-Walter de Neve, Thomas J Bossert, Sibusiso Sibandze, Till Bärnighausen
OBJECTIVES: To ascertain household coverage achieved by Swaziland's national community health worker (CHW) program, and differences in household coverage across clients' sociodemographic characteristics. METHODS: Household survey from June to September 2015 in two of Swaziland's four administrative regions using two-stage cluster random sampling. Interviewers administered a questionnaire to all household members in 1,542 households across 85 census enumeration areas...
May 28, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556458/behaviour-change-intervention-to-improve-shared-toilet-maintenance-and-cleanliness-in-urban-slums-of-dhaka-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Mahbub-Ul Alam, Peter J Winch, Ronald E Saxton, Fosiul A Nizame, Farzana Yeasmin, Guy Norman, Abdullah-Al Masud, Farzana Begum, Mahbubur Rahman, Kamal Hossain, Anita Layden, Leanne Unicomb, Stephen P Luby
OBJECTIVES: Shared toilets in urban slums are often unclean and poorly maintained, discouraging consistent use and thereby limiting impacts on health and quality of life. We developed behaviour change interventions to support shared toilet maintenance and improve user satisfaction. We report the intervention effectiveness on improving shared toilet cleanliness. METHODS: We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial among users of 1,226 shared toilets in 23 Dhaka slums...
May 28, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556417/dengue-data-and-surveillance-in-tanzania-a-systematic-literature-review
#11
REVIEW
Tara Ward, Moody Samuel, Dorit Maoz, Silvia Runge-Ranzinger, Ross Boyce, Joao Toledo, Raman Velayudhan, Olaf Horstick
OBJECTIVE: Although there is evidence that dengue virus is circulating in Tanzania, the country lacks a dengue surveillance system. Consequently, the true estimate of dengue seroprevalence, as well as the incidence in the population, the frequency and magnitude of outbreaks is unknown. This study therefore sought to systematically review available dengue data from Tanzania. METHODS: The systematic review was conducted and reported using the PRISMA tool. Five databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, WHOLIS and Google Scholar) were searched for articles using variations of keywords on the illness, data and geographical location...
May 28, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544500/non-communicable-diseases-and-hiv-care-and-treatment-models-of-integrated-service-delivery
#12
REVIEW
Malia Duffy, Bisola Ojikutu, Soa Andrian, Elaine Sohng, Thomas Minior, Lisa R Hirschhorn
OBJECTIVES: Non-communicable diseases (NCD) are a growing cause of morbidity in low-income countries including in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Integration of NCD and HIV services can build upon experience with chronic care models from HIV programmes. We describe models of NCD and HIV integration, challenges and lessons learned. METHODS: A literature review of published articles on integrated NCD and HIV programs in low-income countries and key informant interviews were conducted with leaders of identified integrated NCD and HIV programs...
May 24, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544285/salmonella-typhi-genomics-envisaging-the-future-of-typhoid-eradication
#13
REVIEW
Kien-Pong Yap, Kwai Lin Thong
Next-generation whole genome sequencing has revolutionized the study of infectious diseases in recent years. The availability of genome sequences and its understanding have transformed the field of molecular microbiology, epidemiology, infection treatments and vaccine developments. We review the key findings of the publicly accessible genomes of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi since the first complete genome to the most recent release of thousands of S. typhi genomes, which remarkably shape the genomic research of S...
May 24, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544728/index-case-finding-facilitates-identification-and-linkage-to-care-of-children-and-young-adults-living-with-hiv-aids-in-malawi
#14
Saeed Ahmed, Rachael A Sabelli, Katie Simon, Nora E Rosenberg, Elijah Kavuta, Mwelura Harawa, Spencer Dick, Frank Linzie, Peter N Kazembe, Maria H Kim
OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of a novel index case-finding and linkage-to-care program to identify and link HIV-infected children (1-15 years) and young adults (>15-24 years) to care. METHODS: HIV-infected patients enrolled in HIV services were screened and those who reported untested household members (index cases) were offered home or facility-based HIV testing and counseling (HTC) of their household by a community health worker (CHW). HIV-infected household members identified were enrolled in a follow-up program offering home and facility-based follow-up by CHWs...
May 23, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544099/genetic-signatures-coupled-with-lineage-shift-characterize-endemic-evolution-of-dengue-virus-serotype-2-during-2015-outbreak-in-delhi-india
#15
Manish Chandra Choudhary, Ekta Gupta, Shvetank Sharma, Nadeem Hasnain, Pragya Agarwala
OBJECTIVE: In 2015 New Delhi witnessed a massive outbreak of Dengue virus (DENV) resulting in high morbidity and mortality. We report the molecular characterization of the dominant circulating DENV strain to understand its evolution and dispersal. MATERIALS AND METHODS: DENV infections were diagnosed by detection of IgM/NS1 antigen and serotyping was performed by C-PrM PCR. Envelope gene was amplified and variation(s) in envelope gene were analyzed. Phylogenetic tree construction, time-based phylogeny and origin of DENV were analyzed...
May 23, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544032/prevalence-of-diabetes-mellitus-in-chinese-children-with-thalassaemia-major
#16
Yuzhen Liang, Rekha Bajoria, Yan Jiang, Hongwei Su, Hongfei Pan, Ning Xia, Ratna Chatterjee, Yongrong Lai
OBJECTIVE: Diabetes mellitus is a common endocrinopathy in patients with β-thalassaemia major (β-TM), which is high prevalent in southern China. This study aimed to determine the cause and prevalence of glycaemic disorders in Chinese children with β-TM. METHODS: In this prospective study, fasting glucose and insulin (FINS) levels were assessed in 267 β-TM and 80 non-TM control children. Homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) were evaluated...
May 22, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544070/the-importance-of-assessing-out-of-pocket-payments-when-the-financing-of-antiretroviral-therapy-is-transitioned-to-domestic-funding-findings-from-vietnam
#17
Benjamin Johns, Le Bao Chau, Kieu Huu Hanh, Nguyen Thuy Huong, Hoa Mai Do, Anh Thuy Duong, Long Hoang Nguyen
OBJECTIVE: To assess out-of-pocket payments and catastrophic health expenditures among antiretroviral therapy (ART) patients in Vietnam, and to model catastrophic payments under different copayment scenarios when the primary financing of ART changes to social health insurance. METHODS: Cross-sectional facility-based survey of 843 patients at 42 health facilities representative of 87% of ART patients in 2015. RESULTS: Because of donor and government funding, no payments were made for antiretroviral drugs...
May 19, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510998/new-onset-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-among-patients-receiving-hiv-care-at-newlands-clinic-harare-zimbabwe-retrospective-cohort-analysis
#18
Cleophas Chimbetete, Catrina Mugglin, Tinei Shamu, Bindu Kalesan, Barbara Bertisch, Matthias Egger, Olivia Keiser
OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence and associated factors of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Zimbabwe. METHODS: We analyzed data of all HIV-infected patients older than 16 years who attended Newlands Clinic between March 1, 2004 and April 29, 2015. The clinic considers patients whose random blood sugar is higher than 11.1 mmol/L and which is confirmed by a fasting blood sugar higher than 7.0 mmol/L to have T2DM. T2DM is also diagnosed in symptomatic patients who have a RBS >11...
May 16, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510997/impact-of-m-health-application-used-by-community-health-volunteers-on-improving-utilization-of-maternal-newborn-and-child-health-care-services-in-a-rural-area-of-uttar-pradesh-india
#19
Shankar Prinja, Ruby Nimesh, Aditi Gupta, Pankaj Bahuguna, Madhu Gupta, Jarnail Singh Thakur
OBJECTIVE: To raise the quality of counselling by community health volunteers resulting in improved uptake of maternal, neonatal and child health services (MNCH), an m-health application was introduced under a project named 'Reducing Maternal and Newborn Deaths (ReMiND)' in district Kaushambi in India. We report the impact of this project on coverage of key MNCH services. METHODS: A pre and post quasi-experimental design was undertaken to assess the impact of intervention...
May 16, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510994/improved-detection-of-burkholderia-pseudomallei-from-non-blood-clinical-specimens-using-enrichment-culture-and-pcr-narrowing-diagnostic-gap-in-resource-constrained-settings
#20
Chaitanya Tellapragada, Tushar Shaw, Annet D'Souza, Vandana Kalwaje Eshwara, Chiranjay Mukhopadhyay
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the diagnostic utility of enrichment culture and PCR for improved case detection rates of non-bacteremic form of melioidosis in limited resource settings. METHODS: Clinical specimens (n=525) obtained from patients presenting at a tertiary care hospital of south India with clinical symptoms suggestive of community-acquired pneumonia, lower respiratory tract infections, superficial or internal abscesses, chronic skin ulcers and bone or joint infections were tested for the presence of Burkholderia pseudomallei using conventional culture (CC), enrichment culture (EC) and PCR...
May 16, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
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