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Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029368/who-accesses-surgery-at-district-level-in-sub-saharan-africa-evidence-from-malawi-and-zambia
#1
Jakub Gajewski, Rachel Dharamshi, Michael Strader, John Kachimba, Eric Borgstein, Gerald Mwapasa, Mweene Cheelo, Tracey McCauley, Leon Bijlmakers, Ruairi Brugha
OBJECTIVES: To examine age and gender distribution for the most common types of surgery in Malawi and Zambia. METHODS: Data were collected from major operating theatres in 8 district hospitals in Malawi and 9 in Zambia. Raw data on surgical procedures were coded by specialist surgeons for frequency analyses. RESULTS: In Malawi, female surgical patients had a mean age of 25 years, with 91% aged 16-40 years. Females accounted for 85%, and obstetric cases for 75%, of all surgical patients...
October 13, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029367/genetic-diversity-of-plasmodium-falciparum-merozoite-surface-protein-1-block-2-glutamate-rich-protein-and-sexual-stage-antigen-pfs25-from-chandigarh-north-india
#2
Hargobinder Kaur, Rakesh Sehgal, Kapil Goyal, Nikita Makkar, Richa Yadav, Praveen K Bharti, Neeru Singh, Nilanju P Sarmah, Pradymna K Mohapatra, Jagadish Mahanta, Devendra Bansal, Ali A Sultan, Jagat R Kanwar
OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the genetic diversity of P. falciparum in residual transmission foci of northern India. METHODS: Clinically suspected malaria patients were screened for malaria infection by microscopy. 48 P. falciparum-infected patients were enrolled from two tertiary care hospitals in Chandigarh, India. Blood samples were collected from enrolled patients, genomic DNA extraction and nested PCR was performed for further species confirmation. Sanger sequencing was carried out using block 2 region of msp1, R2 region of glurp and pfs25 specific primers...
October 13, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992391/four-years-of-case-based-surveillance-of-meningitis-following-the-introduction-of-menafrivac-in-moissala-chad-lessons-learned
#3
Anne-Laure Page, Matthew E Coldiron, Kadidja Gamougam, Mahmaat Ali Acyl, Mbaihol Tamadji, Céline Lastrucci, Northan Hurtado, François-Charles Tehoua, Florence Fermon, Dominique A Caugant, Klaudia Porten
OBJECTIVE: Case-based surveillance of bacterial meningitis in sentinel districts has been recommended after the introduction of the conjugated vaccine against Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A (NmA), MenAfriVac, in the African meningitis belt. Here we report data and lessons learnt from four years of surveillance in the district of Moissala, Chad. METHODS: All suspected cases of meningitis were referred free of charge to the district hospital for lumbar puncture and treatment...
October 9, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992388/impact-of-nutrition-interventions-on-pediatric-mortality-and-nutrition-outcomes-in-humanitarian-emergencies
#4
REVIEW
Kamna S Balhara, David M Silvestri, W Tyler Winders, Anand Selvam, Sean M Kivlehan, Torben K Becker, Adam C Levine
OBJECTIVES: Malnutrition contributes to pediatric morbidity and mortality in disasters and complex emergencies, but summary data describing specific nutritional interventions in these settings are lacking. This systematic review aims to characterize such interventions and their effects on pediatric mortality, anthropometric measures, and serum markers of nutrition. METHODS: A systematic search of OVID Medline, Cochrane Library, and relevant grey literature was conducted...
October 9, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986949/the-relationship-between-hiv-and-fertility-in-the-era-of-antiretroviral-therapy-in-sub-saharan-africa-evidence-from-49-demographic-and-health-surveys
#5
Milly Marston, Basia Zaba, Jeffrey W Eaton
OBJECTIVES: To describe regional differences in the relative fertility of HIV-positive vs. HIV-negative women and changes as antiretroviral treatment (ART) is scaled-up, in order to improve estimates of predicted need for and coverage of prevention of mother-to-child transmission services at national and subnational levels. METHODS: We analysed 49 nationally representative household surveys in sub-Saharan Africa between 2003 and 2016 to estimate fertility rate ratios of HIV-positive and HIV-negative women by age using exponential regression, and test for regional and urban/rural differences...
October 6, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986939/leishmania-infection-in-rodents-in-greece
#6
Ιoannis Tsakmakidis, Katerina Angelopoulou, Chrysostomos I Dovas, Εmmanouil Dokianakis, Αndroniki Tamvakis, Isaia Symeonidou, Μaria Antoniou, Αnastasia Diakou
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of Leishmania infection in rodents from various areas of Northern Greece. METHODS: 97 rodents (66 Mus musculus, 18 Rattus norvegicus and 12 R. rattus) were collected during pest control programs and examined by cytology (spleen and liver smears), serology (ELISA) and PCR (real-time and gel-based) for Leishmania. Date, environment, sex, existence of dogs in the close environment were recorded for each rodent. All cytological preparations were negative, whereas specific IgG were detected in 54...
October 6, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944986/development-and%C3%A2-in-vitro-in-vivo%C3%A2-evaluation-of-a-novel-benznidazole-liquid-dosage-form-using-a-quality-by-design-approach
#7
Higo Fernando Santos Souza, Daniel Real, Darío Leonardi, Sandra Carla Rocha, Victoria Alonso, Esteban Serra, Ariel Mariano Silber, Claudio Javier Salomon
OBJECTIVES: To develop an alcohol-free solution suitable for children of benznidazole, the drug of choice for treatment of Chagas disease. METHODS: In a quality-by-design approach, a systematic optimisation procedure was carried out to estimate the values of the factors leading to the maximum drug concentration. The formulations were analysed in terms of chemical and physical stability and drug content. The final preparation was subjected to an in vivo palatability assay...
September 25, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929562/seroepidemiological-trend-of-strongyloidiasis-in-the-bolivian-chaco-1987-2013-in-the-absence-of-disease-specific-control-measures
#8
Michele Spinicci, Fabio Macchioni, Antonia Mantella, Simona Gabrielli, Mimmo Roselli, David Rojo Mayaregua, Joaquín Monasterio Pinckert, Herlan Gamboa Barahona, Grover Adolfo Paredes, Percy Halkyer, Gabriella Cancrini, Piero Olliaro, Antonio Montresor, Alessandro Bartoloni
OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis infections is grossly underestimated because infections go mostly undetected, although they can persist for a lifetime due to the auto-infective cycle. In the Bolivian Chaco, the prevalence of soil-transmitted nematodes dropped dramatically in the past 25 years, but the mebendazole used for preventive chemotherapy has no effect on S. stercoralis. Meanwhile, the prevalence of intestinal protozoan infections remains unchanged. We compared S...
September 20, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906580/comparison-of-one-commercial-and-two-in-house-taqman-multiplex-real-time-pcr-assays-for-detection-of-enteropathogenic-enterotoxigenic-and-enteroaggregative-escherichia-coli
#9
Andreas Hahn, Marc Luetgehetmann, Olfert Landt, Norbert Georg Schwarz, Hagen Frickmann
OBJECTIVE: Enteropathogenic, enterotoxigenic and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EPEC, ETEC, EAEC) are among the most frequent causes of diarrhoea during travel or on military deployments. Cost-efficient and reliable real-time multiplex PCR (mPCR) assays are desirable for surveillance or point prevalence studies in remote and resource-limited tropical settings. We compared one commercial PCR kit and two in-house assays without using a gold standard to estimate sensitivity and specificity of each assay...
September 14, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905466/adherence-to-pi-based-2nd-line-regimens-in-cambodia-is-not-simply-a-question-of-individual-behaviour-the-anrs-12276-2picam-study
#10
Luis Sagaon-Teyssier, Bakridine Mmadi Mrenda, Vohith Khol, Laurent Ferradini, Sovatha Mam, Sopheak Ngin, Marion Mora, Gwenaëlle Maradan, Chhi Vun Mean, Olivier Ségéral, Eric Nerrienet, Vonthanak Saphonn, Bruno Spire
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART) can be explained not only by individual factors but also by health care facilities' characteristics, among a sample of people living with HIV (PLWH) treated with PI-based regimens in Cambodia. METHODS: The ANRS 12276 2PICAM cross-sectional survey was conducted between February 2013 and April 2014 among PLWH followed up in 13 health care facilities. The 1316 patients in this analysis corresponded to 90% of the total number of adult patients treated with 2nd-line PI-based regimens in Cambodia in the study period...
September 14, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891597/12-month-longitudinal-parasitological-assessment-of-lymphatic-filariasis-positive-individuals-impact-of-bi-annual-treatment-with-ivermectin-and-albendazole
#11
John N Kanamitie, Collins S Ahorlu, Joseph Otchere, Fred Aboagye-Antwi, Bethel Kwansa-Bentum, Daniel A Boakye, Nana-Kwadwo Biritwum, Michael D Wilson, Dziedzom K de Souza
OBJECTIVE: Mass drug Administration (MDA) for the control of Lymphatic filariasis (LF), in Ghana, started in the year 2000. While this had great success in many implementation units, there remain areas with persistent transmission, after more than 10 years of treatment. A closer examination of the parasite populations could help understand the reasons for persistent infections, and formulatingn appropriate strategies to control LF in these areas of persistent transmission. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a longitudinal study, we assessed the prevalence of microfilaraemia (mf) in two communities with 12 years of MDA in Ghana...
September 11, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891591/factors-associated-with-treatment-seeking-for-malaria-in-madhya-pradesh
#12
Mrigendra P Singh, Kalyan B Saha, Sunil K Chand, Anup Anvikar
OBJECTIVES: To determine household factors associated with treatment-seeking for malaria. METHODS: The study was carried out in four districts of Madhya Pradesh with different malaria endemicity. 1470 households were interviewed in which at least one member suffered from microscopically confirmed malaria in the 3 months preceding the survey. Socio-demographic, economic, cultural characteristics, their health beliefs, knowledge and practices regarding malaria and choice of treatment seeking were explored...
September 11, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881434/prevalence-and-causes-of-musculoskeletal-impairment-in-fundong-district-north-west-cameroon-results-of-a-population-based-survey
#13
Tracey Smythe, Islay Mactaggart, Hannah Kuper, Joseph Oye, Nana Christopher Sieyen, Christopher Lavy, Sarah Polack
OBJECTIVES: Epidemiological data on musculoskeletal conditions such as degenerative joint diseases and bone fractures are lacking in low- and middle-income countries. This survey aimed to estimate the prevalence and causes of musculoskeletal impairment in Fundong Health District, North-West Cameroon. METHODS: Fifty-one clusters of 80 people (all ages) were selected using probability proportionate to size sampling. Households within clusters were selected by compact segment sampling...
September 7, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869696/comparison-and-functional-characterization-of-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-isolated-from-filarial-lymphedema-and-endemic-normals-of-a-south-indian-population
#14
Abel Arul Nathan, Madhulika Dixit, Subash Babu, Anand Setty Balakrishnan
OBJECTIVE: The underlying problem in lymphatic filariasis is irreversible swelling of the limbs (lymphedema), which is a unique feature of lymphatic insufficiency. It is still unclear whether the natural ability of lymphatics to form functional lymphatic vasculature is achieved or attenuated in the lymphedemal pathology. Clinical studies have clearly shown that circulating lymphatic progenitors (CLPs), a subset of bone-marrow derived mononuclear cells (PBMCs), contribute to post-natal lymph vasculogenesis...
September 4, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869694/strongyloides-stercoralis-infection-increases-the-likelihood-to-detect-trypanosoma-cruzi-dna-in-peripheral-blood-in-chagas-disease-patients
#15
Fernando Salvador, Elena Sulleiro, Maria Piron, Adrián Sánchez-Montalvá, Silvia Sauleda, Daniel Molina-Morant, Zaira Moure, Israel Molina
OBJECTIVES: In a previous study performed by our group, S. stercoralis infection in Chagas disease patients was associated with higher proportion of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA detection in peripheral blood. The aim of the study was to confirm this association in a larger cohort of patients. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of all Chagas disease patients diagnosed from 2005 to 2015 during blood donation at the Catalan Blood Bank. Demographic data and T. cruzi RT-PCR were collected...
September 4, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869693/diabetes-prevalence-and-its-impact-on-health-related-quality-of-life-in-tuberculosis-patients
#16
Ali Nasir Siddiqui, Khalid Umer Khayyam, Nahida Siddiqui, Rohit Sarin, Manju Sharma
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM), assess its influence on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among TB patients. METHODS: In this prospective study, eligible patients at three primary health care centers in urban slum region of South Delhi, India, underwent blood glucose screening at treatment initiation. HRQoL scores were determined by conducting face-to-face interviews using Dhingra and Rajpal (DR-12) scale at pretreatment, end of intensive phase and end of the treatment...
September 4, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857412/epidemiological-and-clinical-features-of-leptospirosis-in-a-highly-endemic-area-over-three-time-periods
#17
Ljiljana Mišić-Majerus, Josipa Habuš, Zrinka Štritof, Nevenka Bujić, Vesna Mađarić, Gordana Kolaric-Sviben, Silvijo Vince, Zdenka Peršić, Nenad Turk
OBJECTIVES: To present the features of human leptospirosis over three time periods (1970-1975; 2000-2005; 2010-2015), to compare the collected data and determine whether the incidence, seasonal and spatial distribution, prevalence of presumptive infective serogroups and clinical features have changed over the last 50 years. METHODS: Epidemiological and clinical data obtained from patients hospitalized and treated in a focus of leptospirosis, Koprivnica-Križevci County in Croatia, were analysed...
August 31, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857354/authorship-in-pediatric-research-conducted-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-parity-or-parasitism
#18
Chris A Rees, Heather Lukolyo, Elizabeth M Keating, Kirk A Dearden, Samuel A Luboga, Gordon E Schutze, Peter N Kazembe
OBJECTIVES: Interest in global health has increased greatly in the past two decades. Concomitantly, the number and complexity of research partnerships between high-income (HIC) and low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) has grown. We aimed to determine if there is authorship parity (equitable representation and author order) or parasitism (no authors from study countries) in pediatric research conducted in LMICs. METHODS: We reviewed all articles published from 2006-2015 in the four pediatric journals with the highest Eigenfactor scores...
August 31, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853206/assessment-of-schistosomiasis-and-soil-transmitted-helminths-prevalence-in-school-aged-children-and-opportunities-for-integration-of-control-in-local-health-services-in-kwilu-province-the-democratic-republic-of-the-congo
#19
R Inocencio da Luz, S Linsuke, P Lutumba, E Hasker, M Boelaert
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of schistosomiasis (SCH) and soil-transmitted helminths (STH) in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and to assess the capacity of the local health centers for diagnosis and treatment. METHODS: Cross-sectional school-based survey in two Health Districts in the province of Kwilu. We collected a stool and a urine sample for parasitological examination. Urine filtration and duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears were used for the diagnosis of SCH...
August 29, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027316/abstracts-of-the-10th-european-congress-on-tropical-medicine-and-international-health-16-20-october-2017-antwerp-belgium
#20
(no author information available yet)
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October 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
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