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Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457318/equity-dimensions-of-the-availability-and-quality-of-reproductive-maternal-and-neonatal-health-services-in-zambia
#1
Lily D Yan, Jonas Mwale, Samantha Straitz, Godfrey Biemba, Zulfiqar Bhutta, Julia F Ross, Lawrence Myananyanda, Mary Nambao, Paul Ngwakum, Eleonora Genovese, Bowen Banda, Nadia Akseer, Kojo Yeboah-Antwi, Peter Rockers, Davidson H Hamer
OBJECTIVE: To assess how quality and availability of reproductive, maternal, neonatal (RMNH) services vary by district wealth and urban/rural status in Zambia. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of data from the Millennium Development Goal Acceleration Initiative baseline assessment of 117 health facilities in 9 districts. Quality was assessed through a composite score of 23 individual RMNH indicators, ranging from 0 to 1. Availability was evaluated by density of providers and facilities...
February 19, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446860/development-of-a-clinical-prediction-rule-for-tuberculous-meningitis-in-adults-in-lima-peru
#2
Lely Solari, Alonso Soto, Patrick van der Stuyft
OBJECTIVES: Diagnosis of Tuberculous Meningitis (TM) is a challenge in countries with a high burden of the disease and constrained resources and Clinical Prediction Rules (CPRs) could be of assistance. We aimed at developing a CPR for diagnosis of TM in a Latin American setting with high tuberculosis incidence and a concentrated HIV epidemic. METHODS: We enrolled adult patients with clinical suspicion of TM attending two hospitals in Lima, Peru. We obtained information on potential anamnestic, clinical and laboratory predictive findings that are easy to collect and promptly available...
February 15, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446852/isolation-of-crithidia-spp-from-lesions-of-immunocompetent-patients-with-suspected-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-iran
#3
Nafiseh Ghobakhloo, Mohammad Hossei Motazedian, S Naderi, Ebrahimi Sepideh
OBJECTIVE: Leishmania major has been considered as the main etiological agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran. However, there are recent reports about existence of Crithidia spp in cutaneous lesions in southern Iran. Therefore, this study was designed to decipher some morphological, biological, and molecular aspects of this phenomenon. METHODS: Clinical isolates were obtained from 167 patients with cutaneous ulcers. A set of specific primers based on GAPDH (Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase) gene were used to distinguish between Crithidia and Leishmania genera...
February 15, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432669/socio-economic-gradients-in-prevalent-tuberculosis-in-zambia-and-the-western-cape-of-south-africa
#4
Tom A Yates, Helen Ayles, Finbarr P Leacy, A B Schaap, Delia Boccia, Nulda Beyers, Peter Godfrey-Faussett, Sian Floyd
OBJECTIVE: To present results of the 2010 ZAMSTAR Tuberculosis Prevalence Survey, one of the first large tuberculosis prevalence surveys in Southern Africa in the HIV era, on socio-economic position. METHODS: The main analyses used data on 34,446 individuals in Zambia and 30,017 individuals in South Africa with evaluable tuberculosis culture results. Logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios for prevalent TB by two measures of socio-economic position: household wealth, derived from data on assets using principal components analysis, and individual educational attainment...
February 12, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432666/impact-of-rotavirus-vaccination-on-rotavirus-hospitalization-rates-among-a-resource-limited-rural-population-in-mbita-western-kenya
#5
Ernest Apondi Wandera, Shah Mohammad, Martin Bundi, James Nyangao, Amina Galata, Cyrus Kathiiko, Erick Odoyo, Sora Guyo, Gabriel Miring'u, Satoshi Komoto, Yoshio Ichinose
OBJECTIVES: A two-dose oral monovalent rotavirus vaccine (RV1) was introduced into the Kenyan National Immunization Program in July 2014. We assessed trends in hospitalization for rotavirus-specific acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and strain distribution among children <5 years in a rural, resource-limited setting in Kenya before and after the nationwide implementation of the vaccine. METHODS: Data on rotavirus AGE and strain distribution were derived from a five-year hospital-based surveillance...
February 12, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432657/clinical-profile-antibiotic-susceptibility-pattern-of-bacterial-isolates-and-factors-associated-with-complications-in-culture-proven-typhoid-patients-admitted-to-an-urban-hospital-in-bangladesh
#6
Halima Khatun, Shoeb Bin Islam, Nurun Nahar Naila, Syed Aminul Islam, Baitun Nahar, Md Nur Haque Alam, Tahmeed Ahmed
OBJECTIVES: Typhoid fever is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in typhoid endemic countries like Bangladesh. However, data on the clinical and microbiological profile as well as factors associated with complications of typhoid in Bangladesh are scarce. We intended to characterize the clinical and microbiological profile of culture-proven typhoid fever and to identify factors associated with complications. METHODOLOGY: Retrospective analysis of clinical data from 431 patients with culture-confirmed typhoid fever admitted to Dhaka hospital of International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, between January 2010 and December 2014...
February 12, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431247/chlorhexidine-for-neonatal-infection-the-game-changer-we-ve-all-been-waiting-for
#7
EDITORIAL
Victoria Ponce Hardy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 12, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430785/diabetic-retinopathy-screening-program-utilizing-non-mydriatic-fundus-imaging-in-slum-populations-of-new-delhi-india
#8
Meenakshi Wadhwani, Praveen Vashist, Suraj Senjam Singh, Noopur Gupta, Pallavi Shukla, Amit Bhardwaj, Vivek Gupta
OBJECTIVES: To develop and implement a community-based program for screening of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in urban populations of Delhi. METHODS: Known diabetics (KDs) aged 40 years and older were identified through house-to-house surveys, volunteers and publicity. All KDs were referred to DR screening camps organised locally where procedures included brief medical history, ocular examination, and non-mydriatic fundus photography using portable handheld camera. Fundal images were graded on the spot by trained optometrists for diabetic retinopathy (DR)...
February 12, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381827/effects-of-nutrition-and-hygiene-education-on-oral-health-and-growth-among-toddlers-in-rural-uganda-follow-up-of-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Grace K M Muhoozi, Prudence Atukunda, Anne B Skaare, Tiril Willumsen, Lien My Diep, Ane C Westerberg, Per Ole Iversen
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of a nutrition and hygiene education intervention on oral health behavior and whether early onset of caries was related to child growth in rural Uganda. METHODS: Follow-up study of a cluster-randomized controlled trial conducted between October 2013 and January 2015. Data were available from 399 mother/child pairs (203 in the intervention and 198 in the control group) of the original trial (78%) when the children were 36 months. Oral health behavior was evaluated using questionnaires...
January 30, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369457/the-economic-burden-of-epilepsy-in-bhutan
#10
Leah Wibecan, Günther Fink, Lhab Tshering, Verónica Bruno, Bryan Patenaude, Damber K Nirola, Chencho Dorji, Ugyen Dema, Dillram Pokhrel, Farrah J Mateen
OBJECTIVE: To assess the economic impact of epilepsy in Bhutan, a lower-middle-income country with a universal health care system, but with limited access to neurological care. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted of patients with epilepsy at the Jigme Dorji Wangchuk National Referral Hospital from January to August, 2016. Data were collected on clinical features, cost of care, impact of epilepsy on school or work, and household economic status of participants and matched comparisons (a sibling or neighbor from a household without epilepsy)...
January 25, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356240/seroprevalence-of-leptospira-antibodies-among-market-workers-and-food-handlers-in-the-central-state-of-malaysia
#11
S Suhailah, S N S Sakinah, O Malina, B A Norliza, N M Asyraf, A Fairuz, T Z M T Jamaluddin, A H Rukman, W M Zahiruddin, M N Shafei, S Surianti, B D Aziah, I Zawaha, A W Zainudin, N A Munirah, M N Desa, V Neela, S M Norbaya
OBJECTIVE: The high prevalence of leptospirosis in humans is of great public health concern, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of Leptospira antibodies and distribution of serovars, and to assess the usefulness of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) as a screening method for leptospiral antibodies in a high-risk healthy community. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 231 market workers and food handlers in wet markets and food premises from two localities in central Malaysia...
January 22, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352506/patterns-of-burns-and-scalds-in-mongolian-children-a-hospital-based-prospective-study
#12
Gunsmaa Gerelmaa, Badarch Tumen-Ulzii, Shinji Nakahara, Masao Ichikawa
OBJECTIVE: To describe the circumstances of burn injury occurrence among Mongolian children and the products involved. METHODS: Study participants were children aged 15 years and younger who were admitted to the Burn Unit of the National Trauma Orthopedic Research Center from August 2015 to July 2016. We collected data on participant demographics and the etiology and clinical features of their burn injuries, and we analyzed the data based on the NOMESCO Classification model...
January 20, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327419/treatment-interruption-in-hiv-positive-patients-followed-up-in-cameroon-s-antiretroviral-treatment-program-individual-and-healthcare-supply-related-factors-anrs-12288-evolcam-survey
#13
Christelle Tong, Marie Suzan-Monti, Luis Sagaon-Teyssier, Mohamed Mimi, Christian Laurent, Gwenaëlle Maradan, Marie-Thérèse Mengue, Bruno Spire, Christopher Kuaban, Laurent Vidal, Sylvie Boyer
INTRODUCTION: Decreasing international financial resources for HIV and increasing numbers of antiretroviral treatment (ART) treated patients may jeopardize treatment continuity in low income settings. Using data from the EVOLCam ANRS-12288 survey, this study aimed to document the prevalence of unplanned treatment interruption for more than 2 consecutive days (TI>2d) and investigate associated individual and healthcare supply-related factors within the Cameroonian ART Program. METHODS: A cross-sectional mixed methods survey was carried out between April and December 2014 in 19 HIV services of the Center and Littoral regions...
January 12, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327397/translating-international-hiv-treatment-guidelines-into-local-priorities-in-indonesia
#14
Noor Tromp, Rozar Prawiranegara, Adiatma Siregar, Rudi Wisaksana, Lucas Pinxten, Juul Pinxten, Arry Lesmana Putra, Deni Sunjaya Lesmana, Maarten Jansen, Jan Hontelez, Scott Maurits, Febrina Maharani, Leon Bijlmakers, Rob Baltussen
OBJECTIVE: International guidelines recommend countries to expand Antiretroviral therapy (ART) to all HIV-infected individuals and establish local-level priorities in relation to other treatment, prevention and mitigation interventions through fair processes. However, no practical guidance is provided for such priority setting processes. Evidence-informed deliberative processes (EDPs) fill this gap and combine stakeholder deliberation to incorporate relevant social values with rational decision-making informed by evidence on these values...
January 12, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314458/quality-of-omeprazole-purchased-via-the-internet-and-personally-imported-into-japan-comparison-with-products-sampled-in-other-asian-countries
#15
Mohammad Sofiqur Rahman, Naoko Yoshida, Sakura Sugiura, Hirohito Tsuboi, Tep Keila, Heng Bun Kiet, Theingi Zin, Tsuyoshi Tanimoto, Kazuko Kimura
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the quality of omeprazole personally imported into Japan via the internet and to compare the quality of these samples with previously collected samples from two other Asian countries. METHODS: The samples were evaluated by observation, authenticity investigation, and pharmacopoeial quality analysis. Quality comparison of some selected samples was carried out by dissolution profiling, Raman spectroscopy, and principle component analysis (PCA)...
January 5, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314480/preliminary-assessment-of-the-computer-based-taenia-solium-educational-program-the-vicious-worm-on-knowledge-uptake-in-primary-school-students-in-rural-areas-in-eastern-zambia
#16
Emma C Hobbs, Kabemba Evans Mwape, Inge Van Damme, Dirk Berkvens, Gideon Zulu, Moses Mambwe, Mwelwa Chembensofu, Isaac Khozozo Phiri, Maxwell Masuku, Emmanuel Bottieau, Brecht Devleesschauwer, Niko Speybroeck, Angela Colston, Pierre Dorny, Arve Lee Willingham, Sarah Gabriël
OBJECTIVE: The zoonotic helminth Taenia solium is endemic in Zambia, causing human (taeniasis and (neuro)cysticercosis) and pig (porcine cysticercosis) diseases with high health, social and economic burdens. We aimed to evaluate the impact of a health educational program intended to lead to powerful and cumulative improvements in knowledge, attitudes and practices that decrease parasite transmission and disease occurrence. METHODS: Half-day health education workshops were conducted in three primary schools in the highly endemic Eastern Province of Zambia, using the computer-based T...
January 4, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247579/peg-interferon-and-ribavirin-treatment-in-hiv-hcv-co-infected-patients-in-thailand-efficacy-safety-and-pharmacokinetics
#17
E J Smolders, N Thammajaruk, C T M M de Kanter, A Colbers, P Chaiyahong, T Cuprasitrut, S Chittmittraprap, T Apornpong, S Khemnark, P Tangkijvanich, D M Burger, A Avihingsanon
OBJECTIVE: In Thailand, 7.2% of HIV patients are co-infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and these patients are treated with peg-interferon + ribavirin (PR) for their HCV-infection. This study evaluates efficacy and safety of PR treatment and pharmacokinetics of ribavirin in this population. METHODS: HIV/HCV co-infected Thai patients were treated with PR for 24 or 48 weeks. R plasma concentrations were measured during treatment. Sustained virological response 24 weeks after end of treatment (SVR24) was used to describe efficacy...
December 16, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243878/predictive-value-of-c-reactive-protein-for-tuberculosis-bloodstream-infection-or-death-among-hiv-infected-individuals-with-chronic-non-specific-symptoms-and-negative-sputum-smear-microscopy
#18
Richard A Bedell, Monique van Lettow, Christopher Meaney, Elizabeth L Corbett, Adrienne K Chan, Robert S Heyderman, Suzanne T Anderson, Ann Åkesson, Moses Kumwenda, Rony Zachariah, Anthony D Harries, Andrew R Ramsay
BACKGROUND: To determine whether C-reactive protein (CRP) is an inflammatory biomarker that may identify patients at risk of infections or death. Mortality among HIV-infected persons commencing antiretroviral therapy (ART) is often attributed to tuberculosis (TB) or bloodstream infections (BSI). METHODS: In two district hospitals in southern Malawi we recruited HIV-infected adults with one or more unexplained symptoms present for at least one month (weight loss, fever, or diarrhea), and negative expectorated sputum microscopy for TB...
December 15, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243867/factors-for-incomplete-adherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy-including-drug-refill-and-clinic-visits-among-older-adults-living-with-hiv-cross-sectional-study-in-south-africa
#19
Abbie Barry, Nathan Ford, Ziad El-Khatib
OBJECTIVES: To assess adherence outcomes to antiretroviral therapy (ART) of recipients ≥50 years in Soweto, South Africa. METHODS: This was a secondary data analysis for a cross-sectional study at two HIV clinics in Soweto. Data on ART adherence and covariates were gathered through structured interviews with HIV 878 persons living with HIV (PLHIV) receiving ART. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess associations. RESULTS: PLHIV ≥50 years (n=103) were more likely to miss clinic visits during the last six months than PLHIV aged 25 - 49 years (OR 2...
December 15, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236339/physical-activity-level-among-children-recovering-from-severe-acute-malnutrition
#20
Esther Babirekere-Iriso, Maren Johanne Heilskov Rytter, Hanifa Namusoke, Ezekiel Mupere, Kim F Michaelsen, Søren Brage, Ken D Stark, Lotte Lauritzen, André Briend, Henrik Friis, Daniel Faurholt-Jepsen
OBJECTIVE: To assess the level and predictors of physical activity at discharge among children recovering from severe acute malnutrition (SAM). METHODS: We conducted a prospective study among 69 children 6 - 59 months of age admitted with SAM for nutritional rehabilitation at Mulago National Referral Hospital, Uganda. Using hip-mounted tri-axial accelerometers, we measured physical activity expressed as counts per minute (cpm) during the last three days of hospital treatment...
December 13, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
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