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Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243878/predictive-value-of-c-reactive-protein-for-tuberculosis-bloodstream-infection-or-death-among-hiv-infected-individuals-with-chronic-non-specific-symptoms-and-negative-sputum-smear-microscopy
#1
Richard A Bedell, Monique van Lettow, Christopher Meaney, Elizabeth L Corbett, Adrienne K Chan, Robert S Heyderman, Suzanne T Anderson, Ann Åkesson, Moses Kumwenda, Rony Zachariah, Anthony D Harries, Andrew R Ramsay
BACKGROUND: To determine whether C-reactive protein (CRP) is an inflammatory biomarker that may identify patients at risk of infections or death. Mortality among HIV-infected persons commencing antiretroviral therapy (ART) is often attributed to tuberculosis (TB) or bloodstream infections (BSI). METHODS: In two district hospitals in southern Malawi we recruited HIV-infected adults with one or more unexplained symptoms present for at least one month (weight loss, fever, or diarrhea), and negative expectorated sputum microscopy for TB...
December 15, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243867/factors-for-incomplete-adherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy-including-drug-refill-and-clinic-visits-among-older-adults-living-with-hiv-cross-sectional-study-in-south-africa
#2
Abbie Barry, Nathan Ford, Ziad El-Khatib
OBJECTIVES: To assess adherence outcomes to antiretroviral therapy (ART) of recipients ≥50 years in Soweto, South Africa. METHODS: This was a secondary data analysis for a cross-sectional study at two HIV clinics in Soweto. Data on ART adherence and covariates were gathered through structured interviews with HIV 878 persons living with HIV (PLHIV) receiving ART. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess associations. RESULTS: PLHIV ≥50 years (n=103) were more likely to miss clinic visits during the last six months than PLHIV aged 25 - 49 years (OR 2...
December 15, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236339/physical-activity-level-among-children-recovering-from-severe-acute-malnutrition
#3
Esther Babirekere-Iriso, Maren Johanne Heilskov Rytter, Hanifa Namusoke, Ezekiel Mupere, Kim F Michaelsen, Søren Brage, Ken D Stark, Lotte Lauritzen, André Briend, Henrik Friis, Daniel Faurholt-Jepsen
OBJECTIVE: To assess the level and predictors of physical activity at discharge among children recovering from severe acute malnutrition (SAM). METHODS: We conducted a prospective study among 69 children 6 - 59 months of age admitted with SAM for nutritional rehabilitation at Mulago National Referral Hospital, Uganda. Using hip-mounted tri-axial accelerometers, we measured physical activity expressed as counts per minute (cpm) during the last three days of hospital treatment...
December 13, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230918/poor-continuity-of-care-for-tb-diagnosis-and-treatment-in-zambian-prisons-a-situation-analysis
#4
S Hatwiinda, S M Topp, M Siyambango, J B Harris, K R Maggard, C Chileshe, N Kapata, S E Reid, G Henostroza
OBJECTIVES: Prisons act as infectious disease reservoirs. We aimed to explore the challenges of TB control and continuity of care in prisons in Zambia. METHODS: We evaluated treatment outcomes for a cohort of inmates diagnosed with TB during a TB REACH funded screening program initiated by the Zambia Prisons Service and the Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia. RESULTS: Between October 2010 and September 2011, 6,282 inmates from six prisons were screened for TB, of whom 374 (6...
December 12, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230912/factors-associated-with-the-delay-of-diagnosis-of-leprosy-in-northeastern-colombia-a-quantitative-analysis
#5
Libardo Gómez, Alberto Rivera, Yesenia Vidal, Jorge Bilbao, Christa Kasang, Sandra Parisi, Eva-Maria Schwienhorst-Stich, Karl Philipp Puchner
OBJECTIVES: To determine the average time in months between the beginning of symptoms and the diagnostic confirmation of leprosy by the health system, and to investigate factors associated with diagnostic delay. METHODS: 249 patients older than 15 years diagnosed with leprosy between 2011 and 2015, in 20 endemic municipalities of northeastern Colombia, provided informed consent and were interviewed face to face. Clinical histories from health centers or hospitals where study participants were treated for leprosy were also reviewed...
December 12, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220120/efavirenz-is-related-to-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-among-adults-but-not-among-adolescents-living-with-hiv-in-kilimanjaro-tanzania
#6
Marion Sumari-de Boer, Arnt Schellekens, Ashanti Duinmaijer, Julieth Munisi Lalashowi, Happiness Judical Swai, Quirijn de Mast, Andre van der Ven, Grace Kinabo
OBJECTIVES: To explore the relationship between Efavirenz (EFV) and neuropsychiatric symptoms among adults and adolescents living with HIV in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. METHODS: Cross-sectional study among HIV-infected adults (age 18-65) and adolescents (age 12-17) on ART, attending Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre (KCMC), Moshi, Tanzania. Neuropsychiatric symptoms were measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) and the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI)...
December 8, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205689/ultrasound-findings-and-associated-factors-to-morbidity-in-schistosoma-haematobium-infection-in-a-highly-endemic-setting
#7
Cristina Bocanegra García, Zeferino Pintar, Xavier Serres, Jacobo Mendioroz, Milagros Moreno, Sara Gallego, Teresa López, Antoni Soriano-Arandes, Maria Luisa Aznar, Nicolau Sikaleta, Eva Gil, Fernando Salvador, Israel Molina
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the usefulness of the WHO classification of ultrasound pathological changes and to establish risk factors for morbidity in a highly endemic setting. METHODS: 157 ultrasounds were performed on school-aged children previously diagnosed with urinary schistosomiasis in Cubal, Angola. The findings were analysed according to WHO guidelines. Factors for morbidity were studied. RESULTS: Mean age of the children was 8.7 (SD 3...
December 4, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194880/zika-virus-dynamics-in-body-fluids-and-risk-of-sexual-transmission-in-a-non-endemic-area
#8
Adrián Sánchez-Montalvá, Diana Pou, Elena Sulleiro, Fernando Salvador, Cristina Bocanegra, Begoña Treviño, Ariadna Rando, Núria Serre, Tomàs Pumarola, Benito Almirante, Israel Molina
OBJECTIVE: To understand Zika virus (ZIKV) dynamics in fluids of infected individuals and the risk of sexual transmission. METHODS: Prospective study at two centers in Spain. Patients with probable or confirmed diagnosis of ZIKV infection were clinically followed up and fluid samples were collected from saliva, serum, urine and semen or vaginal secretion following the study protocol. Non-traveler-sexual partners were offered to participate. RESULTS: From January 2016 to December 2016 we included a total of 11 traveler patients and 6 sexual contacts...
December 1, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178244/status-of-tuberculosis-related-stigma-and-associated-factors-a-cross-sectional-study-in-central-china
#9
Xiaoxv Yin, Shijiao Yan, Yeqing Tong, Xin Peng, Tingting Yang, Zuxun Lu, Yanhong Gong
OBJECTIVES: Tuberculosis (TB) poses a significant challenge to public health worldwide. Stigma is a major obstacle to TB control by leading to delay in diagnosis and treatment non-adherence. This study aimed to evaluate the status of TB-related stigma and its associated factors among TB patients in China. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey. 1,342 TB patients were recruited from TB dispensaries in three counties in Hubei province using a multi-stage sampling method and surveyed using a structured anonymous questionnaire including validated scales to measure TB-related stigma...
November 25, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178236/prevalence-predictors-and-challenges-of-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-screening-among-pregnant-women-in-northern-tanzania
#10
Hassan Ismail Njete, Beatrice John, Pendo Mlay, Michael Johnson Mahande, Sia Emmanueli Msuya
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence and predictors of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) as well as acceptability of returning for glucose tolerance testing among pregnant women in Moshi municipality, northern Tanzania. METHODS: Cross-sectional study from October 2015 to April 2016 among women with gestation age of 24-28 weeks of pregnancy attending at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre (KCMC) referral hospital, Majengo and Pasua Health Centres. Women were interviewed and requested to return the next day (window within a month, depending on gestational age) for Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG) testing, followed immediately by a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)...
November 25, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172229/context-matters-a-multi-country-analysis-of-individual-and-neighborhood-level-factors-associated-with-women-s-sanitation-use-in-sub-saharan-africa
#11
Samantha Winter, Robert Dreibelbis, Francis Barchi
OBJECTIVES: To identify cross-national trends in factors associated with women's sanitation use in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: Using data from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 14 SSA countries between 2008 - 2014, we modeled women's sanitation use in relation to various individual- and neighborhood-level factors. RESULTS: Substantial variation exists between countries in the strength and direction of factors associated with sanitation use...
November 24, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164802/use-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-israelensis-in-integrated-vector-control-of-aedes-sp-in-sri-lanka-a-prospective-controlled-effectiveness-study
#12
H A Tissera, P C Samaraweera, B D W Jayamanne, M D S Janaki, M P P U Chulasiri, C Rodrigo, S D Fernando
OBJECTIVES: The annual incidence of dengue has been increasing over the last few years in Sri Lanka with seasonal epidemics. Biological control of the vector has not been part of the integrated vector control implemented by the public health authorities of Sri Lanka so far. This pilot study assessed the effectiveness of using Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) spray to control the Aedes mosquito vector population density. METHODS: Prospective controlled effectiveness study in 3 administrative divisions of Colombo...
November 22, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164754/interventions-to-significantly-improve-service-uptake-and-retention-of-hiv-positive-pregnant-women-and-hiv-exposed-infants-along-the-pmtct-continuum-of-care-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Alexandra C Vrazo, Jacqueline Firth, Anouk Amzel, Rebecca Sedillo, Julia Ryan, B Ryan Phelps
OBJECTIVES: Despite the success of Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programs, low uptake of services and poor retention pose a formidable challenge to achieving the elimination of vertical HIV transmission in low and middle-income countries. This systematic review summarizes interventions that demonstrate statistically significant improvements in service uptake and retention of HIV-positive pregnant and breastfeeding women and their infants along the PMTCT cascade...
November 22, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160949/failure-to-initiate-hiv-treatment-in-patients-with-high-cd4-counts-evidence-from-demographic-surveillance-in-rural-kwazulu-natal
#14
Jacob Bor, Calvin Chiu, Shahira Ahmed, Ingrid Katz, Matt Fox, Sydney Rosen, Manisha Yapa, Frank Tanser, Deenan Pillay, Till Bärnighausen
OBJECTIVES: To assess the relationship between CD4 count at presentation and ART uptake and assess predictors of timely treatment initiation in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. METHODS: We used Cox Proportional Hazards models to assess the association between first CD4 count and time from first CD4 to ART initiation amongst all treatment-naïve adults presenting to the Hlabisa HIV Treatment and Care Program between August 2011 and December 2012, with CD4<350 cells...
November 21, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160948/disability-social-functioning-and-school-inclusion-among-older-children-and-adolescents-living-with-hiv-in-zimbabwe
#15
Ruramayi Rukuni, Grace McHugh, Edith Majonga, Katharina Kranzer, Hilda Mujuru, Shungu Munyati, Kusum Nathoo, Celia L Gregson, Hannah Kuper, Rashida A Ferrand
OBJECTIVE: Increasing numbers of children with HIV are surviving to adolescence and encountering multiple clinical and social consequences of longstanding HIV infection. We aimed to investigate the association between HIV and disability, social functioning and school inclusion among 6 to 16 year-olds in Zimbabwe. METHODS: HIV-infected children receiving antiretroviral therapy from a public sector HIV clinic, and HIV-uninfected children attending primary care clinics in the same catchment area were recruited...
November 21, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160921/sustained-adoption-of-water-sanitation-and-hygiene-interventions-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Nina A Martin, Kristyna R S Hulland, Robert Dreibelbis, Farhana Sultana, Peter J Winch
OBJECTIVE: To understand factors that influence sustained adoption of water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) technologies or behaviors. METHODS: Systematic review of current literature. Articles were gathered from databases of peer-reviewed articles and grey literature, and screened for relevance. After exclusion, we created a descriptive map of 148 articles and analyzed in-depth 44 articles that had an explicit focus on promoting or evaluating sustained adoption or program sustainability...
November 21, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160912/low-sensitivity-and-frequent-cross-reactions-in-commercially-available-antibody-detection-elisa-assays-for-taenia-solium-cysticercosis
#17
Hector H Garcia, Yesenia Castillo, Isidro Gonzales, Javier A Bustos, Herbert Saavedra, Louis Jacob, Oscar H Del Brutto, Patricia P Wilkins, Armando E Gonzalez, Robert H Gilman
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of two commercially available ELISA kits, Novalisa(®) and Ridascreen(®) , for the detection of antibodies to Taenia solium, compared to serological diagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NCC) by LLGP-EITB (electro immunotransfer blot assay using lentil-lectin purified glycoprotein antigens). METHODS: Archive serum samples from patients with viable NCC (n=45) or resolved, calcified NCC (n=45), as well as sera from patients with other cestode parasites (hymenolepiasis, n=45, and cystic hydatid disease, n=45), were evaluated for cysticercosis antibody detection using two ELISA kits, Novalisa(®) and Ridascreen(®) ...
November 21, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140587/comparison-of-haematology-and-biochemistry-parameters-in-healthy-south-african-infants-with-laboratory-reference-intervals
#18
B Schmidt, M Tameris, H Geldenhuys, A Luabeya, E Bunyasi, T Hawkridge, J B McClain, H Mahomed, T J Scriba, H McShane, M Hatherill
OBJECTIVE: Paediatric laboratory reference intervals used in Africa and Asia may be derived from historical intervals of predominantly Caucasian infants in Europe or North America. These intervals may therefore not be compatible with the range of normality for developing country populations. We aimed to compare haematology and biochemistry parameters in healthy South African infants with local laboratory reference intervals. METHODS: We compared the baseline haematology and biochemistry results of 634 (316 male and 318 female) HIV-unexposed infants, aged 3-6 months, living in a rural area of the Western Cape Province, South Africa, against laboratory reference intervals supplied by the South African National Health Laboratory Services (NHLS)...
November 15, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140584/the-association-between-female-genital-fistula-symptoms-and-gender-based-violence-a-multi-country-secondary-analysis-of-household-survey-data
#19
Lindsay Mallick, Vandana Tripathi
OBJECTIVE: The Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), which include standardized questions on female genital fistula symptoms, provide a unique opportunity to evaluate the epidemiology of fistula. This study sought to examine associations between self-reported fistula symptoms and experience of gender-based violence (GBV) among women interviewed in DHS surveys. METHODS: This study used data from thirteen DHS surveys with standardized fistula and domestic violence modules...
November 15, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131459/differential-contribution-of-interleukin-10-promoter-variants-in-malaria-and-schistosomiasis-mono-and-co-infections-among-nigerian-children
#20
Ayodele Adedoja, Nghiem Xuan Hoan, Hoang van Tong, Selorme Adukpo, Deborah B Tijani, Ajibola A Akanbi, Christian G Meyer, Olusola Ojurongbe, Thirumalaisamy P Velavan
OBJECTIVE: Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is an anti-inflammatory cytokine produced by Th1 cells and macrophages. The rationale of this study was to examine and validate possible contributions of IL-10 promoter polymorphisms in sub-Saharan Africa in children infected with either Plasmodium falciparum or Schistosoma haematobium and in children co-infected with both parasites. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 309 Nigerian children aged 4 to 15 years were recruited. The study group consisted of individuals infected either with P...
November 13, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
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