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Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH

Hamid Reza Tohidinik, Mehdi Mohebali, Mohammad Ali Mansournia, Sharareh R Niakan Kalhori, Mohsen Ali-Akbarpour, Kamran Yazdani
OBJECTIVES: To predict the occurrence of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) and evaluate the effect of climatic variables on disease incidence in the east of Fars province, Iran using the Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA) model. METHODS: The Box-Jenkins approach was applied to fit the SARIMA model for ZCL incidence from 2004 to 2015. Then the model was used to predict the number of ZCL cases for the year 2016. Finally, we assessed the relation of meteorological variables (rainfall, rainy days, temperature, hours of sunshine and relative humidity) with ZCL incidence...
May 22, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Ng'endo Kuria, Anthony Reid, Philip Owiti, Hannock Tweya, Caleb Kipkurui Kibet, Lilian Mbau, Marcel Manzi, Victor Murunga, Tecla Namusonge, Joseph Kibachio
OBJECTIVE: To determine and compare, among three models of care, compliance to scheduled clinic appointments and adherence to anti-hypertensive medication of patients in an informal settlement of Kibera, Kenya. METHODS: Routinely collected patient data were used from three health facilities, six walkway clinics and one weekend/church clinic. Patients were eligible if they had received hypertension care for more than six months. Compliance with clinic appointments and self-reported adherence to medication were determined from clinic records and compared using the Chi-square test...
May 19, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Marie Marcelle Deschamps, Deanna Jannat-Khah, Vanessa Rouzier, Jerry Bonhomme, Julma Pierrot, Myung Hee Lee, Elaine Abrams, Jean Pape, Margaret L McNairy
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate mother and infant outcomes in the largest prevention of mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT) program in Haiti in order to identify gaps towards elimination of HIV and syphilis. METHODS: Based on retrospective data from HIV+ pregnant women and their infants enrolled in PMTCT care from 1999-2014, we assessed maternal enrolment in PMTCT, receipt of antiretrovirals before delivery, maternal retention through delivery, as well as infant enrolment in PMTCT, HIV testing, and HIV infection...
May 19, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Yu-Hang Chen, Fan Chen, Tao Zhou, Jia-Yi Chen, Tian-Li Zheng, Xin Xu, Xiao-Fang Pei
OBJECTIVES: Rotaviruses are the most common cause of severe diarrheal disease in young children. However, little is known about the epidemiological and clinical profile of rotavirus A (RVA) in diarrheal children or the efficacy of Lanzhou lamb rotavirus vaccine (LLR) in Chengdu, China. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and clinical profile of RVA in diarrheal children and provide gene analysis information for RVA vaccination programs. METHODS: 1121 fecal samples were collected from outpatient children with diarrhea between 2009 and 2014...
May 19, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Isaac Dennis Amoah, Anthony Ayodeji Adegoke, Thor Axel Stenström
OBJECTIVE: To review current evidence on infections related to the concentration of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) eggs in wastewater, sludge and vegetables irrigated with wastewater or grown on sludge-amended soils. METHOD: Search of Web of Science, Science Direct, PubMed and Google Scholar databases for publications reporting on STH egg concentration in wastewater, sludge and vegetables and for epidemiological studies on wastewater/sludge reuse and STH infections...
May 19, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Patrick D M C Katoto, Friedrich Thienemann, André N H Bulabula, Tonya M Esterhuizen, Aimé B Murhula, Pierre P M Lunjwire, Dieudonné M Bihehe, Jean B Nachega
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of and risk factors for metabolic syndrome (MS) in HIV-infected adults at three urban clinics in Bukavu, Democratic Republic of the Congo. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: From July to September 2016, baseline socio-demographics, risk factors, and clinical characteristics were collected using a structured questionnaire or extracted from medical records. Fasting blood sugar and lipids were measured...
May 12, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Julie M Herlihy, Sara Gille, Caroline Grogan, Lauren Bobay, Kelvin Simpamba, Bashagaluke Akonkwa, Tina Chisenga, Davidson H Hamer, Katherine Semrau
OBJECTIVE: Omphalitis, or umbilical cord infection, is an important cause of newborn morbidity and mortality in low-resource settings. We tested an algorithms that task-shifts omphalitis diagnosis to community-level workers in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: Community-based field monitors and Zambian pediatricians independently evaluated newborns presenting to health facilities in Southern Zambia using a signs and symptoms checklist. Responses were compared against the pediatrician's gold standard clinical diagnosis...
May 12, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Bamlaku Enawgaw, Wubet Birhan, Molla Abebe, Betelihem Terefe, Habtamu Wondifraw Baynes, Tekalign Deressa, Mulugeta Melku
OBJECTIVE: Reference intervals (RIs) currently being used in Ethiopia are derived from western populations. Thus, this study aimed to establish locally derived hematological and immunological RIs. METHOD: The study was conducted in Amhara State, Ethiopia with a total of 967 (55.2% males) participants. 56.9% of males and 43.1% of females were eligible for hematological and immunological RI determination. A non-parametric test was used for the determination of upper (97...
May 12, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Yves Lafort, Letitia Greener, Faustino Lessitala, Sophie Chabeda, Ross Greener, Mags Beksinska, Peter Gichangi, Sally Griffin, Jenni A Smit, Matthew Chersich, Wim Delva
OBJECTIVES: To enhance uptake of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services by female sex workers (FSWs), we conducted an implementation study in which we piloted and tested context-specific 'diagonal' interventions, combining vertical, targeted interventions with horizontally improved access to the general health services, in three cities in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: We collected indicators of SRH service uptake through face-to-face interviews with approximately 400 FSWs, pre- and post-intervention, in Durban, South Africa; Tete, Mozambique; and Mombasa, Kenya, recruited by respondent-driven sampling...
May 12, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Chris O Ifediora, Emmanuel C Azuike
OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the level of awareness and attitudes towards cervical cancer among secondary school students in Nigeria. METHOD: Cross-sectional survey of 432 female senior secondary school students in south-eastern Nigeria. RESULTS: 321 (74.3%) responses were valid. 42.7% had heard of cervical cancer, 32.8% of screening, 23.2% of Pap smears, and 22.0% of HPV/HPV vaccinations. No widely available reliable source of information exists...
May 7, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Sivan Laviad-Shitrit, Ido Izhaki, Eiji Arakawa, Malka Halpern
OBJECTIVE: To study the hypothesis that migratory waterfowl are possible disseminators of V. cholerae and Aeromonas. METHODS: We monitored the presence of V. cholerae and Aeromonas in three wild waterfowl species. RESULTS: V. cholerae and Aeromonas species were isolated and identified from intestine samples of little egrets and black-crowned night herons. Only Aeromonas species were isolated from black-headed gulls. The majority of Aeromonas isolates were A...
May 7, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Mohsen Gadallah, Sahar Kandil, Amira Mohsen
OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, cardiovascular risk factors and cerebro-cardiovascular (CCV) disease. METHODS: The source of data was the Egypt Health Issues Survey conducted in 2015. Participants were 11,256 individuals with complete HCV testing, age 25-59 years. Data on demographics, cardio-vascular risk factors, CCV disease (myocardial infarction and/or cerebral stroke) and HCV infection were retrieved. Descriptive, bivariate, multivariable logistic regression and sensitivity analyses were performed to determine the independent association of past HCV exposure or chronic infection with diabetes, hypertension, and CCV disease...
May 3, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Razieh Tavakoli Oliaee, Iraj Sharifi, Ali Afgar, Amir Tavakoli Kareshk, Arash Asadi, Amireh Heshmatkhah, Mehdi Bamorovat, Abdollah Jafarzadeh, Mohammad Ali Mohammadi, Hamid Daneshvar
BACKGROUND: Resistance to antimonials is a fundamental determinant of treatment failure in anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL). Detection of reliable molecular markers to distinguish unresponsive and responsive parasites is critical for consolidating strategies to monitor drug efficacy. METHODS: We analyzed the expression of five major antimony resistance-associated genes, i.e., aquaglyceroporin1 (AQP1), γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS), multidrug resistance protein A (MRPA), trypanothione reductase (TR) and thiol dependent reductase 1 (TDR1), in unresponsive and responsive Leishmania tropica field isolates by quantitative real-time PCR in comparison with sensitive and resistant reference strains...
April 30, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Celivane Cavalcanti Barbosa, Cristine Vieira do Bonfim, Cintia Michele Gondim de Brito, Andrea Torres Ferreira, Vera Rejane do Nascimento Gregório, André Luiz Sá de Oliveira, José Luiz Portugal, Zulma Maria de Medeiros
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the spatial distribution of the incidence of leprosy and identify areas at risk for occurrences of hyper-endemic disease in northeastern Brazil. METHODS: Ecological study using municipalities as the analysis unit. Data on new cases of leprosy came from the Health Hazard Notification System (SINAN). This study focused on Pernambuco and covered the years 2005 to 2014. Indicators for monitoring were calculated per 100,000 inhabitants. The local empirical Bayes method was used to minimize rate variance and spatial autocorrelation maps were used for spatial pattern analysis (box maps and Moran maps)...
April 28, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Ghobad Moradi, Mohammad-Mehdi Gouya, Fatemeh Azimizan, Amjad Mohamadi Bolbanabad, Sonia Darvishi, Mohammad Reza Aghasadeghi, Mahmood Nabavi, Ramin Alasvand, Mehrzad Tashakorian, Bijan Nouri, Khaled Rahmani, Leila Molaei
OBJECTIVES: To provide more accurate estimates of the prevalence of Hepatitis B (HBV) and Hepatitis C (HCV) and their contributing factors among prisoners in Iran. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 6200 Iranian prisoners in 2015. Data were collected through questionnaires and interviews. HBV infection and HCV exposure status of the participants was determined by HBsAg and HCV antibodies blood tests using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Data were analyzed in STATA-12...
April 26, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Jia Yin, Xiaomeng Wang, Lin Zhou, Xiaolin Wei
OBJECTIVE: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) has been a major threat for successful TB control. We examined the relationship between social support and treatment outcomes in MDR-TB patients and evaluated barriers to social support. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study with MDR-TB patients enrolled in the Global Fund program between 1 January 2009 and 30 June 2014 in Zhejiang, China. We reviewed all MDR-TB patients' diagnoses and treatment outcomes. In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 community health workers and 10 patients...
April 24, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Violeta Moya-Alvarez, Smaila Ouédraogo, Manfred Accrombessi, Michel Cot
OBJECTIVES: To investigate if high-dosed folate supplements might diminish the efficacy of malaria intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) in a cohort of pregnant women in Benin, where malaria is holoendemic. METHODS: We followed 318 women during the entire pregnancy and analyzed hematological and P.falciparum indicators in the context of an intermittent preventive treatment trial in Benin. During the follow-up women received two-dose IPTp (1500/75 mg of SP per dose) at the maternity clinic, and 600 mg of albendazole, 200 mg ferrous sulfate and 5 mg folic acid per day for home treatment...
April 23, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Ana Pérez-Ayala, Isabel Fradejas, Lourdes Rebollo, David Lora-Pablos, Manuel Lizasoain, J M Herrero-Martínez
OBJECTIVES: Imported Chagas disease (CD) is an emerging health problem in Europe due to immigration from endemic countries. Although WHO currently recommends two different serological methods to establish diagnosis, new tools like the Architect Chagas assay have potential for use as a single diagnostic test. Our objective was to determine an optimal signal-to-cutoff (S/CO) value for the Architect Chagas assay to diagnose CD with a single test. METHODS: A retrospective study conducted at the 12 de Octubre University Hospital (Madrid, Spain)...
April 23, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Luciano Pamplona de Góes Cavalcanti, Rafael Henrique Machado Sacramento, Fernanda Montenegro de Carvalho Araújo, Danielle Malta Lima, Carlos Carlos Henrique Alencar, Victor Emanuel Pessoa Martins, Lucas Venâncio Araújo, Tais Castelo de Oliveira
OBJECTIVE: Dengue remains an important public health problem in Brazil. We estimated the associated factors of dengue seroprevalence among native Indians of the Tremembé ethnic and their knowledge about the aspects related to the presence of mosquitoes of the genus Aedes. METHODS: An analytical cross-sectional study and a prospective environmental study to monitor the trapping of mosquito eggs monthly were performed. The serological portion of the study involved indigenous people living in the village of Tapera in northeastern Brazil...
April 19, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Ali Pormohammad, Mohammad Javad Nasiri, Seyed Mohammad Riahi, Fatemeh Fallah
INTRODUCTION: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) -infected individuals are at increased risk for all forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB), including tuberculous meningitis (TBM). The current study aimed to investigate the frequency of HIV in TBM patients. METHODS: PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library were searched for articles including relevant data. Stata version 14.0 (StataCorp, College Station, Texas, USA) was used to analyze the data. RESULTS: Twenty studies were identified...
April 16, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
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