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Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094465/determining-the-effective-coverage-of-maternal-and-child-health-services-in-kenya-using-demographic-and-health-survey-datasets-tracking-progress-towards-universal-health-coverage
#1
Peter K Nguhiu, Edwine W Barasa, Jane Chuma
OBJECTIVES: Effective coverage is a measure of health systems performance that combines need, use and quality. This study aimed to assess the extent to which the Kenyan health system provides effective and equitable maternal and child health services, as a means of tracking the country's progress towards universal health coverage. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Demographic Health Surveys (2003, 2008-09 and 2014) and Service Provision Assessment surveys (2004, 2010) were the main sources of data...
January 17, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072501/nasopharyngeal-carriage-of-respiratory-pathogens-in-warao-amerindians-significant-relationship-with-stunting
#2
Lilly M Verhagen, Meyke Hermsen, Ismar A Rivera-Olivero, María Carolina Sisco, Marien I de Jonge, Peter W M Hermans, Jacobus H de Waard
OBJECTIVE: To assess risk factors for nasopharyngeal carriage of pathogens in geographically isolated Warao Amerindians in Venezuela. METHODS: In this point prevalence survey, nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained from 1064 Warao Amerindians: 504 children aged 0 - 4 years, 227 children aged 5 - 10 years, and 333 caregivers. Written questionnaires were completed to obtain information on demographics and environmental risk factors. Anthropometric measurements were performed in children aged 0 - 4 years...
January 10, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072498/scaling-up-hcv-treatment-to-achieve-who-targets-by-2030
#3
EDITORIAL
Graham Cooke
WHO recently launched a new strategy for tackling viral hepatitis with ambitious goals for reducing both deaths and new infections by 2030 [1]. Antiviral therapy is one only part of a multi-faceted strategy needed to tackle viral hepatitis, but for hepatitis C (HCV), the absence of an effective vaccine means that achieving these targets is going to require substantial scale-up of HCV treatment. Reaching the target of treating 80% of those in need by 2030 will require reaching at least 70 million people [2]...
January 10, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072493/patterns-of-infections-aetiological-agents-and-antimicrobial-resistance-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-northern-tanzania
#4
Happiness Houka Kumburu, Tolbert Sonda, Blandina Theophil Mmbaga, Michael Alifrangis, Ole Lund, Gibson Kibiki, Frank M Aarestrup
OBJECTIVE: To determine the causative agents of infections and their antimicrobial susceptibility at a tertiary care hospital in Moshi, Tanzania, to guide optimal treatment. METHODS: A total of 590 specimens (stool (56), sputum (122), blood (126) and wound swabs (286)) were collected from 575 patients admitted in the medical and surgical departments. The bacterial species were determined by conventional methods and disk diffusion was used to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the bacteria isolates...
January 10, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066962/outcomes-among-hiv-infected-children-initiating-hiv-care-and-antiretroviral-treatment-in-ethiopia
#5
Zenebe Melaku, Sileshi Lulseged, Chunhui Wang, Matthew Lamb, Yoseph Gutema, Chloe Teasdale, Solomon Ahmed, Tsigereda Gadisa, Zelalem Habtamu, Abubaker Bedri, Ruby Fayorsey, Elaine J Abrams
Globally, the scale-up of antiretroviral treatment represents one of the greatest successes in the history of global health. By the end of 2014 an estimated 15 million individuals, including more than 800,000 children younger than 15 years, initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART).(1) While pediatric treatment still lags behind adult successes, many countries, particularly in Southern Africa, have reported high rates of ART initiation, diminishing mortality and markedly improved health outcomes among children with HIV...
January 9, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000394/birth-prevalence-of-congenital-talipes-equinovarus-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
REVIEW
Tracey Smythe, Hannah Kuper, David Macleod, Allen Foster, Christopher Lavy
OBJECTIVE: Congenital talipes equinovarus (CTEV), or clubfoot, is a structural malformation that develops early in gestation. Birth prevalence of clubfoot is reported to vary both between and within low and middle-income countries (LMICs) and this information is needed in order to plan treatment services. This systematic review aims to understand the birth prevalence of clubfoot in LMIC settings. METHODS: Six databases were searched for studies that reported birth prevalence of clubfoot in LMICs...
December 21, 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992707/inapproriate-prescription-of-cough-remedies-among-children-hospitalized-with-respiratory-illness-over-the-period-2002-to-2015-in-kenya
#7
Michuki Maina, Samuel Akech, Paul Mwaniki, Susan Gachau, Morris Ogero, Thomas Julius, Phillip Ayieko, Grace Irimu, Mike English
OBJECTIVE: To examine trends in prescription of cough medicines over the period 2002 to 2015 in children aged 1 month to 12 years admitted to Kenyan hospitals with cough, difficulty breathing or diagnosed with a respiratory tract infection. METHODS: We reviewed hospitalization records of children included in four studies providing cross-sectional prevalence estimates from government hospitals for 6 time periods between 2002 and 2015. Children with an atopic illness were excluded...
December 19, 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992677/mortality-and-clinical-outcomes-in-children-treated-with-antiretroviral-therapy-in-four-african-vertical-programs-during-the-first-decade-of-paediatric-hiv-care-2001-2010
#8
Jihane Ben-Farhat, Birgit Schramm, Nathalie Nicolay, Stephen Wanjala, Elisabeth Szumilin, Suna Balkan, Mar Pujades-Rodríguez
OBJECTIVE: To assess mortality and clinical outcomes in children treated with antiretroviral therapy in four African vertical programs between 2001 and 2010. METHODS: Cohort analysis of data from HIV-infected children (<15 years old) initiating ART in 4 sub-Saharan HIV programs in Kenya, Uganda and Malawi, between December 2001 and December 2010. Rates of mortality, program attrition and first-line clinico-immunological failure were calculated by age group (<2, 2-4 and 5-14 years), 1 or 2 years after ART initiation and risk factors were examined...
December 19, 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992672/beyond-counting-stillbirths-to-understanding-their-determinants-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-systematic-assessment-of-stillbirth-data-availability-in-household-surveys
#9
Aliki Christou, Michael J Dibley, Camille Raynes-Greenow
OBJECTIVE: To systematically map data availability for stillbirths from all countries with DHS surveys to outline the limitations and challenges with using the data for understanding the determinants and causes of stillbirths, and for cross-country comparisons. METHODS: We assessed data sources from the DHS program website, including published DHS reports and their associated questionnaires for surveys completed between 2005 and 2015. RESULTS: Between 2005 and 2015, the DHS program completed 114 surveys across 70 LMICs...
December 19, 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990718/determinants-of-morbidity-associated-with-infant-male-circumcision-community-level-population-based-study-in-rural-ghana
#10
Thomas Gyan, Kimberley McAuley, Natalie A Strobel, Caitlin Shannon, Sam Newton, Charlotte Tawiah-Agyemang, Seeba Amenga-Etego, Seth Owusu-Agyei, Betty Kirkwood, Karen Edmond
OBJECTIVE: Male circumcision services have expanded throughout Africa as part of a long-term HIV prevention strategy. We assessed the effect of type of service provider (formal and informal) and hygiene practices on circumcision-related morbidities in rural Ghana. METHODS: Population-based, cross-sectional study conducted between May and December 2012 involving 2850 circumcised infant males aged under 12 weeks. Multivariable logistic regression models were adjusted for maternal age, maternal education, income, birth weight and site of circumcision...
December 19, 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987380/coxiella-burnetii-q-fever-prevalence-in-associated-populations-of-humans-and-small-ruminants-in-the-gambia
#11
Jeroen Bok, Lenny Hogerwerf, Eveline A Germeraad, Hendrik I J Roest, Tisbeh Faye-Joof, Momodou Jeng, Davis Nwakanma, Arss Secka, Arjan Stegeman, Bart Goossens, Rita Wegmüller, Marianne A B van der Sande, Wim van der Hoek, Ousman Secka
OBJECTIVES: To simultaneously estimate the prevalence of antibodies against Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) among adults and small ruminants, and C. burnetii shedding prevalence among small ruminants in households in the Kiang West district of The Gambia; and to assess associated risk factors. METHODS: Sera of 599 adults and 615 small ruminants from 125 compounds within 12 villages were tested for antibodies against C. burnetii using ELISA. Vaginal swabs and milk samples of 155 small ruminants were tested using PCR to investigate shedding of C...
December 17, 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978594/treatment-outcomes-in-patients-with-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-northwest-ethiopia
#12
Kefyalew Addis Alene, Kerri Viney, Emma S McBryde, Adino Tesfahun, Archie C A Clements
OBJECTIVE: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is an emerging public health problem in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess MDR-TB treatment outcomes and determine predictors of poor treatment outcomes in Northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of all MDR-TB patients who were enrolled at Gondar University Hospital since the establishment of the MDR-TB program in September 2010. A Cox-proportional hazard model was used to identify the predictors of time to poor treatment outcomes, which were defined as death or treatment failure...
December 15, 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935664/point-of-care-assessment-of-c-reactive-protein-and-white-blood-cell-count-to-identify-bacterial-aetiologies-in-malaria-negative-paediatric-fevers-in-tanzania
#13
Helena Hildenwall, Florida Muro, Jaqueline Jansson, George Mtove, Hugh Reyburn, Ben Amos
OBJECTIVE: To assess the role of point-of-care (PoC) assessment of C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell (WBC) count to identify bacterial illness in Tanzanian children with non-severe non-malarial fever. METHODS: From the outpatient department of a district hospital in Tanzania, 428 patients between 3 months and 5 years of age who presented with fever and a negative malaria test were enrolled. All had a physical examination and bacterial cultures from blood and urine...
December 9, 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935657/profile-and-reintegration-experience-of-ebola-survivors-in-guinea-a-cross-sectional-study
#14
Alexandre Delamou, Bienvenu Salim Camara, Jean Pe Kolie, Achille Diona Guemou, Nyankoye Yves Haba, Shannon Marquez, Beavogui Abdoul Habib, Therese Delvaux, Johan van Griensven
OBJECTIVE: To describe the experience of Guinean Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) survivors in Guinea, up to ten months after discharge from the Ebola treatment unit. METHODS: Cross-sectional study using a standardized semi-structured questionnaire among survivors from Conakry and Coyah districts in 2015 in Guinea. We used proportions, mean (Standard Deviation) and median (Interquartile range) to summarize the variables. The McNemar Chi square test was used to compare proportions...
December 9, 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935650/association-between-diabetes-mellitus-and-active-tuberculosis-in-africa-and-the-effect-of-hiv
#15
REVIEW
Sarah Lou Bailey, Helen Ayles
OBJECTIVE: To determine current evidence for the association between diabetes and active tuberculosis in Africa, and how HIV modifies, or not, any association between diabetes and active tuberculosis. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review by searching the EMBASE, Global Health and Medline databases. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they explored the association between diabetes mellitus prevalence and active tuberculosis incidence or prevalence, used a comparison group, were conducted in an African population and adjusted the analysis for at least age...
December 9, 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935649/intense-pre-admission-carriage-and-further-acquisition-of-esbl-producing-enterobacteriaceae-among-patients-and-their-caregivers-in-a-tertiary-hospital-in-rwanda
#16
Mathis S E Kurz, Claude Bayingana, Jules M Ndoli, Augustin Sendegeya, Anita Durst, Roland Pfüller, Jean Bosco Gahutu, Frank P Mockenhaupt
OBJECTIVES: To assess the presence and risk factors of intestinal carriage extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) among patients admitted to the University Teaching Hospital of Butare and among their attending caregivers; and to analyse the acquisition of ESBL-PE carriage during hospital stay and associated factors. METHODS: We screened 392 patients and their attending caregivers at admission and discharge for ESBL-PE carriage. Bacterial species were determined using the API-20E system, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done by agar disc-diffusion...
December 9, 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889937/household-level-risk-factors-for-secondary-influenza-like-illness-in-a-rural-area-of-bangladesh
#17
Anne M Weaver, Kaniz Khatun-E-Jannat, Emily Cercone, Kimberly Krytus, Badrul Munir Sohel, Makhdum Ahmed, Mustafizur Rahman, Eduardo Azziz-Baumgartner, Jihnhee Yu, Alicia M Fry, Stephen P Luby, Pavani K Ram
OBJECTIVE: To describe household-level risk factors for secondary Influenza-like illness (ILI), an important public health concern in the low-income population of Bangladesh. METHODS: Secondary analysis of control participants in a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effect of handwashing to prevent household ILI transmission. We recruited index-case patients with ILI-fever (<5 years); fever, cough or sore throat (≥5 years)-from health facilities, collected information on household factors, and conducted syndromic surveillance among household contacts for 10 days after resolution of index-case patients' symptoms...
November 27, 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886436/factors-that-hinder-or-enable-maternal-health-strategies-to-reduce-delays-in-rural-and-pastoralist-areas-in-ethiopia
#18
Ruth Jackson, Fisaha Haile Tesfay, Tesfay Gebregzabher Gebrehiwot, Hagos Godefay
OBJECTIVES: To document factors that hinder or enable strategies to reduce the first and second delays of the Three Delays in rural and pastoralist areas in Ethiopia. METHODS: A key informant study was conducted with 44 Health Extension Workers in Afar Region, Kafa Zone (Southern Nation, Nationalities and Peoples' Region), and Adwa Woreda (Tigray Region). Health Extension Workers were trained to interview women and ask for stories about their recent experiences of birth...
November 25, 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886429/assessing-healthcare-quality-using-routine-data-evaluating-the-performance-of-the-national-tuberculosis-programme-in-south-africa
#19
Zoë M McLaren, Alana R Sharp, Jifang Zhou, Sean Wasserman, Ananta Nanoo
OBJECTIVE: To assess the performance of healthcare facilities by means of indicators based on guidelines for clinical care of TB, which is likely a good measure of overall facility quality. METHODS: We assessed quality of care in all public health facilities in South Africa using graphical, correlation and locally weighted kernel regression analysis of routine TB test data. RESULTS: Facility performance falls short of national standards of care...
November 25, 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865052/retention-in-care-and-reasons-for-discontinuation-of-lifelong-antiretroviral-therapy-in-a-cohort-of-cameroonian-pregnant-and-breastfeeding-hiv-positive-women-initiating-option-b-in-the-south-west-region
#20
Pascal N Atanga, Harrison T Ndetan, Eric A Achidi, Henry D Meriki, Michael Hoelscher, Arne Kroidl
OBJECTIVE: To assess linkage and retention in care along the PMTCT cascade in HIV-positive pregnant and breastfeeding women initiating Option B+ in Cameroon. METHODS: We prospectively determined uptake of HIV testing and counselling (HTC), uptake of ART and retention in care after Option B+ initiation between October 2013 and December 2014 in pregnant and breastfeeding women from five sites within the Kumba Health District. Retention in care was assessed over at least 12 months follow-up and estimated by Kaplan-Meier analysis...
November 16, 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
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