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Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH

Anne M Weaver, Kaniz Khatun-E-Jannat, Emily Cercone, Kimberly Krytus, Badrul Munir Sohel, Makhdum Ahmed, Mustafizur Rahman, Eduardo Azziz-Baumgartner, Jihnhee Yu, Alicia M Fry, Stephen P Luby, Pavani K Ram
OBJECTIVE: To describe household-level risk factors for secondary Influenza-like illness (ILI), an important public health concern in the low-income population of Bangladesh. METHODS: Secondary analysis of control participants in a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effect of handwashing to prevent household ILI transmission. We recruited index-case patients with ILI-fever (<5 years); fever, cough or sore throat (≥5 years)-from health facilities, collected information on household factors, and conducted syndromic surveillance among household contacts for 10 days after resolution of index-case patients' symptoms...
November 27, 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Ruth Jackson, Fisaha Haile Tesfay, Tesfay Gebregzabher Gebrehiwot, Hagos Godefay
OBJECTIVES: To document factors that hinder or enable strategies to reduce the first and second delays of the Three Delays in rural and pastoralist areas in Ethiopia. METHODS: A key informant study was conducted with 44 Health Extension Workers in Afar Region, Kafa Zone (Southern Nation, Nationalities and Peoples' Region), and Adwa Woreda (Tigray Region). Health Extension Workers were trained to interview women and ask for stories about their recent experiences of birth...
November 25, 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Zoë McLaren, Alana R Sharp, Jifang Zhou, Sean Wasserman, Ananta Nanoo
OBJECTIVE: To assess the performance of health care facilities by means of indicators based on guidelines for clinical care of TB, which is likely a good measure of overall facility quality. METHODS: We assessed quality of care in all public health facilities in South Africa using graphical, correlation and locally weighted kernel regression analysis of routine TB test data. RESULTS: Facility performance falls short of national standards of care...
November 25, 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Pascal N Atanga, Harrison T Ndetan, Eric A Achidi, Henry D Meriki, Michael Hoelscher, Arne Kroidl
OBJECTIVE: To assess linkage and retention in care along the PMTCT cascade in HIV-positive pregnant and breastfeeding women initiating Option B+ in Cameroon. METHODS: We prospectively determined uptake of HIV testing and counselling (HTC), uptake of ART and retention in care after Option B+ initiation between October 2013 and December 2014 in pregnant and breastfeeding women from five sites within the Kumba Health District. Retention in care was assessed over at least 12 months follow-up and estimated by Kaplan Meier analysis...
November 16, 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Caijun Yang, Qian Shen, Wenfang Cai, Wenwen Zhu, Zongjie Li, Lina Wu, Yu Fang
OBJECTIVES: To assess the long-term effects of the introduction of China's zero markup drug policy on hospitalization expenditure and hospitalization expenditures after reimbursement. METHODS: An interrupted time series was used to evaluate the impact of the zero markup drug policy on hospitalization expenditure and hospitalization expenditure after reimbursement at primary health institutions in Fufeng County of Shaanxi Province, western China. Two regression models were developed...
November 16, 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Florida Muro, Neema Mosha, Helena Hildenwall, Frank Mtei, Nicole Harrison, David Schellenberg, Raimos Olomi, Hugh Reyburn, Jim Todd
OBJECTIVE: Measurement of respiratory rate is an important clinical sign in the diagnosis of pneumonia but suffers from inter-observer variation. Here we assess the use of video recordings as a quality assurance tool that could be useful both in research and in training of staff. METHODS: Respiratory rates (RR) were recorded in children aged 2 - 59 months presenting with cough or difficulty breathing at two busy outpatient clinics in Tanzania. Measurements were repeated at 10-minute intervals in a quiet environment with simultaneous video recordings that were independently reviewed by two paediatricians...
November 14, 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Margarete do Socorro Mendonça Gomes, José Luiz Fernandes Vieira, Álvaro Augusto Ribeiro D'Almeida Couto, Vanja Suely Calvosa D'Almeida Couto, Michelle Valéria Dias Ferreira Vieira, Francis Christian da Silva Pereira, Ricado Luiz Dantas Machado
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the recurrence of infection by P. falciparum in patients from the Brazilian Amazon was caused by an inadequate exposure to quinine. METHODS: Retrospective study using blood samples from patients with slide-confirmed infection by P. falciparum, classified according to the parasitological response after 28 days of follow-up. Quinine and doxycycline were measured in plasma samples by high-performance liquid chromatography. A statistical model was used to estimate parasite clearance rates...
November 14, 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Halima Boubacar Maïnassara, Garba Idé Oumarou, Bassira Issaka, Ali Sidiki, Issa Idi, Jean-Paul Moulia Pelat, Arnaud Fontanet, Judith E Mueller
OBJECTIVE: To inform public health recommendations, we evaluated the effectiveness and efficiency of current and hypothetical surveillance and vaccine response strategies against Neisseria meningitidis C meningitis epidemics in 2015 in Niger. METHODS: We analyzed reports of suspected and confirmed cases of meningitis from the region of Dosso during 2014 and 2015. Based on a definition of epidemic signals, the effectiveness and efficiency of surveillance and vaccine response strategies were evaluated by calculating the number of potentially vaccine-preventable cases and number of vaccine doses needed per epidemic signal...
November 14, 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Alana T Brennan, Jacob Bor, Mary-Ann Davies, Francesca Conradie, Mhairi Maskew, Lawrence Long, Ian Sanne, Matthew P Fox
OBJECTIVE: Using data from four public-sector clinics in South Africa we sought to investigate provider and patient level outcomes, to understand how the 2012 tenofovir stock shortage affected the HIV care and monitoring of ART patients. METHODS: Prospective cohort analysis of ART-naïve, non-pregnant, HIV-infected patients >18 years initiating first-line ART between July 1, 2011-March 31, 2013. Linear regression was used for all outcomes (number of ART initiates, days between pharmacy visits, transfers, single drug substitutions, treatment interruptions, missed pharmacy visits, loss to follow-up and elevated viral load)...
November 11, 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Roland Garve, Miriam Garve, Jens C Türp, Christian G Meyer
The custom of wearing labrets has a long tradition. Labrets appeared independently several thousand years ago in various culture groups in Asia, Europe, Africa, and the Americas. Today, apart from diverse body modifications as increasingly practiced in western civilizations, lip plates and plugs are found among a small number of tribal groups only in Africa and Amazonia. We summarize the history of labrets in different societies, describe medical consequences of wearing lip plates and plugs for jaws and teeth, and address relevant cultural issues...
November 11, 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Sanni Kujala, Peter Waiswa, Daniel Kadobera, Joseph Akuze, George Pariyo, Claudia Hanson
OBJECTIVES: To identify mortality trends and risk factors associated with stillbirths and neonatal deaths 1982-2011. METHODS: Population-based cross-sectional study based on reported pregnancy history in Iganga-Mayuge Health and Demographic Surveillance Site (HDSS) in Uganda. A pregnancy history survey was conducted among women aged 15-49 years living in the HDSS during May-July 2011 (n = 10 540). Time trends were analysed with cubic splines and linear regression...
November 5, 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Hai Gu, Hua You, Weiqing Ning, Hua Zhou, Jianming Wang, Ying Lu, Jun Sun, Yun Kou, Hengjin Dong
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the use of maternal health care services by internal migrants in view of their migration status. METHODS: Cross-sectional household survey in two cities of Jiangsu Province. Questions elicited data on socioeconomic information and MHC service use (pre-natal examination, post-natal visit, pre-natal health education). Chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with MHC service use...
November 5, 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Kate Shearer, Denise Evans, Faith Moyo, Julia K Rohr, Rebecca Berhanu, Liudmyla Van Den Berg, Lawrence Long, Ian Sanne, Matthew P Fox
OBJECTIVES: To report predictors of outcomes of second-line ART for HIV treatment in resource-limited settings. METHODS: All adult ART-naïve patients who initiated standard first-line treatment between April 2004-February 2012 at four public-sector health facilities in Johannesburg, South Africa, experienced virologic failure, and initiated standard second-line therapy were included. We assessed predictors of attrition (death and loss to follow-up [≥3 months late for a scheduled visit]) using Cox proportional hazards regression and predictors of virologic suppression (viral load <400 copies/ml ≥3 months after switch) using modified Poisson regression with robust error estimation at one year and ever after second-line ART initiation...
October 31, 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Eva C Heym, Helge Kampen, Marcus Fahle, Tobias L Hohenbrink, Mandy Schäfer, Dorothee E Zielke, Doreen Walther
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to map the current spatial distribution of Anopheles plumbeus in Germany, a potential vector of malaria parasites and West Nile virus. Reports of mass occurrence and nuisance connected with artificial breeding site usage by this species were analysed. METHODS: Distribution data were collected from 2011 to 2014 mainly through trapping and submissions of adult mosquito specimens to a citizen science project. In the framework of the latter, additional information was gathered on recent nuisance incidents caused by An...
October 31, 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Ayse Ercumen, Benjamin F Arnold, Abu Mohd Naser, Leanne Unicomb, John M Colford, Stephen P Luby
OBJECTIVES: Escherichia coli is the standard water quality indicator for diarrhea risk. Yet the association between E. coli and diarrhea is inconsistent across studies without a systematic assessment of methodological differences behind this variation. Most studies measure water quality cross-sectionally with diarrhea, risking exposure misclassification and reverse causation. Studies use different recall windows for self-reported diarrhea; longer periods increase potential outcome misclassification through misrecall...
October 31, 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Paul Arkell, Daniel Youkee, Colin S Brown, Abdul Kamara, Thaim B Kamara, Oliver Johnson, Marta Lado, Viginia George, Fatmata Koroma, Matilda B King, Benson E Parker, Peter Baker
OBJECTIVES: A central pillar in the response to the 2014 Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) epidemic in Sierra Leone was the role of Ebola Holding Units (EHUs). These units isolated patients meeting a suspect case definition, tested them for EVD, initiated appropriate early treatment, and discharged negative patients to onward inpatient care or home. Positive patients were referred to Ebola Treatment Centres. We aimed to estimate the risk of nosocomial transmission within these EHUs. METHODS: We followed up a cohort of 543 patients discharged with a negative EVD-test from five EHUs in the Western Area, Sierra Leone, and examined all line-listed subsequent EVD-tests from any facility in the Western Area to see if the patient was re-tested within 30 days, matching by name, age and address...
October 26, 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Xiaolei Song, Guanyang Zou, Wen Chen, Siqi Han, Xia Zou, Li Ling
OBJECTIVE: To describe the self-reported health status and service utilization of employed, retired and unemployed migrants in Guangzhou, a mega-city in southern China. METHODS: Cross-sectional study adapted from National Health Service Survey between September and December in 2014. Based on the distribution of occupation of migrants, multi-stage sampling was used to recruit individuals. Logistic regression was applied to explore the factors influencing their service utilization...
October 24, 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Henry Maia Peixoto, Marcelo Augusto Mota Brito, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra Romero, Wuelton Marcelo Monteiro, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães de Lacerda, Maria Regina Fernandes de Oliveira
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to estimate the incremental budget impact (IBI) of a rapid diagnostic test to detect G6PDd in male patients infected with Plasmodium vivax in the Brazilian Amazon, as compared with the routine protocol recommended in Brazil which does not include G6PDd testing. METHODS: The budget impact analysis was performed from the perspective of the Brazilian health system, in the Brazilian Amazon for the years 2013, 2014 and 2015. The analysis used a decision model to compare two scenarios: the first consisting of the routine recommended in Brazil which does not include prior diagnosis of dG6PD, and the second based on the use of RDT CareStart™ G6PD (CS-G6PD) in all male subjects diagnosed with vivax malaria...
October 22, 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
A L Wilkinson, S H Pedersen, M Urassa, D Michael, A Andreasen, J Todd, S M Kinung'hi, J Changalucha, J M McDermid
OBJECTIVES: HIV infection is associated with chronic systemic inflammation, with or without antiretroviral therapy. Consequences for fetal growth are not understood, particularly in settings where multiple maternal infections and malnutrition are common. The study was designed to examine maternal systemic circulating and umbilical cord blood cytokine concentrations in relation to birth anthropometry in a Tanzanian prospective cohort. METHODS: A 9-plex panel of maternal plasma cytokines in HIV-positive (n=44) and HIV-negative (n=70) mothers and the same cytokines in umbilical cord blood collected at delivery was assayed...
October 20, 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Mahamud-Ur Rashid, Zillur Rahman, Vanessa Burrowes, Jamie Perin, Munshi Mustafiz, Shirajum Monira, K M Saif-Ur-Rahman, Sazzadul Islam Bhuyian, Md Toslim Mahmud, R Bradley Sack, David Sack, Munirul Alam, Christine Marie George
OBJECTIVE: In urban Dhaka, Bangladesh, 30% of source water samples collected from the households of patients with cholera had detectable Vibrio cholerae. These findings indicate an urgent need for a public health intervention for this population. The Crystal VC(®) dipstick test is a rapid method for detecting V. cholerae in stool and water. However, to date no study has investigated the use of the rapid dipstick test for household surveillance of stored drinking water. METHODS: The efficacy of the Crystal VC(®) dipstick test for detecting V...
October 18, 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
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