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Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH

Gdayllon Cavalcante Meneses, Elizabeth De Francesco Daher, Geraldo Bezerra da Silva Junior, Gabriela Freire Bezerra, Thaiany Pereira da Rocha, Isabella Evelyn Prado de Azevedo, Alexandre Braga Libório, Alice Maria Costa Martins
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the usefulness of early acute kidney injury (AKI) biomarkers in clinical management of visceral leishmaniasis. METHODS: Prospective study with 50 hospitalized VL patients. AKI biomarkers, i.e., serum and urinary Neutrophil Gelatinase-associated Lipocalin (sNGAL, uNGAL, respectively), urinary Kidney Injury Molecule-1 (uKIM-1) and urinary monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (uMCP-1) were quantified by immunoassay (ELISA). Also, interferon-gamma (INF-y) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were evaluated as inflammatory biomarkers possibly related to VL severity...
July 10, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Lucy Cunnama, Elaine J Abrams, Landon Myer, Averie Gachuhi, Ndumiso Dlamini, Thabo Hlophe, Joshua Kikuvi, Nontokozo Langwenya, Simangele Mthethwa, Dennis Mudonhi, Bonisile Nhlabatsi, Harriet Nuwagaba-Biribonwoha, Velephi Okello, Ruben Sahabo, Allison Zerbe, Edina Sinanovic
OBJECTIVES: To assess the costs and cost-effectiveness of transitioning from antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation based on CD4 cell count and WHO clinical staging ("Option A") to universal ART ("Option B+") for all HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women in Swaziland. METHODS: We measured the total costs of prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) service delivery at public sector facilities with empirical cost data collected at three points in time: once under Option A and again twice after transition to the Option B+ approach...
June 29, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Johannes Mischlinger, Paul Pitzinger, Luzia Veletzky, Mirjam Groger, Rella Zoleko-Manego, Ayola A Adegnika, Selidji T Agnandji, Bertrand Lell, Peter G Kremsner, Ghyslain Mombo-Ngoma, Benjamin Mordmüller, Michael Ramharter
OBJECTIVES: The recommended microscopy method by WHO to quantify malaria parasitaemia yields inaccurate results when individual leukocyte (WBC) counts deviate from 8000 leukocytes/μL. A method avoiding WBC count assumptions is the Lambaréné method. Thus, this study compared validity and reliability of the Lambaréné method and the WHO method. METHODS: Three methods for counting parasitaemia were applied in parallel in a blinded assessment: the Lambaréné method (LAMBA), the WHO method using a standard factor of 8000 leukocytes/μL ("simple WHO method", [sWHO]) and the WHO method using measured WBC counts ("accurate WHO method", [aWHO])...
June 28, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Fatima Syeda Hira, Ali Asad, Zaidi Farrah, Rasheed Syed Basit, Fatima Mehreen, Khisroon Muhammad
OBJECTIVE: Two principal vector species, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, are known for transmission of dengue (DEN) and chikungunya (CHK) in Pakistan. We aimed to investigate their spatial and temporal distribution. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Maximum Entropy algorithm revealed current climatic suitability of A. albopictus by highlighting variables contributing to its spatial distribution: Land use cover was the most important environmental factor (63.1%) followed by elevation-normalized difference vegetation index (10...
June 28, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Aimé Tateng Ngouateu, Oscar David Kirstein, Omer Bébé Ngouateu, Andreas Krüger, Esther von Stebut, Marcus Maurer, Vincent Khan Payne, Alon Warburg, Blaise Dondji
OBJECTIVES: A sound knowledge of the vector-host-parasite transmission dynamics is a prerequisite for adequate control measures of vector-borne diseases. To achieve this, an entomological investigation was conducted in the cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) endemic focus of Mokolo District, northern Cameroon in order to identify the insect vector(s) of the disease. METHODS: Phlebotomine sand flies were collected in and around Mokolo using New Standard CDC Miniature Light Traps...
June 27, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Sheryl A Kluberg, Matthew P Fox, Michael LaValley, Deenan Pillay, Till Bärnighausen, Jacob Bor
OBJECTIVE: The 2015 WHO recommendation to initiate all HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) at diagnosis could potentially overextend health systems and crowd out sicker patients, mitigating the policy's impact. We evaluate whether South Africa's prior eligibility expansion from CD4 ≤200 to CD4 ≤350 cells/μL reduced ART uptake in the sickest patients. METHODS: Using data on all patients presenting to the Hlabisa HIV Treatment and Care Program in KwaZulu-Natal from April 2010 - June 2012 (n=13,809), we assessed the impact of the August 2011 eligibility expansion on the number of patients seeking care, number initiating ART, and time from HIV diagnosis to ART initiation among patients always eligible (CD4 0-200), newly eligible (CD4 201-350), and not yet eligible by CD4 count (>350)...
June 27, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Paulo R L Machado, Camila S Ribeiro, Jaqueline França-Costa, Mayra E F Dourado, Cristiana T Trinconi, Jenicer K U Yokoyama-Yasunaka, Hayna Malta-Santos, Valéria M Borges, Edgar M Carvalho, Silvia R B Uliana
OBJECTIVES: There is a clear need for new strategies of leishmaniasis treatment. This work was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the co-administration of tamoxifen and meglumine antimoniate (SbV ) in a phase II pilot clinical trial in localized cutaneous leishmaniasis patients. METHODS: A randomized controlled pilot clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of oral (40 mg/day for 20 days) or topical tamoxifen (0.1% tamoxifen citrate for 20 days) combined with meglumine antimoniate (20 mg SbV /kg/day for 20 days) versus a standard SbV protocol (20 mg/kg/day for 20 days) for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis...
June 20, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Filippo Lechthaler, Mahamat Fayiz Abakar, Esther Schelling, Jan Hattendorf, Boukari Ouedrago, Daugla Doumagoum Moto, Jakob Zinsstag
OBJECTIVE: To assess antenatal care (ANC) coverage and analyse constraining factors for service delivery to rural settled and mobile populations in two districts in Chad. METHOD: Data from cross-sectional household and health facility surveys in the two Chadian rural health districts were analysed. First, contact coverage of ANC services in the study area was estimated from household data as the proportion of women who visited health facilities to obtain ANC during their last pregnancy...
June 20, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Javier Gandasegui, Pedro Fernández-Soto, Elena Dacal, Esperanza Rodríguez, José María Saugar, Edward Yepes, María Luisa Aznar-Ruiz-de-Alegría, Mateu Espasa, Arlette Ninda, Cristina Bocanegra, Fernando Salvador, Elena Sulleiro, Milagros Moreno, Belén Vicente, Julio López-Abán, Antonio Muro
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of Rapid-Heat LAMPellet assay in field conditions for diagnosis of urogenital schistosomiasis in an endemic area in Cubal, Angola and to assess the reproducibility in a reference laboratory. METHODS: A total of 172 urine samples from school age children were tested for microhaematuria, microscopic detection of S. haematobium eggs and LAMP for DNA detection. Urine samples were stored in a basic equipped laboratory. Field-LAMP tests were performed with and without prior DNA extraction from urine samples and the results were read by turbidity and by color change...
June 19, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Tanya Diefenbach-Elstob, Patricia Graves, Robert Dowi, Bisato Gula, David Plummer, Emma McBryde, Daniel Pelowa, Peter Siber, William Pomat, Jeffrey Warner
OBJECTIVE: Papua New Guinea (PNG) has an emerging tuberculosis (TB) epidemic which has become a national public health priority. In Western Province, there are few data about TB outside Daru and the South Fly District. This study describes the epidemiology of TB diagnosed at Balimo District Hospital (BDH) in the Middle Fly District of Western Province, PNG. METHODS: All patients (n=1614) diagnosed with TB at BDH from April 2013 to February 2017 were recorded. Incidence of reported new cases was calculated for the combined Balimo Urban and Gogodala Rural local level government areas...
June 19, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
T A M Datema, K G Roper, S Cognat, M D Saad, L Oskam, V Dolmazon, M F M Engelberts, P Hessels, P R Klatser
OBJECTIVES: To introduce the Laboratory Quality Stepwise Implementation (LQSI) tool and provide data about its roll-out, usage and effectiveness in assisting laboratories with quality improvement. METHODS: The LQSI tool, a freely available stepwise guide, was developed by WHO to assist laboratories with efficiently implementing a quality management system. RESULTS: Since the tool's launch in 2014, it has been accessed by 130 986 unique users from 195 of 206 listed states...
June 15, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Awadalkareem Adam, Tom Schüttoff, Sven Reiche, Christian Jassoy
OBJECTIVES: To determine the seroprevalence of dengue in central and eastern Sudan and the breadth of neutralising antibody responses. METHODS: Blood was drawn from 483 patients with fever who visited outpatient clinics in Port Sudan, Red Sea state, in three towns in Kassala state and in El Obeid, North Kordofan, in December 2012 and January 2013. Sera were tested for dengue virus IgG and IgM by ELISA (Panbio) and sera without serologic evidence of acute infection (IgM negative) were used for the analysis of the seroprevalence...
June 15, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Michael O Mireku, Leslie L Davidson, Romeo Zoumenou, Achille Massougbodji, Michel Cot, Florence Bodeau-Livinec
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between prenatal geophagy, maternal prenatal haematological indices, malaria, helminth infections and cognitive and motor development among offspring. METHODS: At least a year after delivery, 552 of 863 HIV-negative mothers with singleton births who completed a clinical trial comparing the efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and mefloquine during pregnancy in Allada, Benin, responded to a nutrition questionnaire including their geophagous habits during pregnancy...
June 7, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Barbara Nolens, Thomas van den Akker, John Lule, Sulphine Twinomuhangi, Jos van Roosmalen, Josaphat Byamugisha
OBJECTIVE: To assess perceptions of women undergoing vacuum extraction or second-stage caesarean section (SSCS) in a tertiary referral hospital in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: Prospective cohort study, with six-month follow-up, of women who gave birth to a term singleton in cephalic presentation by vacuum extraction (n = 289) or SSCS (n = 357) between 25 November 2014, to 8 July 2015, in Mulago Hospital, Uganda. Excluded were women who had failed vacuum extraction, severe birth complications and those whose babies had died...
June 6, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Suhaili Zarizal, Chew Chieng Yeo, Ghazali Mohd Faizal, Ching Hoong Chew, Zainul Amiruddin Zakaria, Mazen M Jamil Al-Obaidi, Nordin Syafinaz Amin, Mohd Desa Mohd Nasir
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to profile the antimicrobial susceptibility and presence of resistance and virulence genes of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and MRSA nasal carriage, by means of genotypic analyses, in students of a tertiary institution in the state of Terengganu, east coast of Malaysia. METHODS: A total of 370 agricultural biotechnology students from Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin in Besut, Terengganu, were enrolled in this study...
June 6, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Matthew J Saunders, Tom Wingfield, Marco A Tovar, Niamh Herlihy, Claudio Rocha, Karine Zevallos, Rosario Montoya, Eric Ramos, Sumona Datta, Carlton A Evans
OBJECTIVES: Mobile phone interventions have been advocated for tuberculosis care, but little is known about access of target populations to mobile phones. We studied mobile phone access among patients with tuberculosis, focusing on vulnerable patients and patients who later had adverse treatment outcomes. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study in Callao, Peru, we recruited and interviewed 2584 patients with tuberculosis between 2007 and 2013 and followed them until 2016 for adverse treatment outcomes using national treatment registers...
June 4, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Geeta Pardeshi, Andrea Deluca, Sutapa Agarwal, Jugal Kishore
OBJECTIVE: Half of the TB patients in India seek care from private providers resulting in incomplete notification, varied quality of care and out-of-pocket expenditure. The objective of this study was to describe the characteristics of TB patients who remain outside the coverage of treatment in public health services. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from National Family Health Survey-4 (2015-16) were analysed using logistic regression analysis. TB treatment was the dependent variable...
May 31, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Debora Pedrazzoli, Andrew Siroka, Delia Boccia, Frank Bonsu, Kenneth Nartey, Rein Houben, Josephine Borghi
OBJECTIVES: Tuberculosis (TB) is known as a disease of the poor. Despite TB diagnosis and care usually being offered for free, TB patients can still face substantial costs, especially in the context of multi-drug resistance (MDR). The End TB Strategy calls for zero TB-affected families incurring 'catastrophic' costs due to TB by 2025. This paper examines, by MDR status, the level and composition of costs incurred by TB-affected households during care seeking and treatment; assesses the affordability of TB care using catastrophic and impoverishment measures; and describes coping strategies used by TB-affected households to pay for TB care...
May 31, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Helene L Grønborg, Sanne Jespersen, Johanne H Egedal, Faustino G Correia, Candida Medina, Henrik Krarup, Bo L Hønge, Christian Wejse
OBJECTIVES: To describe the prevalence of CMV in a cohort of HIV infected individuals in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa and to evaluate differences in patients' clinical characteristics associated with their CMV status. METHODS: Newly diagnosed HIV infected adults were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study, from May until December 2015. Enrolled patients were interviewed and underwent a full physical examination focusing on CMV disease manifestations...
May 31, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Rattiporn Kosuwin, Meng Feng, Takashi Makiuchi, Chaturong Putaporntip, Hiroshi Tachibana, Somchai Jongwutiwes
BACKGROUND: Thrombospondin-related anonymous protein (TRAP) is a prime candidate for a malaria vaccine. Antibodies to Plasmodium vivax TRAP (PvTRAP) occur upon natural infection while specific antigenic domains remain to be addressed. METHODS: The PvTRAP sequences were determined from 73 P. vivax isolates from Tak and Ubon Ratchathani provinces collected in 2013. The recombinant proteins representing four variants each for domain II (A domain) and domain IV (thrombospondin repeat region) of PvTRAP circulating in these areas were used as antigens in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay against 246 serum samples from P...
May 31, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
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