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Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100811/the-molecular-speciation-of-soil-transmitted-helminth-eggs-collected-from-school-children-across-six-endemic-countries
#1
Santosh George, Peter Geldhof, Marco Albonico, Shaali M Ame, Jeffrey M Bethony, Dirk Engels, Zeleke Mekonnen, Antonio Montresor, Sopheak Hem, Louis-Albert Tchuem-Tchuenté, Nguyen Thu Huong, Gagandeep Kang, Jozef Vercruysse, Bruno Levecke
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs; Ascaris, Trichuris and hookworms) is traditionally based on the demonstration of eggs in stool using microscopic techniques. While molecular techniques are more appropriate to speciate STH species they are seldom applied. In this study we speciated STH eggs from stool using molecular techniques to gain insights into the distribution of both human and animal STH species in the human host. METHODS: We speciated 207 STH egg isolates from stool collected during the baseline survey of six drug efficacy trials conducted in Brazil, Cambodia, Cameroon, Ethiopia, Tanzania and Vietnam applying a PCR - restriction fragment length polymorphisms based approach...
January 18, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039389/low-efficacy-of-albendazole-against-trichuris-trichiura-infection-in-schoolchildren-from-port-elizabeth-south-africa
#2
Ivan Müller, Lindsey Beyleveld, Markus Gerber, Uwe Pühse, Rosa du Randt, Jürg Utzinger, Leyli Zondie, Cheryl Walter, Peter Steinmann
BACKGROUND: Albendazole is one of two standard drugs for the control of soil-transmitted helminthiasis. METHODS: A total of 149 schoolchildren from Port Elizabeth, South Africa, were examined for soil-transmitted helminth infections using duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears before and 2 weeks after administration of albendazole (400 mg). RESULTS: Trichuris trichiura was the predominant soil-transmitted helminth species (prevalence 60.4%), followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (47...
December 29, 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039388/efficacy-and-safety-of-artesunate-mefloquine-therapy-for-treating-uncomplicated-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
REVIEW
Henry Maia Peixoto, Paola Barbosa Marchesini, Maria Regina Fernandes de Oliveira
INTRODUCTION: The present study is a systematic review of the literature on the efficacy and safety of the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum infections with artesunate-mefloquine (ASMQ) compared to other artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs), designed to assist decision makers in Brazil. METHODS: Twenty-four randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were selected in four electronic databases and in complementary sources. Meta-analyses were performed to evaluate the efficacy expressed by relative risks (RR) obtained from treatment failure confirmed by the PCR...
December 29, 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986861/quality-controls-for-antimicrobial-disk-diffusion-testing-on-leptospira-vanaporn-wuthiekanun-agar
#4
Vanaporn Wuthiekanun, Nicholas J White, Premjit Amornchai, Nicholas P J Day, Direk Limmathurotsakul
BACKGROUND: Disk diffusion susceptibility testing for Leptospira spp. on Leptospira Vanaporn Wuthiekanun (LVW) solid agar was reported recently. However, it was unclear whether the zone sizes obtained on LVW agar were comparable with those of other bacteria on Mueller-Hinton agar. METHODS: Here, we evaluate the disk diffusion assay on LVW agar using the standard quality control (QC) bacterial strains for 22 antimicrobials. RESULTS: All antimicrobials provided zone sizes within the standard range for each QC bacterial strain, except for fosfomycin...
December 15, 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941165/leishmania-recombinant-antigen-modulates-macrophage-effector-function-facilitating-early-clearance-of-intracellular-parasites
#5
Anuradha Ratna, Sunil K Arora
BACKGROUND: Immunmodulation combined with chemotherapy has emerged as an alternative to treat infections. The study evaluates immunomodulatory properties of a Leishmania recombinant protein (rA6) in activating macrophages and clearing intracellular parasites. METHODS: The rA6 from a previously identified cDNA clone was analyzed for inducing the production of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in macrophages, post and prior to infection with promastigotes by Griess method and flow cytometry...
December 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941164/single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-of-ifn%C3%AE-874-a-t-and-ifn%C3%AE-r1-56-c-t-in-iranian-patients-with-tb
#6
Elham Beiranvand, Saeid Abediankenari, Samira Valiyari, Mohammad Sadegh Rezaei, Mosayeb Rostamian, Behnoush Beiranvand, Ali Khaligh, Soghra Khani
BACKGROUND: Two important genes for controlling TB are IFNγ and IFNγR1. However, little information exists regarding genetic susceptibility of the Iranian TB population. METHODS: We investigated the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes of IFNγ (+874 A/T) and IFNγR1 (-56 C/T) and serum level of IFNγ and their influence on TB in patients; 300 patients with TB and 300 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism was used to identify SNPs and serum level of IFNγ was measured by ELISA...
December 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864518/housing-improvement-a-novel-paradigm-for-urban-vector-borne-disease-control
#7
EDITORIAL
Gonzalo M Vazquez-Prokopec, Audrey Lenhart, Pablo Manrique-Saide
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864517/an-extensive-burden-of-giardiasis-associated-with-intestinal-schistosomiasis-and-anaemia-in-school-children-on-the-shoreline-of-lake-albert-uganda
#8
Hajri Al-Shehri, Michelle C Stanton, James E LaCourse, Aaron Atuhaire, Moses Arinaitwe, Aida Wamboko, Moses Adriko, Narcis B Kabatereine, J Russell Stothard
BACKGROUND: Water-borne parasitic diseases associated with poverty still blight the lives of African school children. In Uganda, intestinal schistosomiasis is still common along the shoreline of Lake Albert, despite ongoing control, and co-infection with giardiasis and malaria is poorly described. To shed light on putative interactions between diseases, a prospective cross-sectional parasitological survey was undertaken in five primary schools. METHODS: Stool samples from 254 school children, aged 5-10 years, were examined by microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), with additional real-time PCR assays for detection of Giardia DNA...
December 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856948/impact-of-introducing-subsidized-combination-treatment-with-artemether-lumefantrine-on-sales-of-anti-malarial-monotherapies-a-survey-of-private-sector-pharmacies-in-huambo-angola
#9
Cristina Lussiana, Marco Floridia, Joana Martinho do Rosário, Filomeno Fortes, Richard Allan
BACKGROUND: Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) against malaria are subsidized in many African countries, but the impact of subsidy programs in reducing the sales of concomitantly available antimalarial monotherapies is poorly defined. METHODS: Data from The MENTOR initiative, that introduced subsidized artemether-lumefantrine (sAL) in the private sector of Huambo province, Angola, were used. The main response variable was represented by sales of sAL and of monotherapies, measured as number of treatment courses...
December 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856947/is-diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-dtp-associated-with-increased-female-mortality-a-meta-analysis-testing-the-hypotheses-of-sex-differential-non-specific-effects-of-dtp-vaccine
#10
Peter Aaby, Henrik Ravn, Ane B Fisker, Amabelia Rodrigues, Christine S Benn
BACKGROUND: Ten years ago, we formulated two hypotheses about whole-cell diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccination: first, when given after BCG, DTP increases mortality in girls and, second, following DTP there is an increase in the female/male mortality rate ratio (MRR). A recent review by WHO found no convincing evidence that DTP increases mortality in females. METHODS: We used previous DTP reviews as well as the recent WHO review for assessing the hypotheses...
December 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852877/community-seroprevalence-survey-for-yaws-and-trachoma-in-the-western-division-of-fiji
#11
Naomi Cocks, Merelesita Rainima-Qaniuci, Chelsea Yalen, Colin Macleod, Apisalome Nakolinivalu, Stephanie Migchelsen, Chrissy H Roberts, Robert Butcher, Mike Kama, David Mabey, Michael Marks
BACKGROUND: Both yaws and trachoma are endemic in several countries in the Pacific. In co-endemic countries there may be potential synergies between both control programmes. METHODS: We undertook a cluster randomised trachoma and yaws seroprevalence survey of children in the Western Division of Fiji. Children were examined for skin lesions consistent with active yaws. A dried blood spot was collected which was tested using the Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) test and an ELISA to detect antibodies against Pgp3...
December 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816936/surveillance-for-transmission-of-lymphatic-filariasis-in-colombo-and-gampaha-districts-of-sri-lanka-following-mass-drug-administration
#12
Nilmini T G A Chandrasena, Ranjan Premaratna, Dilhani S Samarasekera, Nilanthi R de Silva
BACKGROUND: Sri Lanka was recently declared by WHO to have eliminated lymphatic filariasis as a public health problem, after conclusion of annual mass drug administration. Our aim was to assess the lymphatic filariasis situation, following mass drug administration. METHODS: Surveillance was done in two districts of the Western Province in two consecutive phases (2009-2010 and 2013-2015), by examining 2461 thick night blood smears and performing 250 dipstick tests on children for antibodies to Brugia malayi...
December 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777282/diagnosis-delay-and-duration-of-hospitalisation-of-patients-with-buruli-ulcer-in-nigeria
#13
Anthony O Meka, Joseph N Chukwu, Charles C Nwafor, Daniel C Oshi, Nelson O Madichie, Ngozi Ekeke, Moses C Anyim, Chukwuka Alphonsus, Obinna Mbah, Glory C Uzoukwa, Martin Njoku, Kentigern Ntana, Kingsley N Ukwaja
BACKGROUND: Delayed diagnosis of Buruli ulcer can worsen clinical presentation of the disease, prolong duration of management, and impose avoidable additional costs on patients and health providers. We investigated the profile, delays in diagnosis, duration of hospitalisation, and associated factors among patients with Buruli ulcer in Nigeria. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study of patients with Buruli ulcer who were identified from a community-based survey...
October 23, 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744340/clinical-characteristics-of-laboratory-confirmed-leptospirosis-in-okinawa-japan-1974-2015-high-incidence-of-jarisch-herxheimer-reaction
#14
Sanefumi Tsuha, Tomohiro Taniguchi, Soichi Shiiki, Masashi Narita, Daniel T Leung
BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease known to have wide-ranging clinical manifestations. Despite a number of published case series, culture-confirmed series are few and there is a paucity of data on Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction (JHR) associated with treatment of leptospirosis. Our objective was to describe the clinical and epidemiological factors associated with leptospirosis in an endemic area of Japan, with a focus on the occurrence of JHR, an often unrecognized and likely underestimated phenomenon...
October 15, 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738283/sex-differential-effects-on-mortality-of-bcg-and-diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-vaccines-in-a-rural-area-with-high-vaccination-coverage-observational-study-from-senegal
#15
Peter Aaby, Jens Nielsen, Christine S Benn, Jean-François Trape
BACKGROUND: Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) may be associated with increased female mortality; the effect of co-administration with BCG is not known. METHODS: Between 1989 and 1997, we examined female and male mortality rates in rural Senegal where 7824 infants received the first dose of DTP and inactivated polio vaccine (DTP-IPV) with BCG. Subsequent doses of DTP-IPV were administered alone. We analysed mortality according to sex and number of doses of DTP-IPV vaccine...
October 13, 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794096/high-frequency-detection-of-toxoplasma-gondii-dna-in-human-neonatal-tissue-from-libya
#16
Sameena Z H Haq, Muftah S Abushahama, Omar Gerwash, Jacqueline M Hughes, Elizabeth A Wright, Mohamed S Elmahaishi, Zhao-Rong Lun, Denise Thomasson, Geoff Hide
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii is a parasite that causes significant disease in humans. Toxoplasmosis is normally asymptomatic, unless associated with congenital transmission, or in immunocompromised people. Congenital transmission generally occurs at low frequencies. In this study, we use PCR to investigate possible congenital transmission of T. gondii during pregnancy in a cohort of mothers from Libya. METHODS: Two hundred and seventy two pregnant women (producing 276 neonates) were recruited to obtain umbilical cord tissue from their neonates at birth; DNA was extracted from that tissue and tested for T...
September 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794095/evaluation-of-anti-cathepsin-l1-a-more-reliable-method-for-serodiagnosis-of-human-fasciolosis
#17
Kobra Mokhtarian, Lame Akhlaghi, Mohsen Mohammadi, Ahmad Reza Meamar, Elham Razmjou, Majid Khoshmirsafa, Reza Falak
BACKGROUND: Coprological examinations are commonly used for diagnosis of fasciolosis. However, these methods are not useful during the acute phase of the infection and also show poor sensitivity during its chronic phase. In this study we compared the immunoreactivity of the native and recombinant forms of Fasciola hepatica excretory/secretory antigens and determined the most appropriate one for development of F. hepatica-specific immunoassays. METHODS: The coding sequences of previously-determined immunogenic proteins including cathepsin L1 (CL1), fatty acid binding protein (FABP) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were cloned and expressed in E...
September 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794094/neurocysticercosis-in-bhutan-a-cross-sectional-study-in-people-with-epilepsy
#18
Kate Brizzi, Sonam Pelden, Tshokey Tshokey, Damber K Nirola, Megan B Diamond, Joshua P Klein, Lhab Tshering, Sonam Deki, Dechen Nidup, Veronica Bruno, Pierre Dorny, Hector Hugo Garcia, Farrah J Mateen
BACKGROUND: We sought to provide an assessment of the burden of neurocysticercosis among people with epilepsy (PWE) in Bhutan and evaluate the yield of various tests for Taenia solium. METHODS: PWE were enrolled at the National Referral Hospital in Thimphu (2014-2015). Serum was tested for anti-Taenia solium IgG using ELISA (Ab-ELISA), enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB), and parasite antigen. Results were compared to brain MRI. Participants were categorized as definite neurocysticercosis (MRI and EITB positive), probable neurocysticercosis (MRI or EITB positive), or without neurocysticercosis...
September 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794093/verbal-autopsy-assigned-causes-of-death-among-adults-being-investigated-for-tb-in-south-africa
#19
Noriah Maraba, Aaron S Karat, Kerrigan McCarthy, Gavin J Churchyard, Salome Charalambous, Kathleen Kahn, Alison D Grant, Violet Chihota
BACKGROUND: Adults being investigated for TB in South Africa experience high mortality, yet causes of death (CoD) are not well defined. We determined CoD in this population using verbal autopsy (VA), and compared HIV- and TB-associated CoD using physician-certified verbal autopsy (PCVA) and InterVA-4 software. METHODS: All contactable consenting caregivers of participants who died during a trial comparing Xpert MTB/RIF to smear microscopy were interviewed using the WHO VA tool...
September 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794092/biomedical-technologies-for-the-prevention-of-sexually-transmitted-infections-and-hiv-for-adolescent-girls-and-young-women
#20
EDITORIAL
Manjulaa Narasimhan, Sten H Vermund, Gina Ogilvie
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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