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Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438568/haemodynamic-assessment-and-support-in-sepsis-and-septic-shock-in-resource-limited-settings
#1
David Misango, Rajyabardhan Pattnaik, Tim Baker, Martin W Dünser, Arjen M Dondorp, Marcus J Schultz
Background: Recommendations for haemodynamic assessment and support in sepsis and septic shock in resource-limited settings are largely lacking. Methods: A task force of six international experts in critical care medicine, all of them members of the Global Intensive Care Working Group of the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine and with extensive bedside experience in resource-limited intensive care units, reviewed the literature and provided recommendations regarding haemodynamic assessment and support, keeping aspects of efficacy and effectiveness, availability and feasibility and affordability and safety in mind...
February 9, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438557/is-drug-induced-hepatitis-related-to-the-severity-of-tuberculous-meningitis
#2
Mritunjai Kumar, Jayantee Kalita, Abhilasha Tripathi, Usha K Misra
Background: Drug-induced hepatitis (DIH) occurs more commonly in tuberculous meningitis (TBM) than non-CNS tuberculosis. We evaluate DIH in TBM and its relationship with disease severity and surrogate markers of stress. Methods: Sixty-seven patients with TBM were included prospectively. The diagnosis of DIH was based on five times elevation of alanine amino transferase (ALT) in asymptomatic and three times in symptomatic patients, serum bilirubin 1.5 mg/dL or more occurring after 3 days of antitubercular drugs without any other cause of liver dysfunction; and improvement in liver function upon drug withdrawal...
February 9, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438541/molecular-characterization-of-giardia-lamblia-in-children-less-than-5-years-of-age-with-diarrhoea-attending-the-bengo-general-hospital-angola
#3
Carolina Gasparinho, Filipa S Ferreira, António Carlos Mayer, Maria Clara Mirante, Susana Vaz Nery, Ana Santos-Reis, Daniela Portugal-Calisto, Miguel Brito
Background: Giardia lamblia is a pathogenic intestinal protozoan with high prevalence in developing countries, especially among children. Molecular characterization has revealed the existence of eight assemblages, with A and B being more commonly described in human infections. Despite its importance, to our knowledge this is the first published molecular analysis of G. lamblia assemblages in Angola. Methods: The present study aimed to identify the assemblages of G...
February 9, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425379/barriers-to-prompt-tb-diagnosis-a-comparative-study-between-northern-malawi-and-eastern-rural-china
#4
Nathan B W Chimbatata, Changming Zhou, Chikondi M Chimbatata, Lucky Mhango, Vinod K Diwan, Biao Xu
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) case detection in China has improved remarkably, partly benefiting from the reducing delay to TB care, whereas the timeliness of TB care in Malawi remains problematic. Methods: This study investigates barriers hindering timely TB diagnosis in Malawi and China, and attempts to share the experience in high burden countries. A cross-sectional study on TB diagnostic delay was conducted among 254 Malawian and 146 Chinese TB patients. Results: The medians of patient's delays were 22 and 20 days (p>0...
February 7, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425343/prevalence-and-causes-of-musculoskeletal-impairment-in-mahabubnagar-district-telangana-state-india-results-of-a-population-based-survey
#5
Tracey Smythe, Islay Mactaggart, Hannah Kuper, G V S Murthy, Christopher Lavy, Sarah Polack
Background: Musculoskeletal impairments (MSI) are the leading contributor to global years lived with disability. Comparable epidemiological data on MSI is lacking, and are needed to inform health and rehabilitative services. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and causes of MSI in Telangana State, India. Method: A population-based survey used probability proportionate to size and compact-segment sampling to select 51 clusters of 80 individuals (all ages)...
February 7, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425338/village-health-volunteers-individual-social-capital-and-caretakers-health-service-utilization-for-febrile-children-in-malaria-endemic-villages-in-papua-new-guinea
#6
Yosuke Inoue, Daichi Takahashi, Naoki Kondo, Akiko Yoshii, Makoto Sekihara, Francis W Hombhanje, Takahiro Tsukahara
Background: Little is known about the association between the social capital of village health volunteers (VHVs) and their performance in relation to malarial care. Methods: Data came from 337 children and 13 VHVs working in Dagua, Papua New Guinea. The outcome variable was whether caretakers brought their children to health care services on the incidence of a febrile episode. The social capital of VHVs was assessed by inquiring about relationships with people in 25 social positions/roles...
February 7, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394415/zika-virus-transmission-in-angola-and-the-potential-for-further-spread-to-other-african-settings
#7
Moritz U G Kraemer, Oliver J Brady, Alexander Watts, Matthew German, Simon I Hay, Kamran Khan, Isaac I Bogoch
Background: Cases of Zika virus were recently detected in Luanda, Angola, a major travel hub in Africa. The risk of Zika virus transmission throughout the continent from Angola is evaluated. Methods: Travel volumes were assessed using monthly passenger-level flight data from Luanda to all locations throughout Africa. Travel data was superimposed onto seasonal environmental suitability maps that predict the potential for subsequent Zika virus transmission. Results and Conclusions: Windhoek, Maputo, Durban and Kinshasa have the greatest potential for Zika virus introduction and transmission during the southern hemisphere summer months, and Nairobi during the northern hemisphere summer months...
January 31, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394411/changing-epidemiology-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-northeastern-brazil-a-25-year-follow-up-of-an-urban-outbreak
#8
Ádila L M Lima, Iraci D de Lima, José F V Coutinho, Úrsula P S T de Sousa, Marcos A G Rodrigues, Mary E Wilson, Richard D Pearson, José W Queiroz, Selma M B Jerônimo
Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) continues to be a deadly parasitic disease in Brazil but the epidemiology has changed. The objective of this study was to assess the evolution of urban VL in the city of Natal, Brazil, over the past 25 y. Methods: A retrospective study of human VL was performed, considering reported cases over the past 25 y in Natal. Analyses considered the spatial distribution of VL cases, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) co-infection, Leishmania infantum infection in dogs, density of the insect vector (Lutzomyia longipalpis) and socio-economic factors...
January 31, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385613/prophylactic-and-therapeutic-interventions-for-bleeding-in-dengue-a-systematic-review
#9
Senaka Rajapakse, Nipun Lakshitha de Silva, Praveen Weeratunga, Chaturaka Rodrigo, Sumadhya Deepika Fernando
The global incidence of dengue has increased sevenfold between 1990 and 2013. Despite a low case fatality rate (<1%), during epidemics, due to the large number of people affected, overall mortality rates can be significant. The risk of clinically significant bleeding in dengue is unpredictable and often contributes to an adverse outcome. This systematic review focuses on the evidence for prophylactic and therapeutic interventions for bleeding in dengue infection. PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Embase and Google Scholar were searched for randomized, quasi-randomized and non-randomized, prospective or retrospective studies that had a control group alongside an intervention aimed at stopping or preventing bleeding in dengue infection...
January 29, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378031/stage-of-disease-in-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-zambian-adults-is-associated-with-large-cell-change-but-not-well-defined-using-classic-biomarkers
#10
Bright Nsokolo, Anne Kanunga, Edford Sinkala, Kanekwa Zyambo, Dia Kumwenda, David Chama, Gabriel Muyinda, Michael Vinikoor, Samreen Ijaz, Richard Tedder, Ali Khalifa A Elmdaah, Meleri Jones, Clarence Chiluba, Victor Mudenda, Robert D Goldin, Graham Foster, Paul Kelly
Background: Hepatocellular malignancy in young adults is a prominent feature of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in southern Africa. Here we report a cross-sectional study of liver pathology correlated with biomarkers in adults with HBV infection in Zambia. Methods: We analysed liver biopsies from Zambian patients with persistent HBV infection. Results: We analysed 104 patients with HBV infection and evidence of liver disease. We obtained liver biopsies from 53 adults; of these, 12 (23%) were hepatitis B e antigen seropositive...
January 25, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373742/single-and-joint-antibacterial-activity-of-aqueous-garlic-extract-and-manuka-honey-on-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-escherichia-coli
#11
Ainau R Idris, Seniyat L Afegbua
Background: Multidrug resistance and recent technological advances have renewed interest in natural product drug discovery from ancient remedies such as Allium sativum (garlic) and honey. This study assessed antibacterial activity of aqueous garlic extract (AGE) and Manuka honey on extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli. Methods: Thirty clinical isolates of E. coli were collected and screened for ESBL production by double-disc synergy test...
January 24, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373741/high-rates-of-cerebral-toxoplasmosis-in-hiv-patients-presenting-with-meningitis-in-accra-ghana
#12
Japheth A Opintan, Benedict K Awadzi, Isaac J K Biney, Vincent Ganu, Richard Doe, Ernest Kenu, Rita F Adu, Mary M Osei, Amos Akumwena, Michael E Grigg, Gary A Fahle, Mercy J Newman, Peter R Williamson, Margaret Lartey
Background: Data on adult meningitis among patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is scarce in western sub-Saharan Africa, including Ghana. Methods: HIV-infected adults with a provisional diagnosis of meningitis were consecutively enrolled, between August 2014 and January 2016. After patient data collection, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was obtained and evaluated for microbiological aetiologies, cell counts and biochemistry. Caregiver clinicians provided limited data for inpatients at the end-point of discharge or death...
January 24, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361150/national-scale-up-of-tuberculosis-human-immunodeficiency-virus-collaborative-activities-in-myanmar-from-2005-to-2016-and-tuberculosis-treatment-outcomes-for-patients-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-positive-tuberculosis-in-the-mandalay-region-in-2015
#13
Phyo Theingi, Anthony D Harries, Khin Thet Wai, Hemant D Shewade, Saw Saw, Than Win, Saw Thein, Myo Su Kyi, Htun Nyunt Oo, Si Thu Aung
Background: HIV-associated TB is a serious public health problem in Myanmar. Study objectives were to describe national scale-up of collaborative activities to reduce the double burden of TB and HIV from 2005 to 2016 and to describe TB treatment outcomes of individuals registered with HIV-associated TB in 2015 in the Mandalay Region. Methods: Secondary analysis of national aggregate data and, for treatment outcomes, a cohort study of patients with HIV-associated TB in the Mandalay Region...
January 19, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351672/high-treatment-success-rate-among-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-patients-in-myanmar-2012-2014-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#14
Myat K Thu, Ajay M V Kumar, Kyaw T Soe, Saw Saw, Saw Thein, Zaw Mynit, Htet M W Maung, Si T Aung
Background: Since 2011, Myanmar has adopted domiciliary care for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients and implemented several patient-support measures such as community-based directly observed treatment, nutritional support and financial incentives for patients and providers. We assessed treatment outcomes among MDR-TB patients registered for treatment in the Yangon and Mandalay Regions of Myanmar during 2012-2014 and factors associated with unfavourable treatment outcomes...
January 17, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351663/mini-review-can-non-human-leucocyte-antigen-genes-determine-susceptibility-to-severe-dengue-syndromes
#15
Dorothy Ng, Aparna Ghosh, Mark Jit, Suranjith L Seneviratne
Dengue viral infections are endemic or epidemic in virtually all tropical countries. Among individuals infected with the dengue virus, severe dengue syndromes (i.e., dengue haemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndromes) tend to affect only some and this may be due to a combination of host genetic susceptibility and viral factors. In this review article we analyse and discuss the present knowledge of non-human leucocyte antigen host genetic susceptibility to severe dengue syndromes. The relevance of genetic polymorphisms in the pathways of antigen recognition, uptake, processing and presentation, activation of interferon α responses, mast cell and complement activation and T cell activation and dengue disease severity has been reviewed and analysed...
January 17, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351649/sex-dependent-interactions-between-leptin-wasting-and-humoral-immunity-in-two-ethnic-communities-of-school-aged-children-differentially-exposed-to-schistosoma-haematobium
#16
Emmanuel Hermann, Lobna Gaayeb, Papa S Sow, Modou Seck, Andre B Sagna, Simon Senghor, Lydie Bandagny, Clement Brinkhuizen, Delphine Delcroix-Genete, Anne-Marie Schacht, Gilles Riveau
Background: Leptin is a nutritional hormone whose production is generally higher in females. We investigated how leptin is associated with sex dimorphism during urinary schistosomiasis in relation with wasting. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in three villages in northern Senegal. Ninety-eight school-aged children belonging to the Fulani or Wolof villages were enrolled. We performed parasitic diagnosis and anthropometric measurement to evaluate nutritional status...
January 17, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346640/preventive-chemotherapy-to-control-soil-transmitted-helminthiasis-averted-more-than-500-000-dalys-in-2015
#17
A Montresor, W Trouleau, D Mupfasoni, M Bangert, S A Joseph, A Mikhailov, C Fitzpatrick
Background: Preventive chemotherapy (PC), the large-scale administration of anthelminthics, is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for the control of soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH). Since 2010, donated anthelminthics for STH have boosted the implementation of PC programmes in children, achieving global coverage of more than 60% in 2015. The WHO Global Health Estimates attribute an annual loss of over 3.3 million disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) to STH. The aim of this study is to estimate the impact of PC programmes on child morbidity...
January 16, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342283/non-typhoidal-salmonella-serovars-associated-with-invasive-and-non-invasive-disease-in-the-lao-people-s-democratic-republic
#18
Tu Le Thi Phuong, Sayaphet Rattanavong, Manivanh Vongsouvath, Viengmon Davong, Nguyen Phu Huong Lan, James I Campbell, Thomas C Darton, Guy E Thwaites, Paul N Newton, David A B Dance, Stephen Baker
Background: Invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease is a well-described cause of mortality in children and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults in sub-Saharan Africa. Additionally, there is an ill-defined burden of iNTS disease in Southeast Asia. Methods: Aiming to investigate the causative serovars of non-invasive and iNTS disease and their associated antimicrobial susceptibility profiles in the Lao People's Democratic Republic, we performed multilocus sequence typing and antimicrobial susceptibility profiling on 168 NTS (63 blood and 105 faecal) organisms isolated in Lao between 2000 and 2012...
January 12, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294131/evaluation-of-the-protective-ability-of-plasma-from-japanese-individuals-against-mosquito-borne-viral-infections
#19
Naoya Shinohara, Takashi Owada, Chieko Matsumoto, Shigeharu Uchida, Tadashi Nagai, Masahiro Satake, Kenji Tadokoro
Background: Most of the Japanese population is seropositive for anti-Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) antibodies because of previous JEV vaccination or natural infection. Because the virological characteristics of JEV are similar to those of West Nile virus (WNV) and dengue virus (DENV), we hypothesized that anti-JEV antibodies can cross-react with WNV and DENV antigens, leading to protection against infection by these viruses. Methods: Using isolated intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) from plasma collected in Japan, neutralizing activities against WNV and DENV and antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of these viral infections were evaluated using an in vitro assay to determine the potency of immunity against these viruses...
December 26, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29253262/still-neglected-unprecedented-progress-and-future-challenges-discussed-at-the-neglected-tropical-disease-summit
#20
Adrian Hopkins
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 15, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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