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Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29635429/spatiotemporal-dynamics-of-human-leptospirosis-and-its-relationship-with-rainfall-anomalies-in-colombia
#1
J D Gutiérrez, R A Martínez-Vega
Background: In Colombia, human leptospirosis (HL) is a disease that has had a mandatory notification rule since 2007. Humans usually acquire the infection through water contaminated with animal urine that comes into direct contact with cutaneous lesions, eyes or mucous membranes. Objectives: To analyze the spatiotemporal variability in the occurrence of HL cases in Colombia between 2007 and 2016, and its relation with the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle and the consequent anomalies in rainfall in spatiotemporal clusters...
April 9, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660103/submicroscopic-plasmodium-falciparum-parasitaemia-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-adults-living-in-gabon-central-africa-a-pilot-study
#2
J V Koumba Lengongo, N P M'Bondoukwé, J M Ndong Ngomo, S François, A Ndjoyi-Mbiguino, O A Mbang Nguema, M K Bouyou Akotet, D P Mawili-Mboumba
Background: Submicroscopic malaria infections contribute to malaria transmission. Describing the extent of the parasite reservoir is of importance. In people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the frequency of subpatent malaria infections is rarely reported. The aim of the present study was to determine the frequency of submicroscopic infections in people living with HIV in Gabon and its relationship with cotrimoxazole (CTX) use. Methods: A survey was conducted in two health care centres in rural areas (Koulamoutou and Oyem) and three in urban areas (Libreville) of Gabon from March 2015 to June 2016...
April 5, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617892/medical-knowledge-related-to-rocky-mountain-spotted-fever-in-sonora-mexico
#3
Gerardo Alvarez-Hernandez, Kacey Ernst, Natalia Haydee Acuña-Melendrez, Anabel Patricia Vargas-Ortega, Maria Del Carmen Candia-Plata
Background: Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a tick-borne disease with a high case-fatality rate unless diagnosed promptly and treated timely with doxycycline. Physician knowledge about presentation and treatment can improve outcomes of RMSF in endemic regions, such as Sonora in northern Mexico, where RMSF has caused 1348 non-fatal cases and 247 deaths from 2003 to 2016. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 343 physicians working in medical facilities in Sonora, Mexico...
March 29, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617885/can-findings-on-peripheral-blood-smear-differentiate-leptospirosis-from-other-infections-a-preliminary-comparative-study
#4
Nipun Lakshitha de Silva, Sriharan Sivayoganathan, Ahalya Sivashangar, Wasanthi Wickramasinghe, Lallindra Gooneratne, Senaka Rajapakse
Background: Blood smear changes have never been investigated as a potential tool to aid in the diagnosis of leptospirosis. Methods: Blood smears prepared from patients with leptospirosis, dengue and sepsis within the first 5 days of illness were reported by haematologists blinded to the diagnosis. Results: A total of 20, 28 and 22 patients with leptospirosis, dengue and sepsis, respectively, were analysed. Neutrophil leucocytosis, toxic changes in neutrophils, left shift, reactive lymphocytes, target cells and thrombocytopaenia were seen in 60%, 70%, 40%, 70%, 50% and 65% of the leptospirosis patients, respectively...
March 29, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608771/aberrant-and-accidental-trichomonad-flagellate-infections-rare-or-underdiagnosed
#5
Chaoqun Yao, Jennifer K Ketzis
The clinical significance and frequency of human infections with trichomonad flagellates in aberrant locations (locations other than the predilection sites) and accidental infections (infections with non-human trichomonads) are unclear. The total number of case reports in the literature is low, with the identification of the infection largely the outcome of investigations for the cause of clinical signs. At least seven species have been identified in either aberrant or accidental infections, with these infections occurring worldwide...
March 28, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584906/capillary-leak-syndrome-in-daboia-russelii-bite-a-complication-associated-with-poor-outcome
#6
Pradip P Kendre, Manoj P Jose, Abraham M Varghese, Jaideep C Menon, Joseph K Joseph
Background: Capillary leak syndrome (CLS) has been previously observed as a complication of Daboia russelii bite but not clearly defined or studied in length. This observational case-control study evaluates the mortality along with associated clinical and laboratory features. Methods: Twenty-five patients who developed CLS were compared with 25 patients without CLS following Daboia russelii (Russell's viper) bite. Results: Development of CLS is associated with a significantly high risk of mortality; 11 (44%) patients with CLS died compared with 1 (4%) control (odds ratio 18...
March 23, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579313/sickle-cell-disease-in-southwestern-nigeria-assessment-of-knowledge-of-primary-health-care-workers-and-available-facilities
#7
Samuel A Adegoke, Morenike A Akinlosotu, Olaronke B Adediji, Oyeku A Oyelami, Oluwagbemiga O Adeodu, Adekunle D Adekile
Background: Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) benefit optimally from comprehensive care. In Nigeria, despite the huge burden, involvement of community health workers (CHWs) in the management of SCD is poor. Methods: This community-based study assessed SCD-related knowledge of 182 CHWs from the 46 primary health care (PHC) centres in Ilesa, southwestern Nigeria. Available facilities and management practices for SCD care at these centres were also evaluated using pretested self-administered questionnaires and observational checklists...
March 22, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579308/the-effect-of-albendazole-treatment-on-non-seizure-outcomes-in-patients-with-symptomatic-neurocysticercosis
#8
Kriti Thapa, Matthew L Romo, Arturo Carpio, Denise Leslie, Howard Andrews, W Allen Hauser, Elizabeth A Kelvin
Background: There is little information about the impact of anthelminthic treatment on clinical symptoms other than seizures in neurocysticercosis (NC). We investigated the effect of albendazole on non-seizure symptoms experienced by patients with NC. Methods: Data are from a randomized controlled trial comparing albendazole plus prednisone with placebo plus prednisone for treatment of NC among 173 patients with active or transitional NC cysts and new-onset symptoms...
March 22, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579302/community-acquired-pneumonia-and-gram-negative-bacilli-in-cambodia-incidence-risk-factors-and-clinical-characteristics
#9
Malin Inghammar, Laurence Borand, Sophie Goyet, Blandine Rammaert, Vantha Te, Patrich Lorn Try, Bertrand Guillard, Philippe Buchy, Sirenda Vong, Eap Tek Chheng, Philippe Cavailler, Charles Mayaud, Arnaud Tarantola
Background: In Western settings, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) due to Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) is relatively rare. Previous studies from Asia, however, indicate a higher prevalence of GNB in CAP, but data, particularly from Southeast Asia, are limited. Methods: This is a prospective observational study of 1451 patients ≥15 y of age with CAP from two hospitals in Cambodia between 2007 and 2010. The proportion of GNB was estimated. Risk factors and clinical characteristics of CAP due to GNB were assessed using logistic regression models...
March 22, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566249/molecular-characterization-of-leishmania-infantum-isolates-in-municipalities-of-the-state-of-minas-gerais-brazil
#10
Ramon Vieira Nunes, Patrícia Flávia Quaresma, Jeronimo Marteleto Nunes Rugani, Rafael Gonçalves Teixeira-Neto, Leonardo Saboia Vahia, Eduardo Sérgio da Silva
Background: Little is known about the genetic diversity of Leishmania infantum isolates in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Methods: Molecular characterization of hsp70, mpi and ITS1 was carried out for 29 isolates of L. infantum from the bone marrow of naturally infected dogs from the cities of Divinópolis, Pará de Minas and Brumadinho, located in the central-west, central and central regions of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, respectively. Results: Analysis of the parasite nucleotide sequences demonstrated very high homogeneity of the studied samples...
March 16, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566236/is-disability-in-leprosy-still-a-burden-a-cross-sectional-study-in-a-rural-block-in-tamil-nadu-india
#11
Dinesh Kumar Ganesan, Logaraj Muthunarayanan
Background: Leprosy, a disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, is an important cause of preventable disability. Methods: The present cross-sectional study was undertaken among leprosy-affected persons in a rural block in Kanchipuram District, Tamil Nadu, India in the year 2013. The sample included treatment completed leprosy affected persons ≥18 y of age. Persons with difficulty in cognition and those who were not willing to participate in the study were excluded...
March 16, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554365/backyard-pigs-are-a-reservoir-of-zoonotic-hepatitis-e-virus-in-southern-brazil
#12
M S da Silva, S Silveira, V S Caron, A C S Mósena, M N Weber, S P Cibulski, A A R Medeiros, G S Silva, L G Corbellini, R Klein, L C Kreutz, R Frandoloso, C W Canal
Background: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the causative agent of acute hepatitis worldwide. There is no seroprevalence study in backyard farms, which are characterized by suboptimal hygienic conditions in Brazil. We aimed to determine the seroprevalence and genetic diversity of HEV in backyard pigs in Brazil. Methods: Swine serum samples collected in 2012 (n=731) and 2014 (n=713) were analysed. The presence of anti-HEV immunoglobulin G in pig serum was evaluated by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
March 15, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554347/investigation-of-pregnancy-associated-malaria-by-microscopy-rapid-diagnostic-test-and-pcr-in-bandundu-the-democratic-republic-of-congo
#13
Emrah Ruh, Jean Paul Bateko, Turgut Imir, Aysegul Taylan-Ozkan
Background: The study was conducted to investigate malaria prevalence among a group of women in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) who received intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP). Methods: A total of 250 women from Bandundu city who received two doses of IPTp-SP were enrolled in the survey. Blood samples were collected at the time of delivery and malaria prevalence was determined using microscopy, rapid diagnostic test (RDT), and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
March 15, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584919/genetic-diversity-of-orientia-tsutsugamushi-strains-circulating-in-northeast-india
#14
Trishna Bora, Siraj Ahmed Khan, Lobsang Jampa, Basanta Laskar
Background: Scrub typhus, caused by the intracellular bacteria Orientia tsutsugamushi is widely distributed in Southeast Asian countries with antigenically divergent strains reported across the Asia-Pacific belt. The present study was conducted to characterize the circulating strains of Orientia tsutsugamushi prevailing in two Northeastern states of India-the gateway to most Southeast Asian countries. Methods: A total of 278 (98 clinical and 180 field collected) scrub typhus positive blood samples collected from December 2014 to December 2016 were subjected for amplification of partial 56 KDa, 47 KDa and 16SrRNA genes of Orientia...
March 12, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538772/a-prospective-study-of-hospital-acquired-infections-among-adults-in-a-tertiary-hospital-in-north-western-nigeria
#15
Farouq Muhammad Dayyab, Garba Iliyasu, Aliyu Aminu, Zaiyad Garba Habib, Abdulwasiu Bolaji Tiamiyu, Sirajo Haliru Tambuwal, Muhammad Musa Borodo, Abdulrazaq Garba Habib
Background: Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality. This study examined the epidemiology, clinical outcomes and microbiological profile of HAIs. Methods: This prospective study was carried out on patients identified to have developed HAIs while admitted to the medical wards, surgical wards, dialysis unit and intensive care unit (ICU) of the hospital. Patients were recruited consecutively until the target study population was reached...
March 12, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522211/innovative-methodology-for-point-of-care-circulating-cathodic-antigen-with-rapid-urine-concentration-for-use-in-the-field-for-detecting-low-schistosoma-mansoni-infection-and-for-control-of-cure-with-high-accuracy
#16
Rafaella F Q Grenfell, Diana Taboada, Lucélia A Coutinho, Maria Luysa C Pedrosa, Jéssica V Assis, Matheus S P Oliveira, Renata R Cruz, Aureo Almeida, Vanessa Silva-Moraes, Naftale Katz, Paulo Marcos Z Coelho
Background: Prior to eliminating schistosomiasis, efforts must address accurate and fast individual diagnosis. Diagnosis is still inaccurate by parasitological and point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA) in areas of low endemicity. Methods: Our group has optimized POC-CCA with a 30 min urine concentration step with no need for specialized technicians or equipment and with high accuracy. We evaluated this new method, called POC-CCA filter (FLT), in two Brazilian endemic areas with distinct profiles...
March 7, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518239/genotyping-of-giardia-duodenalis-in-vegetables-cultivated-with-organic-and-chemical-fertilizer-from-street-markets-and-community-vegetable-gardens-in-a-region-of-southern-brazil
#17
Katyelle Rafael, Ariella A Marchioro, Cristiane M Colli, Bruna T Tiyo, Fernanda F Evangelista, Renata C Bezagio, Ana L Falavigna-Guilherme
Background: In order to investigate the occurrence of Giardia duodenalis and its genotypes in vegetables that are consumed raw, we analyzed samples cultivated with organic or chemical fertilizer, sold in street markets and from community vegetable gardens in an urban area located in Southern Brazil. Methods: We analyzed 130 samples of vegetables such as crisp lettuce, regular lettuce, kale, chicory and rocket, from street markets, and 130 from community gardens...
March 6, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518223/building-prognostic-models-for-adverse-outcomes-in-a-prospective-cohort-of-hospitalised-patients-with-acute-leptospirosis-infection-in-the-philippines
#18
Nathaniel Lee, Emi Kitashoji, Nobuo Koizumi, Talitha Lea V Lacuesta, Maricel R Ribo, Efren M Dimaano, Nobuo Saito, Motoi Suzuki, Koya Ariyoshi, Christopher M Parry
Leptospirosis is endemic to the Philippines. Ten per cent of cases will develop severe or fatal disease. Predicting progression to severity is difficult. Risk factors have been suggested, but few attempts have been made to create predictive models to guide clinical decisions. We present two models to predict the risk of mortality and progression to severe disease. Data was used from a prospective cohort study conducted between 2011 and 2013 in San Lazaro Hospital, Manila. Predictive factors were identified from a literature review...
March 6, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509953/primary-healthcare-providers-practices-related-to-non-malarial-acute-febrile-illness-in-burkina-faso
#19
C Bottger, L Bernard, V Briand, C Bougouma, J Triendebeogo, V Ridde
Background: In Africa, fever is the main reason for consultation, with malaria playing a prominent role. Studies have reported that the widespread use of rapid diagnostic tests for malaria, implemented since 2010, has revealed an increasing proportion of non-malaria acute febrile illnesses (NMAFI). It is an important public health issue because evidence shows that mortality is higher among patients presenting with non-malarial fever than among those with malaria. Methods: This cross-sectional study assessed the professional practices of healthcare providers in the management of NMAFI in urban and rural sites in Burkina Faso...
March 2, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509952/diagnostic-performance-of-mini-parasep%C3%A2-solvent-free-faecal-parasite-concentrator-relative-to-kato-katz-and-mcmaster-for-the-diagnosis-of-intestinal-parasitic-infections
#20
Shimeles Adugna, Tadesse Kebede, Zeleke Mekonnen, Abraham Degarege, Song Liang, Berhanu Erko
Background: In this cross-sectional study, we compared the performance of Mini Parasep® solvent-free (SF) faecal parasite concentrator, Kato-Katz thick smear and McMaster techniques for the diagnosis of intestinal parasitic infections among children in Wosha Soyama Primary School, Ethiopia. Methods: Stool samples were collected from 381 children and examined for intestinal parasitic infections using Mini Parasep® SF faecal parasite concentrator, Kato-Katz thick smear and McMaster techniques...
March 2, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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