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Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517697/the-double-burden-of-diabetes-and-global-infection-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#1
Susanna Dunachie, Parinya Chamnan
Four out of five people in the world with diabetes now live in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), and the incidence of diabetes is accelerating in poorer communities. Diabetes increases susceptibility to infection and worsens outcomes for some of the world's major infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, melioidosis and dengue, but the relationship between diabetes and many neglected tropical diseases is yet to be accurately characterised. There is some evidence that chronic viral infections such as hepatitis B and HIV may predispose to the development of type 2 diabetes by chronic inflammatory and immunometabolic mechanisms...
December 4, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30496556/risk-factors-for-plasmodium-falciparum-infection-in-the-kenyan-highlands-a-cohort-study
#2
Jackie Cook, Chrispin Owaga, Elizabeth Marube, Amrish Baidjoe, Gillian Stresman, Robin Migiro, Jon Cox, Chris Drakeley, Jennifer C Stevenson
Background: Malaria transmission in African highland areas can be prone to epidemics, with minor fluctuations in temperature or altitude resulting in highly heterogeneous transmission. In the Kenyan Highlands, where malaria prevalence has been increasing, characterising malaria incidence and identifying risk factors for infection is complicated by asymptomatic infection. Methods: This all-age cohort study, one element of the Malaria Transmission Consortium, involved monthly follow-up of 3155 residents of the Kisii and Rachuonyo South districts during June 2009-June 2010...
November 29, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30476298/snakebite-envenomation-in-the-brazilian-amazon-a-descriptive-study
#3
Samara Freire Valente Magalhães, Henry Maia Peixoto, Noely Moura, Wuelton Marcelo Monteiro, Maria Regina Fernandes de Oliveira
Snakebite envenomation in the Brazilian Amazon is a recognized public health problem that does not receive the appropriate attention from key stakeholders. The morbidity rate is relevant, but still underestimated. Thus, the present study updates the current state of knowledge on snakebite envenomation in the Brazilian Amazon. It follows a descriptive method and contributes new knowledge about the dynamics of snakebites and the associated morbidity and mortality reported in the Brazilian Amazon. The study is based on information from cases registered and retrieved from the Brazilian Information System for Notifiable Diseases (Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação-SINAN)...
November 24, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30476287/geophagy-in-india-a-qualitative-exploratory-study-on-motivation-and-perception-of-female-consumers
#4
Marianna T Traugott, Mitasha Singh, Des K Raj, Ruth Kutalek
: Geophagy, the consumption of soil, is well documented in Africa and other continents, but is rarely investigated in Asia and even less so in India. The main aim of this exploratory qualitative study was therefore to understand the motivation for clay consumption, the social perception of the habit, the mode and quantity of consumption, as well as subjectively perceived effects of clay consumption in Himachal Pradesh, North India. : We conducted semi-structured interviews with 27 female geophagists aged 18-80 years...
November 24, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30452731/trypanosoma-cruzi-diversity-in-naturally-infected-nonhuman-primates-in-louisiana-assessed-by-deep-sequencing-of-the-mini-exon-gene
#5
Claudia Herrera, Alicia Majeau, Peter Didier, Kathrine P Falkenstein, Eric Dumonteil
Background: Trypanosoma cruzi is a zoonotic pathogen of increasing relevance in the USA, with a growing number of autochthonous cases identified in recent years. The identification of parasite genotypes is key to understanding transmission cycles and their dynamics and consequently human infection. Natural T. cruzi infection is present in captive nonhuman primate colonies in the southern USA. Methods: We investigated T. cruzi genetic diversity through a metabarcoding and next-generation sequencing approach of the mini-exon gene to characterize the parasite genotypes circulating in nonhuman primates in southern Louisiana...
November 17, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30452730/hepatitis-b-assessment-without-hepatitis-b-virus-dna-quantification-a-prospective-cohort-study-in-uganda
#6
Nicolas Laing, Henry Tufton, Emmanuel Ochola, Ojok Godfrey P'Kingston, Mala K Maini, Nicholas Easom
Background: Chronic hepatitis B infection affects 240 million people, with the highest prevalence in Africa and Asia, and results in 700 000 deaths annually. Access to diagnostics, particularly for hepatitis B virus viral load quantification (HBV DNA), is a major barrier to treatment. We aimed to test World Health Organization guidelines for hepatitis B management in resource-limited settings. Methods: We compared treatment allocation with and without the use of HBV DNA in a cohort in Uganda...
November 17, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30418628/tegumentary-leishmaniasis-and-sandflies-in-a-border-area-between-argentina-and-bolivia
#7
Griselda N Copa, María C Almazán, Lorena V Aramayo, Alejandro J Krolewiecki, Silvana P Cajal, Marisa Juarez, Juan J Lauthier, Masataka Korenaga, Paola Barroso, Julio R Nasser, Jorge D Marco, José F Gil
Background: Some sand flies are of medical importance because they are vectors of Leishmania parasites that are responsible for leishmaniasis. The aim of this study was to make a retrospective epidemiological analysis of tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL), to identify Leishmania spp. from patient isolates and to describe the diversity of sand flies from a border area between Bolivia and Argentina. Methods: TL cases included in the study were diagnosed in an endemic area of the north of Argentina from 1985 to 2017...
November 12, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30412257/the-clinical-characteristics-of-patients-with-sepsis-in-a-tertiary-referral-hospital-in-yangon-myanmar
#8
Kyi Lai Ye Lynn, Josh Hanson, Nan Cho Nwe Mon, Kyi Nyein Yin, Myo Lwin Nyein, Kyaw Zin Thant, Mar Mar Kyi, Thin Zar Cho Oo, Ne Myo Aung
Background: The clinical characteristics and course of patients hospitalised with sepsis in Myanmar and the responsible pathogens remain poorly defined. Methods: We performed an observational study of adults admitted from the community to a tertiary referral hospital in Yangon with fever and dysfunction of at least two organ systems. Results: The 120 patients had a median age of 47 y (interquartile range 28-63); 11 (9%) were human immunodeficiency virus positive...
November 9, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30412239/epidemiology-diagnosis-treatment-and-follow-up-of-cystic-echinococcosis-in-asymptomatic-carriers
#9
Edmundo Larrieu, Leonardo Uchiumi, Juan Carlos Salvitti, Mariano Sobrino, Oscar Panomarenko, Hebe Tissot, Carlos Hugo Mercapide, José Sustercic, Marcos Arezo, Guillermo Mujica, Eduardo Herrero, José Luis Labanchi, Claudia Grizmado, Daniel Araya, Gabriel Talmon, José María Galvan, Luis Sepulveda, Marcos Seleiman, Tamara Cornejo, Horacio Echenique, Mario Del Carpio
Background: Río Negro Province is endemic for cystic echinococcosis (CE). A CE control program includes early diagnosis in humans. During 1980-1996, screening was done with serology and surgery was the unique choice of treatment. Since 1997, ultrasound (US) has been the method of choice for screening, and new choices of treatment for asymptomatic carriers are discussed in the CE guidelines. Methods: Between 1997 and 2016, 42 734 abdominal USs were performed, 192 new asymptomatic cases were diagnosed and underwent a protocol according to the size, location and type of cyst...
November 9, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30412231/social-determinants-of-health-associated-with-topical-repellent-use-in-pregnancy-a-cross-sectional-study-during-a-zika-outbreak-in-brazil
#10
Marina F S Cartaxo, Sophia Maria D Silva, Jaiurte G M Silva, Eduardo I C Beltrão, Fábio André Brayner, José Luiz de Lima Filho, Sandra S Mattos, Albanita G C Ceballos, Juliana A C Schettini, Luiz Carlos Alves
Background: Repellent use during pregnancy was strongly recommended after uncovering Zika virus (ZIKV) involvement with congenital malformations. In this context, Pernambuco, Brazil played a key role since it was the epicentre for the main studies suggesting ZIKV teratogenicity and one of Brazil's most affected states during the 2014-2016 epidemics. Thus we aimed to identify possible associations between social determinants of health and repellent use in pregnancy during the ZIKV outbreak in Pernambuco...
November 9, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30407595/seroepidemiology-modifiable-risk-factors-and-clinical-symptoms-of-toxocara-spp-infection-in-northern-iran
#11
Somayeh Aghamolaie, Seyyed Javad Seyyedtabaei, Hamed Behniafar, Masoud Foroutan, Vafa Saber, Hooman Hanifehpur, Saeed Mehravar, Ali Rostami
Toxocariasis is one of the most important and widespread neglected tropical infectious diseases. We designed a cross-sectional study to assess the seroepidemiological aspects of toxocariasis among the general population in northern Iran. A total of 630 rural subjects were enrolled to participate in the study. The presence of anti-Toxocara immunoglobulin G (IgG) was tested using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A structured questionnaire was also used to evaluate the potential risk factors and related clinical signs/symptoms...
November 8, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30383274/a-modified-lateral-flow-assay-using-serum-for-the-rapid-identification-of-human-and-bovine-cysticercosis-in-the-absence-of-false-positives
#12
R Michael E Parkhouse, Arturo Carpio, Alfredo Campoverde, Patricia Sastre, Glenda Rojas, Leslie J S Harrison, Maria Milagros Cortez
Background: Previously we reported the use of a monoclonal antibody-based (HP10) antigen (Ag) detection lateral flow assay (LFA) for the diagnosis of extraparenchymal neurocysticercosis (EP-NCC). The assay performed well when used with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples but not with their paired serum samples, due to false-positive reactions in some known negative control cases. Methods: Our novel modification involves pretreatment of serum samples using a combination of sodium deoxycholate and dithiothreitol...
November 1, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30358870/the-importance-of-understanding-enzootic-cycles-in-the-epidemiology-of-zoonotic-diseases-with-special-reference-to-the-american-leishmaniases
#13
Jeffrey Shaw
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 24, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30325455/the-prevalence-of-serum-magnesium-and-iron-deficiency-anaemia-among-sudanese-women-in-early-pregnancy-a-cross-sectional-study
#14
Reem Eltayeb, Duria A Rayis, Manal E Sharif, Abdel Bagi A Ahmed, Osama Elhardello, Ishag Adam
Background: Anaemia during pregnancy is associated with adverse maternal and child health. Investigations of anaemia and its predictors among pregnant women are needed for preventive measures. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and determinants of anaemia in early pregnancy in Khartoum, Sudan. Clinical characteristics were gathered using a questionnaire. Serum ferritin, magnesium and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were measured using different laboratory methods...
October 16, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321435/occurrence-of-human-urogenital-myiasis-due-to-neglected-personal-hygiene-a-review
#15
Amandeep Singh, Jasneet Kaur
Myiasis, the infestation of tissues or organs of vertebrate animals with dipteran larvae, is a common parasitic problem among domestic and wild mammals. The condition, which is also witnessed in humans, is relatively frequent in rural areas where people are in close contact with domestic animals. It is a subject of medical and veterinary importance, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Human myiasis is generally encountered in open neglected wounds but can also affect body orifices with foetid discharge, such as the oral cavity, eyes, ears, anus and urogenital tract...
October 15, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321407/immunodiagnostic-potential-of-wuchereria-bancrofti-l1-antigen-based-filarial-immunoglobulin-g4-detection-assay
#16
B V Siva Prasad, Vishal Khatri, P Suresh Yadav, M Subhosh Chandra, D Vijaya Lakshmi, Kalyan Goswami
Background: After mass drug administration to eliminate human lymphatic filariasis, there is a need for surveillance to detect the measurable endpoint of the program. Methods: An immunodominant seroreactive clone, WbL1, was identified through immunoscreening of a Wuchereria bancrofti L3 complementary DNA expression library. Recombinant WbL1 (rWbL1) was analysed with sera from W. bancrofti patients. Diagnostic evaluation was carried out by developing an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect the filarial-specific antibodies in various categories of filarial sera samples against recombinant WbL1 (rWbL1) protein...
October 15, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30299511/seroprevalence-risk-factors-and-spatial-distribution-of-west-nile-virus-in-jordan
#17
Mohammad M Obaidat, Andrew P Stringer, Amira A Roess
Background: This is the first countrywide study of the seroprevalence, risk factors and spatial distribution of West Nile virus (WNV) in Jordan. Methods: A cross-sectional sample of 801 participants was administered a comprehensive questionnaire survey and tested for WNV immunoglobulin G antibodies. Results: The point seroprevalence rate for WNV infection was 8.61% (95% confidence interval 6.8 to 10.8). Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that sex, age, climate, income and drinking water source were significantly associated with seropositivity (p≤0...
October 9, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30295901/spatial-analysis-of-dengue-cysticercosis-and-chagas-disease-mortality-in-ecuador-2011-2016
#18
Solange Núñez-González, Christopher Gault, Daniel Simancas-Racines
Background: Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) continue to be an important cause of disability and mortality in the poorest tropical and subtropical areas. Methods: This is an ecological study. We included all death certificates with dengue, cysticercosis and Chagas disease in Ecuador from 2011 to 2016. The spatial autocorrelation was evaluated by GeoDa software through the Global Moran's I index and the formation of clusters by the local index of spatial association...
October 8, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30295891/misidentification-of-burkholderia-pseudomallei-as-acinetobacter-species-in-northern-thailand
#19
Rachel C Greer, Tri Wangrangsimakul, Premjit Amornchai, Vanaporn Wuthiekanun, Achara Laongnualpanich, David A B Dance, Direk Limmathurotsakul
Background: Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, a disease endemic throughout the tropics. Methods: A study of reported Acinetobacter spp. bacteraemia was performed at Chiang Rai provincial hospital from 2014 to 2015. Isolates were collected and tested for confirmation. Results: A total of 419 putative Acinetobacter spp. isolates from 412 patients were re-identified and 5/419 (1.2%) were identified as B. pseudomallei...
October 5, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30265362/integrated-care-for-human-immunodeficiency-virus-diabetes-and-hypertension-in-africa
#20
Anupam Garrib, Josephine Birungi, Sokoine Lesikari, Ivan Namakoola, Tsi Njim, Luis Cuevas, Louis Niessen, Kenneth Mugisha, Gerald Mutungi, Janneth Mghamba, Kaushik Ramaiya, Shabbar Jaffar, Sayoki Mfinanga, Moffat Nyirenda
The rising burden from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) poses a huge challenge for health care delivery in Africa, where health systems are already struggling with the long-term care requirements for the millions of people now on antiretroviral therapy requiring regular visits to health facilities for monitoring, adherence support and drugs. The HIV chronic disease management programme is comparatively well-funded, well-organised and well-informed and offers many insights and opportunities for the expansion of NCD prevention and treatment services...
September 28, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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