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Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115686/gender-based-differences-in-water-sanitation-and-hygiene-related-diarrheal-disease-and-helminthic-infections-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
REVIEW
Varadan Sevilimedu, Keisha D Pressley, Kassandra R Snook, Jamesa V Hogges, Maria D Politis, Jessica K Sexton, Carmen H Duke, Blake A Smith, Lena C Swander, Kelly K Baker, Manoj Gambhir, Isaac Chun-Hai Fung
BACKGROUND: Qualitative evidence suggests that inadequate water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) may affect diarrheal and helminthic infection in women disproportionately. We systematically searched PubMed in June 2014 (updated 2016) and the WHO website, for relevant articles. METHODS: Articles dealing with the public health relevance of helminthic and diarrheal diseases, and highlighting the role of gender in WASH were included. Where possible, we carried out a meta-analysis...
January 22, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115685/the-london-declaration-on-neglected-tropical-diseases-5-years-on
#2
EDITORIAL
David H Molyneux
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 22, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115684/imported-cystic-echinococcosis-in-western-spain-a-retrospective-study
#3
Angela Romero-Alegria, Moncef Belhassen-García, Montserrat Alonso-Sardón, Virginia Velasco-Tirado, Amparo Lopez-Bernus, Adela Carpio-Pérez, Juan Luis Muñoz Bellido, Antonio Muro, Miguel Cordero, Javier Pardo-Lledias
BACKGROUND: In Spain, 12% of the population are immigrants. The impact of immigration in Spain on cystic echinococcosis (CE) is unknown. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of CE in immigrants in western Spain. METHODS: First, a retrospective descriptive study of patients diagnosed with CE in the University Hospital of Salamanca (CAUSA) between January 1998 and December 2014 was designed. Second, we studied the seroprevalence of CE in sera from foreigners who received treatment in the Tropical Medicine Unit...
January 22, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115683/validation-of-a-monoclonal-antibody-based-immunofluorescent-assay-to-detect-burkholderia-pseudomallei-in-blood-cultures
#4
Adul Dulsuk, Suporn Paksanont, Adisak Sangchankoom, Peeraya Ekchariyawat, Rungnapa Phunpang, Yaowaruk Jutrakul, Narisara Chantratita, T Eoin West
BACKGROUND: Identification of Burkholderia pseudomallei, the cause of melioidosis, using routine methods takes several days. Use of a monoclonal antibody-based immunofluorescent assay (IFA) on positive blood cultures may speed diagnosis. METHODS: We tested the diagnostic accuracy of the IFA on 545 blood cultures positive for Gram-negative organisms at Udon Thani Hospital, Thailand, between June 2015 and August 2016. RESULTS: Sensitivity of the IFA was 100% and specificity was 99...
January 22, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100811/the-molecular-speciation-of-soil-transmitted-helminth-eggs-collected-from-school-children-across-six-endemic-countries
#5
Santosh George, Peter Geldhof, Marco Albonico, Shaali M Ame, Jeffrey M Bethony, Dirk Engels, Zeleke Mekonnen, Antonio Montresor, Sopheak Hem, Louis-Albert Tchuem-Tchuenté, Nguyen Thu Huong, Gagandeep Kang, Jozef Vercruysse, Bruno Levecke
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs; Ascaris, Trichuris and hookworms) is traditionally based on the demonstration of eggs in stool using microscopic techniques. While molecular techniques are more appropriate to speciate STH species they are seldom applied. In this study we speciated STH eggs from stool using molecular techniques to gain insights into the distribution of both human and animal STH species in the human host. METHODS: We speciated 207 STH egg isolates from stool collected during the baseline survey of six drug efficacy trials conducted in Brazil, Cambodia, Cameroon, Ethiopia, Tanzania and Vietnam applying a PCR - restriction fragment length polymorphisms based approach...
January 18, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039389/low-efficacy-of-albendazole-against-trichuris-trichiura-infection-in-schoolchildren-from-port-elizabeth-south-africa
#6
Ivan Müller, Lindsey Beyleveld, Markus Gerber, Uwe Pühse, Rosa du Randt, Jürg Utzinger, Leyli Zondie, Cheryl Walter, Peter Steinmann
BACKGROUND: Albendazole is one of two standard drugs for the control of soil-transmitted helminthiasis. METHODS: A total of 149 schoolchildren from Port Elizabeth, South Africa, were examined for soil-transmitted helminth infections using duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears before and 2 weeks after administration of albendazole (400 mg). RESULTS: Trichuris trichiura was the predominant soil-transmitted helminth species (prevalence 60.4%), followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (47...
December 29, 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039388/efficacy-and-safety-of-artesunate-mefloquine-therapy-for-treating-uncomplicated-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
REVIEW
Henry Maia Peixoto, Paola Barbosa Marchesini, Maria Regina Fernandes de Oliveira
INTRODUCTION: The present study is a systematic review of the literature on the efficacy and safety of the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum infections with artesunate-mefloquine (ASMQ) compared to other artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs), designed to assist decision makers in Brazil. METHODS: Twenty-four randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were selected in four electronic databases and in complementary sources. Meta-analyses were performed to evaluate the efficacy expressed by relative risks (RR) obtained from treatment failure confirmed by the PCR...
December 29, 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986861/quality-controls-for-antimicrobial-disk-diffusion-testing-on-leptospira-vanaporn-wuthiekanun-agar
#8
Vanaporn Wuthiekanun, Nicholas J White, Premjit Amornchai, Nicholas P J Day, Direk Limmathurotsakul
BACKGROUND: Disk diffusion susceptibility testing for Leptospira spp. on Leptospira Vanaporn Wuthiekanun (LVW) solid agar was reported recently. However, it was unclear whether the zone sizes obtained on LVW agar were comparable with those of other bacteria on Mueller-Hinton agar. METHODS: Here, we evaluate the disk diffusion assay on LVW agar using the standard quality control (QC) bacterial strains for 22 antimicrobials. RESULTS: All antimicrobials provided zone sizes within the standard range for each QC bacterial strain, except for fosfomycin...
December 15, 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941165/leishmania-recombinant-antigen-modulates-macrophage-effector-function-facilitating-early-clearance-of-intracellular-parasites
#9
Anuradha Ratna, Sunil K Arora
BACKGROUND: Immunmodulation combined with chemotherapy has emerged as an alternative to treat infections. The study evaluates immunomodulatory properties of a Leishmania recombinant protein (rA6) in activating macrophages and clearing intracellular parasites. METHODS: The rA6 from a previously identified cDNA clone was analyzed for inducing the production of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in macrophages, post and prior to infection with promastigotes by Griess method and flow cytometry...
December 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941164/single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-of-ifn%C3%AE-874-a-t-and-ifn%C3%AE-r1-56-c-t-in-iranian-patients-with-tb
#10
Elham Beiranvand, Saeid Abediankenari, Samira Valiyari, Mohammad Sadegh Rezaei, Mosayeb Rostamian, Behnoush Beiranvand, Ali Khaligh, Soghra Khani
BACKGROUND: Two important genes for controlling TB are IFNγ and IFNγR1. However, little information exists regarding genetic susceptibility of the Iranian TB population. METHODS: We investigated the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes of IFNγ (+874 A/T) and IFNγR1 (-56 C/T) and serum level of IFNγ and their influence on TB in patients; 300 patients with TB and 300 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism was used to identify SNPs and serum level of IFNγ was measured by ELISA...
December 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864518/housing-improvement-a-novel-paradigm-for-urban-vector-borne-disease-control
#11
EDITORIAL
Gonzalo M Vazquez-Prokopec, Audrey Lenhart, Pablo Manrique-Saide
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864517/an-extensive-burden-of-giardiasis-associated-with-intestinal-schistosomiasis-and-anaemia-in-school-children-on-the-shoreline-of-lake-albert-uganda
#12
Hajri Al-Shehri, Michelle C Stanton, James E LaCourse, Aaron Atuhaire, Moses Arinaitwe, Aida Wamboko, Moses Adriko, Narcis B Kabatereine, J Russell Stothard
BACKGROUND: Water-borne parasitic diseases associated with poverty still blight the lives of African school children. In Uganda, intestinal schistosomiasis is still common along the shoreline of Lake Albert, despite ongoing control, and co-infection with giardiasis and malaria is poorly described. To shed light on putative interactions between diseases, a prospective cross-sectional parasitological survey was undertaken in five primary schools. METHODS: Stool samples from 254 school children, aged 5-10 years, were examined by microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), with additional real-time PCR assays for detection of Giardia DNA...
December 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856948/impact-of-introducing-subsidized-combination-treatment-with-artemether-lumefantrine-on-sales-of-anti-malarial-monotherapies-a-survey-of-private-sector-pharmacies-in-huambo-angola
#13
Cristina Lussiana, Marco Floridia, Joana Martinho do Rosário, Filomeno Fortes, Richard Allan
BACKGROUND: Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) against malaria are subsidized in many African countries, but the impact of subsidy programs in reducing the sales of concomitantly available antimalarial monotherapies is poorly defined. METHODS: Data from The MENTOR initiative, that introduced subsidized artemether-lumefantrine (sAL) in the private sector of Huambo province, Angola, were used. The main response variable was represented by sales of sAL and of monotherapies, measured as number of treatment courses...
December 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856947/is-diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-dtp-associated-with-increased-female-mortality-a-meta-analysis-testing-the-hypotheses-of-sex-differential-non-specific-effects-of-dtp-vaccine
#14
Peter Aaby, Henrik Ravn, Ane B Fisker, Amabelia Rodrigues, Christine S Benn
BACKGROUND: Ten years ago, we formulated two hypotheses about whole-cell diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccination: first, when given after BCG, DTP increases mortality in girls and, second, following DTP there is an increase in the female/male mortality rate ratio (MRR). A recent review by WHO found no convincing evidence that DTP increases mortality in females. METHODS: We used previous DTP reviews as well as the recent WHO review for assessing the hypotheses...
December 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852877/community-seroprevalence-survey-for-yaws-and-trachoma-in-the-western-division-of-fiji
#15
Naomi Cocks, Merelesita Rainima-Qaniuci, Chelsea Yalen, Colin Macleod, Apisalome Nakolinivalu, Stephanie Migchelsen, Chrissy H Roberts, Robert Butcher, Mike Kama, David Mabey, Michael Marks
BACKGROUND: Both yaws and trachoma are endemic in several countries in the Pacific. In co-endemic countries there may be potential synergies between both control programmes. METHODS: We undertook a cluster randomised trachoma and yaws seroprevalence survey of children in the Western Division of Fiji. Children were examined for skin lesions consistent with active yaws. A dried blood spot was collected which was tested using the Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) test and an ELISA to detect antibodies against Pgp3...
December 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816936/surveillance-for-transmission-of-lymphatic-filariasis-in-colombo-and-gampaha-districts-of-sri-lanka-following-mass-drug-administration
#16
Nilmini T G A Chandrasena, Ranjan Premaratna, Dilhani S Samarasekera, Nilanthi R de Silva
BACKGROUND: Sri Lanka was recently declared by WHO to have eliminated lymphatic filariasis as a public health problem, after conclusion of annual mass drug administration. Our aim was to assess the lymphatic filariasis situation, following mass drug administration. METHODS: Surveillance was done in two districts of the Western Province in two consecutive phases (2009-2010 and 2013-2015), by examining 2461 thick night blood smears and performing 250 dipstick tests on children for antibodies to Brugia malayi...
December 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173599/quality-controls-for-antimicrobial-disk-diffusion-testing-on-leptospira-vanaporn-wuthiekanun-agar
#17
Vanaporn Wuthiekanun, Nicholas J White, Premjit Amornchai, Nicholas P J Day, Direk Limmathurotsakul
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158859/challenges-of-research-and-development-on-antimalarial-medicinal-products-in-china-a-bibliometric-analysis-and-systematic-review
#18
Rui She, Yangmu Huang, Tingting Xu, Yan Guo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777282/diagnosis-delay-and-duration-of-hospitalisation-of-patients-with-buruli-ulcer-in-nigeria
#19
Anthony O Meka, Joseph N Chukwu, Charles C Nwafor, Daniel C Oshi, Nelson O Madichie, Ngozi Ekeke, Moses C Anyim, Chukwuka Alphonsus, Obinna Mbah, Glory C Uzoukwa, Martin Njoku, Kentigern Ntana, Kingsley N Ukwaja
BACKGROUND: Delayed diagnosis of Buruli ulcer can worsen clinical presentation of the disease, prolong duration of management, and impose avoidable additional costs on patients and health providers. We investigated the profile, delays in diagnosis, duration of hospitalisation, and associated factors among patients with Buruli ulcer in Nigeria. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study of patients with Buruli ulcer who were identified from a community-based survey...
October 23, 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744340/clinical-characteristics-of-laboratory-confirmed-leptospirosis-in-okinawa-japan-1974-2015-high-incidence-of-jarisch-herxheimer-reaction
#20
Sanefumi Tsuha, Tomohiro Taniguchi, Soichi Shiiki, Masashi Narita, Daniel T Leung
BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease known to have wide-ranging clinical manifestations. Despite a number of published case series, culture-confirmed series are few and there is a paucity of data on Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction (JHR) associated with treatment of leptospirosis. Our objective was to describe the clinical and epidemiological factors associated with leptospirosis in an endemic area of Japan, with a focus on the occurrence of JHR, an often unrecognized and likely underestimated phenomenon...
October 15, 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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