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Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30085307/excess-mortality-profile-during-the-asian-genotype-chikungunya-epidemic-in-the-dominican-republic-2014
#1
Andre Ricardo Ribas Freitas, Pedro Mª Alarcón-Elbal, Robert Paulino-Ramírez, Maria Rita Donalisio
Background: In 2014 there was a large chikungunya epidemic in the Dominican Republic, with 539 099 reported cases and 6 deaths. Although chikungunya is considered a low-mortality disease, studies have suggested this is an underestimation. This study assessed deaths associated with the epidemic. Methods: Mortality data were obtained from the National Statistics Office, the surveillance system for acute febrile illnesses, and the National Epidemiological Surveillance System...
August 4, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30085272/identification-of-anopheles-species-in-sud-kivu-democratic-republic-of-congo-using-molecular-tools
#2
Janvier Bandibabone, Jean-Berckmans B Muhigwa, Natasha M Agramonte, Bertin Zawadi, Luc Ombeni, Claudia Corredor-Medina, Gena G Lawrence, Bantuzeko Chimanuka, Seth R Irish
The mosquito fauna of the Democratic Republic of Congo remains understudied, including that of the province of Sud Kivu. To improve understanding of species presenting Sud Kivu, adult mosquitoes were collected from houses and larvae were collected from standing water at altitudes between 1627 and 1875 m above sea level. Morphological and molecular methods were used to identify the species of Anopheles collected. Six species were found, including several primary and potential secondary malaria vectors. Further work is needed to characterize mosquito populations in Sud Kivu, as well as to improve methods for identifying Anopheles in general...
August 4, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30053261/prevention-against-malaria-before-the-first-antenatal-visit-and-absence-of-anaemia-at-the-first-visit-were-protective-from-low-birth-weight-results-from-a-south-kivu-cohort-democratic-republic-of-the-congo
#3
Esto Bahizire, Michèle Dramaix, Rosine Bigirinama, Safari Balegamire, Yves Balungu, Sylvain Meuris, Umberto D'Alessandro, Philippe Donnen
Background: There is little information on the causes of low birth weight (LBW, <2500 g) in South Kivu. The authors determined the prevalence of LBW among full-term newborns, and its relationship with malaria and anaemia at the first antenatal visit (ANV1) in the rural health zone of Miti-Murhesa, in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. Methods: Four-hundred-and-seventy-eight pregnant women in the second trimester attending their first antenatal clinic were recruited between November 2010 and July 2011, and followed-up until delivery...
July 25, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30053259/complex-interactions-in-soil-transmitted-helminth-co-infections-from-a-cross-sectional-study-in-sri-lanka
#4
Hannah C Lepper, Joaquín M Prada, Emma L Davis, Sharmini A Gunawardena, T Déirdre Hollingsworth
Background: Co-infection with multiple soil-transmitted helminth (STH) species is common in communities with a high STH prevalence. The life histories of STH species share important characteristics, particularly in the gut, and there is the potential for interaction, but evidence on whether interactions may be facilitating or antagonistic are limited. Methods: Data from a pretreatment cross-sectional survey of STH egg deposition in a tea plantation community in Sri Lanka were analysed to evaluate patterns of co-infection and changes in egg deposition...
July 25, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30053235/first-case-of-confirmed-congenital-zika-syndrome-in-continental-africa
#5
Madalena Sassetti, Líbia Zé-Zé, João Franco, José da Cunha, António Gomes, Ana Tomé, Maria-João Alves
Background: Zika virus has been responsible for recent outbreaks in the western hemisphere with known neurological complications such as microcephaly. This complication has not been previously documented in continental Africa. Methods: Neurological evaluation of the newborn was performed after birth, at one and two months of age. The mother and the newborn sera samples were tested by immunofluorescent assay (IFA; immunoglobulin G [IgG] and IgM) for Zika virus and the presence of Zika virus ribonucleic acid (RNA) was checked by qualitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in placenta, blood and urine samples...
July 25, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30053187/a-diagnostic-performance-evaluation-of-rapid-diagnostic-tests-and-microscopy-for-malaria-diagnosis-using-nested-polymerase-chain-reaction-as-reference-standard-in-a-tertiary-hospital-in-jos-nigeria
#6
Okokon I Ita, Akaninyene A Otu, Kenneth Onyedibe, Anthony A Iwuafor, Edmund Banwat, Daniel Z Egah
Background: Rapid diagnostic tests are frequently used in healthcare settings across Nigeria for diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, which is the commonest form of malaria in the country. In this study, the performance of a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) was compared with expert microscopy using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as the reference standard in a tertiary hospital in Jos, Nigeria. Methods: This study was a prospective, cross-sectional, hospital-based study...
July 25, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30053165/visceral-leishmaniasis-and-vulnerability-conditions-in-an-endemic-urban-area-of-northeastern-brazil
#7
Anárya Teresa de Freitas Rocha, Giovana Mira de Espindola, Maria Regiane Araujo Soares, José de Ribamar de Sousa Rocha, Carlos Henrique Nery Costa
Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is considered an urban endemic that may be related to sociodemographic factors and urban infrastructure. The objective of this study was to analyze the conditions of vulnerability and the incidence of VL, and to identify the spatiotemporal pattern of the disease. Methods: Data on reported cases of VL were collected from 2007 to 2016. Thematic maps on the spatiotemporal distribution were produced using values normalized by the area of the neighborhoods...
July 23, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30032237/how-well-does-the-process-of-screening-and-diagnosis-work-for-hiv-infected-persons-identified-with-presumptive-tuberculosis-who-are-attending-hiv-care-and-treatment-clinics-in-harare-city-zimbabwe
#8
Kudakwashe C Takarinda, Regis Choto, Charles Sandy, Tsitsi Apollo, Clemence Duri, Freeman Dube, Amon Mpofu, Collins Timire, Owen Mugurungi, Victor Makaza, Roy Tapera, Anthony D Harries
Background: Intensified TB case finding is recommended for all HIV-infected persons regularly attending HIV care and treatment clinics. The authors aimed to determine how well this system worked among HIV-infected patients diagnosed with presumptive TB in 14 health facilities of Harare province, Zimbabwe, between January and December 2016. Methods: Retrospective review using routine programme records. Results: Of 47 659 HIV-infected persons enrolled in HIV care, 102 were identified with presumptive TB through the programmatic electronic database...
July 19, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30016491/implementing-a-dengue-vaccination-programme-who-where-and-how
#9
Hannah E Clapham, Bridget A Wills
The complex interaction between dengue viruses and the human immune system means that development of a safe, effective dengue vaccine was never going to be simple. The only currently licenced dengue vaccine (Dengvaxia®) does, indeed, have a complex immune profile depending on recipients' immune status, meaning that use of this vaccine is not straightforward. This commentary reviews the recommendations for vaccine use to date, and discusses issues and opportunities related to the implementation of vaccination programmes in light of these recommendations...
July 17, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30011004/toxoplasma-gondii-infection-and-pre-eclampsia-among-sudanese-women
#10
Shimos A Alshareef, Abubakr M Nasr, Ishag Adam
Background: Pre-eclampsia is the main cause of maternal and perinatal adverse effects. Although the exact mechanism and pathophysiology of pre-eclampsia are not yet fully understood, there are recent studies on the association between various infections and pre-eclampsia. This study investigated the association between maternal Toxoplasma gondii infection and pre-eclampsia. Methods: A case-control study was conducted at Saad Abualila Hospital, Khartoum, Sudan. The cases were pregnant women with pre-eclampsia and the controls were healthy pregnant women...
July 13, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30010976/sero-prevalence-of-leptospirosis-and-differentiation-in-blood-parameters-between-positive-and-negative-cases-in-dogs-of-kathmandu-valley
#11
Krishna Chandra Ojha, Dinesh Kumar Singh, Krishna Kaphle, Yogendra Shah, Dhan Kumar Pant
Background: Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease with worldwide distribution. It affects both humans and animals. Dogs may serve as a sentinel as well as a potential carrier for Leptospira infection in human. This study was conducted with the aim of investigating the sero-prevalence of leptospirosis, and differentiation in blood parameters in positive and negative cases of dogs. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out from August 2016 to December 2016 in Kathmandu valley...
July 13, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29982700/projected-costs-associated-with-school-based-screening-to-inform-deployment-of-dengvaxia-vietnam-as-a-case-study
#12
Hugo C Turner, Bridget A Wills, Motiur Rahman, Hoang Quoc Cuong, Guy E Thwaites, Maciej F Boni, Hannah E Clapham
Background: After new analysis, Sanofi Pasteur now recommends their dengue vaccine (Dengvaxia) should only be given to individuals previously infected with dengue and the World Health Organization's recommendations regarding its use are currently being revised. As a result, the potential costs of performing large-scale individual dengue screening and/or dengue serosurveys have become an important consideration for decision making by policymakers in dengue-endemic areas. Methods: We used an ingredients-based approach to estimate the financial costs for conducting both a school-based dengue serosurvey and school-based individual dengue screening within a typical province in Vietnam, using an existing commercial indirect immunoglobulin G enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit...
July 3, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30032253/prevalence-of-open-defecation-among-households-with-toilets-and-associated-factors-in-rural-south-india-an-analytical-cross-sectional-study
#13
Nallathambi Yogananth, Tarun Bhatnagar
Background: India's National Sanitation Mission aims to end open defecation by changing social norms and behaviours coupled with financial subsidies to build toilets. An earlier evaluation in the rural Dharmapuri district of Tamil Nadu reported poor use of household toilets constructed with government assistance. Our objectives were to estimate the prevalence of adults with a household toilet practicing open defecation and determine the factors associated with it. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 251 villages of the Dharmapuri district...
July 1, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30020529/diagnosing-risk-factors-alongside-mass-drug-administration-using-serial-diagnostic-tests-which-test-first
#14
Louise Dyson, T Déirdre Hollingsworth
Background: When tests are used in series to determine individual risk factors and infection status in a mass drug administration (MDA), the diagnostics, test order and subsequent treatment decisions (the testing algorithm) affect population-level treatment coverage and cost, but there is no existing framework for evaluating which algorithm optimizes any given outcome. Methods: We present a mathematical tool (with spreadsheet implementation) to analyse the effect of test ordering, illustrated using treatment for onchocerciasis in an area where high-burden Loa loa co-infections present a known risk factor...
July 1, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30010994/admission-and-mortality-at-the-main-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-in-guinea-bissau
#15
Anne Sofie Pinstrup Joergensen, Morten Bjerregaard-Andersen, Sofie Biering-Sørensen, Stine Byberg, Luis Camala, Cesario Martins, Amabelia Rodrigues, Peter Aaby, Christine Stabell Benn
Background: The authors assessed the risk of admission and mortality at the main neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) at the National Hospital Simão Mendes (NHSM) in Guinea-Bissau. Methods: The Bandim Health Project (BHP) maintains a health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS) in the capital Bissau, including at the NHSM. Data from January 2008 to August 2013 was used to assess NICU incubator admissions and mortality. Results: The overall NICU admission rate was 4...
July 1, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30007303/chikungunya-chronic-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
Enny S Paixão, Laura C Rodrigues, Maria da Conceição N Costa, Martha Itaparica, Florisneide Barreto, Patrick Gérardin, Maria Glória Teixeira
Background: Chikungunya is a mosquito-borne disease caused by an arthritogenic alphavirus, with four genotypes: East Central South African (ECSA), West African, ECSA-diverged or Indian Ocean Lineage (IOL) and Asian lineage. Overall, the disease is self-limited; however, in some patients, joint pain and other non-specific symptoms can last for months or years. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to estimate the proportion of people that self-report chikungunya-related chronic non-specific symptoms...
July 1, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29992295/a-pilot-study-using-wearable-global-positioning-system-data-loggers-to-compare-water-contact-levels-schistosoma-haematobium-infection-in-pre-school-age-children-psac-and-their-mothers-at-barombi-kotto-cameroon
#17
Grace Macklin, Michelle C Stanton, Louis Albert Tchuem-Tchuenté, J Russell Stothard
Background: Barombi Kotto, Cameroon serves as a reference location for assessing intervention strategies against Schistosoma haematobium. Methods: As part of a pilot study, the whole community was treated with praziquantel, inclusive of pre-school-age children (PSAC) and their mothers. One year later, egg-patent infections were reassessed and water contact patterns of 12 pairs of PSAC and their mothers were measured with global positioning system (GPS) data loggers...
July 1, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29982795/active-neurocysticercosis-at-the-hospital-for-tropical-diseases-london-a-clinical-case-series
#18
Ewan Hunter, Michael Cliff, Margaret Armstrong, Hadi Manji, Hans Rolf Jäger, Peter Chiodini, Mike Brown
Background: Neurocysticercosis is the commonest infectious cause of epilepsy in endemic countries, and accounts for a greater number of cases worldwide than any other single pathology. Infection is associated with long-term exposure in low-income countries, although acquisition after travel has been recognized. The standard of care in the UK is inpatient treatment with anti-helminthic drugs and steroids. Methods: The authors reviewed all cases of neurocysticercosis managed at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases in London, England, between 2001 and 2015...
July 1, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29992312/first-report-on-seroprevalence-and-risk-factors-of-dengue-virus-in-jordan
#19
Mohammad M Obaidat, Amira A Roess
Background: There are no data available on dengue epidemiology in Jordan. This is the first study of the seroprevalence and risk factors of dengue virus (DENV) infection in Jordan. Methods: Sera samples from 892 apparently healthy individuals from all over Jordan were tested for DENV by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a validated questionnaire was completed by all participants to identify and rank possible risk factors. Results: The seroprevalence was 24...
June 1, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29992299/how-has-the-zimbabwe-mycobacterial-culture-and-drug-sensitivity-testing-system-among-re-treatment-tuberculosis-patients-functioned-during-the-scale-up-of-the-xpert-mtb-rif-assay
#20
Collins Timire, Kudakwashe C Takarinda, Anthony D Harries, Herbert Mutunzi, Barbara Manyame-Murwira, Ajay M V Kumar, Charles Sandy
Background: In Zimbabwe, while the Xpert MTB/RIF assay is being used for diagnosing tuberculosis and rifampicin-resistance, re-treatment tuberculosis (TB) patients are still expected to have culture and drug sensitivity testing (CDST) performed at national reference laboratories for confirmation. The study aim was to document the Xpert MTB/RIF assay scale-up and assess how the CDST system functioned for re-treatment TB patients. Methods: We performed an ecologic study using national aggregate data...
June 1, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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