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Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864518/housing-improvement-a-novel-paradigm-for-urban-vector-borne-disease-control
#1
EDITORIAL
Gonzalo M Vazquez-Prokopec, Audrey Lenhart, Pablo Manrique-Saide
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 17, 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864517/an-extensive-burden-of-giardiasis-associated-with-intestinal-schistosomiasis-and-anaemia-in-school-children-on-the-shoreline-of-lake-albert-uganda
#2
Hajri Al-Shehri, Michelle C Stanton, James E LaCourse, Aaron Atuhaire, Moses Arinaitwe, Aida Wamboko, Moses Adriko, Narcis B Kabatereine, J Russell Stothard
BACKGROUND: Water-borne parasitic diseases associated with poverty still blight the lives of African school children. In Uganda, intestinal schistosomiasis is still common along the shoreline of Lake Albert, despite ongoing control, and co-infection with giardiasis and malaria is poorly described. To shed light on putative interactions between diseases, a prospective cross-sectional parasitological survey was undertaken in five primary schools. METHODS: Stool samples from 254 school children, aged 5-10 years, were examined by microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), with additional real-time PCR assays for detection of Giardia DNA...
November 17, 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856948/impact-of-introducing-subsidized-combination-treatment-with-artemether-lumefantrine-on-sales-of-anti-malarial-monotherapies-a-survey-of-private-sector-pharmacies-in-huambo-angola
#3
Cristina Lussiana, Marco Floridia, Joana Martinho do Rosário, Filomeno Fortes, Richard Allan
BACKGROUND: Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) against malaria are subsidized in many African countries, but the impact of subsidy programs in reducing the sales of concomitantly available antimalarial monotherapies is poorly defined. METHODS: Data from The MENTOR initiative, that introduced subsidized artemether-lumefantrine (sAL) in the private sector of Huambo province, Angola, were used. The main response variable was represented by sales of sAL and of monotherapies, measured as number of treatment courses...
November 17, 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856947/is-diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-dtp-associated-with-increased-female-mortality-a-meta-analysis-testing-the-hypotheses-of-sex-differential-non-specific-effects-of-dtp-vaccine
#4
Peter Aaby, Henrik Ravn, Ane B Fisker, Amabelia Rodrigues, Christine S Benn
BACKGROUND: Ten years ago, we formulated two hypotheses about whole-cell diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccination: first, when given after BCG, DTP increases mortality in girls and, second, following DTP there is an increase in the female/male mortality rate ratio (MRR). A recent review by WHO found no convincing evidence that DTP increases mortality in females. METHODS: We used previous DTP reviews as well as the recent WHO review for assessing the hypotheses...
November 17, 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852877/community-seroprevalence-survey-for-yaws-and-trachoma-in-the-western-division-of-fiji
#5
Naomi Cocks, Merelesita Rainima-Qaniuci, Chelsea Yalen, Colin Macleod, Apisalome Nakolinivalu, Stephanie Migchelsen, Chrissy H Roberts, Robert Butcher, Mike Kama, David Mabey, Michael Marks
INTRODUCTION: Both yaws and trachoma are endemic in several countries in the Pacific. In co-endemic countries there may be potential synergies between both control programmes. METHODS: We undertook a cluster randomised trachoma and yaws seroprevalence survey of children in the Western Division of Fiji. Children were examined for skin lesions consistent with active yaws. A dried blood spot was collected which was tested using the Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) test and an ELISA to detect antibodies against Pgp3...
November 16, 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816936/surveillance-for-transmission-of-lymphatic-filariasis-in-colombo-and-gampaha-districts-of-sri-lanka-following-mass-drug-administration
#6
Nilmini T G A Chandrasena, Ranjan Premaratna, Dilhani S Samarasekera, Nilanthi R de Silva
BACKGROUND: Sri Lanka was recently declared by WHO to have eliminated lymphatic filariasis as a public health problem, after conclusion of annual mass drug administration. Our aim was to assess the lymphatic filariasis situation, following mass drug administration. METHODS: Surveillance was done in two districts of the Western Province in two consecutive phases (2009-2010 and 2013-2015), by examining 2461 thick night blood smears and performing 250 dipstick tests on children for antibodies to Brugia malayi...
November 5, 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777282/diagnosis-delay-and-duration-of-hospitalisation-of-patients-with-buruli-ulcer-in-nigeria
#7
Anthony O Meka, Joseph N Chukwu, Charles C Nwafor, Daniel C Oshi, Nelson O Madichie, Ngozi Ekeke, Moses C Anyim, Chukwuka Alphonsus, Obinna Mbah, Glory C Uzoukwa, Martin Njoku, Kentigern Ntana, Kingsley N Ukwaja
BACKGROUND: Delayed diagnosis of Buruli ulcer can worsen clinical presentation of the disease, prolong duration of management, and impose avoidable additional costs on patients and health providers. We investigated the profile, delays in diagnosis, duration of hospitalisation, and associated factors among patients with Buruli ulcer in Nigeria. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study of patients with Buruli ulcer who were identified from a community-based survey...
October 23, 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744340/clinical-characteristics-of-laboratory-confirmed-leptospirosis-in-okinawa-japan-1974-2015-high-incidence-of-jarisch-herxheimer-reaction
#8
Sanefumi Tsuha, Tomohiro Taniguchi, Soichi Shiiki, Masashi Narita, Daniel T Leung
BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease known to have wide-ranging clinical manifestations. Despite a number of published case series, culture-confirmed series are few and there is a paucity of data on Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction (JHR) associated with treatment of leptospirosis. Our objective was to describe the clinical and epidemiological factors associated with leptospirosis in an endemic area of Japan, with a focus on the occurrence of JHR, an often unrecognized and likely underestimated phenomenon...
October 15, 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738284/impact-of-rapid-molecular-diagnostic-tests-on-time-to-treatment-initiation-and-outcomes-in-patients-with-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-tamil-nadu-india
#9
Dina Nair, Pooranaganga D Navneethapandian, Jaya Prasad Tripathy, Anthony D Harries, Joel S Klinton, Basilea Watson, Gomathi N Sivaramakrishnan, Devarajulu S Reddy, Lakshmi Murali, Mohan Natrajan, Soumya Swaminathan
BACKGROUND: India is replacing culture and drug sensitivity testing (CDST) with rapid molecular tests for diagnosing MDR-TB. We assessed the impact of rapid tests on time to initiation of treatment and outcomes in patients with MDR-TB compared with CDST. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study involving MDR-TB patients from six districts in Tamil Nadu state, who underwent CDST (2010-2011) and rapid tests (2012-2013). RESULTS: There were 135 patients in the CDST group and 389 in the rapid diagnostic test group...
October 13, 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738283/sex-differential-effects-on-mortality-of-bcg-and-diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-vaccines-in-a-rural-area-with-high-vaccination-coverage-observational-study-from-senegal
#10
Peter Aaby, Jens Nielsen, Christine S Benn, Jean-François Trape
BACKGROUND: Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) may be associated with increased female mortality; the effect of co-administration with BCG is not known. METHODS: Between 1989 and 1997, we examined female and male mortality rates in rural Senegal where 7824 infants received the first dose of DTP and inactivated polio vaccine (DTP-IPV) with BCG. Subsequent doses of DTP-IPV were administered alone. We analysed mortality according to sex and number of doses of DTP-IPV vaccine...
October 13, 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794096/high-frequency-detection-of-toxoplasma-gondii-dna-in-human-neonatal-tissue-from-libya
#11
Sameena Z H Haq, Muftah S Abushahama, Omar Gerwash, Jacqueline M Hughes, Elizabeth A Wright, Mohamed S Elmahaishi, Zhao-Rong Lun, Denise Thomasson, Geoff Hide
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii is a parasite that causes significant disease in humans. Toxoplasmosis is normally asymptomatic, unless associated with congenital transmission, or in immunocompromised people. Congenital transmission generally occurs at low frequencies. In this study, we use PCR to investigate possible congenital transmission of T. gondii during pregnancy in a cohort of mothers from Libya. METHODS: Two hundred and seventy two pregnant women (producing 276 neonates) were recruited to obtain umbilical cord tissue from their neonates at birth; DNA was extracted from that tissue and tested for T...
September 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794095/evaluation-of-anti-cathepsin-l1-a-more-reliable-method-for-serodiagnosis-of-human-fasciolosis
#12
Kobra Mokhtarian, Lame Akhlaghi, Mohsen Mohammadi, Ahmad Reza Meamar, Elham Razmjou, Majid Khoshmirsafa, Reza Falak
BACKGROUND: Coprological examinations are commonly used for diagnosis of fasciolosis. However, these methods are not useful during the acute phase of the infection and also show poor sensitivity during its chronic phase. In this study we compared the immunoreactivity of the native and recombinant forms of Fasciola hepatica excretory/secretory antigens and determined the most appropriate one for development of F. hepatica-specific immunoassays. METHODS: The coding sequences of previously-determined immunogenic proteins including cathepsin L1 (CL1), fatty acid binding protein (FABP) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were cloned and expressed in E...
September 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794094/neurocysticercosis-in-bhutan-a-cross-sectional-study-in-people-with-epilepsy
#13
Kate Brizzi, Sonam Pelden, Tshokey Tshokey, Damber K Nirola, Megan B Diamond, Joshua P Klein, Lhab Tshering, Sonam Deki, Dechen Nidup, Veronica Bruno, Pierre Dorny, Hector Hugo Garcia, Farrah J Mateen
BACKGROUND: We sought to provide an assessment of the burden of neurocysticercosis among people with epilepsy (PWE) in Bhutan and evaluate the yield of various tests for Taenia solium. METHODS: PWE were enrolled at the National Referral Hospital in Thimphu (2014-2015). Serum was tested for anti-Taenia solium IgG using ELISA (Ab-ELISA), enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB), and parasite antigen. Results were compared to brain MRI. Participants were categorized as definite neurocysticercosis (MRI and EITB positive), probable neurocysticercosis (MRI or EITB positive), or without neurocysticercosis...
September 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794093/verbal-autopsy-assigned-causes-of-death-among-adults-being-investigated-for-tb-in-south-africa
#14
Noriah Maraba, Aaron S Karat, Kerrigan McCarthy, Gavin J Churchyard, Salome Charalambous, Kathleen Kahn, Alison D Grant, Violet Chihota
BACKGROUND: Adults being investigated for TB in South Africa experience high mortality, yet causes of death (CoD) are not well defined. We determined CoD in this population using verbal autopsy (VA), and compared HIV- and TB-associated CoD using physician-certified verbal autopsy (PCVA) and InterVA-4 software. METHODS: All contactable consenting caregivers of participants who died during a trial comparing Xpert MTB/RIF to smear microscopy were interviewed using the WHO VA tool...
September 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794092/biomedical-technologies-for-the-prevention-of-sexually-transmitted-infections-and-hiv-for-adolescent-girls-and-young-women
#15
EDITORIAL
Manjulaa Narasimhan, Sten H Vermund, Gina Ogilvie
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638038/xpert-mtb-rif-why-the-lack-of-morbidity-and-mortality-impact-in-intervention-trials
#16
Andrew F Auld, Katherine L Fielding, Ankur Gupta-Wright, Stephen D Lawn
Compared with smear microscopy, the Xpert MTB/RIF assay (Xpert), with superior accuracy and capacity to diagnose rifampicin resistance, has advanced TB diagnostic capability. However, recent trials of Xpert impact have not demonstrated reductions in patient morbidity and mortality. We conducted a narrative review of Xpert impact trials to summarize which patient-relevant outcomes Xpert has improved and explore reasons for no observed morbidity or mortality reductions. We searched PubMed, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library and Embase and identified eight trials meeting inclusion criteria: three individually randomized, three cluster-randomized, and two pre-post trials...
August 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618924/geographical-and-temporal-trends-in-imported-infections-from-the-tropics-requiring-inpatient-care-at-the-hospital-for-tropical-diseases-london-a-15-year-study
#17
Michael Marks, Margaret Armstrong, Christopher J M Whitty, Justin F Doherty
BACKGROUND: Understanding geographic and temporal trends in imported infections is key to the management of unwell travellers. Many tropical infections can be managed as outpatients, with admission reserved for severe cases. METHODS: We prospectively recorded the diagnosis and travel history of patients admitted between 2000 and 2015. We describe the common tropical and non-tropical infectious diseases and how these varied based on region, reason for travel and over time...
August 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618923/predictors-of-in-hospital-mortality-and-length-of-stay-in-community-acquired-pneumonia-a-5-year-multi-centre-case-control-study-of-adults-in-a-developing-country
#18
Michael O Iroezindu, Godsent C Isiguzo, Emmanuel I Chima, Godwin C Mbata, Kenneth I Onyedibe, Cajetan C Onyedum, Obiageli J John-Maduagwu, Leo E Okoli, Ekenechukwu E Young
BACKGROUND: We investigated predictors of in-hospital mortality and length of hospital stay among adults with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in Nigeria in order to provide recommendations to improve CAP outcomes in developing countries. METHODS: This was a multi-centre case control study of patients ≥18 years who were admitted with CAP between 2008 and 2012. Case notes of 100 consecutive patients who died (cases) and random sample of 300 patients discharged (controls) were selected...
August 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618922/hepatitis-c-treatment-outcomes-using-interferon-and-ribavirin-based-therapy-in-kigali-rwanda
#19
David J Riedel, Simone Taylor, Raulina Simango, Athanase Kiromera, Jackson Sebeza, Cyprien Baribwira, Emmanuel Musabeyezu
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment data in sub-Saharan Africa are limited. This study was to determine HCV sustained virologic response(SVR) at 24 weeks in patients undergoing HCV therapy in Kigali, Rwanda. METHODS: The paper presents data for all patients treated for HCV with ribavirin/interferon at King Faisal Hospital in Kigali, Rwanda, from 1 January 2007 to 31 December 2014. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: There were 69 evaluable patients...
August 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618921/effect-of-recombinant-malarial-antigen-on-monocyte-functionality
#20
Abhik Saha, Sejal Chauhan, Tamishraha Bagchi
BACKGROUND: Recombinant proteins and vaccine candidates of Plasmodium vivax have met with limited success. One of the reasons could be their effect on monocytes which are important in malaria pathogenesis. Our aim was therefore to investigate the effect of selected recombinant malarial proteins on monocytes functions. METHODS: Phagocytosis rate and respiratory burst of healthy individuals' monocytes treated with antigens were examined. The homing capacity of monocytes was studied by examining the mRNA level of chemokine receptors from patients and healthy individuals...
August 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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