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Aaron Scott, Sebastian T Lugg, Kerrie Aldridge, Keir E Lewis, Allen Bowden, Rahul Y Mahida, Frances Susanna Grudzinska, Davinder Dosanjh, Dhruv Parekh, Robert Foronjy, Elizabeth Sapey, Babu Naidu, David R Thickett
OBJECTIVE: Vaping may increase the cytotoxic effects of e-cigarette liquid (ECL). We compared the effect of unvaped ECL to e-cigarette vapour condensate (ECVC) on alveolar macrophage (AM) function. METHODS: AMs were treated with ECVC and nicotine-free ECVC (nfECVC). AM viability, apoptosis, necrosis, cytokine, chemokine and protease release, reactive oxygen species (ROS) release and bacterial phagocytosis were assessed. RESULTS: Macrophage culture with ECL or ECVC resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in cell viability...
August 13, 2018: Thorax
Aurélien Belot, Helen Fowler, Edmund Njeru Njagi, Miguel-Angel Luque-Fernandez, Camille Maringe, Winnie Magadi, Aimilia Exarchakou, Manuela Quaresma, Adrian Turculet, Michael D Peake, Neal Navani, Bernard Rachet
INTRODUCTION: We investigated socioeconomic disparities and the role of the main prognostic factors in receiving major surgical treatment in patients with lung cancer in England. METHODS: Our study comprised 31 351 patients diagnosed with non-small cell lung cancer in England in 2012. Data from the national population-based cancer registry were linked to Hospital Episode Statistics and National Lung Cancer Audit data to obtain information on stage, performance status and comorbidities, and to identify patients receiving major surgical treatment...
August 12, 2018: Thorax
Sarah Crook, Noriane A Sievi, Konrad E Bloch, John R Stradling, Anja Frei, Milo A Puhan, Malcolm Kohler
BACKGROUND: The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) is a widely used tool for assessing sleepiness in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). We aimed to estimate the minimal important difference (MID) in patients with OSA. METHODS: We used individual data from three randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in patients with OSA where the preintervention to postintervention change in ESS was used as a primary outcome. We used anchor-based linear regression and responder analysis approaches to estimate the MID...
August 12, 2018: Thorax
Dominick E Shaw
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 12, 2018: Thorax
Karin J C Sanders, Karin Klooster, Lowie E G W Vanfleteren, Dirk-Jan Slebos, Annemie M W J Schols
Muscle wasting frequently occurs in severe emphysema. Improving respiratory mechanics by bronchoscopic lung volume reduction using endobronchial valves (EBV) might prevent further loss or even increase in muscle mass. CT-derived skeletal muscle mass gain was observed in 39/49 patients 6 months after EBV. Multiple linear regression showed that gain in muscle (β=2.4; 95% CI 0.2 to 4.6; p=0.036) and intramuscular fat (β=3.1; 95% CI 0.2 to 5.9; p=0.035) is associated with improved 6 min walk distance independent of the change in residual volume...
August 12, 2018: Thorax
Michael D Peake, Neal Navani, David R Baldwin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 10, 2018: Thorax
Jeonghyun Park, Seonguk Kim, Hyungsun Lim, Airan Liu, Shuling Hu, JaeHoon Lee, Hanjing Zhuo, Qi Hao, Michael A Matthay, Jae-W Lee
BACKGROUND: We previously reported that microvesicles (MVs) released by human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) were as effective as the cells themselves in both Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide and live bacteria-induced acute lung injury (ALI) mice models. However, it remained unclear whether the biological effect of MSC MV can be applied to human ALI. METHODS: In the current study, we tested the therapeutic effects of MSC MVs in a well-established ex vivo perfused human model of bacterial pneumonia...
August 3, 2018: Thorax
Nuria Tarraubella, Manuel Sánchez-de-la-Torre, Nuria Nadal, Jordi De Batlle, Iván Benítez, Anunciación Cortijo, Maria Cruz Urgelés, Virginia Sanchez, Iñigo Lorente, M Mercé Lavega, Araceli Fuentes, Joan Clotet, Laia Llort, Lidia Vilo, M Carmen Juni, Aurelia Juarez, Maribel Gracia, Anabel L Castro-Grattoni, Lydia Pascual, Olga Minguez, Juan F Masa, Ferran Barbé
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of primary care (PC) and sleep unit (SU) models for the management of subjects with suspected obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). METHODS: Multicentre, open-label, two-arm, parallel-group, non-inferiority randomised controlled trial. A total of 302 subjects with suspected OSA and/or resistant hypertension were consecutively enrolled, 149 were treated at 11 PC units and 153 patients at a SU. The primary outcomes were a 6-month change in the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) score and Health Utilities Index (HUI)...
July 31, 2018: Thorax
Maribel Casas, Herman T den Dekker, Claudia J Kruithof, Irwin K Reiss, Martine Vrijheid, Jordi Sunyer, Johan C de Jongste, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Liesbeth Duijts
BACKGROUND: Infant weight gain is associated with lower lung function and a higher risk of childhood asthma. Detailed individual childhood growth patterns might be better predictors of childhood respiratory morbidity than the difference between two weight and height measurements. We assessed the associations of early childhood growth patterns with lung function and asthma at the age of 10 years and whether the child's current body mass index (BMI) influenced any association. METHODS: We derived peak height and weight growth velocity, BMI at adiposity peak, and age at adiposity peak from longitudinally measured weight and height data in the first 3 years of life of 4435 children enrolled in a population-based prospective cohort study...
July 31, 2018: Thorax
Emma M Pinder, Anthony J Rostron, Thomas P Hellyer, Marie-Helene Ruchaud-Sparagano, Jonathan Scott, James G Macfarlane, Sarah Wiscombe, John D Widdrington, Alistair I Roy, Vanessa C Linnett, Simon V Baudouin, Stephen E Wright, Thomas Chadwick, Tony Fouweather, Jatinder K Juss, Edwin R Chilvers, Susan A Bowett, Jennie Parker, Daniel F McAuley, Andrew Conway Morris, A John Simpson
BACKGROUND: Critically ill patients with impaired neutrophil phagocytosis have significantly increased risk of nosocomial infection. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) improves phagocytosis by neutrophils ex vivo. This study tested the hypothesis that GM-CSF improves neutrophil phagocytosis in critically ill patients in whom phagocytosis is known to be impaired. METHODS: This was a multicentre, phase IIa randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial...
July 31, 2018: Thorax
Catherine H Miele, Matthew R Grigsby, Trishul Siddharthan, Robert H Gilman, J Jaime Miranda, Antonio Bernabe-Ortiz, Robert A Wise, William Checkley
BACKGROUND: Chronic lung disease is a leading contributor to the global disease burden; however, beyond tobacco smoke, we do not fully understand what risk factors contribute to lung function decline in low-income and middle-income countries. METHODS: We collected sociodemographic and clinical data in a randomly selected, age-stratified, sex-stratified and site-stratified population-based sample of 3048 adults aged ≥35 years from four resource-poor settings in Peru...
July 30, 2018: Thorax
Arlene M Butz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 26, 2018: Thorax
Chanel M Wood, Christopher J McLeod, Pragnesh P Parikh, Carlos A Rojas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 24, 2018: Thorax
Marie Joyeux-Faure, Renaud Tamisier, Jean-Christian Borel, Sandrine Millasseau, Louis-Marie Galerneau, Marie Destors, Sébastien Bailly, Jean Louis Pepin
BACKGROUND: Arterial stiffness, measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV), is a strong independent predictor of late cardiovascular events and mortality. It is recognised that obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is associated with cardiovascular comorbidities and mortality. Although previous meta-analyses concluded that PWV is elevated in OSA, we feel that an individual patient data analysis from nine relatively homogeneous studies could help answer: to what extent does OSA drive arterial stiffness? METHODS: Individual data from well-characterised patients referred for suspicion of OSA, included in nine studies in which carotid-femoral PWV was measured using a Complior device, were merged for an individual patient data meta-analysis...
July 21, 2018: Thorax
Siyang Zeng, Andrea Tham, Bruce Bos, Joan Jin, Brian Giang, Mehrdad Arjomandi
BACKGROUND: Abnormal lung volumes that reflect air trapping are common in COPD. However, their significance in smokers with preserved spirometry (normal FEV1 to FVC ratio) is unclear. METHODS: Using the Veterans Administration Informatics and Computing Infrastructure database, we identified 7479 patients at risk for COPD (ever smokers >40 years of age without restrictive lung disease) who had preserved spirometry and concomitant lung volume measurements, and examined their subsequent health records for clinical diagnoses of COPD, healthcare utilisation, follow-up spirometry and mortality...
July 20, 2018: Thorax
Daniela K Schlüter, Rowena Griffiths, Abdulfatah Adam, Ashley Akbari, Martin L Heaven, Shantini Paranjothy, Anne-Marie Nybo Andersen, Siobhán B Carr, Tania Pressler, Peter J Diggle, David Taylor-Robinson
BACKGROUND: Poor growth during infancy and childhood is a characteristic feature of cystic fibrosis (CF). However, the impact of CF on intrauterine growth is unclear. We studied the effect of CF on birth weight in Denmark and Wales, and assessed whether any associations are due to differences in gestational age at birth. METHODS: We conducted national registry linkage studies in two countries, using data for 2.2 million singletons born in Denmark (between 1980 and 2010) and Wales (between 1998 and 2015)...
July 19, 2018: Thorax
Hooman Mirzakhani, Amal A Al-Garawi, Vincent J Carey, Weiliang Qiu, Augusto A Litonjua, Scott T Weiss
Cord blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) has been reported in association with risk of early life recurrent wheeze. In a subset of infants who participated in the Vitamin D Antenatal Asthma Reduction Trial, we demonstrated that higher cord blood 25OHD at birth (>31 ng/mL) was associated with a reduced risk of recurrent wheeze in the first year of life. We then identified a module of co-expressed genes associated with cord blood 25OHD levels >31 ng/mL. Genes in this module are involved in biological and immune pathways related to development and progression of asthma pathogenesis including the Notch1 and transforming growth factor-beta signalling pathways...
July 18, 2018: Thorax
Ruth Semprini, Nick Shortt, Stefan Ebmeier, Alex Semprini, Rachel Varughese, Cecile T J Holweg, John G Matthews, James Fingleton, Mark Weatherall, Richard Beasley, Irene Braithwaite
We investigated the time course of change of type-2 asthma biomarkers after a severe asthma exacerbation. Blood eosinophils were lowest immediately after treatment was initiated (0.07 vs 0.33×109 /L, p<0.001) while serum IgE levels were at their highest (339 vs 249 U/L, p<0.001). Fractional exhaled Nitric Oxide levels were lowest 2 weeks after treatment (23 vs 33 ppb, p=0.06) and serum periostin levels were lowest 1 week after treatment (45·9 vs 50·9 ng/mL, p<0.001). A delay of 4-8 weeks following a severe exacerbation is required if these biomarkers are used to guide the ongoing management of patients with asthma...
July 18, 2018: Thorax
Caroline J Lodge, Adrian J Lowe, Shyamali C Dharmage
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 13, 2018: Thorax
Yaxun Jing, Joao Antonio Gimenes, Rahul Mishra, Duc Pham, Adam T Comstock, Daohai Yu, Umadevi Sajjan
RATIONALE: Goblet cell hyperplasia (GCH) is one of the cardinal features of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and contributes to airways obstruction. Rhinovirus (RV), which causes acute exacerbations in patients with COPD, also causes prolonged airways obstruction. Previously, we showed that RV enhances mucin gene expression and increases goblet cell number in a COPD mouse model. This study examines whether RV causes sustained GCH in relevant models of COPD. METHODS: Mucociliary-differentiated COPD and normal airway epithelial cell cultures and mice with normal or COPD phenotype were infected with RV or sham and examined for GCH by immunofluorescence and/or mucin gene expression...
July 10, 2018: Thorax
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