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Maria Christine Magnus, Øystein Karlstad, Christine Louise Parr, Christian M Page, Per Nafstad, Per Magnus, Stephanie J London, Allen J Wilcox, Wenche Nystad, Siri Eldevik Håberg
BACKGROUND: It remains unclear what underlies the greater risk of asthma reported among children conceived by assisted reproductive technologies (ART). OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to clarify the role of parental subfertility and unmeasured confounding on the association between ART and childhood asthma, and to examine the possibility for common mechanisms underlying parental subfertility and miscarriages influencing asthma pathogenesis. METHODS: We used data from national Norwegian health registries (n=474 402) and the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) (n=75 797)...
December 4, 2018: Thorax
Peter G Gibson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 4, 2018: Thorax
Lisa Jane Brighton, Sophie Miller, Morag Farquhar, Sara Booth, Deokhee Yi, Wei Gao, Sabrina Bajwah, William D-C Man, Irene J Higginson, Matthew Maddocks
BACKGROUND: Breathlessness is a common, distressing symptom in people with advanced disease and a marker of deterioration. Holistic services that draw on integrated palliative care have been developed for this group. This systematic review aimed to examine the outcomes, experiences and therapeutic components of these services. METHODS: Systematic review searching nine databases to June 2017 for experimental, qualitative and observational studies. Eligibility and quality were independently assessed by two authors...
November 29, 2018: Thorax
Lars Harbaum, Pavandeep Ghataorhe, John Wharton, Beatriz Jiménez, Luke S G Howard, J Simon R Gibbs, Jeremy K Nicholson, Christopher J Rhodes, Martin R Wilkins
BACKGROUND: Aberrant lipoprotein metabolism has been implicated in experimental pulmonary hypertension, but the relevance to patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between circulating lipoprotein subclasses and survival in patients with PAH. METHODS: Using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, 105 discrete lipoproteins were measured in plasma samples from two cohorts of patients with idiopathic or heritable PAH...
November 26, 2018: Thorax
Elena Martínez-Terroba, Carmen Behrens, Jackeline Agorreta, Eduard Monsó, Laura Millares, Enriqueta Felip, Rafael Rosell, José Luis Ramirez, Ana Remirez, Wenceslao Torre, Ignacio Gil-Bazo, Miguel A Idoate, Juan P de-Torres, Ruben Pio, Ignacio I Wistuba, María J Pajares, Luis M Montuenga
INTRODUCTION: Prognostic biomarkers have been very elusive in the lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and none is currently being used in the clinical setting. We aimed to identify and validate the clinical utility of a protein-based prognostic signature to stratify patients with early lung SCC according to their risk of recurrence or death. METHODS: Patients were staged following the new International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) staging criteria (eighth edition, 2018)...
November 24, 2018: Thorax
Keith C Meyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 16, 2018: Thorax
Anthony A Laverty, Filippos T Filippidis, David Taylor-Robinson, Christopher Millett, Andrew Bush, Nicholas S Hopkinson
We used data from 11 577 children in the UK Millennium Cohort Study, collected at approximately 14 years of age (early teens), to assess characteristics associated with smoking, and generated regional estimates of numbers of smokers. 13.8% of UK early teens studied had ever smoked; 1.9% were current smokers. This corresponds to 2 28 136 and 39 653 (13-14 year olds) in the UK, respectively. Ever smoking risk increased if caregivers (26.0% vs 10.9%) or friends smoked (35.1% vs 4.0%), with a dose-response effect for friends' smoking...
November 15, 2018: Thorax
Andrew James Boyle, Cecilia M O'Kane, Daniel Francis McAuley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 12, 2018: Thorax
Kamila Romanowski, Robert F Balshaw, Andrea Benedetti, Jonathon R Campbell, Dick Menzies, Faiz Ahmad Khan, James C Johnston
BACKGROUND: Relapse continues to place significant burden on patients and tuberculosis (TB) programmes worldwide. We aimed to determine clinical and microbiological factors associated with relapse in patients treated with the WHO standard 6-month regimen and then evaluate the accuracy of each factor at predicting an outcome of relapse. METHODS: A systematic review was performed to identify randomised controlled trials reporting treatment outcomes on patients receiving the standard regimen...
November 12, 2018: Thorax
Phil A Crosbie, Haval Balata, Matthew Evison, Melanie Atack, Val Bayliss-Brideaux, Denis Colligan, Rebecca Duerden, Josephine Eaglesfield, Timothy Edwards, Peter Elton, Julie Foster, Melanie Greaves, Graham Hayler, Coral Higgins, John Howells, Klaus Irion, Devinda Karunaratne, Jodie Kelly, Zoe King, Judith Lyons, Sarah Manson, Stuart Mellor, Donna Miller, Amanda Myerscough, Tom Newton, Michelle O'Leary, Rachel Pearson, Julie Pickford, Richard Sawyer, Nick J Screaton, Anna Sharman, Maggi Simmons, Elaine Smith, Ben Taylor, Sarah Taylor, Anna Walsham, Angela Watts, James Whittaker, Laura Yarnell, Anthony Threlfall, Phil V Barber, Janet Tonge, Richard Booton
We report results from the second annual screening round (T1) of Manchester's 'Lung Health Check' pilot of community-based lung cancer screening in deprived areas (undertaken June to August 2017). Screening adherence was 90% (n=1194/1323): 92% of CT scans were classified negative, 6% indeterminate and 2.5% positive; there were no interval cancers. Lung cancer incidence was 1.6% (n=19), 79% stage I, treatments included surgery (42%, n=9), stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (26%, n=5) and radical radiotherapy (5%, n=1)...
November 12, 2018: Thorax
Nicholas D Weatherley, Neil J Stewart, Ho-Fung Chan, Matthew Austin, Laurie J Smith, Guilhem Collier, Madhwesha Rao, Helen Marshall, Graham Norquay, Stephen A Renshaw, Stephen Mark Bianchi, Jim M Wild
Prognosticating idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is challenging, in part due to a lack of sensitive biomarkers. A recent article in Thorax described how hyperpolarised xenon magnetic resonance spectroscopy may quantify regional gas exchange in IPF lungs. In a population of patients with IPF, we find that the xenon signal from red blood cells diminishes relative to the tissue/plasma signal over a 12-month time period, even when the diffusion factor for carbon monoxide is static over the same time period. We conclude that hyperpolarised 129 Xe MR spectroscopy may be sensitive to short-term changes in interstitial gas diffusion in IPF...
November 2, 2018: Thorax
Raquel Herrero, Lucia Prados, Antonio Ferruelo, Ferranda Puig, Rachele Pandolfi, Raquel Guillamat-Prats, Laura Moreno, Gustavo Matute-Bello, Antonio Artigas, Andres Esteban, José Ángel Lorente
Background: The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by protein-rich oedema in the alveolar spaces, a feature in which Fas-mediated apoptosis of the alveolar epithelium has been involved. Objective: To determine whether Fas activation increases protein permeability by mechanisms involving disruption of the paracellular tight junction (TJ) proteins in the pulmonary alveoli. Methods: Protein permeability and the expression of TJ proteins were assessed in vivo in wild-type and Fas-deficient lpr mice 16 hours after the intratracheal instillation of recombinant human soluble Fas ligand (rh-sFasL), and at different time points in vitro in human pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells (HPAEpiC) exposed to rh-sFasL Results: Activation of the Fas pathway increased protein permeability in mouse lungs and altered the expression of the TJ proteins occludin and zonula occludens-1 in the alveolar-capillary membrane in vivo and in human alveolar epithelial cell monolayers in vitro...
November 1, 2018: Thorax
Onno M Mets, Cornelia M Schaefer-Prokop, Pim A de Jong
Overall survival of patients with cancer continues to increase and so they receive more frequent CT imaging, making oncological patients a growing population that effectively receives lung cancer screening in the course of daily practice. However, it is currently uncertain how early lung cancer detection in this subgroup of patients should be optimally managed. We describe the relationship between primary lung cancer and prior malignancies in a nationwide cohort, in an attempt to identify possible areas of improvement in nodule management...
November 1, 2018: Thorax
Daniel R Calabrese, Lewis L Lanier, John R Greenland
Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphoid cells that have been increasingly recognised as important in lung allograft tolerance and immune defence. These cells evolved to recognise alterations in self through a diverse set of germline-encoded activating and inhibitory receptors and display a broad range of effector functions that play important roles in responding to infections, malignancies and allogeneic tissue. Here, we review NK cells, their diverse receptors and the mechanisms through which NK cells are postulated to mediate important lung transplant clinical outcomes...
October 31, 2018: Thorax
Helen A Powell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 31, 2018: Thorax
Sylvain Recoquillon, Jean-Louis Pépin, Bruno Vielle, Ramaroson Andriantsitohaina, Vanessa Bironneau, Frédérique Chouet-Girard, Bernard Fleury, François Goupil, Sandrine Launois, M Carmen Martinez, Nicole Meslier, Xuan-Lan Nguyen, Audrey Paris, Pascaline Priou, Renaud Tamisier, Wojciech Trzepizur, Frédéric Gagnadoux
Systemic inflammation and metabolic disorders are among the mechanisms linking obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). In 109 patients with severe OSA and no overt CVD, biomarkers of inflammation (C reactive protein, interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor-α and its receptors, adiponectin, leptin and P-selectin), glucose and lipid metabolism, and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, were measured before and after 2 months of treatment with a mandibular advancement device (MAD) (n=55) or a sham device (n=54)...
October 26, 2018: Thorax
John E McDonough, Naftali Kaminski, Bernard Thienpont, James C Hogg, Bart M Vanaudenaerde, Wim A Wuyts
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a severe lung disease characterised by extensive pathological changes. The objective for this study was to identify the gene network and regulators underlying disease pathology in IPF and its association with lung function. METHODS: Lung Tissue Research Consortium dataset with 262 IPF and control subjects (GSE47460) was randomly divided into two non-overlapping groups for cross-validated differential gene expression analysis...
October 26, 2018: Thorax
Germaine Hanquet, Pavla Krizova, Palle Valentiner-Branth, Shamez N Ladhani, J Pekka Nuorti, Agnes Lepoutre, Jolita Mereckiene, Mirjam Knol, Brita A Winje, Pilar Ciruela, Maria Ordobas, Marcela Guevara, Eisin McDonald, Eva Morfeldt, Jana Kozakova, Hans-Christian Slotved, Norman K Fry, Hanna Rinta-Kokko, Emmanuelle Varon, Mary Corcoran, Arie van der Ende, Didrik F Vestrheim, Carmen Munoz-Almagro, Pello Latasa, Jesus Castilla, Andrew Smith, Birgitta Henriques-Normark, Robert Whittaker, Lucia Pastore Celentano, Camelia Savulescu
BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have the potential to prevent pneumococcal disease through direct and indirect protection. This multicentre European study estimated the indirect effects of 5-year childhood PCV10 and/or PCV13 programmes on invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in older adults across 13 sites in 10 European countries, to support decision-making on pneumococcal vaccination policies. METHODS: For each site we calculated IPD incidence rate ratios (IRR) in people aged ≥65 years by serotype for each PCV10/13 year (2011-2015) compared with 2009 (pre-PCV10/13)...
October 24, 2018: Thorax
Rob J Hallifax, Magda Laskawiec-Szkonter, Najib M Rahman
The initial treatment regime for primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) is generic and non-personalised, often involving a long hospital stay waiting for air leak to cease. This prospective study of 81 patients with PSP, who required drain insertion, captured daily digital air leak measurements and assessed failure of medical management against prespecified criteria. Patients with higher air leak at day 1 or 2 had significantly longer hospital stay. If air leak was ≥100 mL/min on day 1, the adjusted OR of treatment failure was 5...
October 24, 2018: Thorax
Mejbah Uddin Bhuiyan, Thomas L Snelling, Rachel West, Jurissa Lang, Tasmina Rahman, Caitlyn Granland, Camilla de Gier, Meredith L Borland, Ruth B Thornton, Lea-Ann S Kirkham, Chisha Sikazwe, Andrew C Martin, Peter C Richmond, David W Smith, Adam Jaffe, Christopher C Blyth
INTRODUCTION: Respiratory pathogens associated with childhood pneumonia are often detected in the upper respiratory tract of healthy children, making their contribution to pneumonia difficult to determine. We aimed to determine the contribution of common pathogens to pneumonia adjusting for rates of asymptomatic detection to inform future diagnosis, treatment and preventive strategies. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted among children <18 years in Perth, Western Australia...
October 18, 2018: Thorax
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