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Thorax

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907664/ventilation-inhomogeneity-in-infants-with-recurrent-wheezing
#1
Zihang Lu, Rachel E Foong, Krzysztof Kowalik, Theo J Moraes, Ayanna Boyce, Aimee Dubeau, Susan Balkovec, Per Magnus Gustafsson, Allan B Becker, Piush J Mandhane, Stuart E Turvey, Wendy Lou, Felix Ratjen, Malcolm Sears, Padmaja Subbarao
BACKGROUND: The care of infants with recurrent wheezing relies largely on clinical assessment. The lung clearance index (LCI), a measure of ventilation inhomogeneity, is a sensitive marker of early airway disease in children with cystic fibrosis, but its utility has not been explored in infants with recurrent wheezing. OBJECTIVE: To assess ventilation inhomogeneity using LCI among infants with a history of recurrent wheezing compared with healthy controls. METHODS: This is a case-control study, including 37 infants with recurrent wheezing recruited from outpatient clinics, and 113 healthy infants from a longitudinal birth cohort, the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development study...
June 15, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903755/severity-scoring-of-lung-oedema-on-the-chest-radiograph-is-associated-with-clinical-outcomes-in-ards
#2
Melissa A Warren, Zhiguou Zhao, Tatsuki Koyama, Julie A Bastarache, Ciara M Shaver, Matthew W Semler, Todd W Rice, Michael A Matthay, Carolyn S Calfee, Lorraine B Ware
BACKGROUND: There is no accurate, non-invasive measurement to estimate the degree of pulmonary oedema in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We developed the Radiographic Assessment of Lung Oedema (RALE) score to evaluate the extent and density of alveolar opacities on chest radiographs. After first comparing the RALE score to gravimetric assessment of pulmonary oedema in organ donors, we then evaluated the RALE score in patients with ARDS for its relationship to oxygenation and clinical outcomes...
June 14, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903754/review-of-the-british-thoracic-society-winter-meeting-2017-6-8-december-2017-london-uk
#3
Aran Singanayagam, Hannah V Woodcock, Philip L Molyneaux, Gisli Jenkins
This article reviews the British Thoracic Society Winter Meeting 2017 and summarises the new developments in scientific and clinical research across the breadth of respiratory medicine. The article discusses a number of symposia and selected abstract presentations from the meeting.
June 14, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899038/secondhand-smoke-exposure-and-asthma-outcomes-among-african-american-and-latino-children-with-asthma
#4
Andreas M Neophytou, Sam S Oh, Marquitta J White, Angel C Y Mak, Donglei Hu, Scott Huntsman, Celeste Eng, Denise Serebrisky, Luisa N Borrell, Harold J Farber, Kelley Meade, Adam Davis, Pedro C Avila, Shannon M Thyne, William Rodríguez-Cintrón, José R Rodríguez-Santana, Rajesh Kumar, Emerita Brigino-Buenaventura, Saunak Sen, Michael A Lenoir, L Keoki Williams, Neal L Benowitz, John R Balmes, Ellen A Eisen, Esteban G Burchard
BACKGROUND: Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposures have been linked to asthma-related outcomes but quantitative dose-responses using biomarkers of exposure have not been widely reported. OBJECTIVES: Assess dose-response relationships between plasma cotinine-determined SHS exposure and asthma outcomes in minority children, a vulnerable population exposed to higher levels of SHS and under-represented in the literature. METHODS: We performed analyses in 1172 Latino and African-American children with asthma from the mainland USA and Puerto Rico...
June 13, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886416/role-of-habit-in-treatment-adherence-among-adults-with-cystic-fibrosis
#5
Zhe Hui Hoo, Benjamin Gardner, Madelynne A Arden, Simon Waterhouse, Stephen J Walters, Michael J Campbell, Daniel Hind, Chin Maguire, Jane Dewar, Martin J Wildman
Among adults with cystic fibrosis (CF), medication adherence is low and reasons for low adherence are poorly understood. Our previous exploratory study showed that stronger 'habit' (ie, automatically experiencing an urge to use a nebuliser) was associated with higher nebuliser adherence. We performed a secondary analysis of pilot trial data (n=61) to replicate the earlier study and determine whether habit-adherence association exists in other cohorts of adults with CF. In this study, high adherers also reported stronger habit compared with low adherers...
June 9, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29884625/contralateral-recurrence-of-inflammatory-myofibroblastic-tumour-of-the-lung-10-years-after-pneumonectomy
#6
Daniel C Vis, Margaret M Kelly, Andrew G Lee, Gary Gelfand, Kerri A Johannson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 8, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29880538/restrictive-lung-defects-parenchymal-chest-wall-and-neuromuscular
#7
Anne-Marie Shanks, Sujal R Desai, Alexandra Rice, Stephen R Thomas, Michael I Polkey, Peter M George
Sarcoidosis is a multisystem condition which may affect a number of organs and, within the cardiopulmonary system, most commonly manifests as parenchymal, airway-centred, nodal, vascular or cardiac disease. Pleural involvement is rare, but well described, and often presents as pleural effusions or pleural thickening. Here, we present the first case of active sarcoidosis manifesting as bilateral pleural calcification. We highlight the importance of a nuanced understanding of pulmonary physiology when dissecting coexistent extrathoracic and intrathoracic pulmonary restriction...
June 7, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29871982/at-risk-children-with-asthma-arc-a-systematic-review
#8
Audrey Buelo, Susannah McLean, Steven Julious, Javier Flores-Kim, Andy Bush, John Henderson, James Y Paton, Aziz Sheikh, Michael Shields, Hilary Pinnock
INTRODUCTION: Asthma attacks are responsible for considerable morbidity and may be fatal. We aimed to identify and weight risk factors for asthma attacks in children (5-12 years) in order to inform and prioritise care. METHODS: We systematically searched six databases (May 2016; updated with forward citations January 2017) with no language/date restrictions. Two reviewers independently selected studies for inclusion, assessed study quality and extracted data. Heterogeneity precluded meta-analysis...
June 5, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29858277/tailoring-asthma-treatment-on-eosinophilic-markers-exhaled-nitric-oxide-or-sputum-eosinophils-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
Helen L Petsky, Chris J Cates, Kayleigh M Kew, Anne B Chang
BACKGROUND: Asthma guidelines guide health practitioners to adjust treatments to the minimum level required for asthma control. As many people with asthma have an eosinophilic endotype, tailoring asthma medications based on airway eosinophilic levels (sputum eosinophils or exhaled nitric oxide, FeNO) may improve asthma outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To synthesise the evidence from our updated Cochrane systematic reviews, for tailoring asthma medication based on eosinophilic inflammatory markers (sputum analysis and FeNO) for improving asthma-related outcomes in children and adults...
June 1, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29853649/immunomodulatory-innate-defence-regulator-idr-peptide-alleviates-airway-inflammation-and-hyper-responsiveness
#10
Hadeesha Piyadasa, Mahadevappa Hemshekhar, Anthony Altieri, Sujata Basu, Anne M van der Does, Andrew J Halayko, Pieter S Hiemstra, Neeloffer Mookherjee
BACKGROUND: Exacerbation in asthma is associated with decreased expression of specific host defence peptides (HDPs) in the lungs. We examined the effects of a synthetic derivative of HDP, innate defence regulator (IDR) peptide IDR-1002, in house dust mite (HDM)-challenged murine model of asthma, in interleukin (IL)-33-challenged mice and in human primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBECs). METHODS: IDR-1002 (6 mg/kg per mouse) was administered (subcutaneously) in HDM-challenged and/or IL-33-challenged BALB/c mice...
May 31, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29804091/breast-feeding-in-infancy-and-recurrent-cough-in-adulthood-the-longer-the-better
#11
EDITORIAL
Erick Forno
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 26, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793970/effects-of-mindfulness-training-programmes-delivered-by-a-self-directed-mobile-app-and-by-telephone-compared-with-an-education-programme-for-survivors-of-critical-illness-a-pilot-randomised-clinical-trial
#12
Christopher E Cox, Catherine L Hough, Derek M Jones, Anna Ungar, Wen Reagan, Mary D Key, Tina Gremore, Maren K Olsen, Linda Sanders, Jeffrey M Greeson, Laura S Porter
BACKGROUND: Patients who are sick enough to be admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) commonly experience symptoms of psychological distress after discharge, yet few effective therapies have been applied to meet their needs. METHODS: Pilot randomised clinical trial with 3-month follow-up conducted at two academic medical centres. Adult (≥18 years) ICU patients treated for cardiorespiratory failure were randomised after discharge home to 1 of 3 month-long interventions: a self-directed mobile app-based mindfulness programme; a therapist-led telephone-based mindfulness programme; or a web-based critical illness education programme...
May 23, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786547/protective-effect-of-breastfeeding-on-recurrent-cough-in-adulthood
#13
Kimberly D Gerhart, Debra A Stern, Stefano Guerra, Wayne J Morgan, Fernando D Martinez, Anne L Wright
RATIONALE: Breastfeeding protects from respiratory infections in early life but its relationship to recurrent cough and other respiratory outcomes in adult life is not well established. METHODS: Infant feeding practices were assessed prospectively in the Tucson Children's Respiratory Study, a non-selected birth cohort and categorised into formula from birth or introduced <1 month, formula introduced ≥1 to <4 months and exclusive breastfeeding for ≥4 months...
May 21, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777062/brock-malignancy-risk-calculator-for-pulmonary-nodules-validation-outside-a-lung-cancer-screening-population
#14
Kaman Chung, Onno M Mets, Paul K Gerke, Colin Jacobs, Annemarie M den Harder, Ernst T Scholten, Mathias Prokop, Pim A de Jong, Bram van Ginneken, Cornelia M Schaefer-Prokop
OBJECTIVE: To assess the performance of the Brock malignancy risk model for pulmonary nodules detected in routine clinical setting. METHODS: In two academic centres in the Netherlands, we established a list of patients aged ≥40 years who received a chest CT scan between 2004 and 2012, resulting in 16 850 and 23 454 eligible subjects. Subsequent diagnosis of lung cancer until the end of 2014 was established through linking with the National Cancer Registry...
May 18, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777061/asthma-in-low-income-and-middle-income-countries-an-urgent-call-to-action
#15
EDITORIAL
J Mark FitzGerald, Khalid Al Efraij
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 18, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764958/diabetes-mellitus-and-latent-tuberculosis-infection-baseline-analysis-of-a-large-uk-cohort
#16
Charlotte Jackson, Jo Southern, Ajit Lalvani, Francis Drobniewski, Chris J Griffiths, Marc Lipman, Graham H Bothamley, Jonathan J Deeks, Ambreen Imran, Onn Min Kon, Sithembinkosi Mpofu, Vladyslav Nikolayevskyy, Melanie Rees-Roberts, Alice Sitch, Saranya Sridhar, Chuen-Yan Tsou, Hilary Whitworth, Ibrahim Abubakar
We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a UK cohort study which enrolled participants at risk of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI, defined as a positive result for either of the two interferon gamma release assays). Binomial regression with a log link was used to estimate crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% CIs for the relationship between diabetes mellitus (DM) and LTBI. Adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, body mass index and the presence of other immunocompromising conditions, DM was associated with a 15% higher prevalence of LTBI (adjusted PR=1...
May 15, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752346/rates-of-asthma-exacerbations-and-mortality-and-associated-factors-in-uganda-a-2-year-prospective-cohort-study
#17
Bruce J Kirenga, Corina de Jong, Levicatus Mugenyi, Winceslaus Katagira, Abdallah Muhofa, Moses R Kamya, H Marike Boezen, Thys van der Molen
Data on asthma treatment outcomes in Africa are limited. 449 patients with asthma (age 5-93 years) in Uganda were followed up for 2 years to determine rates of exacerbations and mortality and associated factors. During follow-up the median number of exacerbations per patient was 1 (IQR 0-5) and 17 patients died (3.7%, 27.3 deaths per 1000 person years). Considering only the first year of follow-up, 59.6% of the patients experienced at least one exacerbation, 32.4% experienced three or more exacerbations. A multivariable model showed that the likelihood of experiencing at least one exacerbation in the first year of follow-up was lower with better baseline asthma control (higher asthma control test (ACT) score), with OR 0...
May 11, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748253/prevalence-estimates-and-risk-factors-for-early-childhood-wheeze-across-europe-the-europrevall-birth-cohort
#18
Anna Selby, Alasdair Munro, Kate E Grimshaw, Victoria Cornelius, Thomas Keil, Linus Grabenhenrich, Michael Clausen, Ruta Dubakiene, Alessandro Fiocchi, Marek L Kowalski, Nikolaos G Papadopoulos, Marta Reche, Sigurveig T Sigurdardottir, Aline B Sprikkelman, Paraskevi Xepapadaki, E N Clare Mills, Kirsten Beyer, Graham Roberts
BACKGROUND: Preschool wheeze is an important problem worldwide. No comparative population-based studies covering different countries have previously been undertaken. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of early childhood wheeze across Europe and evaluate risk factors focusing on food allergy, breast feeding and smoke exposure. METHODS: Infants from nine countries were recruited into the EuroPrevall birth cohort. At 12 and 24 months, data on wheeze, allergic signs/symptoms, feeding, smoke exposure, infections and day care attendance were collected using questionnaires...
May 10, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748252/data-from-the-us-and-uk-cystic-fibrosis-registries-support-disease-modification-by-cftr-modulation-with-ivacaftor
#19
Leona Bessonova, Nataliya Volkova, Mark Higgins, Leif Bengtsson, Simon Tian, Christopher Simard, Michael W Konstan, Gregory S Sawicki, Ase Sewall, Stephen Nyangoma, Alexander Elbert, Bruce C Marshall, Diana Bilton
BACKGROUND: Ivacaftor is the first cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) modulator demonstrating clinical benefit in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). As ivacaftor is intended for chronic, lifelong use, understanding long-term effects is important for patients and healthcare providers. OBJECTIVE: This ongoing, observational, postapproval safety study evaluates clinical outcomes and disease progression in ivacaftor-treated patients using data from the US and the UK CF registries following commercial availability...
May 10, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748251/respiratory-mortality-of-childhood-adolescent-and-young-adult-cancer-survivors
#20
Miranda M Fidler, Raoul C Reulen, Chloe J Bright, Katherine E Henson, Julie S Kelly, Meriel Jenney, Antony Ng, Jeremy Whelan, David L Winter, Clare Frobisher, Michael M Hawkins
BACKGROUND: Exposure to radiation and/or chemotherapy during cancer treatment can compromise respiratory function. We investigated the risk of long-term respiratory mortality among 5-year cancer survivors diagnosed before age 40 years using the British Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (BCCSS) and Teenage and Young Adult Cancer Survivor Study (TYACSS). METHODS: The BCCSS comprises 34 489 cancer survivors diagnosed before 15 years from 1940 to 2006 in Great Britain...
May 10, 2018: Thorax
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