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Thorax

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680821/home-treatment-of-copd-exacerbation-selected-by-decaf-score-a-non-inferiority-randomised-controlled-trial-and-economic-evaluation
#1
Carlos Echevarria, Joanne Gray, Tom Hartley, John Steer, Jonathan Miller, A John Simpson, G John Gibson, Stephen C Bourke
BACKGROUND: Previous models of Hospital at Home (HAH) for COPD exacerbation (ECOPD) were limited by the lack of a reliable prognostic score to guide patient selection. Approximately 50% of hospitalised patients have a low mortality risk by DECAF, thus are potentially suitable. METHODS: In a non-inferiority randomised controlled trial, 118 patients admitted with a low-risk ECOPD (DECAF 0 or 1) were recruited to HAH or usual care (UC). The primary outcome was health and social costs at 90 days...
April 21, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674389/reduction-in-tuberculosis-incidence-in-the-uk-from-2011-to-2015-a-population-based-study
#2
H Lucy Thomas, Ross J Harris, Morris C Muzyamba, Jennifer A Davidson, Maeve K Lalor, Colin N J Campbell, Sarah R Anderson, Dominik Zenner
BACKGROUND: Following nearly two decades of increasing tuberculosis in the UK, TB incidence decreased by 32% from 2011 to 2015. Explaining this reduction is crucial to informing ongoing TB control efforts. METHODS: We stratified TB cases notified in the UK and TB cases averted in the UK through pre-entry screening (PES) between 2011 and 2015 by country of birth and time since arrival. We used population estimates and migration data to establish denominators, and calculated incidence rate ratios (IRRs) between 2011 and 2015...
April 19, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674388/trends-in-tuberculosis-in-the-uk
#3
EDITORIAL
Philippe Glaziou, Katherine Floyd, Mario Raviglione
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 19, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666219/symptoms-at-lung-cancer-diagnosis-are-associated-with-major-differences-in-prognosis
#4
Victoria L Athey, Stephen J Walters, Trevor K Rogers
We report a cohort study of survival of patients with lung cancer presenting to a single multidisciplinary team between 1997 and 2011, according to symptoms at presentation. The overall median survival of the 3800 lung cases was 183 days (95% CI 171 to 195). There was a statistically significant difference in survival between the 12 symptom groups identified both without and with adjustment for the prognostic variables of age, gender and histology (P<0.001). Compared with the cough-alone symptom group, the risks of dying or HRs were significantly higher for the groups presenting with breathlessness (HR 1...
April 17, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661919/moving-more-our-heart-cares-but-do-our-lungs
#5
EDITORIAL
Rachael A Evans
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 16, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661918/characteristics-of-new-solid-nodules-detected-in-incidence-screening-rounds-of-low-dose-ct-lung-cancer-screening-the-nelson-study
#6
Joan E Walter, Marjolein A Heuvelmans, Geertruida H de Bock, Uraujh Yousaf-Khan, Harry J M Groen, Carlijn M van der Aalst, Kristiaan Nackaerts, Peter M A van Ooijen, Harry J de Koning, Rozemarijn Vliegenthart, Matthijs Oudkerk
PURPOSE: New nodules after baseline are regularly found in low-dose CT lung cancer screening and have a high lung cancer probability. It is unknown whether morphological and location characteristics can improve new nodule risk stratification by size. METHODS: Solid non-calcified nodules detected during incidence screening rounds of the randomised controlled Dutch-Belgian lung cancer screening (NELSON) trial and registered as new or previously below detection limit (15 mm3 ) were included...
April 16, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653970/mesenchymal-stromal-cells-a-novel-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#7
Winifred Broekman, Padmini P S J Khedoe, Koen Schepers, Helene Roelofs, Jan Stolk, Pieter S Hiemstra
COPD is characterised by tissue destruction and inflammation. Given the lack of curative treatments and the progressive nature of the disease, new treatments for COPD are highly relevant. In vitro cell culture and animal studies have demonstrated that mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have the capacity to modify immune responses and to enhance tissue repair. These properties of MSCs provided a rationale to investigate their potential for treatment of a variety of diseases, including COPD. Preclinical models support the hypothesis that MSCs may have clinical efficacy in COPD...
April 13, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627801/the-sense-of-smell-in-primary-ciliary-dyskinesia
#8
EDITORIAL
Joanne Rimmer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 7, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627800/cystic-fibrosis-pathogens-survive-for-extended-periods-within-cough-generated-droplet-nuclei
#9
Michelle E Wood, Rebecca E Stockwell, Graham R Johnson, Kay A Ramsay, Laura J Sherrard, Timothy J Kidd, Joyce Cheney, Emma L Ballard, Peter O'Rourke, Nassib Jabbour, Claire E Wainwright, Luke D Knibbs, Peter D Sly, Lidia Morawska, Scott C Bell
The airborne route is a potential pathway in the person-to-person transmission of bacterial strains among cystic fibrosis (CF) populations. In this cross-sectional study, we investigate the physical properties and survival of common non- Pseudomonas aeruginosa CF pathogens generated during coughing. We conclude that Gram-negative bacteria and Staphylococcus aureus are aerosolised during coughing, can travel up to 4 m and remain viable within droplet nuclei for up to 45 min. These results suggest that airborne person-to-person transmission is plausible for the CF pathogens we measured...
April 7, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622696/copd-and-cardiovascular-diseases-now-is-the-time-for-action
#10
EDITORIAL
Fernando Sergio Leitao Filho, Don D Sin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 5, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622695/administration-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-during-ecmo-results-in-a-rapid-decline-in-oxygenator-performance
#11
Jonathan Edward Millar, Viktor von Bahr, Maximillian V Malfertheiner, Katrina K Ki, Meredith A Redd, Nicole Bartnikowski, Jacky Y Suen, Danny Francis McAuley, John F Fraser
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have attracted attention as a potential therapy for Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). At the same time, the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has increased among patients with severe ARDS. To date, early clinical trials of MSCs in ARDS have excluded patients supported by ECMO. Here we provide evidence from an ex-vivo model of ECMO to suggest that the intravascular administration of MSCs during ECMO may adversely impact the function of a membrane oxygenator...
April 5, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622694/airway-epithelial-phosphoinositide-3-kinase-%C3%AE-contributes-to-the-modulation-of-fungi-induced-innate-immune-response
#12
Jae Seok Jeong, Kyung Bae Lee, So Ri Kim, Dong Im Kim, Hae Jin Park, Hern-Ku Lee, Hyung Jin Kim, Seong Ho Cho, Narasaiah Kolliputi, Soon Ha Kim, Yong Chul Lee
BACKGROUND: Respiratory fungal exposure is known to be associated with severe allergic lung inflammation. Airway epithelium is an essential controller of allergic inflammation. An innate immune recognition receptor, nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich-containing family, pyrin-domain-containing-3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, and phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3K)-δ in airway epithelium are involved in various inflammatory processes. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the role of NLRP3 inflammasome in fungi-induced allergic lung inflammation and examined the regulatory mechanism of NLRP3 inflammasome, focusing on PI3K-δ in airway epithelium...
April 5, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622693/stratification-by-interferon-%C3%AE-release-assay-level-predicts-risk-of-incident-tb
#13
Brita Askeland Winje, Richard White, Heidi Syre, Dag Harald Skutlaberg, Fredrik Oftung, Anne Torunn Mengshoel, Hege Salvesen Blix, Arne Broch Brantsæter, Ellen Kristine Holter, Nina Handal, Gunnar Skov Simonsen, Jan Egil Afset, Anne Marte Bakken Kran
INTRODUCTION: Targeted testing and treatment of latent TB infection (LTBI) are priorities on the global health agenda, but LTBI management remains challenging. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of the QuantiFERON TB-Gold (QFT) test for incident TB, focusing on the interferon (IFN)-γ level, when applied in routine practice in a low TB incidence setting. METHODS: In this large population-based prospective cohort, we linked QFT results in Norway (1 January 2009-30 June 2014) with national registry data (Norwegian Surveillance System for Infectious Diseases, Norwegian Prescription Database, Norwegian Patient Registry and Statistics Norway) to assess the prognostic value of QFT for incident TB...
April 5, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622692/predicting-risk-of-unplanned-hospital-readmission-in-survivors-of-critical-illness-a-population-level-cohort-study
#14
Nazir I Lone, Robert Lee, Lisa Salisbury, Eddie Donaghy, Pamela Ramsay, Janice Rattray, Timothy S Walsh
BACKGROUND: Intensive care unit (ICU) survivors experience high levels of morbidity after hospital discharge and are at high risk of unplanned hospital readmission. Identifying those at highest risk before hospital discharge may allow targeting of novel risk reduction strategies. We aimed to identify risk factors for unplanned 90-day readmission, develop a risk prediction model and assess its performance to screen for ICU survivors at highest readmission risk. METHODS: Population cohort study linking registry data for patients discharged from general ICUs in Scotland (2005-2013)...
April 5, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622691/seasonal-temperature-variability-and-emergency-hospital-admissions-for-respiratory-diseases-a-population-based-cohort-study
#15
Shengzhi Sun, Francine Laden, Jaime E Hart, Hong Qiu, Yan Wang, Chit Ming Wong, Ruby Siu-Yin Lee, Linwei Tian
BACKGROUND: Climate change increases global mean temperature and changes short-term (eg, diurnal) and long-term (eg, intraseasonal) temperature variability. Numerous studies have shown that mean temperature and short-term temperature variability are both associated with increased respiratory morbidity or mortality. However, data on the impact of long-term temperature variability are sparse. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the association of intraseasonal temperature variability with respiratory disease hospitalisations among elders...
April 5, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622690/-malignant-pleural-effusion-with-abdominal-gossypiboma
#16
Tao Fan, Wei Wang, Xiaobo Guo, Qing Geng
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 5, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618495/fibrinogen-does-not-relate-to-cardiovascular-or-muscle-manifestations-in-copd-cross-sectional-data-from-the-erica-study
#17
Divya Mohan, Julia R Forman, Matthew Allinder, Carmel M McEniery, Charlotte Emma Bolton, John R Cockcroft, William MacNee, Jonathan Fuld, Mellone Marchong, Nichola Sian Gale, Marie Fisk, Sridevi Nagarajan, Joseph Cheriyan, David A Lomas, Peter M A Calverley, Bruce E Miller, Ruth Tal-Singer, Ian B Wilkinson, Michael I Polkey
Cardiovascular and skeletal muscle manifestations constitute important comorbidities in COPD, with systemic inflammation proposed as a common mechanistic link. Fibrinogen has prognostic role in COPD. We aimed to determine whether aortic stiffness and quadriceps weakness are linked in COPD, and whether they are associated with the systemic inflammatory mediator-fibrinogen. Aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV), quadriceps maximal volitional contraction (QMVC) force and fibrinogen were measured in 729 patients with stable, Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stages II-IV COPD...
April 4, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605813/association-between-asthma-and-lung-function-in-adolescents-born-very-preterm-results-of-the-epipage-cohort-study
#18
Alice Hadchouel, Jessica Rousseau, Jean-Christophe Rozé, Catherine Arnaud, Adèle Bellino, Laure Couderc, Stéphane Marret, Marie Mittaine, Didier Pinquier, Marie Verstraete, Pierre-Yves Ancel, Christophe Delacourt
Prematurity and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) affect long-term lung function. We studied the respiratory outcome of adolescents born very preterm and controls from the Etude EPIdémiologique sur les Petits Ages Gestationnels cohort and analysed their current lung function in relation to asthma symptoms (categorised in three age groups) from birth. In models including BPD, asthma at each age and confounding factors in the preterm group, BPD and preschool wheeze were the only independent variables associated with FEV1 Preschool wheeze is an independent factor associated with FEV1 impairment in adolescents born very preterm...
March 31, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602814/polysomnography-versus-limited-respiratory-monitoring-and-nurse-led-titration-to-optimise-non-invasive-ventilation-set-up-a-pilot-randomised-clinical-trial
#19
Maxime Patout, Gill Arbane, Antoine Cuvelier, Jean Francois Muir, Nicholas Hart, Patrick Brian Murphy
Polysomnography (PSG) is recommended for non-invasive ventilation (NIV) set-up in patients with chronic respiratory failure. In this pilot randomised clinical trial, we compared the physiological effectiveness of NIV set-up guided by PSG to limited respiratory monitoring (LRM) and nurse-led titration in patients with COPD-obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) overlap. The principal outcome of interest was change in daytime arterial PaO2 of carbon dioxide (PaCO2 ) at 3 months. Fourteen patients with daytime PaCO2 >6 kPa and body mass index >30 kg/m2 were recruited...
March 30, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602813/lung-cancer-risk-to-personalise-annual-and-biennial-follow-up-computed-tomography-screening
#20
Anton Schreuder, Cornelia M Schaefer-Prokop, Ernst T Scholten, Colin Jacobs, Mathias Prokop, Bram van Ginneken
BACKGROUND: All lung cancer CT screening trials used fixed follow-up intervals, which may not be optimal. We developed new lung cancer risk models for personalising screening intervals to 1 year or 2 years, and compared these with existing models. METHODS: We included participants in the CT arm of the National Lung Screening Trial (2002-2010) who underwent a baseline scan and a first annual follow-up scan and were not diagnosed with lung cancer in the first year...
March 30, 2018: Thorax
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