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Thorax

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463622/implementation-science-takes-baby-steps-in-infants-with-bronchiolitis
#1
EDITORIAL
Steve Cunningham, Hilary Pinnock
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 20, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463621/ventilatory-support-or-respiratory-muscle-training-as-adjuncts-to-exercise-in-obese-cpap-treated-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnoea-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#2
Isabelle Vivodtzev, Renaud Tamisier, Marilie Croteau, Jean-Christian Borel, Angélique Grangier, Bernard Wuyam, Patrick Lévy, Caroline Minville, Frédéric Sériès, François Maltais, Jean-Louis Pépin
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and obesity are interdependent chronic diseases sharing reduced exercise tolerance and high cardiovascular risk. INTERVENTION: A 3-month intervention with innovative training modalities would further improve functional capacity and cardiovascular health than usual cycle exercise training in already continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)-treated obese patients with OSA. METHODS: Fifty three patients (35<body mass index (BMI) <45 kg/m2 ) were randomly allocated to exercise training on a cycle ergometer, either alone (ERGO) or with respiratory muscle training (ERGO+RMT) or non-invasive ventilation (ERGO+NIV)...
February 20, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449441/role-of-nadph-oxidase-2-and-oxidative-stress-in-children-exposed-to-passive-smoking
#3
Lorenzo Loffredo, Anna Maria Zicari, Francesca Occasi, Ludovica Perri, Roberto Carnevale, Francesco Angelico, Maria Del Ben, Francesco Martino, Cristina Nocella, Giovanna De Castro, Vittoria Cammisotto, Simona Battaglia, Marzia Duse, Francesco Violi
This study explored oxidative stress, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase-2 (Nox2) activity and endothelial function in children exposed or not to passive smoking. Compared with controls (n=57), Nox2 activity and isoprostanes were higher in children exposed to passive smoking (n=57); conversely, nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and flow-mediated dilation were lower in children exposed to passive smoking. A bivariate analysis showed that Nox2 activity correlated with flow-mediated dilation, NO bioavailability and isoprostanes...
February 15, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449440/lung-clearance-index-to-monitor-treatment-response-in-pulmonary-exacerbations-in-preschool-children-with-cystic-fibrosis
#4
Jonathan H Rayment, Sanja Stanojevic, Stephanie D Davis, George Retsch-Bogart, Felix Ratjen
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic treatment for pulmonary symptoms in preschool children with cystic fibrosis (CF) varies among clinicians. The lung clearance index (LCI) is sensitive to early CF lung disease, but its utility to monitor pulmonary exacerbations in young children has not been assessed. OBJECTIVE: We aim to (1) understand how LCI changes during lower respiratory tract symptoms relative to a recent clinically stable measurement, (2) determine whether LCI can identify antibiotic treatment response and (3) compare LCI changes to changes in spirometric indices...
February 15, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449439/macrophages-and-neutrophils-dynamic-duo-or-partners-in-crime
#5
EDITORIAL
Karl J Staples
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449438/gene-expression-signature-of-the-ageing-lung-breathing-new-life-into-copd
#6
EDITORIAL
Steven Booth, Tillie-Louise Hackett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444984/guiding-policy-to-reduce-the-burden-of-copd-the-role-of-epidemiological-research
#7
EDITORIAL
Guy B Marks
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 14, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440588/implementing-lung-cancer-screening-baseline-results-from-a-community-based-lung-health-check-pilot-in-deprived-areas-of-manchester
#8
Phil A Crosbie, Haval Balata, Matthew Evison, Melanie Atack, Val Bayliss-Brideaux, Denis Colligan, Rebecca Duerden, Josephine Eaglesfield, Timothy Edwards, Peter Elton, Julie Foster, Melanie Greaves, Graham Hayler, Coral Higgins, John Howells, Klaus Irion, Devinda Karunaratne, Jodie Kelly, Zoe King, Sarah Manson, Stuart Mellor, Donna Miller, Amanda Myerscough, Tom Newton, Michelle O'Leary, Rachel Pearson, Julie Pickford, Richard Sawyer, Nick J Screaton, Anna Sharman, Maggi Simmons, Elaine Smith, Ben Taylor, Sarah Taylor, Anna Walsham, Angela Watts, James Whittaker, Laura Yarnell, Anthony Threlfall, Phil V Barber, Janet Tonge, Richard Booton
We report baseline results of a community-based, targeted, low-dose CT (LDCT) lung cancer screening pilot in deprived areas of Manchester. Ever smokers, aged 55-74 years, were invited to 'lung health checks' (LHCs) next to local shopping centres, with immediate access to LDCT for those at high risk (6-year risk ≥1.51%, PLCO M2012 calculator). 75% of attendees (n=1893/2541) were ranked in the lowest deprivation quintile; 56% were high risk and of 1384 individuals screened, 3% (95% CI 2.3% to 4.1%) had lung cancer (80% early stage) of whom 65% had surgical resection...
February 13, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440587/association-between-acute-respiratory-disease-events-and-the-muc5b-promoter-polymorphism-in-smokers
#9
Samuel Y Ash, Rola Harmouche, Rachel K Putman, James C Ross, Fernando J Martinez, Augustine M Choi, Russell P Bowler, Elizabeth A Regan, Jeffrey L Curtis, MeiLan K Han, Richard C Boucher, Wanda K O'Neal, Hiroto Hatabu, David A Lynch, Ivan O Rosas, Gary M Hunninghake, Raul San Jose Estepar, George R Washko
A single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs35705950) in the mucin 5B ( MUC5B ) gene promoter is associated with pulmonary fibrosis and interstitial features on chest CT but may also have beneficial effects. In non-Hispanic whites in the COPDGene cohort with interstitial features (n=454), the MUC5B promoter polymorphism was associated with a 61% lower odds of a prospectively reported acute respiratory disease event (P=0.001), a longer time-to-first event (HR=0.57; P=0.006) and 40% fewer events (P=0.016). The MUC5B promoter polymorphism may have a beneficial effect on the risk of acute respiratory disease events in smokers with interstitial CT features...
February 13, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440315/jak2-mediates-lung-fibrosis-pulmonary-vascular-remodelling-and-hypertension-in-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-an-experimental-study
#10
Javier Milara, Beatriz Ballester, Anselm Morell, José L Ortiz, Juan Escrivá, Estrella Fernández, Francisco Perez-Vizcaino, Angel Cogolludo, Enrique Pastor, Enrique Artigues, Esteban Morcillo, Julio Cortijo
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a common disorder in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and portends a poor prognosis. Recent studies using vasodilators approved for PH have failed in improving IPF mainly due to ventilation ( V )/perfusion ( Q ) mismatching and oxygen desaturation. Janus kinase type 2 (JAK2) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase activated by a broad spectrum of profibrotic and vasoactive mediators, but its role in PH associated to PH is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The study of JAK2 as potential target to treat PH in IPF...
February 10, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440512/clinically-detected-non-aggressive-lung-cancers-implications-for-overdiagnosis-and-overtreatment-in-lung-cancer-screening
#11
EDITORIAL
Kevin Ten Haaf, Carlijn M van der Aalst, Harry J de Koning
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 9, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434047/reference-percentiles-of-fev1-for-the-canadian-cystic-fibrosis-population-comparisons-across-time-and-countries
#12
Sang-Ook Kim, Mary Corey, Anne L Stephenson, Lisa J Strug
BACKGROUND: Forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) indicates lung health in cystic fibrosis (CF). FEV1 is commonly communicated as a per cent predicted of a healthy individual sharing the same age, sex, race and height. CF-specific reference equations are complementary and calibrate a patient's FEV1 to that of their CF peers. OBJECTIVES: (1) To derive Canadian CF-specific FEV1 reference percentiles (FEV1%iles), (2) characterize how they have changed over time and (3) compare the Canadian FEV1%iles to those for USA and European CF populations...
February 6, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438071/chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-and-the-risk-of-12-cardiovascular-diseases-a-population-based-study-using-uk-primary-care-data
#13
LETTER
Ann D Morgan, Kieran J Rothnie, Krishnan Bhaskaran, Liam Smeeth, Jennifer K Quint
Risks for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) other than myocardial infarction and stroke in the general COPD population are not well quantified. We used a matched cohort study design and Cox regression to estimate relative risks for 12 separate CVDs in a large population-based cohort of patients with COPD over a 12-year period. Associations between COPD and individual CVDs were heterogeneous, with the highest relative risks observed for heart failure and diseases of the arterial circulation (in excess of 2.5 for those aged 64-75 years)...
February 3, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438097/rapamycin-for-lymphangioleiomyomatosis-optimal-timing-and-optimal-dosage
#14
EDITORIAL
Kai-Feng Xu, Xinlun Tian, Yanli Yang, Hongbing Zhang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386299/donor-intravascular-monocyte-trafficking-a-potential-therapeutic-target-for-primary-graft-dysfunction-following-lung-transplantation
#15
EDITORIAL
Christopher Andrew Lamb, John Andrew Kirby
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 31, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386298/longitudinal-profiling-of-the-lung-microbiome-in-the-aeris-study-demonstrates-repeatability-of-bacterial-and-eosinophilic-copd-exacerbations
#16
David Mayhew, Nathalie Devos, Christophe Lambert, James R Brown, Stuart C Clarke, Viktoriya L Kim, Michal Magid-Slav, Bruce E Miller, Kristoffer K Ostridge, Ruchi Patel, Ganesh Sathe, Daniel F Simola, Karl J Staples, Ruby Sung, Ruth Tal-Singer, Andrew C Tuck, Stephanie Van Horn, Vincent Weynants, Nicholas P Williams, Jeanne-Marie Devaster, Tom M A Wilkinson
BACKGROUND: Alterations in the composition of the lung microbiome associated with adverse clinical outcomes, known as dysbiosis, have been implicated with disease severity and exacerbations in COPD. OBJECTIVE: To characterise longitudinal changes in the lung microbiome in the AERIS study (Acute Exacerbation and Respiratory InfectionS in COPD) and their relationship with associated COPD outcomes. METHODS: We surveyed 584 sputum samples from 101 patients with COPD to analyse the lung microbiome at both stable and exacerbation time points over 1 year using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene...
January 31, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382801/acute-graft-versus-host-disease-following-lung-transplantation-in-a-patient-with-a-novel-tert-mutation
#17
Jonathan R Brestoff, Alexandre T Vessoni, Kirsten A Brenner, Geoffrey L Uy, John F DiPersio, Morey Blinder, Chad A Witt, Derek E Byers, Ramsey R Hachem, Elbert P Truclock, Dayna S Early, Milan J Anadkat, Amy Musiek, Cylen Javidan-Nejad, Dennis M Balfe, Ilana S Rosman, Chang Liu, Lingxin Zhang, George J Despotis, Marianna B Ruzinova, Jennifer K Sehn, Ina Amarillo, Jonathan W Heusel, Wojcieh Swat, Brian S Kim, Lukas D Wartman, Roger D Yusen, Luis F Z Batista
Familial pulmonary fibrosis is associated with loss-of-function mutations in telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) and short telomeres. Interstitial lung diseases have become the leading indication for lung transplantation in the USA, and recent data indicate that pathogenic mutations in telomerase may cause unfavourable outcomes following lung transplantation. Although a rare occurrence, solid organ transplant recipients who develop acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) have very poor survival. This case report describes the detection of a novel mutation in TERT in a patient who had lung transplantation for familial pulmonary fibrosis and died from complications of acute GVHD...
January 30, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382800/case-of-paediatric-neuromuscular-disease-with-a-surprising-clinical-outcome-time-to-challenge-the-dogma
#18
Marie Wright, Adnan Manzur, Andy Bush
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 30, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382799/body-mass-index-status-and-peripheral-airway-obstruction-in-school-age-children-a-population-based-cohort-study
#19
Sandra Ekström, Jenny Hallberg, Inger Kull, Jennifer L P Protudjer, Per Thunqvist, Matteo Bottai, Per Magnus Gustafsson, Anna Bergström, Erik Melén
BACKGROUND: Few large prospective studies have investigated the impact of body mass index (BMI) on lung function during childhood. METHODS: Using data collected between 2002 and 2013, we analysed associations between BMI status and lung function (assessed by spirometry) from 8 to 16 years, as well as cross-sectional associations with small airway function (impulse oscillometry) at 16 years in the BAMSE cohort (n=2889). At 16 years, cross-sectional associations with local and systemic inflammation were investigated by analysing FENO, blood eosinophils and neutrophils...
January 29, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382798/oleothorax
#20
Till Plönes, Clemens Aigner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 29, 2018: Thorax
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