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Thorax

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100714/the-dynamics-of-the-pulmonary-microbiome-during-mechanical-ventilation-in-the-intensive-care-unit-and-the-association-with-occurrence-of-pneumonia
#1
Tetyana Zakharkina, Ignacio Martin-Loeches, Sébastien Matamoros, Pedro Povoa, Antoni Torres, Janine B Kastelijn, Jorrit J Hofstra, B de Wever, Menno de Jong, Marcus J Schultz, Peter J Sterk, Antonio Artigas, Lieuwe D J Bos
RATIONALE: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most common nosocomial infections in patients admitted to the ICU. The adapted island model predicts several changes in the respiratory microbiome during intubation and mechanical ventilation. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesised that mechanical ventilation and antibiotic administration decrease the diversity of the respiratory microbiome and that these changes are more profound in patients who develop VAP. METHODS: Intubated and mechanically ventilated ICU-patients were included...
January 18, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100713/ahrr-cg05575921-hypomethylation-marks-smoking-behaviour-morbidity-and-mortality
#2
Stig E Bojesen, Nicholas Timpson, Caroline Relton, George Davey Smith, Børge G Nordestgaard
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Self-reported smoking underestimates disease risk. Smoking affects DNA methylation, in particular the cg05575921 site in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor (AHRR) gene. We tested the hypothesis that AHRR cg05575921 hypomethylation is associated with risk of smoking-related morbidity and mortality. METHODS: From the Copenhagen City Heart Study representing the Danish general population, we studied 9234 individuals. Using bisulphite treated leucocyte DNA, AHRR (cg05575921) methylation was measured...
January 18, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093530/what-causes-occupational-asthma-in-cleaners
#3
Vicky C Moore, P Sherwood Burge, Alastair S Robertson, Gareth I Walters
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 16, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087753/acquired-central-hypoventilation-following-listeria-monocytogenes-rhombencephalitis
#4
Sandrine H Launois, Natalia Siyanko, Marie Joyeux-Faure, Renaud Tamisier, Jean-Louis Pepin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 13, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087752/deficient-retinoid-driven-angiogenesis-may-contribute-to-failure-of-adult-human-lung-regeneration-in-emphysema
#5
John-Poul Ng-Blichfeldt, Joana Alçada, M Angeles Montero, Charlotte H Dean, Uta Griesenbach, Mark J Griffiths, Matthew Hind
BACKGROUND: Molecular pathways that regulate alveolar development and adult repair represent potential therapeutic targets for emphysema. Signalling via retinoic acid (RA), derived from vitamin A, is required for mammalian alveologenesis, and exogenous RA can induce alveolar regeneration in rodents. Little is known about RA signalling in the human lung and its potential role in lung disease. OBJECTIVES: To examine regulation of human alveolar epithelial and endothelial repair by RA, and characterise RA signalling in human emphysema...
January 13, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082531/aspirin-reduces-lipopolysaccharide-induced-pulmonary-inflammation-in-human-models-of-ards
#6
U Hamid, A Krasnodembskaya, M Fitzgerald, M Shyamsundar, A Kissenpfennig, C Scott, E Lefrancais, M R Looney, R Verghis, J Scott, A J Simpson, J McNamee, D F McAuley, C M O'Kane
RATIONALE: Platelets play an active role in the pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Animal and observational studies have shown aspirin's antiplatelet and immunomodulatory effects may be beneficial in ARDS. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that aspirin reduces inflammation in clinically relevant human models that recapitulate pathophysiological mechanisms implicated in the development of ARDS. METHODS: Healthy volunteers were randomised to receive placebo or aspirin 75  or 1200 mg (1:1:1) for seven days prior to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inhalation, in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, allocation-concealed study...
January 12, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082530/the-use-of-pretest-probability-increases-the-value-of-high-resolution-ct-in-diagnosing-usual-interstitial-pneumonia
#7
Robert Brownell, Teng Moua, Travis S Henry, Brett M Elicker, Darin White, Eric Vittinghoff, Kirk D Jones, Anatoly Urisman, Carlos Aravena, Kerri A Johannson, Jeffrey A Golden, Talmadge E King, Paul J Wolters, Harold R Collard, Brett Ley
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have suggested that non-definitive patterns on high-resolution CT (HRCT) scan provide sufficient diagnostic specificity to forgo surgical lung biopsy in the diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The objective of this study was to determine test characteristics of non-definitive HRCT patterns for identifying histopathological usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP). METHODS: Patients with biopsy-proven interstitial lung disease (ILD) and non-definitive HRCT scans were identified from two academic ILD centres...
January 12, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082529/analysis-of-nocturnal-actigraphic-sleep-measures-in-patients-with-copd-and-their-association-with-daytime-physical-activity
#8
Gabriele Spina, Martijn A Spruit, Jennifer Alison, Roberto P Benzo, Peter M A Calverley, Christian F Clarenbach, Richard W Costello, David Donaire-Gonzalez, Selina Dürr, Judith Garcia-Aymerich, Arnoldus J R van Gestel, Marco Gramm, Nidia A Hernandes, Kylie Hill, Nicholas S Hopkinson, Diana Jarreta, Malcolm Kohler, Anne M Kirsten, Jörg D Leuppi, Helgo Magnussen, François Maltais, William D-C Man, Zoe J McKeough, Rafael Mesquita, David Miedinger, Fabio Pitta, Sally J Singh, Frank W J M Smeenk, Ruth Tal-Singer, Barbara Vagaggini, Benjamin Waschki, Henrik Watz, Emiel F M Wouters, Stefanie Zogg, Albertus C den Brinker
BACKGROUND: Sleep disturbances are common in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with a considerable negative impact on their quality of life. However, factors associated with measures of sleep in daily life have not been investigated before nor has the association between sleep and the ability to engage in physical activity on a day-to-day basis been studied. AIMS: To provide insight into the relationship between actigraphic sleep measures and disease severity, exertional dyspnoea, gender and parts of the week; and to investigate the association between sleep measures and next day physical activity...
January 12, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077615/treatment-decisions-for-mrsa-in-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis-cf-when-is-enough-enough
#9
EDITORIAL
Scott C Bell, Patrick A Flume
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077614/occupational-exposure-to-pesticides-time-to-nip-it-in-the-bud
#10
EDITORIAL
K Mortimer, J Feary
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077613/socioeconomic-deprivation-and-the-outcome-of-pulmonary-rehabilitation-in-england-and-wales
#11
Michael C Steiner, Derek Lowe, Katy Beckford, John Blakey, Charlotte E Bolton, Sarah Elkin, William D-C Man, C Michael Roberts, Louise Sewell, Paul Walker, Sally J Singh
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) improves exercise capacity and health status in patients with COPD, but many patients assessed for PR do not complete therapy. It is unknown whether socioeconomic deprivation associates with rates of completion of PR or the magnitude of clinical benefits bequeathed by PR. METHODS: PR services across England and Wales enrolled patients to the National PR audit in 2015. Deprivation was assessed using Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) derived from postcodes...
January 11, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077612/professor-neil-pride
#12
Peter J Barnes, Mike Hughes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073823/a-bloody-bronchoscopy
#13
Karthi Srikanthan, Husain Shabeeh, Anthony De Souza, Pallav Shah
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 10, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073822/obstructive-sleep-apnoea-and-quality-of-life-in-ehlers-danlos-syndrome-a-parallel-cohort-study
#14
Thomas Gaisl, Cecilia Giunta, Daniel J Bratton, Kate Sutherland, Christian Schlatzer, Noriane Sievi, Daniel Franzen, Peter A Cistulli, Marianne Rohrbach, Malcolm Kohler
BACKGROUND: Patients with the connective tissue disorder Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) often suffer from fatigue, excessive daytime sleepiness and impaired quality of life. Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) may be an underlying cause for these symptoms but its prevalence in this population is unclear. METHODS: In this prospective parallel-cohort study, we included 100 adult patients with EDS (46% hypermobile-type, 35% classical-type and 19% other), which were one-to-one matched to 100 healthy adult controls according to sex, age, weight and height...
January 10, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070017/primary-racemose-haemangioma-of-the-right-bronchial-artery-with-thrombus-and-slow-meandering-blood-flow
#15
Kazushi Fujimoto, Hajime Kasai, Toshihiko Sugiura, Nobuhiro Tanabe, Koichiro Tatsumi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 9, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070016/sugar-coating-bronchiectasis
#16
EDITORIAL
Michael Loebinger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 9, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070015/inhaled-resveratrol-treatments-slow-ageing-related-degenerative-changes-in-mouse-lung
#17
Barbara Driscoll, Sonia Navarro, Raghava Reddy, Jooeun Lee, David Warburton
BACKGROUND: Lung ageing, a significant risk factor for chronic human lung diseases such as COPD and emphysema, is characterised by airspace enlargement and decreasing lung function. Likewise, in prematurely ageing telomerase null (terc-/-) mice, p53 stabilisation within diminishing numbers of alveolar epithelial type 2 cells (AEC2) accompanies reduced lung function. Resveratrol (RSL) is a plant phytoalexin that has previously showed efficacy in enhancing invertebrate longevity and supporting mammalian muscle metabolism when delivered orally...
January 9, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070014/lung-gene-expression-analysis-lgea-an-integrative-web-portal-for-comprehensive-gene-expression-data-analysis-in-lung-development
#18
Yina Du, Joseph A Kitzmiller, Anusha Sridharan, Anne K Perl, James P Bridges, Ravi S Misra, Gloria S Pryhuber, Thomas J Mariani, Soumyaroop Bhattacharya, Minzhe Guo, S Steven Potter, Phillip Dexheimer, Bruce Aronow, Alan H Jobe, Jeffrey A Whitsett, Yan Xu
'LungGENS', our previously developed web tool for mapping single-cell gene expression in the developing lung, has been well received by the pulmonary research community. With continued support from the 'LungMAP' consortium, we extended the scope of the LungGENS database to accommodate transcriptomics data from pulmonary tissues and cells from human and mouse at different stages of lung development. Lung Gene Expression Analysis (LGEA) web portal is an extended version of LungGENS useful for the analysis, display and interpretation of gene expression patterns obtained from single cells, sorted cell populations and whole lung tissues...
January 9, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044006/pulmonary-microvascular-architecture-in-hereditary-haemorrhagic-telangiectasia
#19
Maximilian Ackermann, Steven J Mentzer, Wilfried Roth, Urban Geisthoff, Erich Stoelben
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044005/biomechanical-ct-metrics-are-associated-with-patient-outcomes-in-copd
#20
Sandeep Bodduluri, Surya P Bhatt, Eric A Hoffman, John D Newell, Carlos H Martinez, Mark T Dransfield, Meilan K Han, Joseph M Reinhardt
BACKGROUND: Traditional metrics of lung disease such as those derived from spirometry and static single-volume CT images are used to explain respiratory morbidity in patients with COPD, but are insufficient. We hypothesised that the mean Jacobian determinant, a measure of local lung expansion and contraction with respiration, would contribute independently to clinically relevant functional outcomes. METHODS: We applied image registration techniques to paired inspiratory-expiratory CT scans and derived the Jacobian determinant of the deformation field between the two lung volumes to map local volume change with respiration...
January 2, 2017: Thorax
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