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Thorax

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634220/tidal-changes-on-ct-and-progression-of-ards
#1
Maurizio Cereda, Yi Xin, Hooman Hamedani, Giacomo Bellani, Stephen Kadlecek, Justin Clapp, Luca Guerra, Natalie Meeder, Jennia Rajaei, Nicholas J Tustison, James C Gee, Brian P Kavanagh, Rahim R Rizi
BACKGROUND: Uncertain prediction of outcome in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) impedes individual patient management and clinical trial design. OBJECTIVES: To develop a radiological metric of injurious inflation derived from matched inspiratory and expiratory CT scans, calibrate it in a model of experimental lung injury, and test it in patients with ARDS. METHODS: 73 anaesthetised rats (acid aspiration model) were ventilated (protective or non-protective) for up to 4 hours to generate a spectrum of lung injury...
June 20, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495787/screening-contacts-of-patients-with-extrapulmonary-tb-for-latent-tb-infection
#2
LETTER
Anna Humphreys, Aula Abbara, Sion Williams, Laurence John, Tumena Corrah, Alastair McGregor, Robert N Davidson
2016 TB National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines imply that contacts of extrapulmonary TB do not require screening for latent TB infection. At our high TB prevalence site, we identified 189 active cases of TB for whom there were 698 close contacts. 29.1% of the contacts of pulmonary TB and 10.7% of the contacts of extrapulmonary TB had active or latent TB infection. This supports screening contacts of extrapulmonary TB at our site and presents a way to access high-risk individuals...
May 11, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476882/gait-speed-and-pedestrian-crossings-in-copd
#3
LETTER
Claire M Nolan, Samantha S C Kon, Suhani Patel, Sarah E Jones, Ruth E Barker, Michael I Polkey, Matthew Maddocks, William D-C Man
The assumed minimum walking speed at pedestrian crossings is 1.2 m/s. In this prospective cohort study, usual walking speed was measured over a 4 m course in 926 community-dwelling, ambulatory patients with stable COPD. Mean (SD) walking speed was 0.91 (0.24) m/s with only 10.7% walking at a speed equal or greater than 1.2 m/s. In order for 95% of this cohort to safely negotiate a pedestrian cross, traffic lights would have to assume a minimum walking speed of 0.50 m/s (2.4 times longer than current times)...
May 5, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476881/pulmonary-hypertension-with-warm-hands
#4
Liza Botros, Jurjan Aman, Harm Jan Bogaard, Anton Vonk Noordegraaf
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 5, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473506/cardiovascular-and-neuropsychiatric-risks-of-varenicline-and-bupropion-in-smokers-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#5
Daniel Kotz, Wolfgang Viechtbauer, Colin R Simpson, Onno C P van Schayck, Robert West, Aziz Sheikh
BACKGROUND: Varenicline and bupropion are effective smoking cessation treatments, but there are concerns about their safety in smokers with COPD. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether varenicline and bupropion are associated with serious adverse cardiovascular and neuropsychiatric events in smokers with COPD. METHODS: In a retrospective cohort study, we used data from 14 350 patients with COPD included in the QResearch database, which holds data from 753 National Health Service general practices across England...
May 4, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469031/novel-role-for-endogenous-mitochondrial-formylated-peptide-driven-formyl-peptide-receptor-1-signalling-in-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#6
David A Dorward, Christopher D Lucas, Mary K Doherty, Gavin B Chapman, Emma J Scholefield, Andrew Conway Morris, Jennifer M Felton, Tiina Kipari, Duncan C Humphries, Calum T Robb, A John Simpson, Phillip D Whitfield, Christopher Haslett, Kevin Dhaliwal, Adriano G Rossi
BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is an often fatal neutrophil-dominant lung disease. Although influenced by multiple proinflammatory mediators, identification of suitable therapeutic candidates remains elusive. We aimed to delineate the presence of mitochondrial formylated peptides in ARDS and characterise the functional importance of formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) signalling in sterile lung inflammation. METHODS: Mitochondrial formylated peptides were identified in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and serum of patients with ARDS by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry...
May 3, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465409/ventilator-associated-pneumonia-when-is-a-pathogen-not-a-pathogen
#7
EDITORIAL
Michael J Cox
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465408/caring-about-what-happens-to-people-with-copd
#8
EDITORIAL
Nicholas S Hopkinson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455454/decrease-in-an-anti-ageing-factor-growth-differentiation-factor-11-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#9
Katsuhiro Onodera, Hisatoshi Sugiura, Mitsuhiro Yamada, Akira Koarai, Naoya Fujino, Satoru Yanagisawa, Rie Tanaka, Tadahisa Numakura, Shinsaku Togo, Kei Sato, Yorihiko Kyogoku, Yuichiro Hashimoto, Tatsuma Okazaki, Tsutomu Tamada, Seiichi Kobayashi, Masaru Yanai, Motohiko Miura, Yasushi Hoshikawa, Yoshinori Okada, Satoshi Suzuki, Masakazu Ichinose
RATIONALE: Cellular senescence is observed in the lungs of patients with COPD and may contribute to the disease pathogenesis. Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) belongs to the transforming growth factor β superfamily and was recently reported to be a circulating protein that may have rejuvenating effects in mice. We aimed to investigate the amounts of GDF11 in the plasma and the lungs of patients with COPD and elucidate the possible roles of GDF11 in cellular senescence. METHODS: The plasma levels of GDF11 were investigated in two separate cohorts by western blotting...
April 28, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450530/lessons-from-the-lower-airway-microbiome-in-early-cf
#10
EDITORIAL
Jordana E Hoppe, Edith T Zemanick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 27, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450529/identification-and-validation-of-distinct-biological-phenotypes-in-patients-with-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-by-cluster-analysis
#11
L D Bos, L R Schouten, L A van Vught, M A Wiewel, D S Y Ong, O Cremer, A Artigas, I Martin-Loeches, A J Hoogendijk, T van der Poll, J Horn, N Juffermans, C S Calfee, M J Schultz
RATIONALE: We hypothesised that patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) can be clustered based on concentrations of plasma biomarkers and that the thereby identified biological phenotypes are associated with mortality. METHODS: Consecutive patients with ARDS were included in this prospective observational cohort study. Cluster analysis of 20 biomarkers of inflammation, coagulation and endothelial activation provided the phenotypes in a training cohort, not taking any outcome data into account...
April 27, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446663/short-lung-transplant-donor-telomere-length-is-associated-with-decreased-clad-free-survival
#12
LETTER
Hilary E Faust, Jeffrey A Golden, Raja Rajalingam, Angelia S Wang, Gary Green, Steven R Hays, Jasleen Kukreja, Jonathan P Singer, Paul J Wolters, John R Greenland
Telomere length (TL) decreases with cellular ageing and biological stressors. As advanced donor and recipient ages are risk factors for chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD), we hypothesised that decreased age-adjusted donor TL would predict earlier onset of CLAD. Shorter donor TL was associated with increased risk of CLAD or death (HR 1.26 per 1 kb TL decrease, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.54), particularly for young donors. Recipient TL was associated with cytopenias but not CLAD. Shorter TL was also seen in airway epithelium for subjects progressing to CLAD (p=0...
April 26, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446662/do-guidelines-for-treating-chest-disease-in-children-use-cochrane-reviews-effectively-a-systematic-review
#13
LETTER
Andrew P Prayle, Tessy Cox, Sherie J Smith, Joanne Rycroft-Malone, Kim S Thomas, Dyfrig A Hughes, Alan R Smyth
Cochrane Reviews summarise best evidence and should inform guidelines. We assessed the use of Cochrane Reviews in the UK guidelines for paediatric respiratory disease. We found 21 guidelines which made 1025 recommendations, of which 96 could be informed by a Cochrane Review. In 38/96 recommendations (40%), some or all of the relevant Cochrane Reviews were not cited. We linked recommendations to 140 Cochrane Reviews. In 37/140 (26%) cases, the guideline recommendation did not fully agree with the Cochrane Review...
April 26, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442556/short-course-treatment-for-mdr-tb-jumping-the-gun
#14
EDITORIAL
Anna Turkova, Beate Kampmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 25, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442555/ambient-particulate-matter-and-copd-in-china-a-challenge-for-respiratory-health-research
#15
EDITORIAL
Anke Hüls, Tamara Schikowski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 25, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442554/exposure-of-patients-to-ionising-radiation-during-lung-cancer-diagnostic-work-up
#16
LETTER
Robert C Rintoul, Rachel Atherton, Katharine Tweed, Stuart Yates, Edwin R Chilvers
We examined the dose of radiation received during diagnosis of lung cancer as this may add to the risk of a second primary cancer. Patients undergoing surgery (n=40) or (chemo)radiotherapy (n=40) received comparable doses (28.6 and 25.8 mSv, respectively), significantly higher than that for supportive care (n=40; 15.1 mSv). The effective dose of radiation received was higher for early stage disease than for those with metastatic disease. The mean lifetime attributable risk of malignancy for those receiving treatment with curative intent in our cohort was 0...
April 25, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432209/a-prospective-observational-cohort-study-of-the-seasonal-dynamics-of-airway-pathogens-in-the-aetiology-of-exacerbations-in-copd
#17
Tom M A Wilkinson, Emmanuel Aris, Simon Bourne, Stuart C Clarke, Mathieu Peeters, Thierry G Pascal, Sonia Schoonbroodt, Andrew C Tuck, Viktoriya Kim, Kristoffer Ostridge, Karl J Staples, Nicholas Williams, Anthony Williams, Stephen Wootton, Jeanne-Marie Devaster
BACKGROUND: The aetiology of acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) is incompletely understood. Understanding the relationship between chronic bacterial airway infection and viral exposure may explain the incidence and seasonality of these events. METHODS: In this prospective, observational cohort study (NCT01360398), patients with COPD aged 40-85 years underwent sputum sampling monthly and at exacerbation for detection of bacteria and viruses. Results are presented for subjects in the full cohort, followed for 1 year...
April 21, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416592/-wnt-er-is-coming-wnt-signalling-in-chronic-lung-diseases
#18
H A Baarsma, M Königshoff
Chronic lung diseases represent a major public health problem with only limited therapeutic options. An important unmet need is to identify compounds and drugs that target key molecular pathways involved in the pathogenesis of chronic lung diseases. Over the last decade, there has been extensive interest in investigating Wingless/integrase-1 (WNT) signalling pathways; and WNT signal alterations have been linked to pulmonary disease pathogenesis and progression. Here, we comprehensively review the cumulative evidence for WNT pathway alterations in chronic lung pathologies, including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary arterial hypertension, asthma and COPD...
April 17, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416591/investigations-for-tuberculosis-contacts-what-are-the-real-issues-of-all-the-efforts
#19
EDITORIAL
Jean-Pierre Zellweger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 17, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411250/visualising-early-lung-disease-in-cf-the-emergence-of-mri
#20
EDITORIAL
Jane C Davies
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 14, 2017: Thorax
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