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Thorax

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432209/a-prospective-observational-cohort-study-of-the-seasonal-dynamics-of-airway-pathogens-in-the-aetiology-of-exacerbations-in-copd
#1
Tom M A Wilkinson, Emmanuel Aris, Simon Bourne, Stuart C Clarke, Mathieu Peeters, Thierry G Pascal, Sonia Schoonbroodt, Andrew C Tuck, Viktoriya Kim, Kristoffer Ostridge, Karl J Staples, Nicholas Williams, Anthony Williams, Stephen Wootton, Jeanne-Marie Devaster
BACKGROUND: The aetiology of acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) is incompletely understood. Understanding the relationship between chronic bacterial airway infection and viral exposure may explain the incidence and seasonality of these events. METHODS: In this prospective, observational cohort study (NCT01360398), patients with COPD aged 40-85 years underwent sputum sampling monthly and at exacerbation for detection of bacteria and viruses. Results are presented for subjects in the full cohort, followed for 1 year...
April 21, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416592/-wnt-er-is-coming-wnt-signalling-in-chronic-lung-diseases
#2
H A Baarsma, M Königshoff
Chronic lung diseases represent a major public health problem with only limited therapeutic options. An important unmet need is to identify compounds and drugs that target key molecular pathways involved in the pathogenesis of chronic lung diseases. Over the last decade, there has been extensive interest in investigating Wingless/integrase-1 (WNT) signalling pathways; and WNT signal alterations have been linked to pulmonary disease pathogenesis and progression. Here, we comprehensively review the cumulative evidence for WNT pathway alterations in chronic lung pathologies, including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary arterial hypertension, asthma and COPD...
April 17, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416591/investigations-for-tuberculosis-contacts-what-are-the-real-issues-of-all-the-efforts
#3
EDITORIAL
Jean-Pierre Zellweger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 17, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411250/visualising-early-lung-disease-in-cf-the-emergence-of-mri
#4
EDITORIAL
Jane C Davies
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 14, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411249/endoscopic-advanced-imaging-of-the-respiratory-tract-exploring-probe-based-confocal-laser-endomicroscopy-in-emphysema
#5
LETTER
J Yserbyt, C Dooms, W Janssens, G M Verleden
: Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) was performed in 15 patients with emphysema and 15 healthy subjects to visualise small airways in a direct and dynamic way. Morphometry shows that the median cross-sectional area of the alveolar openings at the level of the alveolar ducts is significantly larger in emphysema (7.2×10(4) µm(2)) as compared with healthy subjects (5.2×10(4) µm(2)) (p=0.0002). Normalised autofluorescence intensity histograms show a decrease in median autofluorescence intensity (mAFI) in emphysema (p=0...
April 14, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411248/state-of-the-art-thoracic-ultrasound-intervention-and-therapeutics
#6
John P Corcoran, Rachid Tazi-Mezalek, Fabien Maldonado, Lonny B Yarmus, Jouke T Annema, Coenraad F N Koegelenberg, Victoria St Noble, Najib M Rahman
The use of thoracic ultrasound outside the radiology department and in everyday clinical practice is becoming increasingly common, having been incorporated into standards of care for many specialties. For the majority of practitioners, their experience of, and exposure to, thoracic ultrasound will be in its use as an adjunct to pleural and thoracic interventions, owing to the widely recognised benefits for patient safety and risk reduction. However, as clinicians become increasingly familiar with the capabilities of thoracic ultrasound, new directions for its use are being sought which might enhance practice and patient care...
April 14, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404809/choking-on-a-foreign-body-a-physiological-study-of-the-effectiveness-of-abdominal-thrust-manoeuvres-to-increase-thoracic-pressure
#7
LETTER
Matthew J Pavitt, Laura L Swanton, Matthew Hind, Michael Apps, Michael I Polkey, Malcolm Green, Nicholas S Hopkinson
The Heimlich manoeuvre is a well-known intervention for the management of choking due to foreign body airway occlusion, but the evidence base for guidance on this topic is limited and guidelines differ. We measured pressures during abdominal thrusts in healthy volunteers. The angle at which thrusts were performed (upthrust vs circumferential) did not affect intrathoracic pressure. Self-administered abdominal thrusts produced similar pressures to those performed by another person. Chair thrusts, where the subject pushed their upper abdomen against a chair back, produced higher pressures than other manoeuvres...
April 12, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389600/intravascular-donor-monocytes-play-a-central-role-in-lung-transplant-ischaemia-reperfusion-injury
#8
Kate Colette Tatham, Kieran Patrick O'Dea, Rosalba Romano, Hannah Elizabeth Donaldson, Kenji Wakabayashi, Brijesh Vipin Patel, Louit Thakuria, Andre Rudiger Simon, Padmini Sarathchandra, Nandor Marczin, Masao Takata
RATIONALE: Primary graft dysfunction in lung transplant recipients derives from the initial, largely leukocyte-dependent, ischaemia-reperfusion injury. Intravascular lung-marginated monocytes have been shown to play key roles in experimental acute lung injury, but their contribution to lung ischaemia-reperfusion injury post transplantation is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To define the role of donor intravascular monocytes in lung transplant-related acute lung injury and primary graft dysfunction...
April 7, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389599/preterm-respiratory-disease-in-the-modern-era-the-value-of-cohort-studies
#9
EDITORIAL
Gregory S Montgomery, Stephanie D Davis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 7, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389598/an-evaluation-of-tuberculosis-contact-investigations-against-national-standards
#10
Sean M Cavany, Tom Sumner, Emilia Vynnycky, Clare Flach, Richard G White, H Lucy Thomas, Helen Maguire, Charlotte Anderson
BACKGROUND: Contact tracing is a key element in England's 2015 collaborative TB strategy, although proposed indicators of successful contact tracing remain undescribed. METHODS: We conducted descriptive and multivariable analyses of contact tracing of TB cases in London between 1 July 2012 and 31 December 2015 using cohort review data from London's TB Register, identifying characteristics associated with improved indicators and yield. RESULTS: Of the pulmonary TB cases notified, 60% (2716/4561) had sufficient information for inclusion...
April 7, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381585/mastering-the-design-for-rehabilitation-strategies-in-icu-survivors
#11
EDITORIAL
Peter E Morris, Ashley Montgomery-Yates
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 5, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377492/mortality-survival-and-incidence-rates-in-the-italung-randomised-lung-cancer-screening-trial
#12
Eugenio Paci, Donella Puliti, Andrea Lopes Pegna, Laura Carrozzi, Giulia Picozzi, Fabio Falaschi, Francesco Pistelli, Ferruccio Aquilini, Cristina Ocello, Marco Zappa, Francesca M Carozzi, Mario Mascalchi
BACKGROUND: ITALUNG is contributing to the European evaluation of low-dose CT (LDCT) screening for lung cancer (LC). METHODS: Eligible subjects aged 55-69 years, smokers or ex-smokers (at least 20 pack-years in the last 10 years), were randomised to receive an annual invitation for LDCT screening for 4 years (active group) or to usual care (control group). All participants were followed up for vital status and cause of death (at the end of 2014) and LC incidence (at the end of 2013)...
April 4, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377491/one-evidence-base-three-stories-do-opioids-relieve-chronic-breathlessness
#13
LETTER
Magnus Ekström, Sabrina Bajwah, J Martin Bland, David C Currow, Jamilla Hussain, Miriam J Johnson
The efficacy of low-dose systemic opioids for chronic breathlessness was questioned by the recent Cochrane review by Barnes et al We examined the reasons for this conflicting finding and re-evaluated the efficacy of systemic opioids. Compared with previous meta-analyses, Barnes et al reported a smaller effect and lower precision, but did not account for matched data of crossover trials (11/12 included trials) and added a risk-of-bias criterion (sample size). When re-analysed to account for crossover data, opioids decreased breathlessness (standardised mean differences -0...
April 4, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373348/trends-in-paediatric-asthma-hospitalisations-differences-between-neighbouring-countries
#14
LETTER
Juho E Kivistö, Jennifer L P Protudjer, Jussi Karjalainen, Anna Bergström, Matti Korppi
Paediatric asthma hospitalisation trends in Finland and Sweden over the past 10 years are unclear. We investigated the incidence of paediatric asthma hospitalisations in both countries from 2005 to 2014, using Finland's National Hospital Discharge Register and Sweden's National Patient Register which cover all hospitalisations in the respective countries. During the study period, the incidence of paediatric asthma hospitalisations decreased by 51% in Finland, but remained stable in Sweden. In both countries, asthma hospitalisations decreased over time among children aged 0-4 years, with unclear trends for older ages...
April 3, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373347/a-toddler-with-a-cough-and-wheeze-refractory-to-treatment
#15
Shivanthan Shanthikumar, Tommy Lwin, Chung W Chow, Joe Crameri, Jo Harrison
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 3, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373346/a-lesson-in-plasticity-a-74-year-old-man-with-plastic-bronchitis
#16
Anand Shah, Jackie Donovan, Phil Marino, Pallav L Shah, Anand Devaraj, Kshama Wechalekar, Toby M Maher, Michael R Loebinger, Robert Wilson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 3, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360224/ultrasound-evaluation-of-diaphragm-function-in-mechanically-ventilated-patients-comparison-to-phrenic-stimulation-and-prognostic-implications
#17
Bruno-Pierre Dubé, Martin Dres, Julien Mayaux, Suela Demiri, Thomas Similowski, Alexandre Demoule
RATIONALE: In intensive care unit (ICU) patients, diaphragm dysfunction is associated with adverse clinical outcomes. Ultrasound measurements of diaphragm thickness, excursion (EXdi) and thickening fraction (TFdi) are putative estimators of diaphragm function, but have never been compared with phrenic nerve stimulation. Our aim was to describe the relationship between these variables and diaphragm function evaluated using the change in endotracheal pressure after phrenic nerve stimulation (Ptr,stim), and to compare their prognostic value...
March 30, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360223/risk-stratification-based-on-screening-history-the-nelson-lung-cancer-screening-study
#18
Uraujh Yousaf-Khan, Carlijn van der Aalst, Pim A de Jong, Marjolein Heuvelmans, Ernst Scholten, Joan Walter, Kristiaan Nackaerts, Harry Groen, Rozemarijn Vliegenthart, Kevin Ten Haaf, Matthijs Oudkerk, Harry de Koning
BACKGROUND: Debate about the optimal lung cancer screening strategy is ongoing. In this study, previous screening history of the Dutch-Belgian Lung Cancer Screening trial (NELSON) is investigated on if it predicts the screening outcome (test result and lung cancer risk) of the final screening round. METHODS: 15 792 participants were randomised (1:1) of which 7900 randomised into a screening group. CT screening took place at baseline, and after 1, 2 and 2.5 years...
March 30, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360222/novel-imaging-detailing-the-origins-of-a-pneumothorax
#19
LETTER
Kozo Nakanishi, Hidenori Goto, Tomokazu Ito, Yasuhito Nagata, Shinichi Hayashi, Toshihiro Ishihara
This is a prospective clinical study aimed at introducing a method to visualise the location of an air leak and to identify the bulla responsible on three-dimensional (3-D) cine CT. In 10 patients with spontaneous pneumothorax, dynamic 320-detector row CT was performed with injection of 0.9% saline into the affected pleural cavity via a preplaced chest tube. In eight cases, 3-D cine CT thoracography revealed the location of the air leak and the bulla responsible (7 cases: air stream sign; 1 case: repeated collapse and expansion of a bulla with the patient's breathing)...
March 30, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356419/chronic-breathlessness-associated-with-poorer-physical-and-mental-health-related-quality-of-life-sf-12-across-all-adult-age-groups
#20
LETTER
D C Currow, E Dal Grande, D Ferreira, M J Johnson, N McCaffrey, M Ekström
Little is known about the impact of chronic breathlessness (modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) score ≥2 for most days, at least three of the last six months) on health-related quality of life (Short Form-12 (SF-12)). 3005 adults from randomly selected households were interviewed face-to-face in South Australia. mMRC ≥2 community prevalence was 2.9%. Adjusted analyses showed clinically meaningful and statistically significant decrements of physical and mental components of SF-12 (mean SF-12 summary scores in physical (-13...
March 29, 2017: Thorax
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