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Stem Cells and Development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557562/mesenchymal-stromal-cells-as-anti-inflammatory-and-regenerative-mediators-for-donor-kidneys-during-normothermic-machine-perfusion
#1
Jesus Maria Sierra-Parraga, Marco Eijken, James Hunter, Cyril Moers, Henri Leuvenink, Bjarne Møller, Rutger J Ploeg, Carla C Baan, Bente Jespersen, Martin J Hoogduijn
There is great demand for transplant kidneys for the treatment of end-stage kidney disease patients. To expand the donor pool, organs from older and comorbid brain death donors, so-called expanded criteria donors (ECD), as well as donation after circulatory death donors, are considered for transplantation. However, the quality of these organs may be inferior to standard donor organs. A major issue affecting graft function and survival is ischemia/reperfusion injury, which particularly affects kidneys from deceased donors...
June 26, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537488/capturing-human-na%C3%A3-ve-pluripotency-in-the-embryo-and-in-the-dish
#2
Ludovic Zimmerlin, Tea Soon Park, Elias T Zambidis
Although human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) were first derived almost 20 years ago, it was only recently acknowledged that they share closer molecular and functional identity to postimplantation lineage-primed murine epiblast stem cells than to naïve preimplantation inner cell mass-derived mouse ESCs (mESCs). A myriad of transcriptional, epigenetic, biochemical, and metabolic attributes have now been described that distinguish naïve and primed pluripotent states in both rodents and humans. Conventional hESCs and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) appear to lack many of the defining hallmarks of naïve mESCs...
June 26, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537471/characteristics-of-labial-gland-mesenchymal-stem-cells-of-healthy-individuals-and-patients-with-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome-a-preliminary-study
#3
Shi-Qin Wang, Yi-Xiang Wang, Hong Hua
Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a systemic autoimmune disease that is characterized by focal lymphocytic infiltration into exocrine organs such as salivary and lacrimal glands, resulting in dry mouth and eyes, and other systemic injuries. There is no curative clinical therapy for SS, and stem cell therapy has shown great potential in this area. The mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the salivary glands of healthy individuals and in patients with SS have not been extensively studied. The aim of this study was to elucidate the characteristics of MSCs from the labial glands of healthy controls and of those from patients with SS to elucidate the related pathogenesis and to uncover potential avenues for novel clinical interventions...
June 26, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494644/the-alpha-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-of-deciduous-dental-pulp-stem-cells-regulates-osteoclastogenesis-during-physiological-root-resorption
#4
Lulu Wang, Zhifei Zhou, Yujiang Chen, Shuai Yuan, Yang Du, Xinke Ju, Lizheng Wu, Xiaojing Wang
The physiological root resorption of deciduous teeth is a normal phenomenon, but the mechanisms underlying this process are still unclear. In this study, deciduous dental pulp stem cells (DDPSCs) and permanent dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) were derived from deciduous teeth and normal permanent teeth at different stages of resorption. In the middle stage of root resorption, DDPSCs exhibited an increase in the ability to induce osteoclast differentiation. Activation of the alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR) by secretory mammalian Ly-6 urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor-associated protein 1 (SLURP-1) caused a significant increase in the expression levels of NF-κB, receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL), and the ratio of RANKL/osteoprotegerin (OPG)...
June 26, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635509/induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-dopaminergic-neurons-from-adult-common-marmoset-fibroblasts
#5
Scott C Vermilyea, Scott Guthrie, Michael Meyer, Kim Smuga-Otto, Katarina Braun, Sara Howden, James A Thomson, Su-Chun Zhang, Marina Emborg, Dr Thaddeus G Golos
The common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus; Cj) is an advantageous nonhuman primate species for modeling age-related disorders, including Parkinson's disease, due to their shorter lifespan compared to macaques. Cj-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (Cj-iPSCs) from somatic cells are needed for in vitro disease modeling and testing regenerative medicine approaches. Here we report the development of a novel Cj-iPSC line derived from adult marmoset fibroblasts. The Cj-iPSCs showed potent pluripotency properties including development of mesodermal lineages in tumors after injection to immunocompromised mice, as well as ectoderm and endoderm lineages after in vitro differentiation regimens, demonstrating differentiated derivatives of all three embryonic layers...
June 21, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462621/development-of-mural-cells-from-in-vivo-understanding-to-in-vitro-recapitulation
#6
Edwin M Shen, Kara E McCloskey
Mural cells are indispensable for the development and maintenance of healthy mature vasculature, valuable for vascular therapies and as developmental models. However, their functional plasticity, developmental diversity, and multitude of differentiation pathways complicate in vitro generation. Fortunately, there is a vast pool of untapped knowledge from in vivo studies that can guide in vitro engineering. This review highlights the in vivo genesis of mural cells from progenitor populations to recruitment pathways to maturation and identity with an emphasis on how this knowledge is applicable to in vitro models of stem cell differentiation...
June 20, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629288/p53-mutation-and-epigenetic-imprinted-igf2-h19-gene-analysis-in-mesenchymal-stem-cells-derived-from-amniotic-fluid-amnion-endometrium-and-wharton-s-jelly
#7
Tatsanee Phermthai, Puttachart Pokathikorn, Suparat Wichitwiengrat, Sasiprapa Thongbopit, Kittima Tungprasertpol, Suphakde Julavijitphong
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are promising cells for medical therapy. In in vitro expansion, MSC can give rise to progeny with genomic and epigenomic alterations, resulting in senescence, loss terminal differentiation and transformation to cancer. However, MSC genome protects its genetic instability via a guardian function of the P53 tumor suppressor gene and epigenetic balance system during MSC culture. Mutations of P53 and epigenetic alterations have been reported to disrupt the quality and quantity of MSC and initiate tumorigenesis...
June 19, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610554/slc7a11-over-expression-in-glioblastoma-is-associated-with-increased-cancer-stem-cell-like-properties
#8
Monika Dagmara Polewski, Rosyli Francis Reveron-Thornton, Gregory Allan Cherryholmes, Georgi K Marinov, Karen Saida Aboody
System xc- is a sodium independent electro-neutral transporter, composed of a catalytic subunit xCT (SLC7A11) which is involved in importing cystine. Certain cancers such as gliomas up-regulate the expression of system xc- which confers a survival advantage against the detrimental effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by increasing the generation of the antioxidant glutathione. However, ROS have also been shown to function as targeted, intracellular second messengers in an array of physiological processes such as proliferation...
June 13, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490256/how-plastic-are-pericytes
#9
Alexander Birbrair, Isabella da Terra Borges, Isadora Fernandes Gilson Sena, Gregório Guilherme Almeida, Lindolfo da Silva Meirelles, Ricardo Gonçalves, Akiva Mintz, Osvaldo Delbono
Pericytes are defined by both their anatomical location and molecular markers. Numerous publications have reported their role as stem cells, contributing to the formation of tissues other than blood vessels. However, using cell-lineage tracing in a new transgenic mouse model, a recent study shows that in the context of aging and some pathologies, Tbx18+ pericytes do not function as stem cells in vivo. This study challenges the current view that pericytes can differentiate into other cells and reopen questions about their plasticity...
June 13, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494695/the-role-of-integrin-%C3%AE-6-cd49f-in-stem-cells-more-than-a-conserved-biomarker
#10
Paul H Krebsbach, Luis G Villa-Diaz
Stem cells have the capacity for self-renewal and differentiation into specialized cells that form and repopulated all tissues and organs, from conception to adult life. Depending on their capacity for differentiation, stem cells are classified as totipotent (ie, zygote), pluripotent (ie, embryonic stem cells), multipotent (ie, neuronal stem cells, hematopoietic stem cells, epithelial stem cells, etc.), and unipotent (ie, spermatogonial stem cells). Adult or tissue-specific stem cells reside in specific niches located in, or nearby, their organ or tissue of origin...
June 12, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494646/a-randomized-study-comparing-stem-cell-transplantation-versus-conventional-therapy-for-low-and-intermediate-risk-myelodysplastic-syndromes-patients
#11
Zheng-Ping Yu, Jia-Hua Ding, Ai-Ning Sun, Zheng Ge, Bao-An Chen, De-Pei Wu
The treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) involves improving patient survival and quality of life (QoL) and decreasing the likelihood of progression to AML. Although the treatment outcomes of MDS remain unsatisfactory, few comparative studies have been performed while comparing the outcomes of low-risk and intermediate-risk patients treated with supportive care and chemotherapeutics to those of patients treated with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Therefore, we designed a clinical control study to compare the outcomes of supportive care and chemotherapeutics versus allo-HSCT treatment in MDS patients...
June 12, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599575/suppression-of-mir-34a-expression-in-the-myocardium-protects-against-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-via-sirt1-protective-pathway
#12
Bi-Cheng Fu, Ji-Lu Lang, Dong-Yang Zhang, Lu Sun, Wei Chen, Wei Liu, Kai-Yu Liu, Chong-Yi Ma, Shu-Lin Jiang, Ren-Ke Ke Li, Hai Tian
miRNA-34a (miR-34a) is expressed in the myocardium and expression is altered after myocardial injury. We investigated the effects of miR-34a on heart function after ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Cardiomyocytes were isolated from neonatal rat hearts and simulated IR injury was induced in vitro. Following IR injury in rats, infarct size was measured and left ventricular (LV) function was evaluated using echocardiography. Protein expression of silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1), acetylated (ac) p53 (ac-p53), Bcl-2 and Bax and miR-34a and SIRT1 gene levels were analyzed...
June 9, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583028/a-novel-method-for-the-isolation-of-pluripotent-stem-cells-from-human-umbilical-cord-blood
#13
Manuela Monti, Barbara Imberti, Niccolò Bianchi, Anna Pezzotta, Marina Morigi, Claudia Del Fante, Carlo Alberto Redi, Cesare Perotti
Very Small Embryonic-Like cells (VSELs) are a population of very rare pluripotent stem cells isolated in adult murine bone marrow and many other tissues and organs, including umbilical cord blood. VSELs existence is still not universally accepted by the scientific community so, on this purpose, we sought to investigate whether presumptive VSELs (pVSELs) could be isolated from human umbilical cord blood with an improved protocol based on the isolation of enriched progenitor cells by depletion of non-progenitor cells with magnetic separation...
June 5, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562227/a-combinatorial-approach-to-induce-sensory-axon-regeneration-into-the-dorsal-root-avulsed-spinal-cord
#14
Jan Hoeber, Niclas König, Carl Trolle, Emilia Lekholm, Chunfang Zhou, Stanislava Pankratova, Elisabet Åkesson, Robert Fredriksson, Håkan Aldskogius, Elena N Kozlova
Spinal root injuries result in newly formed glial scar formation, which prevents regeneration of sensory axons causing permanent sensory loss. Previous studies showed that delivery of trophic factors or implantation of human neural progenitor cells supports sensory axon regeneration and partly restores sensory functions. In this study, we elucidate mechanisms underlying stem cell-mediated ingrowth of sensory axons after dorsal root avulsion (DRA). We show that human spinal cord neural stem/progenitor cells (hscNSPC), and also, mesoporous silica particles loaded with growth factor mimetics (MesoMIM), supported sensory axon regeneration...
May 31, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557666/factors-released-from-endothelial-cells-exposed-to-flow-impact-adhesion-proliferation-and-fate-choice-in-the-adult-neural-stem-cell-lineage
#15
Courtney M Dumont, Jennifer Piselli, Nadeem Kazi, Evan Bowman, Guoyun Li, Robert J Linhardt, Sally Temple, Guohao Dai, Deanna M Thompson
The microvasculature within the neural stem cell (NSC) niche promotes self-renewal and regulates lineage progression. Previous work identified endothelial-produced soluble factors as key regulators of neural progenitor cell (NPC) fate and proliferation; however endothelial cells (EC) are sensitive to local hemodynamics, and the effect of this key physiological process has not been defined. In this study, we evaluated adult mouse NPC response to soluble factors isolated from static or dynamic (flow) EC cultures...
May 30, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557659/geminin-participates-in-differentiation-decisions-of-adult-neural-stem-cells-transplanted-in-the-hemiparkinsonian-mouse-brain
#16
Ioanna Taouki, Eve Tasiudi, Maria-Eleni Lalioti, Christina Kyrousi, Eleni Skavatsou, Konstantina Kaplani, Zoi Lygerou, Elias D Kouvelas, Adamantia Mitsacos, Panagiotis Giompres, Stavros Taraviras
Neural stem cells have been considered as a source of stem cells that can be used for cell replacement therapies in neurodegenerative diseases, as they can be isolated and expanded in vitro and can be used for autologous grafting. However, due to low percentages of survival and varying patterns of differentiation, strategies that will enhance the efficacy of transplantation are under scrutiny. Here, we have examined whether alterations in Geminin's expression, a protein that coordinates the balance between self-renewal and differentiation, can improve the properties of stem cells transplanted in 6 OHDA hemiparkinsonian mouse model...
May 30, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548571/correlation-of-cdc42-activity-with-cell-proliferation-and-palmitate-mediated-cell-death-in-human-umbilical-cord-wharton-s-jelly-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-cells
#17
Jun Lu, Qinghua Wang, Lianghu Huang, Huiyue Dong, Lingjing Lin, Jianming Tan
RHO GTPases regulate cell migration, cell-cycle progression, and cell survival in response to extracellular stimuli. However, the regulatory effects of RHO GTPases in mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are unclear. Herein, we show that CDC42 acts as an essential factor in regulating cell proliferation and also takes part in lipotoxic effects of palmitate in human umbilical cord Wharton's jelly derived MSCs (hWJ-MSCs). Cultured human bone marrow (hBM-MSCs), adipose tissue (hAD-MSCs), and umbilical cord Wharton's jelly (hWJ-MSCs) derived cells had varying pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion levels and cell death rates when treated by palmitate...
May 26, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537496/feeder-free-derivation-of-na%C3%A3-ve-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#18
Emily Ward, Kirk Twaroski, Jakub Tolar
Human pluripotent stem cells (HPSCs) cultured in conditions that maintain pluripotency via FGF and TGFβ signaling have been described as being in a primed state. These cells have been shown to exhibit characteristics more closely related to mouse epiblast-derived stem cells than to so called naïve mouse PSCs said to possess a more ground state pluripotency that mimics the early mouse embryo inner cell mass. Initial attempts to create culture conditions favorable for generation of naïve HPSCs from primed HPSCs has required the use of mouse embryonic fibroblasts as a feeder layer to support this transition...
May 24, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446066/a-novel-three-dimensional-culture-system-for-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells
#19
Naohiro Egawa, Akihiro Shindo, Anna C Liang, Yang Du, Changhong Xing, Evan K Lo, Kanako Itoh, Hisanori Kinoshita, Takakuni Maki, Ryosuke Takahashi, Ryo Sudo, Myron Spector, Josephine Lok, Ken Arai
Oligodendrocytes are generated from oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs). Mechanisms of OPC differentiation have been extensively examined with two-dimensional cell culture systems. However, these cellular events may be more accurately represented using a three-dimensional (3D) model. In this study, we report the development of a novel 3D OPC culture system using gels composed of a mixture of collagen and hyaluronan, wherein cultured rat primary OPCs can proliferate and differentiate into oligodendrocytes...
May 24, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520534/cpg-island-methylation-correlates-with-the-use-of-alternative-promoter-for-usp44-gene-expression-in-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-and-testis
#20
Philippe Tropel, Laura Jung, Cécile André, Adeline Ndandougou, Stéphane Viville
Deubiquitinating enzymes may play a major regulatory role in pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) but few studies have investigated this topic. Within this family of enzymes, we found that the ubiquitin specific peptidase, USP44, is highly expressed in embryonic stem cells, induced PSCs and testes as compared to differentiated progenies and somatic organs. Analysis by qPCR and 5'RACE showed that alternate promoters are responsible for expression in PSCs and organs. We noticed 7 regions of transcription initiation, some of them with cell- or tissue-specific activity...
May 18, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
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