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Stem Cells and Development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161958/leukemia-inhibitory-factor-is-essential-for-the-self-renewal-of-embryonic-stem-cells-from-nile-tilapia-oreochromis-niloticus-through-stat3-signaling
#1
Jing Wei, Zhenhua Fan, Zhuo Yang, Yujie Zhou, Fan Da, Linyan Zhou, Wenjing Tao, Deshou Wang
To date, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the self-renewal of embryonic stem (ES) cells from fish species. Here we report that the leukemia inhibitory factor (named as OnLif) from a teleost fish, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), is essential for the proliferation, survival and pluripotency maintenance of Nile tilapia ES cells (TES1) via activating the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3). This protein has 221 amino acid residues with similar sequence features to mammalian LIF...
November 22, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161957/induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-from-a-marsupial-the-tasmanian-devil-sarcophilus-harrisii-insight-into-the-evolution-of-mammalian-pluripotency
#2
Prasanna Weeratunga, Arash Shahsavari, Dmitry A Ovchinnikov, Ernst Jurgen Wolvetang, Deanne Jeanette Whitworth
We demonstrate the generation of Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) induced pluripotent stem cells (DeviPSCs) from dermal fibroblasts by lentiviral delivery of human transcription factors. DeviPSCs display characteristic pluripotent stem cell colony morphology, with individual cells having a high nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio and alkaline phosphatase activity. DeviPSCs are leukemia inhibitory factor-dependent and have reactivated endogenous OCT4 (POU5F1), POU2 (POU5F3), SOX2, NANOG and DAX1 genes, retained a normal karyotype, and concurrently silenced exogenous human transgenes...
November 22, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160151/extracellular-matrix-from-periodontal-ligament-cells-could-induce-the-differentiation-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-to-periodontal-ligament-stem-cell-like-cells
#3
Sayuri Hamano, Atsushi Tomokiyo, Daigaku Hasegawa, Shinichiro Yoshida, Hideki Sugii, Hiromo Mitarai, Shoko Fujino, Naohisa Wada, Hidefumi Maeda
The periodontal ligament (PDL) plays an important role in anchoring teeth in the bone socket. Damage to the PDL, such as following severe inflammation, can be treated with a therapeutic strategy that uses stem cells derived from PDL tissue (PDLSCs), a strategy that has received intense scrutiny over the past decade. However, there is an insufficient number of PDLSCs within the PDL for treating such damage. Therefore, we sought to induce the differentiation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells into PDLSCs as an initial step toward PDL therapy...
November 21, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032727/spleen-derived-anti-inflammatory-cytokine-interleukin-10-stimulated-by-adipose-tissue-derived-stem-cells-protects-against-type-2-diabetes
#4
Jinying Zhang, Zihui Deng, Liyuan Jin, Chen Yang, Jiejie Liu, Haijing Song, Weidong Han, Yiling Si
Considering that the spleen plays an important role in the occurrence and development of diabetes, we aimed at investigating the role of the spleen in the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D) with adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs). We established a T2D/splenectomy (SPX) rat model by using high-fat diet/streptozotocin administration with SPX, assessed the therapeutic effects of ADSCs, and explored the possible mechanism. A single ADSC infusion was found to ameliorate hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in diabetic rats, accompanied by a considerable number of ADSCs homing to the spleens in T2D rats...
November 21, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017378/optimizing-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-expansion-in-stirred-suspension-culture
#5
Guoliang Meng, Shiying Liu, Anna Poon, Derrick E Rancourt
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) hold great hopes for application in regenerative medicine due to their inherent capacity to self-renew and differentiate into cells from the three embryonic germ layers. For clinical applications, a large quantity of hiPSCs produced in standardized and scalable culture processes is required. Several groups, including ours, have developed methodologies for scaled-up hiPSC production in stirred bioreactors in chemically defined medium. In this study, we optimized the critical steps and factors that affect hiPSC expansion and yield in stirred-suspension cultures, including inoculation conditions, seeding density, aggregate size, agitation rate, and cell passaging method...
November 21, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992793/the-short-chain-fatty-acid-propionate-inhibits-adipogenic-differentiation-of-human-chorion-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-through-the-free-fatty-acid-receptor-2
#6
Judit Iván, Evelin Major, Adrienn Sipos, Katalin Kovács, Dániel Horváth, István Tamás, Péter Bay, Viktor Dombrádi, Beáta Lontay
Free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFAR2, also known as GPR43) is a G-protein-coupled receptor activated by short-chain fatty acids that are produced by gut microbiota through fermentation of nondigestible carbohydrates. FFAR2 functions as a metabolic sensor and is expressed in metabolically active tissues, such as adipose tissue. Earlier studies proved the connection between FFAR2 and adipocyte differentiation in mice. The aim of this study was to investigate the implication of FFAR2 receptor in adipogenesis in human chorion-derived mesenchymal stem cells (cMSCs)...
November 14, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121823/effect-of-tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-dose-and-exposure-time-on-tumor-necrosis-factor-induced-gene-6-activation-by-neonatal-and-adult-mesenchymal-stromal-cells
#7
Shiva Hamidian Jahromi, Yunqing Li, John E Davies
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-stimulated gene 6 (TSG-6) is a major anti-inflammatory mediator released by activated mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). Neonatal MSCs are considered more metabolically active than cells derived from adult tissues, and potentially less heterogeneous. We hypothesized that a TNF-α activated neonatal MSC population (human umbilical cord perivascular cells-HUCPVCs) would show an enhanced level of TSG-6 activation compared to adult bone marrow MSCs (BMMSCs). Thus, we stimulated HUCPVCs, and both human and mouse BMMSCs with 1, 10, 50, and 100ng/mL of recombinant TNF-α over various exposure times...
November 9, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121817/stromal-cell-derived-factor-1%C3%AE-promotes-endothelial-colony-forming-cell-migration-through-the-ca2-dependent-activation-of-the-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-1-2-and-phosphoinositide-3-kinase-akt-pathways
#8
Estella Zuccolo, Christian Andrea Di Buduo, Francesco Lodola, Stefania Orecchioni, Giorgia Scarpellino, Dlzar Ali Kheder, Valentina Poletto, Germano Guerra, Francesco Bertolini, Alessandra Balduini, Vittorio Rosti, Francesco Moccia
Stromal derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) drives endothelial colony forming cell (ECFC) homing and incorporation within neovessels, thereby restoring tissue perfusion in ischemic tissues and favouring tumor vascularization and metastasis. SDF-1α stimulates ECFC migration by activating the Gi-protein coupled receptor, CXCR4, and then engaging the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signalling pathway. Sporadic evidence showed that SDF-1α may also act through an increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in bone marrow-derived hematopoietic progenitor cells and fully differentiated endothelial cells...
November 9, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117787/reprogramming-of-adult-peripheral-blood-cells-into-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-as-a-safe-and-accessible-source-of-endothelial-cells
#9
Pavel Simara, Lenka Tesarova, Daniela Rehakova, Simon Farkas, Barbara Salingova, Katerina Kutalkova, Eva Vavreckova, Pavel Matula, Petr Matula, Lenka Veverkova, Irena Koutna
New approaches in regenerative medicine and vasculogenesis have generated a demand for sufficient numbers of human endothelial cells (ECs). ECs and their progenitors (EPCs) reside on the interior surface of blood and lymphatic vessels or circulate in peripheral blood; however, their numbers are limited and they are difficult to expand after isolation. Recent advances in human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) research have opened possible avenues to generate unlimited numbers of ECs from easily accessible cell sources, such as the peripheral blood...
November 8, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113556/phospholipase-d-family-member-6-pld6-is-a-surface-marker-for-enrichment-of-undifferentiated-spermatogonia-in-the-pre-pubertal-boars
#10
Pengfei Zhang, Yuwei Qin, Yi Zheng, Wenxian Zeng
Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) have a functional ability to maintain self-renewal and sustain production of spermatozoa throughout the reproductive lifespan of a male. Studies on SSCs can thus better understandings of spermatogenesis and unravel the mechanisms for self-renewal and differentiation of male germline stem cells. However, the rarity of SSCs in the testis and the lack of reliable surface markers obstruct the related study and further application of SSCs. This is especially the case in livestock animals...
November 7, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105567/in-vivo-survival-of-human-endometrial-mesenchymal-stem-cells-transplanted-under-the-kidney-capsule-of-immunocompromised-mice
#11
Shanti Gurung, James A Deane, Saeedeh Darzi, Jerome A Werkmeister, Caroline E Gargett
Human endometrial mesenchymal stem cells (eMSCs) are a well-characterised adult stem cell type with potential for use in regenerative medicine or cell-therapy. As a proof of principle, we demonstrated that eMSCs promoted wound healing by reducing the inflammatory response through a paracrine action in a subcutaneous rat model of wound repair. However, an efficient protocol for culturing eMSCs in the undifferentiated state and a reliable method of labelling them for cell tracking were lacking. Here, we investigated the use of a lentiviral vector containing the mCherry fluorescent reporter gene to transduce and label eMSCs following in vitro culturing in A83-01-containing medium, and different methods of tracing the labelled cells following transplantation under the kidney capsule of immunocompromised NSG mice...
November 4, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099340/humoral-immunity-in-mice-transplanted-with-hematopoietic-stem-cells-derived-from-human-umbilical-cord-blood-recapitulates-that-of-human-infants
#12
Justin A Walker, Raja Vuyyuru, Tim Manser, Kishore R Alugupalli
Immunodeficient mice transplanted with human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) have been referred to as "Human Immune System" (HIS) mice and are a translational platform for studying human immune responses in vivo. Human HSC sources used in generating HIS mice include fetal liver (FL), umbilical cord blood (CB), and adult bone marrow (BM). Since HSCs from FL, CB, and BM are produced at various stages of human development, we tested whether mice transplanted with these three HSCs differ in their immune responses...
November 3, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084466/elevated-expression-of-dkk-1-by-glucocorticoid-treatment-impairs-bone-regenerative-capacity-of-adipose-tissue-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#13
Toshiki Kato, Vuong Cat Khanh, Kazutoshi Sato, Kenichi Kimura, Toshiharu Yamashita, Hisashi Sugaya, Tomokazu Yoshioka, Hajime Mishima, Osamu Ohneda
Glucocorticoids are steroid hormones used as anti-inflammatory treatments. However, this strong immunomodulation causes undesirable side effects that impair bones, such as osteoporosis. Glucocorticoid therapy is a major risk factor for developing steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femur head (ONFH). Since ONFH is incurable, therapy with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that can differentiate into osteoblasts are a first-line choice. Bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) are often used as a source of stem cell therapy for ONFH, but their proliferative activity is impaired after steroid treatment...
October 30, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950762/positive-modulation-of-ampa-receptors-promotes-survival-and-proliferation-of-neural-stem-progenitor-cells-from-the-adult-rat-spinal-cord
#14
Laureen D Hachem, Andrea J Mothe, Charles H Tator
Transplantation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) following spinal cord injury (SCI) is a promising strategy to enhance regeneration but is limited by poor survival of grafted cells. Determining methods to enhance survival of NSPCs is therefore essential. Positive modulation of AMPA receptors has been shown to enhance neurogenesis in various models of brain injury. Here we examined the effect of selective AMPA receptor modulation in adult rat spinal cord-derived NSPCs using a class of allosteric AMPA receptor modulators known as ampakines...
October 30, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922976/transient-impairment-of-islet-architectural-development-in-pancreas-specific-bmpr1a-deleted-prenatal-mice-involves-reduced-expression-of-e-cadherin
#15
Fang-Xu Jiang, Leonard C Harrison
Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling plays critical roles on the development of a large array of embryonic organs and promotes the in vitro formation of pancreatic cystoid colonies containing insulin-producing cells. However, this signaling and its underlying mechanism on in vivo development of prenatal pancreas have not been clearly understood. To address these questions, we analyzed, with a variety of techniques, the prenatal mouse pancreas after Pdx1 (the pancreas and duodenum homeobox factor 1 gene)-driving deletion of the BMP receptor type 1a gene (Bmpr1a)...
October 30, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078734/ovarian-cancer-stem-cells-unravelling-a-germline-connection
#16
Seema Chandrakant Parte, Andrei S Smolenkov, Surinder K Batra, Mariusz Z Ratajczak, Sham Sunder Kakar
Ovarian cancer is most lethal among gynaecological cancers with often fatal consequences due to lack of effective bio-markers and relapse which propels ovarian cancer research into unique directions to establish solid targeted therapeutics. 'Ovarian stem cells' expressing germline, pluripotent markers serve as novel paradigm with potential to address infertility, menopause and probably influence tumor initiation. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) pose vital role in tumor recurrence and hence it is extremely important to study them with respect to ovarian stem cells across various cancer stages and normal ovaries...
October 27, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054138/mdivi-1-protects-human-w8b2-cardiac-stem-cells-from-oxidative-stress-and-simulated-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#17
Ayeshah A Rosdah, Simon T Bond, Priyadharshini Sivakumaran, Ashfaqul Hoque, Jonathan S Oakhill, Brian G Drew, Lea Md Delbridge, Shiang Yong Lim
Cardiac stem cell (CSC) therapy is a promising approach to treat ischemic heart disease. However, the poor survival of transplanted stem cells in the ischemic myocardium has been a major impediment in achieving an effective cell-based therapy against myocardial infarction. Inhibiting mitochondrial fission has been shown to promote survival of several cell types. However, the role of mitochondrial morphology in survival of human CSC remains unknown. In this study, we investigated whether Mdivi-1, an inhibitor of mitochondrial fission protein Drp1, can improve survival of a novel population of human W8B2+ CSCs in hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress and simulated ischemia-reperfusion injury models...
October 20, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054136/combined-methylome-and-transcriptome-analysis-during-rat-hepatic-stellate-cell-activation
#18
Eva Schumacher, Silke Götze, Claus Kordes, Vladimir Benes, Dieter Häussinger
Hepatic stellate cells (HSC) are mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) of the liver. They are unique among MSC, since HSC remain in a quiescent, retinoid-storing state in the normal liver but become activated after liver injury and contribute to tissue repair. The epigenetic mechanisms accompanying the transition of HSC from a quiescent to an activated state are in the focus of the present study. We investigated the methylome and transcriptome during this process and observed profound changes. While the promoter methylation correlated negatively with gene expression, the gene body methylation revealed no clear correlation...
October 20, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050516/human-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stromal-cell-derived-osteoblasts-promote-the-expansion-of-hematopoietic-progenitors-through-beta-catenin-and-notch-signaling-pathways
#19
Matthew Michalicka, Gavin Boisjoli, Suria Jahan, Owen Hovey, Emily Doxtator, Ahmad Abu-Khader, Roya Pasha, Nicolas Pineault
Coculture of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) with primary stromal cells from HSC niches supports the maintenance and expansion of HSC and progenitors ex vivo. However, a major drawback is the availability of primary human samples for research and clinical applications. We investigated the use of in vitro derived osteoblasts as a new source of feeder cells and characterized the molecular pathways that mediate their growth promoting activities. First, we compared the growth and differentiation modulating activities of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC)-derived osteoblasts (M-OST) to that of their undifferentiated precursor on umbilical cord blood (UCB) progenitors...
October 19, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992755/drug-mediated-shortening-of-action-potentials-in-lqts2-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-cardiomyocytes
#20
Gary Duncan, Karl Firth, Vinoj George, Minh Duc Hoang, Andrew Staniforth, Godfrey Smith, Chris Denning
Cardiomyocytes (CMs) derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are now a well-established modality for modeling genetic disorders of the heart. This is especially so for long QT syndrome (LQTS), which is caused by perturbation of ion channel function, and can lead to fainting, malignant arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. LQTS2 is caused by mutations in KCNH2, a gene whose protein product contributes to IKr (also known as HERG), which is the predominant repolarizing potassium current in CMs...
October 9, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
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