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Stem Cells and Development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193136/ccctc-binding-factor-ctcf-transcriptionally-targets-wdr5-to-mediate-somatic-cell-reprogramming
#1
Feng Wang, Jinghua Han, Li Wang, Ying Jing, Zhu Zhu, Dawei Hui, Zhaohui Wang, Yangzi Wang, Yang Dong, Tao Tan
It was previously reported that WD repeat domain 5 (Wdr5), a core member of the mammalian Trithorax complex, is a key regulator for the maintenance of ES cell pluripotency and somatic cell reprogramming. However, it remains unclear whether other factors also involve in this process. Here, we show that CTCF is an upstream regulator of Wdr5, it physically associates with Wdr5 and further transcriptionally controls its expression by directly targeting on Wdr5 gene promoter. As a downstream effector, overexpression of Wdr5 can rescue ES cells growth defect and decreased formation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells caused by CTCF knockdown...
February 14, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068868/mir-26a-mediates-adipogenesis-of-amniotic-fluid-mesenchymal-stem-stromal-cells-via-pten-cyclin-e1-and-cdk6
#2
Ourania Trohatou, Dimitra Zagoura, Nikos K Orfanos, Kalliopi I Pappa, Evangelos Marinos, Nicholas P Anagnou, Maria G Roubelakis
Recent findings indicate that microRNAs (miRNAs) are critical for the regulatory network of adipogenesis in human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs). Fetal MSCs derived from amniotic fluid (AF-MSCs) represent a population of multipotent stem cells characterized by a wide range of differentiation properties that can be applied in cell-based therapies. In this study, miRNA microarray analysis was performed to assess miRNA expression in terminal differentiated AF-MSCs into adipocyte-like cells (AL cells). MiR-26a was identified in high expression levels in AL cells indicating a critical role in the process of adipogenesis...
February 13, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958775/distinct-molecular-signature-of-murine-fetal-liver-and-adult-hematopoietic-stem-cells-identify-novel-regulators-of-hematopoietic-stem-cell-function
#3
Javed K Manesia, Monica Franch, Daniel Tabas-Madrid, Ruben Nogales-Cadenas, Thomas Vanwelden, Elisa Van Den Bosch, Zhuofei Xu, Alberto Pascual-Montano, Satish Khurana, Catherine M Verfaillie
During ontogeny, fetal liver (FL) acts as a major site for hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) maturation and expansion, whereas HSCs in the adult bone marrow (ABM) are largely quiescent. HSCs in the FL possess faster repopulation capacity as compared with ABM HSCs. However, the molecular mechanism regulating the greater self-renewal potential of FL HSCs has not yet extensively been assessed. Recently, we published RNA sequencing-based gene expression analysis on FL HSCs from 14.5-day mouse embryo (E14.5) in comparison to the ABM HSCs...
February 13, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186467/effect-of-the-microenvironment-on-mesenchymal-stem-cells-paracrine-signalling-opportunities-to-engineer-the-therapeutic-effect
#4
Gina Diamanta Kusuma, James Carthew, Rebecca Lim, Jessica Ellen Frith
Cues from the extracellular environment, including physical stimuli, are well known to affect mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) properties in terms of proliferation and differentiation. Many therapeutic strategies are now targeting this knowledge to increase the efficacy of cell therapies, typically employed to repair tissue functions in the event of injury, either by direct engraftment into the target tissue or differentiation into mature tissues. However, it is now envisioned that harnessing the repertoire of factors secreted by MSCs (termed the secretome) may provide an alternate to these cell therapies...
February 10, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181858/evaluation-of-immunomodulatory-properties-of-feline-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#5
Maciej Parys, John M Kruger, Vilma Yuzbasiyan-Gurkan
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) offer a novel approach to treatment of inflammatory disorders in humans and companion animals. Cats spontaneously develop a wide variety of inflammatory disorders and may potentially benefit from MSC-based therapies. Multiple genes are involved in immunomodulation by MSC and interspecies differences between expressions of these genes exist. The goals of the study were to characterize the expression of genes known to be involved in MSC-based immunomodulation and determine the effect of MSC on proliferation of T-cells in co-culture experiments with PBMC...
February 9, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178884/improved-post-thaw-function-and-epigenetic-changes-in-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-cryopreserved-using-multicomponent-osmolyte-solutions
#6
Kathryn Pollock, Rebekah Samsonraj, Amel Dudakovic, Roman Thaler, Aron Stumbras, David McKenna, Peter Dosa, Andre van Wijnen, Allison Hubel
Current methods for freezing mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) result in poor post-thaw function, which limits the clinical utility of these cells. This investigation develops a novel approach to preserve MSCs using combinations of sugars, sugar alcohols and small molecule additives. MSCs frozen using these solutions exhibit improved post-thaw attachment and a more normal alignment of the actin cytoskeleton compared to cells exposed to dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). Osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation assays show that cells retain their mesenchymal lineage properties...
February 8, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178868/low-level-lasers-effect-on-proliferation-migration-and-anti-apoptosis-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#7
Kan Yin, Rongjia Zhu, Shihua Wang, Robert Chunhua Zhao
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been found to be helpful elements in tissue regeneration. Photobiomodulation (PBM) used extremely low level lasers (LLL) to affect the behaviour of cells. The effect mechanism of LLL on MSCs remained to be discovered. Here cell viability was assessed using MTS assays and cell cycle was evaluated by FACS. The influence of LLL on mitochondrial biogenesis (fission or fusion) and function (ATP, ROS, NO) were evaluated by TEM, FACS, RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry. Cell migration and cytoskeleton alteration (actin and tubulin) were evaluated using transwell assay, immunocytochemistry, ELISA and Western blotting...
February 8, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052733/melanoma-induced-anemia-could-be-rescued-by-sca-1-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-in-mice
#8
Ning An, Yaozhen Chen, Dandan Yin, Hui-Jie Zhang, Zheng Liu, Fan Feng, Na Li, Jiajia Xin, Wen Yin, Xueqing Xu, Xingbin Hu
The intrinsic basis of cancer-related anemia (CRA) is erythropoiesis disorder, which is a common complication of cancer and exerts a negative influence on the life quality of cancer patients. Cell therapy using mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) is considered as a promising method in cancer treatment. Furthermore, MSCs have been used to cure few type of anemia and be considered as a potential strategy to recover anemia radically. However, none reports its application in CRA treatment. In CRA model mice, we found that the number of lin(-)c-kit(+)Sca-1(+) and Sca-1(+) MSCs was decreased...
February 7, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959743/autologous-adipose-stem-cell-therapy-for-autonomic-nervous-system-dysfunction-in-two-young-patients
#9
Mohammed T Numan, Ankur Kamdar, Jane Young, Ian J Butler
Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome and neurocardiogenic syncope are clinical manifestations of autonomic nervous system dysfunction (dysautonomia) that can lead to impaired daily functions. We report two young patients presenting with dysautonomia and autoimmune disease who both received autologous adipose stem cells (ASCs) infusions. This report is the first description of ASCs therapy for patients with combined dysautonomia and autoimmune disease. Case 1: A 21-year-old female presented at 12 years of age with escalating severe dysautonomia with weight loss and gastrointestinal symptoms...
February 1, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923324/uncovering-the-in-vivo-source-of-adult-neural-crest-stem-cells
#10
Jorge B Aquino
Some late embryonic and adult postmigratory neural crest-derived cells (NCDCs) from diverse tissues were shown to grow as multipotent neurospheres. Neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) contained in these spheres were found to give rise not only to neuroectodermal derivatives but also to some of the progeny of the other embryonic germ layers. In this review, evidences regarding the in vivo properties of NCDCs contributing to NCSCs are discussed. Even though in many cases the final proof for the phenotype identity of in vivo cells generating NCSCs is lacking, some evidences suggest that such postmigratory NCDCs would differ from neural crest cells...
February 1, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142330/attitudes-to-stem-cell-therapy-among-ischemic-stroke-survivors-in-the-lund-stroke-recovery-study
#11
Joseph Aked, Hossein Delavaran, Olle Lindvall, Bo Norrving, Zaal Kokaia, Arne Lindgren
Preclinical studies suggest that stem cell therapy (SCT) may improve post-stroke recovery, and clinical trials investigating safety are ongoing. However, knowledge about patients' attitudes to SCT in stroke is limited. We evaluated the knowledge and attitudes to this therapeutic approach as well as possible factors influencing this among stroke patients potentially suitable for SCT. Consecutive first-ever acute ischemic stroke patients aged 20-75 years with NIH stroke scale scores 1-18 were included. Exclusion criteria were severe comorbidities or infratentorial stroke...
January 31, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28136695/heterogeneous-human-periodontal-ligament-committed-progenitor-and-stem-cell-populations-exhibit-a-unique-cementogenic-property-under-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-conditions
#12
Rei Shinagawa-Ohama, Mai Mochizuki, Yuichi Tamaki, Naoto Suda, Taka Nakahara
An undesirable complication that arises during dental treatments is external apical-root resorption, which causes root-cementum and root-dentin loss. To induce de novo cementogenesis, stem cell therapy is required. Cementum-forming cells (cementoblasts) are known to be differentiated from periodontal-lineage mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which are derived from the dental follicle (DF) in developing tissues and the periodontal ligament (PDL) in adult tissues, but the periodontal-lineage MSC type that is optimal for inducing de novo cementogenesis remains unidentified, as does the method to isolate these cells from harvested tissues...
January 31, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125926/coordinated-proliferation-and-differentiation-of-human-ips-cell-derived-cardiac-progenitor-cells-depends-on-bmp-signaling-regulation-by-gremlin-2
#13
Jeffery Bylund, Cassandra P Awgulewitsch, Linh T Trinh, David T Paik, Christopher Jetter, Rajneesh Jha, Jianhua Zhang, Kristof Nolan, Chunhui Xu, Thomas Thompson, Timothy J Kamp, Antonis K Hatzopoulos
Heart development depends on coordinated proliferation and differentiation of cardiac progenitor cells, but how the two processes are synchronized is not well understood. Here, we show that the secreted BMP antagonist GREMLIN2 (GREM2) is induced in cardiac progenitor cells shortly after cardiac mesoderm specification. GREM2 expression follows cardiac lineage differentiation independently of the differentiation protocol used, or the origin of human pluripotent stem cells, suggesting GREM2 is linked to cardiogenesis...
January 26, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117628/the-isolation-and-production-of-a-ready-to-use-product-the-amniotic-stem-cell-culture-in-accordance-with-gmp-regulations
#14
Diana Kitala, Marek Kawecki, Agnieszka Klama-Baryła, Wojciech Łabuś, Justyna Glik, Małgorzata Kraut, Marcelina Misiuga, Mariusz Nowak
According to the Committee for Advanced Therapies, amniotic stem cells were classified as an advanced therapy medicinal product. This work aims to standardize the isolation of amniotic stem cells and the selection of the optimal time of transplantation and cell application methods in burn patients according to the guidelines of the Good Manufacturing Practice. The placenta used in the study was sourced during a Cesarean section. The remnants of the amnion preparation were placed in a sterile container and transferred to a class B environment, where the primary cultures began...
January 24, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006991/efficacy-of-autologous-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cell-and-mononuclear-cell-transplantation-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-comparative-study
#15
Shobhit Bhansali, Pinaki Dutta, Vinod Kumar, Mukesh Kumar Yadav, Ashish Jain, Sunder Mudaliar, Shipra Bhansali, Ratti Ram Sharma, Vivekanand Jha, Neelam Marwaha, Niranjan Khandelwal, Anand Srinivasan, Naresh Sachdeva, Meredith Hawkins, Anil Bhansali
Drugs targeting β-cells have provided new options in the management of T2DM; however, their role in β-cell regeneration remains elusive. The recent emergence of cell-based therapies such as autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ABM-MSCs) and mononuclear cells (ABM-MNCs) seems to offer a pragmatic approach to augment β-cell function/mass. This study aims to examine the efficacy and safety of ABM-MSC and ABM-MNC transplantation in T2DM and explores alterations in glucose-insulin homeostasis by metabolic studies...
January 24, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899062/scleraxis-is-essential-for-tendon-differentiation-by-equine-embryonic-stem-cells-and-in-equine-fetal-tenocytes
#16
Emma P Bavin, Francesca Atkinson, Tom Barsby, Debbie J Guest
The transcription factor scleraxis is required for tendon development and is upregulated during embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation into tenocytes. However, its role beyond early embryonic development is not defined. We utilized a short hairpin RNA to knock down scleraxis expression in ESCs and adult and fetal tenocytes. No effect on growth or morphology was observed in two-dimensional cultures. However, scleraxis knockdown in fetal tenocytes significantly reduced COL1A1, COMP, and SOX9 gene expression...
January 24, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881051/mechanisms-of-immune-suppression-utilized-by-canine-adipose-and-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#17
Lyndah Chow, Valerie Johnson, Jonathan Coy, Dan Regan, Steven Dow
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from rodents and humans have been shown to suppress T cells by distinct primary pathways, with nitric oxide (NO)-dependent pathways dominating in rodents and indoleamine 2,3-deoxygenase (IDO)-dependent pathways dominating in humans. However, the immune suppressive pathways utilized by canine MSC have not been thoroughly studied, nor have bone marrow-derived MSC (BM-MSC) and adipose-derived MSC (Ad-MSC) been directly compared for their immune modulatory potency or pathway utilization...
January 24, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848279/a-transcriptional-switch-point-during-hematopoietic-stem-and-progenitor-cell-ontogeny
#18
Daisuke Sugiyama, Anagha Joshi, Kasem Kulkeaw, Keai Sinn Tan, Tomoko Yokoo-Inoue, Chiyo Mizuochi-Yanagi, Kaori Yasuda, Atsushi Doi, Tadafumi Iino, Masayoshi Itoh, Sayaka Nagao-Sato, Kenzaburo Tani, Koichi Akashi, Yoshihide Hayashizaki, Harukazu Suzuki, Hideya Kawaji, Piero Carninci, Alistair R R Forrest
During mammalian embryogenesis, hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) originate from mesoderm-derived endothelial cells in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region and placenta (PL). Later, HSPCs expand in fetal liver (FL) and migrate to bone marrow (BM) shortly before birth. Understanding global transcriptional regulation governing HSPC emergence from embryonic stem/induced pluripotent stem cells is necessary to devise clinical applications, such as novel transplantation approaches. In this study, to assess transcriptional dynamics during development, we performed cap analysis of gene expression on 10 developmental murine HSPC populations isolated from the AGM region, PL, FL, and BM and identified 15,681 transcripts across HSPC ontogeny...
January 24, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112572/rna-expression-profiling-reveal-differentially-regulated-growth-factor-and-receptor-expression-in-redirected-cancer-cells
#19
Hannah S Schmucker, Jang Pyo Park, Marie-May Coissieux, Mohamed Bentires-Alj, F Alex Feltus, Brian Booth
Tumorigenic cells can be redirected to adopt a normal phenotype when transplanted into cleared mammary fat pads of juvenile female mice in specific ratios with normal epithelial cells. The redirected tumorigenic cells enter stem cell niches and provide progeny that differentiate into all mammary epithelial subtypes. We have developed an in vitro model that mimics the in vivo phenomenon. The shift in phenotype to redirection should be accomplished through a return to a normal gene expression state. To measure this shift we interrogated the transcriptome of various in vitro model states in search for casual genes...
January 23, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103766/long-term-exposure-to-imatinib-mesylate-downregulates-hippo-pathway-and-activates-yap-in-a-model-of-chronic-myelogenous-leukemia
#20
Anna Chorzalska, Javier Flores Kim, Karim Roder, Alexander Tepper, Nagib Ahsan, R Shyama Prasad Rao, Adam J Olszewski, Xiaoqing Yu, Dmitry Terentyev, John Morgan, Diana O Treaba, Ting Zhao, Olin Liang, Philip Gruppuso, Patrycja Dubielecka
Despite the success of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), leukemic stem/progenitor cells remain detectable even in the state of deep molecular remission. Mechanisms that allow them to persist despite continued kinase inhibition remain unclear. We have previously shown that prolonged exposure to imatinib mesylate results in dysregulation of Akt/Erk 1/2 signaling, upregulation of miR-181a, enhanced adhesiveness, and resistance to high imatinib mesylate. In order to characterize the molecular basis and reversibility of those effects, we applied gene and protein expression analysis, quantitative phosphoproteomic, and direct miR-181a inhibition to our cellular model of CML cells subjected to prolonged exposure to imatinib mesylate...
January 19, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
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