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Stem Cells and Development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320953/spaceflight-activates-protein-kinase-c-alpha-signaling-and-modifies-the-developmental-stage-of-human-neonatal-cardiovascular-progenitor-cells
#1
Jonathan Baio, Aida F Martinez, Leonard L Bailey, Nahidh Hasaniya, Michael Pecaut, Mary Kearns-Jonker
Spaceflight impacts cardiovascular function in astronauts; however, its impact on cardiac development and the stem cells that form the basis for cardiac repair is unknown. Accordingly, further research is needed to uncover the potential relevance of such changes to human health. Using simulated microgravity (SMG) generated via two-dimensional clinorotation and culture aboard the International Space Station (ISS), we assessed the effects of mechanical unloading on human neonatal cardiovascular progenitor cell (CPC) developmental properties and signaling...
January 10, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320922/co-emergence-of-specialized-endothelial-cells-from-embryonic-stem-cells
#2
Nicole Madfis, Zhiqiang Lin, Ashwath Kumar, Simone A Douglas, Manu O Platt, Yuhong Fan, Kara E McCloskey
A well-formed and robust vasculature is critical to the health of most organ systems in the body. However, the endothelial cells (ECs) forming the vasculature can exhibit a number of distinct functional subphenotypes like arterial or venous ECs, as well as angiogenic tip and stalk ECs. Here, we investigate the in vitro differentiation of EC subphenotypes from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) using. Using our staged induction methods and chemically-defined mediums, highly angiogenic EC subpopulations, as well as, less proliferative and less migratory EC subpopulations are derived...
January 10, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310519/intranasal-stem-cell-treatment-as-a-novel-therapy-for-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#3
Cora H Nijboer, Elke Kooijman, Cindy T van Velthoven, Erik Van Tilborg, Ivo A Tiebosch, Niels Eijkelkamp, Rick M Dijkhuizen, Jozef Kesecioglu, Cobi Heijnen
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) represents a major health problem in Western society due to high mortality and morbidity, and the relative young age of patients. Currently, efficacious therapeutic options are very limited. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) administration has been shown to improve functional outcome and lesion size in experimental models of stroke and neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Here we studied the therapeutic potential of intranasally administered bone marrow-derived MSCs relatively late post-insult using a rat endovascular puncture model for SAH...
January 8, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298619/developing-a-cost-effective-and-scalable-production-of-human-hepatic-competent-endoderm-from-size-controlled-pluripotent-stem-cell-aggregates
#4
Zahra Farzaneh, Mostafa Najarasl, Saeed Abbasalizadeh, Massoud Vosough, Hossein Baharvand
Dynamic suspension culture of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) in stirred bioreactors provides a valuable scalable culture platform for integrated differentiation toward different lineages for potential research and therapeutic applications. However, current protocols for scalable and integrated differentiation of hPSCs limited due to high cost of growth factors and technical challenges. Here, hPSCs aggregates primed with 6 and 12 µM of CHIR99021 (CHIR), a Wnt agonist, in combination with different concentrations of high cost Activin A (10, 25, 50, 100 ng/ml)...
January 3, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298609/interferon-%C3%AE-promotes-neuronal-repair-by-transplanted-neural-stem-cells-in-ischemic-rats
#5
Guilong Zhang, Xiaoyuan Guo, Lukui Chen, Bingqian Li, Bin Gu, Hong Wang, Guojian Wu, Jun Kong, Wanghao Chen, Yongbo Yu
Ischemic stroke represents the leading cause of adult neurological disability, with no effective therapeutic strategy. Stem cell transplantation promises a new promising for treating stroke, via cell replacement and cytokines paracrine. However, due to the effect of hostile immune microenvironment, the survival and differentiation of stem cells is limited in vivo. Furthermore, the delayed inflammatory response to stroke induced secondary neurological injury. IFN-γ as pro-inflammatory cytokine has the potential to protect stem cell population during inflammatory response, as well stimulates neurogenesis of stem cells...
January 3, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205089/altered-bioenergetic-profile-in-umbilical-cord-and-amniotic-mesenchymal-stem-cells-from-newborns-of-obese-women
#6
Laura Iaffaldano, Carmela Nardelli, Francesca D'Alessio, Valeria D'Argenio, Marcella Nunziato, Lucia Mauriello, Claudio Procaccini, Giuseppe Maria Maruotti, Pasquale Martinelli, Giuseppe Matarese, Lucio Pastore, Luigi Del Vecchio, Giuseppe Labruna, Lucia Sacchetti
Nutritional imbalance and metabolic alterations associated with maternal obesity during pregnancy predispose offspring to obesity and/or to type 2 diabetes, but the mechanisms underlying these effects are still obscure. In this context, we evaluated whether the two main energy-producing pathways (glycolysis and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation) are impaired in obesity during pregnancy thus contributing to metabolic intrauterine alterations. Specifically, we studied metabolic abnormalities in the intrauterine life of newborns using stem cells isolated from amnion and umbilical cord (hA- and hUC-MSCs)...
January 3, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285988/characterization-and-differentiation-of-sorted-human-fetal-pancreatic-aldhhi-and-aldhhi-cd133-cells-towards-insulin-expressing-cells
#7
Amanda Oakie, Jinming Li, George F Fellows, David A Hess, Rennian Wang
The enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) is found in developing and multipotent cell populations, and is important for the production and regulation of retinoic acid controlling β-cell differentiation in the pancreas. The role of ALDH-expressing cells in the formation of endocrine-like cells and co-localization with the putative stem cell marker CD133 has not been examined during human pancreatic development. This study focuses on the co-expression of CD133 on ALDH+ cells from the human fetal pancreas (18-22 weeks of fetal age) with transcription factors (TFs) central to endocrine cell development...
December 29, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29272992/from-otic-induction-to-hair-cell-production-pax2-sup-egfp-sup-cell-line-illuminates-key-stages-of-development-in-mouse-inner-ear-organoid-model
#8
Stacy A Schaefer, Atsuko Y Higashi, Benjamin Loomis, Thomas Schrepfer, Guoqiang Wan, Gabriel Corfas, Gregory R Dressler, Robert Keith Duncan
Producing hair cells of the inner ear is the major goal of ongoing research that combines advances in developmental and stem cell biology. The recent advent of an inner ear organoid protocol-resulting in 3-dimensional stem cell-derived tissues resembling vestibular sensory epithelia-has sparked interest in applications such as regeneration, drug discovery, and disease modeling. In this study, we adapted this protocol for a novel mouse embryonic stem cell line with a fluorescent reporter for Pax2 expression...
December 22, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29267140/human-wharton-s-jelly-derived-stem-cells-display-a-distinct-immunomodulatory-and-proregenerative-transcriptional-signature-compared-to-bone-marrow-derived-stem-cells
#9
Raf Donders, Jeroen F J Bogie, Stylianos Ravanidis, Pascal Gervois, Marjan Vanheusden, Raphaël Marée, Marie Schrynemackers, Hubert J M Smeets, Jef Pinxteren, Kristel Gijbels, Sara Walbers, Robert W Mays, Robert Deans, Ludo Van Den Bosch, Piet Stinissen, Ivo Lambrichts, Wilfried Gyselaers, Niels Hellings
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are multipotent stem cells with immunosuppressive and trophic support functions. While MSCs from different sources frequently display a similar appearance in culture, they often show differences in their surface marker and gene expression profiles. Although bone marrow is considered the "gold standard" tissue to isolate classical MSCs (BM-MSC), MSC-like cells are currently also derived from more easily accessible extra-embryonic tissues such as the umbilical cord. In this study, we defined the best way to isolate MSCs from the Wharton's jelly of the human umbilical cord (WJ-MSC) and assessed the mesenchymal and immunological phenotype of BM-MSC and WJ-MSC...
December 21, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258411/calreticulin-affects-hematopoietic-stem-progenitor-cell-fate-by-impacting-erythroid-and-megakaryocytic-differentiation
#10
Simona Salati, Zelia Prudente, Elena Genovese, Valentina Pennucci, Sebastiano Rontauroli, Niccolo' Bartalucci, Carmela Mannarelli, Samantha Ruberti, Roberta Zini, Chiara Rossi, Elisa Bianchi, Paola Guglielmelli, Enrico Tagliafico, Alessandro M Vannucchi, Rossella Manfredini
Calreticulin (CALR) is a chaperone protein that localizes primarily to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen where it is responsible for the control of proper folding of neo-synthesized glycoproteins and for the retention of calcium. Recently, mutations affecting exon 9 of the CALR gene have been described in approximately 40% of patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). Although the role of mutated CALR in the development of MPNs has begun to be clarified, there are still no data available on the function of wild-type (WT) CALR during physiological hematopoiesis...
December 19, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29256825/salvianolic-acid-b-enhances-hepatic-differentiation-of-human-embryonic-stem-cells-via-upregulation-of-wnt-pathway-and-inhibition-of-notch-pathway
#11
Jiamei Chen, Benjamin Tschudy-Seney, Xiaocui Ma, Mark A Zern, Ping Liu, Yuyou Duan
Hepatocytes differentiated from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) could provide a powerful tool for enabling cell-based therapies, studying the mechanisms underlying human liver development and disease, and testing the efficacy and safety of pharmaceuticals. However, currently most in vitro protocols yield hepatocytes with low levels of liver function. Here, we investigated the potential of Salvianolic acid B (Sal B), an active pharmaceutical compound present in Salvia miltiorrhiza, which has been shown to have an antifibrotic effect in previous studies, to enhance hepatocyte differentiation from hESCs...
December 19, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241405/cell-clusters-are-indicative-of-stem-cell-activity-in-the-degenerate-intervertebral-disc-can-their-properties-be-manipulated-to-improve-intrinsic-repair-of-the-disc
#12
Sharon Brown, Ajay Matta, William Mark Erwin, Sally Roberts, Helen H Gruber, Edward N Hanley, Christopher B Little, James Melrose
The aim of this study was to examine the complexity of the stem cell populations in the intervertebral disc (IVD) and understand their role in disc degeneration with a view to determining whether the resident stem cells could be developed for therapeutic purposes to combat IVD degeneration. Stem cells have been isolated from disc and paradiscal tissues including the notochord, annulus fibrosus (AF), nucleus pulposus (NP), cartilaginous endplate (CEP), ligamentum flavum and vertebral body. Resident AF and NP cells are relatively sparsely distributed occuring as single or occasional doublet cells surrounded by an extensive extracellular matrix (ECM)...
December 14, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239282/generation-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-from-wolfram-syndrome-type-2-patients-bearing-the-c-103-1g-a-cisd2-mutation-for-disease-modeling
#13
Alberto La Spada, Aikaterini Ntai, Stefano Genovese, Maurizio Rondinelli, Pasquale De Blasio, Ida Biunno
Wolfram syndrome (WFS) is a rare autosomal premature aging syndrome that shows signs of diabetes mellitus (DM), optic atrophy (OA) and deafness in addition to central nervous system and endocrine complications. The frequent form of WFS, type 1 (WFS1), harbours causative mutations in the WFS1 gene, while the rare form or type 2 (WFS2), involves CISD2. Mutations in these two genes are recognized by a subset of variable clinical symptoms and a set of overlapping features. Here we report on the generation of stable human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) derived from primary fibroblasts of a previously reported Italian family with CISD2 mutation (c...
December 14, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239275/activation-of-lysophosphatidic-acid-receptor-3-inhibits-megakaryopoiesis-in-human-hematopoietic-stem-cells-and-zebrafish
#14
Kuan-Hung Lin, Meng-Wei Li, Ya-Chi Chang, Yu-Nung Lin, Ya-Hsuan Ho, Wei-Chun Weng, Chang-Jen Huang, Bei-En Chang, Chao-Ling Yao, Hsinyu Lee
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a membrane-derived lysophospholipid that exists in the plasma and platelets. It exerts its functions through activation of various LPA receptors (LPARs), which belong to the family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Activation of LPARs has important roles in stem cell differentiation. However, how LPA affects human hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) differentiation remains elusive. In our previous studies, we have suggested that LPA receptor 2 (LPA<sub>2</sub>) and LPA receptor 3 (LPA<sub>3</sub>) play opposing roles, and may act as a molecular switch during megakaryocytic differentiation in K562 cells...
December 14, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233068/altered-functional-expression-of-%C3%AE-adrenergic-receptors-in-rhesus-monkey-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes
#15
Nermeen Ahmed Mohamed Eldabah, Erastus Nembu Nembo, Judith Semmler, Marina Penner, Marek Molcanyi, Rania Swelem, Amina Hassab, Juergen Hescheler, Filomain Nguemo
Pluripotent stem cells have demonstrated the potential to generate large numbers of functional cardiomyocytes (CMs) from different cell sources. Besides Wnt signaling, additional pathways are involved in early cardiac development and function. To date however, no study exists showing the effects of perturbing the canonical Wnt pathway using non-human primate embryonic stem (ES) cells. Here we investigated the effect of canonical Wnt inhibition during differentiation of non-human primate ES cell-derived CMs under defined, growth factors conditions...
December 12, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205106/differential-expression-of-cholinergic-system-components-in-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-bone-marrow-derived-multipotent-stromal-cells-and-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-multipotent-stromal-cells
#16
Ramona Weist, Thilo Flörkemeier, Yvonne Roger, Annika Franke, Kristin Schwanke, Robert Zweigerdt, Ulrich Martin, Elmar Willbold, Andrea Hoffmann
The components of the cholinergic system are evolutionary very old and conserved molecules that are expressed in typical spatio-temporal patterns. They are involved in signaling in the nervous system whereas their functions in non-neuronal tissues are hardly understood. Stem cells present an attractive cellular system to address functional issues. This study therefore compared human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs; from cord blood endothelial cells), mesenchymal stromal cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC-MSCs) and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) from up to 33 different human donors with respect to gene expressions of components of the cholinergic system...
December 5, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205098/platelet-derived-growth-factor-receptor-alpha-expressing-cardiac-progenitor-cells-can-be-derived-from-previously-cryopreserved-human-heart-samples
#17
Thi Yen Loan Le, Hilda Pickett, Cristobal Dos Remedios, Pasquale Barbaro, Eddy Kizana, James Chong
Cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) are being developed as a promising treatment for heart failure. Although clinical trials have predominantly used donor cardiac biopsies to derive CPCs, a better solution could be to use previously cryopreserved human heart tissue. This would enable timely and convenient access to healthy and young heart samples for CPC production. However, few studies have attempted to isolate CPCs from previously cryopreserved heart tissue. In this study, we isolated CPCs from eight non-diseased human heart samples previously cryopreserved as part of the Sydney Heart Bank...
December 5, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179669/in-situ-activation-and-preservation-of-penile-progenitor-cells-using-icariside-ii-in-an-obesity-associated-erectile-dysfunction-rat-model
#18
Yajun Ruan, Guiting Lin, Ning Kang, Arianna Tamaddon, Jun Zhou, Bohan Wang, Hsun Shuan Wang, Guifang Wang, Lia Banie, Zhongcheng Xin, Jihong Liu, Tom F Lue
Obesity-associated erectile dysfunction involves pathologic change that may be related to deficit of the penile endogenous stem/progenitor cells. Therefore, an in-depth study of the penile stem/progenitor cells in the pathogenesis of ED is warranted. For this study, eight Zucker Lean (ZUC-Leprfa 186; ZL group) and 16 Zucker Fatty (ZUC-Leprfa 185; ZF) male rats received an intraperitoneal injection of 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine (EdU) to track endogenous stem cells. Twelve weeks later, the ZF rats were randomized to gavage feeding with 1...
November 28, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179659/dyrk1a-is-a-regulator-of-s-phase-entry-in-hepatic-progenitor-cells
#19
Hedwig Suzanne Kruitwagen, Bart Westendorp, Cornelia S Viebahn, Krista Post, Monique E van Wolferen, Loes A Oosterhoff, David A Egan, Jean-Maurice Delabar, Mathilda Jm Toussaint, Baukje A Schotanus, Alain de Bruin, Jan Rothuizen, Louis C Penning, Bart Spee
Hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) are adult liver stem cells that act as second line of defense in liver regeneration. They are normally quiescent, but in case of severe liver damage HPC proliferation is triggered by external activation mechanisms from their niche. Although several important pro-proliferative mechanisms have been described, it is not known which key intracellular regulators govern the switch between HPC quiescence and active cell cycle. We performed a high throughput kinome siRNA screen in HepaRG cells, a HPC-like cell line, and evaluated the effect on proliferation with a 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) incorporation assay...
November 28, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054138/mdivi-1-protects-human-w8b2-cardiac-stem-cells-from-oxidative-stress-and-simulated-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#20
Ayeshah A Rosdah, Simon T Bond, Priyadharshini Sivakumaran, Ashfaqul Hoque, Jonathan S Oakhill, Brian G Drew, Lea M D Delbridge, Shiang Y Lim
Cardiac stem cell (CSC) therapy is a promising approach to treat ischemic heart disease. However, the poor survival of transplanted stem cells in the ischemic myocardium has been a major impediment in achieving an effective cell-based therapy against myocardial infarction. Inhibiting mitochondrial fission has been shown to promote survival of several cell types. However, the role of mitochondrial morphology in survival of human CSC remains unknown. In this study, we investigated whether mitochondrial division inhibitor-1 (Mdivi-1), an inhibitor of mitochondrial fission protein dynamin-related protein-1 (Drp1), can improve survival of a novel population of human W8B2+ CSCs in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress and simulated ischemia-reperfusion injury models...
November 27, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
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