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Stem Cells and Development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922976/transient-impairment-of-islet-architectural-development-in-pancreas-specific-bmpr1a-deleted-prenatal-mice-involves-reduced-expression-of-e-cadherin
#1
Fang-Xu Jiang, Leonard Charles Harrison
Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling plays critical roles on the development of a large array of embryonic organs and promotes the in vitro formation of pancreatic cystoid colonies containing insulin-producing cells. However, this signaling and its underlying mechanism on in vivo development of prenatal pancreas have not been clearly understood. To address these questions, we analyzed with a variety of techniques the prenatal mouse pancreas after Pdx1 (the pancreas and duodenal homeobox factor 1 gene)-driving deletion of the BMP receptor type 1a gene (Bmpr1a)...
September 19, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922973/a-new-wnt1-cre-tomatorosa-es-cell-line-a-tool-for-studying-neural-crest-cell-integration-capacity
#2
Soledad Acuna Mendoza, Sabrina Martin, Sabine Kuchler-Bopp, Sandy Ribes, Jeremy H Thalgott, Catherine Chaussain, Sophie Creuzet, Hervé Lesot, Franck Lebrin, Anne Poliard
Neural crest (NC) cells are a migratory, multipotent population giving rise to numerous lineages in the embryo. Their plasticity renders attractive their use in tissue engineering-based therapies but further knowledge on their in vivo behaviour is required before clinical transfer may be envisioned. We here describe isolation and characterization of a new mouse ES line derived from Wnt1-CRE-R26 RosaTomatoTdv blastocyst and show that it displays the characteristics of typical ES cells. Furthermore, these cells can be efficiently directed towards a NC stem cell-like phenotype as attested by concomitant expression of NC marker genes and Tomato fluorescence...
September 19, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911263/potential-role-of-oct4-in-leukemogenesis
#3
Tiphanie Picot, Sanae Kesr, Yuenv Wu, Carmen Aanei, Pascale Flandrin-Gresta, Sylvie Tondeur, Emmanuelle Tavernier, Eric Wattel, Denis Guyotat, Lydia Campos
Embryonic stem cells typically show properties of long term self-renewal and lack of differentiation. When appropriately stimulated, they are able to differentiate into all cell lineages, and lose their self-renewal characteristics. These properties are controlled by a series of genes encoding several transcription factors including OCT4, the product of POU5F1 gene. OCT4 is expressed in germ-cell tumors, but also aberrantly in cancers developing in differentiated tissues. In a previous study, we observed a high expression of OCT4 in acute myeloid cell lines and primary cells, regardless of the Acute Myeloid Leukemia subtype...
September 14, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805145/pdgf-vegf-related-receptor-affects-transglutaminase-activity-to-control-cell-migration-during-crustacean-hematopoiesis
#4
Kingkamon Junkunlo, Kenneth Söderhäll, Chadanat Noonin, Irene Söderhäll
The platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor, a tyrosine kinase (TK) receptor whose ligand is PDGF, is crucial in the transduction of extracellular signals into cells and mediates numerous processes, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, survival, and migration. We demonstrate the important roles of a receptor TK related to the PDGF/VEGF family protein (PVR) in controlling hematopoietic progenitor cell migration by affecting extracellular transglutaminase (TGase) activity. Pl_PVR1, GenBank accession No...
September 14, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891400/glycosylated-cell-surface-markers-for-the-isolation-of-human-cardiac-progenitors
#5
Asja T Moerkamp, Hau Wan Leung, Noortje A M Bax, Stephanie Holst, Kirsten Lodder, Thijs Berends, Calinda K E Dingenouts, Andre Boon Hwa Choo, Anke M Smits, Marie-Jose Goumans
The aim of stem cell therapy after cardiac injury is to replace damaged cardiac tissue. Human cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) represent an interesting cell population for clinical strategies to treat cardiac disease and human CPC-specific antibodies would aid in the clinical implementation of cardiac progenitor based cell therapy. However, the field of CPC biology suffers from the lack of human CPC-specific markers. Therefore, we raised a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAb) against CPCs Of this panel of antibodies, we show that mAb C1096 recognizes a progenitor-like population in the fetal and adult human heart and partially co-localize with reported CPC populations in vitro...
September 11, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874109/prospects-and-frontiers-of-stem-cell-toxicology
#6
Shuyu Liu, Nuoya Yin, Francesco Faiola
The development of stem cell biology has revolutionized regenerative medicine and its clinical applications. Another aspect through which stem cells would benefit human health, is their use in toxicology. In fact, owing to their ability to differentiate into all the lineages of the human body, including germ cells, stem cells and in particular pluripotent stem cells, can be utilized for the assessment, in vitro, of embryonic, developmental, reproductive, organ and functional toxicities, relevant to human physiology, without employing live animal tests and with the possibility of high throughput applications...
September 6, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874101/the-role-of-cellular-proliferation-in-adipogenic-differentiation-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#7
Maribel Marquez, Frances Alencastro, Alma Madrigal, Jossue Jiminez, Giselle Blanco, Alexander Gureghian, Laura Keagy, Cecilia Lee, Robert Liu, Lun Tan, Kristen Deign, Brian Armstrong, Yuanxiang Zhao
Mitotic clonal expansion has been suggested as a pre-requisite for adipogenesis in murine preadipocytes, but the precise role of cell proliferation during human adipogenesis is unclear. Using adipose tissue derived human mesenchymal stem cells as an in vitro cell model for adipogenic study, a group of cell cycle regulators including Cdk1 and CCND1 were found to be down-regulated as early as 24 hours post adipogenic initiation and consistently, cell proliferation activity was restricted to the first 48 hours of adipogenic induction...
September 6, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859577/single-cell-sequencing-technologies-for-cardiac-stem-cell-studies
#8
Tiantian Liu, Hongjin Wu, Shixiu Wu, Charles Wang
Today with the rapid advancements in stem cell studies and the promising potential of using stem cells in clinical therapy, there is an increasing demand for in-depth comprehensive analysis on individual cell transcriptome and epigenome, as they play critical roles in a number of cell functions such as cell differentiation, growth and reprogramming. The development of single-cell sequencing technologies has helped in revealing some exciting new perspectives in stem cells and regenerative medicine research. Among the various potential applications, single-cell analysis for cardiac stem cells (CSCs) holds tremendous promises in understanding the mechanisms of heart development and regeneration, which might light up the path towards cell therapy for cardiovascular diseases...
August 31, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851266/different-mixed-astrocyte-populations-derived-from-embryonic-stem-cells-have-variable-neuronal-growth-support-capacities
#9
Russell E Thompson, Allison Lake, Peter Kenny, Michael Saunders, Kristina Sakers, Nisha Iyer, Joseph D Dougherty, Shelly E Sakiyama-Elbert
Central nervous system (CNS) injury often leads to functional impairment due, in part, to the formation of an inhibitory glial scar following injury that contributes to poor regeneration. Astrocytes are the major cellular component of the glial scar, which has led to the belief that they are primarily inhibitory following injury. Recent work has challenged this by demonstrating that some astrocytes are required for spinal cord regeneration, and that astrocytic roles in recovery depends on their phenotype. In this work, two mixed populations containing primarily either fibrous or protoplasmic astrocytes were derived from mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs)...
August 29, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747098/effect-of-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-on-t-cells-in-a-septic-context-immunosuppression-or-immunostimulation
#10
Sébastien Le Burel, Cédric Thepenier, Laetitia Boutin, Jean-Jacques Lataillade, Juliette Peltzer
Sepsis is a complex process, including a first wave of damage partially due to the body's response to pathogens, followed by a phase of immune cell dysfunction. The efficacy of a pharmacological approach facing a rapidly evolving system implies a perfect timing of administration-this difficulty could explain the recent failure of clinical trials. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are usually defined as immunosuppressive and their beneficial effects in preclinical models of acute sepsis have been shown to rely partly on such ability...
August 28, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699415/a-scalable-approach-for-the-generation-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-hepatic-organoids-with-sensitive-hepatotoxicity-features
#11
Malte Sgodda, Zhen Dai, Robert Zweigerdt, Amar Deep Sharma, Michael Ott, Tobias Cantz
The quest for physiologically active human hepatocyte-like cells for in vitro research and drug screening is high. The recent progress in the field of pluripotent stem cell (PSC)-derived hepatic cells within the last decade brings those cells closer to applications in translational medicine. However, the classical two-dimensional (2D) cell culture systems are of limited use, because relevant cell-cell interactions based on cell polarity, which is a major prerequisite for proper hepatic cell metabolisms, are not provided...
August 24, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835165/an-efficient-method-for-generation-of-knock-out-human-embryonic-stem-cells-using-crispr-cas9-system
#12
Dasa Bohaciakova, Tereza Renzova, Veronika Fedorova, Martin Barak, Michaela Kunova Bosakova, Ales Hampl, Lukas Cajanek
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) represent promising tool to study functions of genes during development, to model diseases, and to even develop therapies when combined with gene editing techniques such as CRISPR/Cas9 system. However, the process of disruption of gene expression by generation of null alleles is often inefficient and tedious. To circumvent these limitations, we developed a simple and efficient protocol to permanently downregulate expression of gene of interest in hESCs using CRISPR/Cas9. We selected p53 for our proof of concept experiments...
August 23, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728472/the-identification-of-interferon-%C3%AE-as-a-key-supportive-factor-for-retinal-differentiation-of-murine-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#13
Barbora Hermankova, Jan Kossl, Eliska Javorkova, Pavla Bohacova, Michaela Hajkova, Alena Zajicova, Magdalena Krulova, Vladimir Holan
Retinal disorders represent the main cause of decreased quality of vision and even blindness worldwide. The loss of retinal cells causes irreversible damage of the retina, and there are currently no effective treatment protocols for most retinal degenerative diseases. A promising approach for the treatment of retinal disorders is represented by stem cell-based therapy. The perspective candidates are mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which can differentiate into multiple cell types and produce a number of trophic and growth factors...
August 22, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825379/oncostatin-m-and-tnf-%C3%AE-induce-alpha-1-antitrypsin-production-in-undifferentiated-adipose-stromal-cells
#14
Kevin Ni, Muhammad Umair Mukhtar Mian, Catherine Meador, Amar Gill, Daria Bawrinska, Danting Cao, Matthew Justice, Di Jiang, Niccolette Schaefer, Kelly Schweitzer, Hong Wei Chu, Keith L March, Irina Petrache
Alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT), a circulating acute phase reactant anti-protease, is produced and secreted by cells of endodermal epithelial origin, primarily hepatocytes, and by immune cells. Deficiency of A1AT is associated with increased risk of excessive lung inflammation and injury, especially following chronic cigarette smoke exposure (CS). Exogenous administration of mesenchymal progenitor cells, including adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ASC) alleviates CS-induced lung injury through paracrine effectors such as growth factors...
August 21, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810819/low-cll-1-expression-is-a-novel-adverse-predictor-in-123-patients-with-de-novo-cd34-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#15
Jin Wang, Yanyu Wang, Wen-Lian Chen, Jie Hao, Zhanyun Liu, Xiangqin Weng, Yan Sheng, Jing Wu, Yongmei Zhu, Bing Chen, Shu-Min Xiong, Yu Chen, Qiusheng Chen, Hui-Ping Sun, Junmin Li
Recent reports state that C-type lectin-like molecule-1 (CLL-1) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is expressed primarily on myeloid cells, but there is still no investigation about its prognostic significance on leukemic blast compartment. Hence, this study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of CLL-1 in 123 patients with de novo CD34+ non-M3 AML. Multiparameter flow cytometry was used to assess the expression of CLL-1 on immature compartment in AML and control groups. We found that CLL-1 expression level on blast compartment was closely linked to clinical characteristics, treatment response and survival outcome of patients...
August 16, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708036/amniotic-fluid-cells-show-higher-pluripotency-related-gene-expression-than-allantoic-fluid-cells
#16
Debora Kehl, Melanie Generali, Sabrina Görtz, Diego Geering, Jaroslav Slamecka, Simon P Hoerstrup, Ulrich Bleul, Benedikt Weber
Amniotic fluid represents an abundant source of multipotent stem cells, referred as broadly multipotent given their differentiation potential and expression of pluripotency-related genes. However, the origin of this broadly multipotent cellular fraction is not fully understood. Several sources have been proposed so far, including embryonic and extraembryonic tissues. In this regard, the ovine developmental model uniquely allows for direct comparison of fetal fluid-derived cells from two separate fetal fluid cavities, the allantois and the amnion, over the entire duration of gestation...
August 14, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805158/pp2a-regulatory-subunit-b55%C3%AE-is-a-gatekeeper-of-osteoblast-maturation-and-lineage-maintenance
#17
Anastassia Serguienko, Robert Hanes, Iwona Grad, Meng-Yu Wang, Ola Myklebost, Else Munthe
Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM MSCs) mediate skeletal remodeling by differentiating into osteoblasts. However, this remodeling is impaired with aging as well as following long-term glucocorticoid treatment, resulting in osteoporosis. Here we report a novel factor of osteoblast differentiation - PP2A regulatory subunit B55γ. We show that B55γ is induced by glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in human primary BM MSCs during differentiation to osteoblast, but not to adipocytes, and is required for osteoblast morphogenesis and mineralization...
August 12, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795648/human-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes-self-arrange-with-areas-of-different-subtypes-during-differentiation
#18
Maj Linea Vestergaard, Søren J Grubb, Karen Koefod Rasmussen, Zoe Anderson-Jenkins, Kristina Grunnet-Lauridsen, Kristine Calloe, Christian Clausen, Søren T Christensen, Kjeld Møllgård, Claus Yding Andersen
The derivation of functional cardiomyocytes (CMs) from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) represents a unique way of studying human cardiogenesis, including the development of CM subtypes. In this study, we investigated the development and organization of CMs derived from hESCs (hESC-CMs) and examined how the expression of CM subtypes correspond to human in vivo cardiogenesis. Beating clusters were used to determine cardiac differentiation, which was evaluated by the expression of cardiac genes GATA4 and TNNT2 and subcellular localization of GATA4 and NKX2...
August 10, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756741/modulation-of-mitochondrial-dna-copy-number-to-induce-hepatocytic-differentiation-of-human-amniotic-epithelial-cells
#19
Vijesh Vaghjiani, Jason E Cain, William Lee, Vijayaganapathy Vaithilingam, Bernard E Tuch, Justin St John
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number is tightly regulated during pluripotency and differentiation. There is increased demand of cellular ATP during differentiation for energy intensive cell types such as hepatocytes and neurons to meet the cell's functional requirements. During hepatocyte differentiation, mtDNA copy number must be synchronously increased to generate sufficient ATP through oxidative phosphorylation. Unlike bone marrow mesenchymal cells (BM-MSC), mtDNA copy number failed to increase by 28 days of differentiation of Human Amniotic Epithelial Cells (hAEC) into Hepatocyte-Like Cells (HLC) despite their expression of some end stage hepatic markers...
July 29, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657463/transplantation-of-human-dental-pulp-derived-stem-cells-or-differentiated-neuronal-cells-from-human-dental-pulp-derived-stem-cells-identically-enhances-regeneration-of-the-injured-peripheral-nerve
#20
Imran Ullah, Ju-Mi Park, Young-Hoon Kang, June-Ho Byun, Dae-Geon Kim, Joo-Heon Kim, Dong-Ho Kang, Gyu-Jin Rho, Bong-Wook Park
Human dental mesenchymal stem cells isolated from the dental follicle, pulp, and root apical papilla of extracted wisdom teeth have been known to exhibit successful and potent neurogenic differentiation capacity. In particular, human dental pulp-derived stem cells (hDPSCs) stand out as the most prominent source for in vitro neuronal differentiation. In this study, to evaluate the in vivo peripheral nerve regeneration potential of hDPSCs and differentiated neuronal cells from DPSCs (DF-DPSCs), a total of 1 × 10(6) hDPSCs or DF-hDPSCs labeled with PKH26 tracking dye and supplemented with fibrin glue scaffold and collagen tubulization were transplanted into the sciatic nerve resection (5-mm gap) of rat models...
July 25, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
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