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Stem Cells and Development

Oliver D Yuan, Clayton Lin, Joseph Wagner, Joehleen Archard, Peter Deng, Julian Halmai, Gerhard Bauer, Kyle Fink, Brian Fury, Nicholas Perotti, Jon Walker, Kari Pollock, Michelle Apperson, Janelle Butters, Peter Belafsky, D Gregory Farwell, Maggie Kuhn, Jan A Nolta, Johnathon D Anderson
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) facilitate functional recovery in numerous animal models of inflammatory and ischemic tissue related diseases with a growing body of research suggesting that exosomes mediate many of these therapeutic effects. It remains unclear, however, which types of proteins are packaged into exosomes as compared to the cells from which they are derived. Here, using comprehensive proteomic analysis, we demonstrated that human primed MSCs secrete exosomes (pMEX) that are packaged with markedly higher fractions of specific protein subclasses as compared to their cells of origin, indicating regulation of their contents...
January 14, 2019: Stem Cells and Development
Sarah Y Broeckx, Bert Seys, Marc Suls, Aurélie Vandenberghe, Tom Mariën, Edouard Adriaensen, Jeroen Declercq, Lore Van Hecke, Gabriele Braun, Klaus Hellmann, Jan H Spaas
Degenerative joint disease is one of the main causes of equine early retirement from pleasure riding or a performance career. The disease is initially triggered by an abnormal loading of normal cartilage or a normal loading of abnormal cartilage. This primary insult is accompanied with joint inflammation, which leads to further progressive degeneration of the articular cartilage and changes in the surrounding tissues. Therefore, in search for an effective treatment, 75 adult horses with early signs of degenerative fetlock joint disease were enrolled in a randomized, multicenter, double blinded, and placebo controlled study...
January 9, 2019: Stem Cells and Development
Karin Ljung, Anna Grönlund, Ulrika Felldin, Sergey Rodin, Matthias Corbascio, Cecilia Österholm, Karl-Henrik Grinnemo
Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSCs) have shown great potential as a treatment for systemic inflammatory diseases, but their local regenerative properties are highly tissue- and site specific. Previous studies have demonstrated that adult human MSCs respond to inflammatory cytokines through the release of paracrine factors that stimulate angiogenesis, but they do not themselves differentiate into vascular structures in vivo. In this study, we used human fetal cardiac MSCs (hfcMSCs) harvested during the first trimester of heart development and injected them into the subcutaneous tissue of normal immunocompetent mice treated with short-term costimulation blockade for tolerance induction...
January 8, 2019: Stem Cells and Development
Marjan Omidi, Behrouz Aflatoonian, Somayyeh Sadat Tahajjodi, Mohammad Ali Khalili
In vitro embryo twining can be used to increase the number of the human embryos available for production of hESC lines. The aim of this study was to generate hESCs following the production of the twin embryos by in vitro embryo splitting procedures. In total 21 chromosomally abnormal (3PN) embryos underwent in vitro embryo twining and were allowed to develop to the blastocyst stage. As a result, 42 twin embryos were obtained, of which 24 developed to blastocyst stage. Using micromanipulation technique, the zona-free blastocysts were recovered and plated onto mitotically inactivated Yazd human foreskin fibroblasts (Batch18; YhFF#18) feeder layers in microdrops...
January 4, 2019: Stem Cells and Development
Shune Xiao, Zhiyuan Liu, Yuanzhen Yao, Zairong Wei, Dali Wang, Chengliang Deng
Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) possess a well-characterized capacity to enhance cutaneous wound healing. However, many controversies exist regarding ASCs from diabetic patients (dASCs).No report exists on the administration of dASCs for the treatment of pressure ulcers. The aim of this study was to compare properties of dASCs and nondiabetic ASCs (nASCs). In addition, we studied if dASCs enhanced pressure ulcer healing in a rodent pressure-ulcer model and investigated underlying mechanisms. We found similar expression of cell-surface markers and characteristics in dASCs and nASCs, although dASCs exhibited decreased proliferation and osteogenic differentiation capacity and enhanced adipogenic differentiation capacity...
January 4, 2019: Stem Cells and Development
Remant Kc, Bindu Thapa, Anyeld Ubeda, Xiaoyan Xiang, Hasan Uludag
Non-viral gene therapy with specific siRNAs against BCR-Abl can be an alternative and/or supportive therapy of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), given the often observed resistance to TKIs in clinical setting. Here, we explored the feasibility of BCR-Abl siRNA therapy in CML K562 cells in vitro by employing a cationic polymer derived from cholesterol (Chol) grafted low molecular weight polyethyleneimine (PEI). The first generation TKI imatinib upregulated the expression of BCR-Abl in K562 cells as expected...
December 26, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
Philipp M Wörner, Deborah J Schächtele, Zahra Barabadi, Sudesh Srivastav, Bysani Chandrasekar, Reza Izadpanah, Eckhard Alt
How mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) interact with tumor cells and promote tumor growth is not well understood. Here, we demonstrate that when naïve MSCs and malignant breast cancer cells (MDA-MB231) were injected into opposing mammary glands of an immunodeficient nude mouse, both cell types formed tumor-like masses within 8 weeks at the injected site. Surprisingly, MDA-MB231 cells were detected in the opposing mammary gland injected with the naïve MSCs, indicating migration and crosstalk between naïve MSCs and MDA-MB231 cells...
December 20, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
Paiyz Mikael, Charles Willard, Aurvan Koyee, Charmaine-Grace Barlao, Xinyue Liu, Xiaorui Han, Yilan Ouyang, Ke Xia, Robert J Linhardt, Jonathan S Dordick
There is a critical need to generate functional hepatocytes to aid in liver repair and regeneration upon availability of a renewable, and potentially personalized, source of human hepatocytes. Currently, the vast majority of primary human hepatocytes are obtained from human tissue through cadavers. Recent advances in stem cell differentiation have opened up the possibility to obtain fully functional hepatocytes from embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells, or adult stem cells. With respect to the latter, human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (hBMSCs) can serve as a source of autogenetic and allogenic multipotent stem cells for liver repair and regeneration...
December 20, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
Long V Nguyen, Maisam Makarem, Nagarajan Kannan, Annaick Carles, Sneha Balani, Michelle Moksa, Martin Hirst, Connie J Eaves
Cellular barcoding is a powerful tool for analyzing the clonal outputs of large numbers of co-transplanted cells. The extensive growth and bi-lineage differentiation potential of transplanted basal cells isolated from the normal adult female mouse mammary gland is well established, but analyses of similarly performed luminal cell transplants have been limited due to their more restricted outputs. Here we report detecting macroscopic, branched gland structures 8 weeks after transplanting approximately 10<sup>5</sup> purified, barcoded EpCAM<sup>++</sup>CD49f<sup>low</sup> luminal cells into a cleared fat pad in two syngeneic mice...
December 20, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
Young Cho, Reed Mitchell, Sharada Paudel, Tyler Feltham, Lew Schon, Zijun Zhang
In diabetes, multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) are functionally deficient. It is unknown, however, whether their antibacterial function is compromised. In this study, MSCs were isolated from the bone marrow samples provided by 9 diabetic and 6 non-diabetic donors and treated with or without E. coli lipopolysaccharides (LPS). The supernatant of diabetic MSCs (MSCs-dia) and non-diabetic control MSCs (MSCs-c) was added into the cultures of E. coli for evaluation of the effect of MSCs-dia and MSCs-c on bacterial growth...
December 20, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
Songtao Wang, Lili Chen, Peng Zhang, Xiaobing Wang, Yan Sun, Lixiang Ma, Qiong Liu, Guomin Zhou
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have the potential to differentiate along the retinal lineage. We have efficiently differentiated human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) into optic cup-like structures by using a novel retinal differentiation medium (RDM).The purpose of this study was to determine whether the retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) derived from hESCs can integrate into the host retina and differentiate into retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in vivo. In the present study, hESCs (H9-GFP) were induced to differentiate into optic cup-like structures by using our novel differentiation system...
December 10, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
Daisuke Suzuki, Hiromu Morimoto, Kaoru Yoshimura, Tomohiro Kono, Hidehiko Ogawa
In mice, trophoblast stem (TS) cells are derived from the polar trophectoderm (TE) of blastocysts. TS cells cultured in the presence of fibroblast growth factor 4 (Fgf4) are in an undifferentiated state and express undifferentiated marker genes such as Cdx2. After removing Fgf4 from the culture medium, TS cells drastically reduce the expression of undifferentiated marker genes, stop cell proliferation and differentiate into all trophoblast cell subtypes. To clarify the roles of the parental genomes in placentation, we previously established TS cells from androgenetic embryos (AGTS cells)...
December 10, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
Ying Zhan, Lihua Wang, Guangyang Liu, Xiaohui Zhang, Jingci Yang, Yuxia Pan, Jianmin Luo
Hematological patients who accept chemotherapy always develop secondary tumor or even die of severe infections. As an important central lymphoid organ, the thymus is frequently damaged during chemotherapy. Previous studies showed that the mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can promote the proliferation and repair of epithelial cells in thymus. The purpose of our study is to investigate the reparative effects of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADMSCs) for chemotherapy treated damaged thymus. 80 mice were randomly divided into four groups: normal group, model control group, hADMSCs untreated group and hADMSCs treated group...
December 4, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
Jiayi Wang, Wei Zou, Jingyun Ma, Jing Liu
Spinal cord injury (SCI)-a prominent health issue-represents a substantial portion of the global healthcare burden. Stem-cell-based therapies provide novel solutions for SCI treatment, yet obstacles remain in the form of low survival rate, uncontrolled differentiation, and functional recovery. The application of engineered biomaterials in stem cell therapy provides a physicochemical microenvironment that mimics the stem cell niche, facilitating self-renewal, stem cell differentiation, and tissue reorganization...
November 29, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
Angela Barrett, Chui-Yee Fong, Arjuna Subramanian, Wenting Liu, Yirui Feng, Mahesh Choolani, Arijit Biswas, Jagath Rajapakse, Ariff Bongso
Human Wharton's jelly stem cells (hWJSCs) isolated from the human umbilical cord are a unique population of mesenchymal stem cells with significant clinical utility. Their broad differentiation potential, high rate of proliferation, ready availability from discarded cords, and prolonged maintenance of stemness properties in culture make them an attractive alternative source of MSCs with therapeutic value compared to bone marrow MSCs (hBMMSCs). We aimed to characterise the differences in gene expression profiles between these two stem cell types using single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-Seq) to determine which pathways are involved in conferring hWJSCs with their unique properties...
November 28, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
Sarah Isabelle Marie Lepage, Olivia J Lee, Thomas G Koch
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are the most common cell population studied for therapeutic use in veterinary medicine. MSCs obtained from neonatal sources such as umbilical cord tissue (CT-MSCs) or cord blood (CB-MSCs) are appealing due to the non-invasive nature of procurement and the time allowed for characterization of cells prior to use. However, it remains unclear whether CB- or CT-MSCs have equivalent progenitor and non-progenitor functions. CB-MSCs have been shown to have superior chondrogenic potential to MSCs from other sources, whereas their immunomodulatory capacity does not seem to vary significantly...
November 28, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
Zuolian Shen, Tim Formosa, Dean Tantin
The histone chaperone facilitates chromatin transactions (FACT) is associated with nuclear processes, including DNA transcription, replication, and repair. We previously showed that FACT is transiently recruited to pluripotency-associated target genes by newly bound Oct4. In this study, we tested the effects of FACT depletion by knockout or chemical inhibition on the induction and maintenance of pluripotency. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-mediated deletion of the FACT subunit Spt16 did not affect the viability or proliferation of fibroblasts but blocked their ability to form induced pluripotent stem cells...
November 28, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
Fiona L Cousins, Dorien F O, Yih Rue Ong, David T Breault, James A Deane, Caroline E Gargett
The regenerative capacity of the endometrium has been attributed to resident stem/progenitor cells. A number of stem/progenitor markers have been reported for human endometrial stem/progenitor cells; however, the lack of convenient markers in the mouse has made experimental investigation into endometrial regeneration difficult. We recently identified endometrial epithelial, endothelial, and immune cells, which express a reporter for the stem/progenitor marker, mouse telomerase reverse transcriptase (mTert)...
November 27, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
Arthur Caplan, Stephen F Badylak, Arnold I Caplan, Lindsay C Davies, Staffan Strömblad, Daniel J Weiss, Katarina Le Blanc
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 20, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
Xiabei Yan, Yulei Shu, Jun He, Jun Zhao, Li Jia, Jianwei Xie, Yansong Sun, Zengming Zhao, Shuangqing Peng
Sulfur mustard (SM) exposure, whose symptoms are similar to radiation exposure, can lead to acute injury. Because mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been used to experimentally and clinically treat acute radiation syndrome, in this study, MSCs were intravenously injected into rats after percutaneous SM exposure. Then, we examined sternum and spleen samples by histopathological and immunohistochemical methods to observe pathological changes. Furthermore, blood samples were taken to test the white blood cell (WBC) count, blood platelet count (BPC), red blood cell count, and the levels of cytokines in the serum...
November 20, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
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