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Stem Cells and Development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30234437/an-in-vitro-comparative-study-of-multi-sources-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-bone-tissue-engineering
#1
Yunpeng Zhang, Yixiao Xing, Linglu Jia, Yawen Ji, Bin Zhao, Yong Wen, Xin Xu
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been considered as promising tools for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. However, the optimal cell source for bone regeneration remains controversial. To better identify seed cells for bone tissue engineering, we compared MSCs from seven different tissues including four from dental origins, dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs), gingival mesenchymal stem cells (GMSCs) and dental follicle stem cells (DFSCs); two from somatic origins, bone marrow derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) and adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) and one from birth-associated perinatal tissue umbilical cord (UCMSCs)...
September 20, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30229694/mirna-376c-3p-mediates-twist-1-inhibition-of-bmsc-osteogenesis-and-can-reduce-aberrant-bone-formation-of-twist-1-haploinsufficient-calvarial-cells
#2
Esther Camp, Clara Mentari Putri Pribadi, Peter John Anderson, Andrew Christopher William Zannettino, Stan Gronthos
Key transcription factors, which activate or repress master gene regulators and signalling pathways, tightly regulate self-renewal and cell lineage differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC). Among these factors is the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor Twist-related protein 1 (TWIST-1), which is important in BMSC self-renewal, life span and differentiation. Another layer of gene regulation comes from MicroRNAs (miRNAs). MiRNAs are short non-coding RNAs that interfere with translation of specific target mRNAs and thereby regulate diverse biological processes including BMSC lineage commitment...
September 19, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30215325/accelerate-healing-of-severe-burn-wounds-by-mesenchymal-stem-cell-seeded-biodegradable-hydrogel-scaffold-synthesized-from-arginine-based-poly-ester-amide-and-chitosan
#3
Bhagwat V Alapure, Yan Lu, Mingyu He, Chih-Chang Chu, Hongying Peng, Filipe Muhale, Yue-Liang Brewerton, Bruce A Bunnell, Song Hong
Severe burns are some of the most challenging problems in clinics and still lack ideal modalities. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) incorporated with biomaterial coverage of burn wounds may offer a viable solution. In this report, we seeded MSCs to a biodegradable hybrid hydrogel, namely ACgel, that was synthesized from unsaturated arginine-based poly(ester amide) (UArg-PEA) and chitosan derivative. MSC adhered to ACgels. ACgels maintained a high viability of MSCs in culture for 6 days. MSC seeded to ACgels presented well in third-degree burn wounds of mice at 8 days post-burn (dpb) after the necrotic full-thickness skin of burn wounds was debrided and filled and covered by MSC-carrying ACgels...
September 14, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30215317/generation-of-footprint-free-canine-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-using-auto-erasable-sendai-virus-vector
#4
Masaya Tsukamoto, Toshiya Nishimura, Kyohei Yodoe, Ryoji Kanegi, Yasunori Tsujimoto, Md Emtiaj Alam, Mizuki Kuramochi, Mitsuru Kuwamura, Manami Ohtaka, Ken Nishimura, Mahito Nakanishi, Toshio Inaba, Kikuya Sugiura, Shingo Hatoya
Canine induced pluripotent stem cells (ciPSCs) can be used in regenerative medicine. However, there are no reports on the generation of genome integration free and completely exogeneous gene silenced (footprint-free) ciPSCs that are tolerant to enzymatic single cell passage. In this study, we reprogrammed canine embryonic fibroblasts (CEFs) using the auto-erasable replication-defective and persistent Sendai virus vector, SeVdp(KOSM)302L and generated two ciPSC lines. The ciPSCs were positive for pluripotent markers including alkaline phosphatase activity as well as OCT3/4, SOX2 and NANOG transcripts and NANOG, Stage Specific Embryonic Antigen-1 and partial TRA-1-60 protein expression, even after SeVdp(KOSM)302L removal...
September 14, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30122128/texas-h-b-810-increased-access-to-stem-cell-interventions-or-an-increase-in-unproven-treatments
#5
Kirstin Matthews, Bhavana Kunisetty, Keri Sprung
Born of the expectations and hype associated with regenerative medicine, there are now numerous clinics around the world selling stem cell-based interventions (SCBI) that have yet to be proven effective or safe, with little to no accounting of the outcomes being collected. In the United States, SCBI are overseen by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), but several SCBI clinics have been pushing for policies to expand access and circumvent FDA oversight. Related to this effort, in 2017, Texas passed a bill, HB 810, which allows clinics to provide "investigational stem cell treatments to patients with certain severe chronic diseases or terminal illnesses...
September 8, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30003832/hedgehog-and-wnt-signaling-pathways-regulate-tail-regeneration
#6
Bhairab N Singh, Cyprian V Weaver, Mary G Garry, Daniel J Garry
Urodele amphibians have a tremendous capacity for the regeneration of appendages, including limb and tail, following injury. While studies have focused on the cellular and morphological changes during appendicular regeneration, the signaling mechanisms that govern these cytoarchitectural changes during the regenerative response are unclear. In this study, we describe the essential role of hedgehog (Hh) and Wnt signaling pathways following tail amputation in the newt. Quantitative PCR studies revealed that members of both the Hh and Wnt signaling pathways, including the following: shh, ihh, ptc-1, wnt-3a, β-catenin, axin2, frizzled (frzd)-1, and frzd-2 transcripts, were induced following injury...
September 8, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30187827/antioxidant-preconditioning-improves-the-paracrine-responsiveness-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-to-diabetic-wound-fluid
#7
Yashar Mehrbani Azar, Robyn Green, Carola U Niesler, Mari van de Vyver
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a promising therapeutic tool for the treatment of non-healing diabetic wounds. The pathological nature of the niche microenvironment limits the use of autologous cell therapy in diabetic patients. Prolonged exposure of endogenous MSCs to a pathological micro-environment in vivo, reduces their ability to respond to environmental cues. This study investigated the effectiveness of ex vivo antioxidant treatment [N-acetylcysteine (7.5mM NAC) and Ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (0.6mM AAP)] to restore the paracrine function of diabetic MSCs...
September 6, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30091687/knockdown-of-p66shc-alters-lineage-associated-transcription-factor-expression-in-mouse-blastocysts
#8
Nicole A Edwards, Andrew J Watson, Dean H Betts
The p66Shc adaptor protein regulates apoptosis and senescence during early mammalian development. However, p66Shc expression during mouse preimplantation development is upregulated at the blastocyst stage. Our objective was to determine the biological function of p66Shc during mouse blastocyst development. In this study, we demonstrate that a reduced p66Shc transcript abundance following its short interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown alters the spatiotemporal expression of cell lineage-associated transcription factors in the inner cell mass (ICM) of the mouse blastocyst...
September 6, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30084753/tgfbi-expressed-by-bone-marrow-niche-cells-and-hematopoietic-stem-and-progenitor-cells-regulates-hematopoiesis
#9
Sofieke E Klamer, Yvonne L Dorland, Marion Kleijer, Dirk Geerts, William E Lento, C Ellen van der Schoot, Marieke von Lindern, Carlijn Voermans
The interactions of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) with extracellular matrix (ECM) components and cells from the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment control their homeostasis. Regenerative BM conditions can induce expression of the ECM protein transforming growth factor beta-induced gene H3 (TGFBI or BIGH3) in murine HSPCs. In this study, we examined how increased or reduced TGFBI expression in human HSPCs and BM mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) affects HSPC maintenance, differentiation, and migration...
September 6, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30044182/comparison-of-antibacterial-and-immunological-properties-of-mesenchymal-stem-stromal-cells-from-equine-bone-marrow-endometrium-and-adipose-tissue
#10
Yennifer Cortés-Araya, Karin Amilon, Burgunde Elisabeth Rink, Georgina Black, Zofia Lisowski, Francesc Xavier Donadeu, Cristina L Esteves
Equine mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells that are widely used for treatment of musculoskeletal injuries, and there is significant interest in expanding their application to nonorthopedic conditions. MSCs possess antibacterial and immunomodulatory properties that may be relevant for combating infection; however, comparative studies using MSCs from different origins have not been carried out in the horse, and this was the focus of this study. Our results showed that MSC-conditioned media attenuated the growth of Escherichia coli, and that this effect was, on average, more pronounced for endometrium (EM)-derived and adipose tissue (AT)-derived MSCs than for bone marrow (BM)-derived MSCs...
September 6, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30039749/inhibition-of-retinoic-acid-production-expands-a-megakaryocyte-enriched-subpopulation-with-islet-regenerative-function
#11
Tyler Thomas Cooper, Gillian I Bell, David A Hess
Islet regeneration is stimulated after transplantation of human umbilical cord blood (UCB) hematopoietic progenitor cells with high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)-activity into NOD/SCID mice with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced β cell ablation. ALDHhi progenitor cells represent a rare subset within UCB that will require expansion without the loss of islet regenerative functions for use in cell therapies. ALDHhi cells efficiently expand (>70-fold) under serum-free conditions; however, high ALDH-activity is rapidly diminished during culture coinciding with emergence of a committed megakaryocyte phenotype CD41+/CD42+/CD38+...
September 5, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30051749/novel-insights-into-adult-and-cancer-stem-cell-biology
#12
Deepa Bhartiya, Hiren Patel, Ranita Ganguly, Ambreen Shaikh, Yashvi Shukla, Diksha Sharma, Pushpa Singh
Adult tissues are thought to harbor two populations of "dormant" and "actively dividing" stem cells. Quiescent stem cells undergo rare asymmetric cell divisions (ACDs) through which they self-renew and give rise to tissue-committed "progenitors" of distinct fate and "progenitors" in turn undergo symmetric cell divisions (SCDs) and clonal expansion. However, quiescent stem cells have not been demonstrated in adult tissues such as skin, testis, liver, and brain. After surgical removal of part of liver and pancreas-adult differentiated cells divide and regenerate and a possible role of stem cells remains doubtful...
August 29, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30153084/do-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-characteristics-correlate-with-efficient-in-vitro-smooth-muscle-cell-differentiation-a-comparison-of-three-patient-derived-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-lines
#13
Yingying Zhou, Gugene Kang, Yan Wen, Mason Briggs, Vittorio Sebastiano, Roger Pederson, Bertha Chen
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have the potential to repair/regenerate smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in different organs. However, there are many challenges in their translation to clinical therapies. In this study, we describe our observations of in vitro SMC differentiation in three iPSC lines derived from human fibroblasts using retroviral, episomal, and mRNA/miRNA reprogramming methods. We sought to elucidate correlations between differentiation characteristics and efficiencies that can facilitate large-scale production of differentiated cells for clinical applications, and to report differences in pluripotency marker expression in differentiated cells from different iPSC lines...
August 28, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30032706/adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-a-new-tool-for-the-treatment-of-renal-fibrosis
#14
Zhuojun Wang, Dong Sun
As chronic kidney disease progresses, kidney tissue inevitably undergoes cell loss, accumulation of extracellular matrix, and kidney tissue fibrosis, eventually leading to end-stage renal disease. With the continuous innovation of cell therapy technology, mesenchymal stem cells are used in numerous fields, including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and kidney tissue injury repair. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AMSCs), a type of pluripotent stem cells, have the potential for self-renewal and proliferation with low immunogenicity and significant anti-inflammatory properties...
August 27, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30142991/identification-and-characterization-of-a-stem-cell-like-population-in-bovine-milk-a-potential-new-source-for-regenerative-medicine-in-veterinary
#15
Caterina Pipino, Domitilla Mandatori, Flavia Buccella, Paola Lanuti, Alessandra Preziuso, Federica Castellani, Lisa Grotta, Pamela Di Tomo, Sonia Marchetti, Natalia Di Pietro, Angelo Cichelli, Assunta Pandolfi, Giuseppe Martino
Milk is a complex fluid required for the development, nutrition and immunological protection to the newborn offspring. Interestingly, latest finding proved the presence of novel stem cell population in human milk with multi-lineage differentiation potential. Given that little is known about cellular milk content in other mammalian species such as bovine, the purpose of our study was to isolate and characterize a potential stem cell-like population in bovine milk. In detail, we first analyzed the phenotype of the isolated cells able to grow in plastic-adherence and, then their capability to differentiate into osteogenic, chondrogenic and adipogenic lineages...
August 24, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30142987/direct-generation-of-human-cortical-organoids-from-primary-cells
#16
Monique Schukking, Helen Cristina Miranda, Cleber A Trujillo, Priscilla Davidson Negraes, Alysson Renato Muotri
The study of variations in human neurodevelopment and cognition is limited by the availability of experimental models. While animal models only partially recapitulate the human brain development, genetics, and heterogeneity; human induced pluripotent stem cells can provide an attractive experimental alternative. However, cellular reprogramming and further differentiation techniques are costly and time-consuming and therefore, studies using this approach are often limited to a small number of samples. Here we describe a rapid and cost-effective method to reprogram somatic cells and the direct generation of cortical organoids in a 96-well format...
August 24, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30132383/effect-of-bone-morphogenetic-protein-6-on-immunomodulatory-functions-of-salivary-gland-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome
#17
Junji Xu, Yingying Su, Lei Hu, Alexander Cain, Yi Gu, Bowen Liu, Ruiqing Wu, Songlin Wang, Hao Wang
Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is characterized by autoimmune activation and loss of function in the salivary glands. Recent studies reported bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6), which is a member of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily, was highly expressed in SS patients. To investigate the role of BMP6 in SS, we treated the salivary gland-derived mesenchymal stem cells (SGMSCs) with BMP6 and found that BMP6 could impair immunomodulatory properties of normal SGMSCs by downregulating the Prostaglandin E2 synthase through DNA-binding protein inhibitor-1...
August 22, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30032718/the-effects-of-indian-hedgehog-deletion-on-mesenchyme-cells-inducing-intermediate-cartilage-scaffold-ossification-to-cause-growth-plate-and-phalange-joint-absence-short-limb-and-dwarfish-phenotypes
#18
Jian Sun, Xiaochun Wei, Shengchun Li, Changqi Sun, Chunfang Wang, Pengcui Li, Dennis L Wei, Lei Wei
The endochondral ossification plays a critical role in vertebrate limb development and skeletal homeostasis, where limb mesenchyme cells form an intermediate cartilage scaffold that develops into growth plates and then replaced by bone. Although Indian hedgehog (Ihh) is known to control the hypertrophic differentiation process of chondrocytes, its role from the mesenchyme cells to the early stages of chondrogenesis is unclear. To define the function of Ihh in the mesenchymal cell's early stages of chondrogenesis, we specifically delete Ihh in Prx1-expressed mesenchyme cells at E9...
August 22, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30003826/the-role-of-dissolved-oxygen-levels-on-human-mesenchymal-stem-cell-culture-success-regulatory-compliance-and-therapeutic-potential
#19
Soukaina Bahsoun, Karen Coopman, Nicholas R Forsyth, Elizabeth C Akam
Most cells in the human body, including human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), have evolved to survive and function in a low physiological oxygen (O2 ) environment. Investigators have become increasingly aware of the effects of O2 levels on hMSC biology and culture and are mimicking the natural niche of these cells in vitro to improve cell culture yields. This presents many challenges in relation to hMSC identity and function and in the maintenance of a controlled O2 environment for cell culture. The aim of this review was to discuss an "hMSC checklist" as a guide to establishing which identity and potency assays to implement when studying hMSCs...
August 22, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30009677/generation-of-cd34-fluorescent-reporter-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-for-monitoring-hematopoietic-differentiation
#20
Anna-Maria Husa, Maria Regina Strobl, Agata Strajeriu, Matthias Wieser, Sabine Strehl, Klaus Fortschegger
Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) hold great promise for disease modeling, drug screens, and eventually cell therapy approaches. During in vitro differentiation of hiPSCs into hematoendothelial progenitors, the emergence of CD34-positive cells indicates a critical step of lineage specification. To facilitate the monitoring of hematopoietic differentiation of hiPSCs, we established fluorescent reporter cells for the stem and progenitor cell marker CD34...
August 21, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
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