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Stem Cells and Development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792376/somatic-ace-regulates-self-renewal-of-mouse-spermatogonial-stem-cells-via-the-mapk-signaling-pathway
#1
Tingting Gao, Xin Zhao, Chenchen Liu, Binbin Shao, Xi Zhang, Kai Li, Jinyang Cai, Su Wang, Xiaoyan Huang
Spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) self-renewal is an indispensable part of spermatogenesis. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) is a zinc dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase that plays a critical role in regulation of the renin-angiotensin system. Here, we used RT-PCR and Western blot analysis to confirm that somatic ACE (sACE) but not testicular ACE (tACE) is highly expressed in mouse testis before postpartum day 7 and in cultured SSCs. Our results revealed that sACE is located on the membrane of SSCs. Treating cultured SSCs with the ACE competitive inhibitor captopril was found to inhibit sACE activity, and significantly reduced the proliferation rate of SSCs...
May 24, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790427/simulated-microgravity-culture-enhances-the-neuroprotective-effects-of-human-cranial-bone-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#2
Takashi Otsuka, Takeshi Imura, Kei Nakagawa, Looniva Shrestha, Shinya Takahashi, Yumi Kawahara, Taijiro Sueda, Kaoru Kurisu, Louis Yuge
Fundamental cures of central nervous system (CNS) diseases are rarely achieved due to the low regenerative ability of the CNS. Recently, cell-based therapy using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been explored as effective treatments for CNS diseases. Among the various tissue-derived MSCs, we have isolated human cranial bone-derived MSCs (cMSCs) in our laboratory. In addition, we have focused on simulated microgravity (MG) as a valuable culture environment of MSCs. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying functional recovery from the transplantation of MSCs cultured under MG conditions remain unclear...
May 23, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790426/long-term-effects-of-simulated-microgravity-and-vibration-exposure-on-skeletal-development-in-zebrafish
#3
Tamara A Franz-Odendaal, Sara Edsall
Most studies utilising fish to study the effects of simulated microgravity (SMG) only observe the effects during the first week of development. They also do not take into account the potential impact on development of vibrations caused by the equipment. Here we analyse the effects of both SMG and vibration on development of the skeleton. We analyse three different exposure durations and starting points that coincide with cranial neural crest cell migration. We use a combination of bone staining and morphometrics to analyse the effects...
May 23, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790424/the-fate-of-autologous-endometrial-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-after-application-in-the-healthy-equine-uterus
#4
Elisabeth Rink, Teresa Beyer, Hilari French, Elaine Watson, Christine Aurich, Xavier Donadeu
Because of their distinct differentiation, immunomodulatory and migratory capacities, endometrial mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) may provide an optimum source of therapeutic cells not only in relation to the uterus but also for regeneration of other tissues. This study reports the fate of endometrial MSCs following intrauterine application in mares. Stromal cell fractions were isolated from endometrial biopsies taken from seven reproductively healthy mares, expanded and fluorescence-labeled in culture. MSCs (15 x 106) or PBS were autologously infused into each uterine horn during early diestrus and subsequently tracked by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry of endometrial biopsies and blood samples taken periodically after infusion...
May 23, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790422/autologous-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-neurons-to-treat-parkinson-s-disease
#5
Jeanne F Loring
In 2012, we planned a program to develop a neuron replacement therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD) that would have the greatest promise to help the patients. PD is a movement disorder caused by the progressive, inevitable loss of a specific type of dopamine neuron in the brain. The only viable treatment to reverse the progress of the disease is to replace those neurons; we decided to make dopamine neurons that matched the patients, by differentiating induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) that we generated from individuals with PD...
May 23, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786481/rat-cranial-bone-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cell-transplantation-promotes-functional-recovery-in-ischemic-stroke-model-rats
#6
Masaru Abiko, Takafumi Mitsuhara, Takahito Okazaki, Takeshi Imura, Kei Nakagawa, Takashi Otsuka, Jumpei Oshita, Masaaki Takeda, Yumi Kawahara, Louis Yuge, Kaoru Kurisu
The functional disorders caused by central nervous system (CNS) diseases, such as ischemic stroke, are clinically incurable and current treatments have limited effects. Previous studies suggested that cell-based therapy using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exerts therapeutic effects for ischemic stroke. In addition, the characteristics of MSCs may depend on their sources. Among the derived tissues of MSCs, we have focused on cranial bones originating from the neural crest. We previously demonstrated that the neurogenic potential of human cranial bone-derived MSCs (cMSCs) was higher than that of human iliac bone-derived MSCs...
May 22, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779467/calcium-sodium-and-trp-channel-expression-in-human-fetal-midbrain-derived-neural-progenitor-cells
#7
Nancy Stanslowsky, Salini Tharmarasa, Selma Staege, Norman Kalmbach, Martin Klietz, Sigrid Schwarz, Andreas Leffler, Florian Wegner
Voltage-gated sodium and calcium channels as well as transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are expressed during the differentiation of human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) and are likely to be involved in regulating neurogenesis. However, the molecular composition of these ion channels in proliferating and differentiating hNPCs is largely unknown. Here, we investigated fetal mesencephalic hNPCs in respect to their sodium, calcium, and TRP channel subunit expression and function. Quantitative real-time PCR indicated a significant upregulation of voltage-gated sodium and calcium channel subunits in hNPCs after differentiation for 3 weeks in vitro...
May 19, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779447/development-of-postmeiotic-cells-in-vitro-from-spermatogonial-cells-of-prepubertal-cancer-patients
#8
Maram Abofoul-Azab, Ali AbuMadigem, Eitan Lunenfeld, Joseph Kapelushnik, Qinghua Shi, Haim Pinkas, Mahmoud Huleihel
Aggressive chemotherapy in childhood often results in testicular damage and consequently jeopardizes future fertility. The presence of spermatogonial cells (SPGCs) in the testes of prepubertal cancer patient boys (PCPBs) can be used to develop future strategies for male fertility preservation. In the present study, we examined the presence of SPGCs in testes of chemotherapy-treated PCPBs and their ability to develop spermatogenesis in vitro using a three-dimensional (3D) culture system. Seven testicular biopsies were obtained from chemotherapy-treated PCPBs and one from a patient with β-thalassemia major...
May 19, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742964/efficient-generation-of-cynomolgus-monkey-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-intestinal-organoids-with-pharmacokinetic-functions
#9
Daichi Onozato, Misaki Yamashita, Ryosuke Fukuyama, Takumi Akagawa, Yuriko Kida, Akiko Koeda, Tadahiro Hashita, Takahiro Iwao, Tamihide Matsunaga
In preclinical studies, the cynomolgus monkey (CM) model is frequently used to predict the pharmacokinetics of drugs in the human small intestine, because of its evolutionary closeness to humans. Intestinal organoids that mimic the intestinal tissue have attracted attention in regenerative medicine and drug development. In this study, we generated intestinal organoids from CM induced pluripotent stem (CMiPS) cells and analysed their pharmacokinetic functions. CMiPS cells were induced into the hindgut; then, the cells were seeded on microfabricated culture vessel plates to form spheroids...
May 10, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737242/bms-493-modulates-retinoic-acid-induced-differentiation-during-expansion-of-human-hematopoietic-progenitor-cells-for-islet-regeneration
#10
Ruth Marise Elgamal, Gillian I Bell, Sarah Krause, David A Hess
Cellular therapies are emerging as a novel treatment strategy for diabetes. Thus, the induction of endogenous islet regeneration in situ represents a feasible goal for diabetes therapy. Umbilical cord blood (UCB)-derived hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) isolated by high aldehyde dehydrogenase activity (ALDH<sup>hi</sup>) have previously been shown to reduce hyperglycemia after intrapancreatic (iPan) transplantation into streptozotocin (STZ)-treated non-obese diabetic (NOD) severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice...
May 8, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737241/human-mesenchymal-stromal-cell-sheets-induce-macrophages-predominantly-to-an-anti-inflammatory-phenotype
#11
Panithi Sukho, Jan Willem Hesselink, Nicole Kops, Jolle Kirpensteijn, Femke Verseijnden, Yvonne Bastiaansen-Jenniskens
Tissue healing is a highly complex process involving a cascade of biochemical and cellular events. Excessive inflammation can impair the healing response. Previous in vitro studies have shown that mesenchymal stromal cells can modulate macrophage-induced inflammation and therefore are promising candidates for cell-based therapies aimed at promoting tissue repair. Recently, cell sheets were introduced as a new method of delivering stromal cells to the repair-site. The goal of the current study was to compare the effect of different types of stromal cell sheets on the inflammatory state of macrophages <i>in vitro</i>...
May 8, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737235/somatic-cell-reprogramming-informed-by-the-oocyte
#12
Elena Gonzalez-Munoz, Jose B Cibelli
The successful production of animals and embryonic stem cells (ESCs) using somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has demonstrated the unmatched nuclear reprogramming capacity of the oocyte and helped prove the degree of plasticity of differentiated cells. The introduction of transcription factors to generate induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) displaced SCNT and, due to its ease of implementation, became the method of choice for cell reprogramming. Nonetheless, iPSC derivation remains inefficient and stochastic...
May 8, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717634/notch-signaling-enhances-stemness-by-regulating-metabolic-pathways-through-modifying-p53-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-hif-1%C3%AE
#13
Hiroyuki Moriyama, Mariko Moriyama, Toshiyuki Ozawa, Daisuke Tsuruta, Taro Iguchi, Satoshi Tamada, Tatsuya Nakatani, Koichi Nakagawa, Takao Hayakawa
Human adipose-derived stromal cells (hASCs) are attractive for regenerative medicine, but their limited in vitro lifespan limits their therapeutic applicability. Recent data demonstrate that hypoxia may benefit the ex vivo culture of stem cells. Such cells exhibit a high level of glycolytic metabolism under hypoxic conditions. However, the physiological role of glycolytic activation and its underlying regulatory mechanism are incompletely understood. We have shown that when activated under conditions of 5% O<sub>2</sub>, Notch signaling dramatically increases the rate of glycolysis, improves proliferation efficiency, prevents senescence, and maintains the multipotency of hASCs...
May 2, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717623/aortic-sca-1-sup-sup-progenitor-cells-arise-from-the-somitic-mesoderm-lineage-in-mouse
#14
Sarah K Steinbach, Tao Wang, Martha H Carruthers, Angela Li, Rickvinder Besla, Adam P Johnston, Clinton S Robbins, Mansoor Husain
Sca-1<sup>+</sup> progenitor cells in the adult mouse aorta are known to generate vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), but their embryological origins and temporal abundance are not known. Using tamoxifen-inducible <i>Myf5-Cre</i><sup>ER</sup> mice, we demonstrate that Sca-1<sup>+</sup> adult aortic cells arise from the somitic mesoderm beginning at E8.5 and continue throughout somitogenesis. <i>Myf5</i> lineage-derived Sca-1<sup>+</sup> cells greatly expand in situ starting at 4 weeks of age and become a major source of aortic Sca-1<sup>+</sup> cells by 6 weeks of age...
May 2, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717618/glucocorticoid-signaling-enhances-expression-of-glucose-sensing-molecules-in-immature-pancreatic-beta-like-cells-derived-from-murine-embryonic-stem-cells-in-vitro
#15
Nadiah Ghazalli, Xiaoxing Wu, Stephanie Walker, Nancy Trieu, Li-Yu Hsin, Justin Choe, Chialin Chen, Jasper Hsu, Jeanne LeBon, Mark T Kozlowski, Jeffrey Rawson, David A Tirrell, M L Richard Yip, Hsun Teresa Ku
Pluripotent stem cells may serve as an alternative source of beta-like cells for replacement therapy of type 1 diabetes; however, the beta-like cells generated in many differentiation protocols are immature. The maturation of endogenous beta cells involves an increase in insulin expression starting in late gestation and a gradual acquisition of the abilities to sense glucose and secrete insulin by week 2 after birth in mice; however, what molecules regulate these maturation processes are incompletely known...
May 2, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698131/exposure-of-the-bone-marrow-microenvironment-to-simulated-solar-and-galactic-cosmic-radiation-induces-biological-bystander-effects-on-human-hematopoiesis
#16
Graça Almeida-Porada, Christopher Rodman, Bradford Kuhlman, Egil Brudvik, John Moon, Sunil George, Peter Guida, Satria P Sajuthi, Carl D Langefeld, Stephen J Walker, Paul F Wilson, Christopher D Porada
The stem cell compartment of the hematopoietic system constitutes one of the most radiosensitive tissues of the body and leukemias represent one of the most frequent radiogenic cancers with short latency periods. As such, leukemias may pose a particular threat to astronauts during prolonged space missions. Control of hematopoiesis is tightly governed by a specialized bone marrow (BM) microenvironment/niche. As such, any environmental insult that damages cells of this niche would be expected to produce pronounced effects on the types and functionality of hematopoietic/immune cells generated...
April 26, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695191/high-glucose-inhibits-neural-stem-cell-differentiation-through-oxidative-stress-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#17
Xi Chen, Wei-Bin Shen, Penghua Yang, Daoyin Dong, Winny Sun, Peixin Yang
Maternal diabetes induces neural tube defects by suppressing neurogenesis in the developing neuroepithelium. Our recent study further revealed that high glucose inhibited embryonic stem cell differentiation into neural lineage cells. However, the mechanism whereby high glucose suppresses neural differentiation is unclear. To investigate whether high glucose-induced oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) lead to the inhibition of neural differentiation, the effect of high glucose on neural stem cell (the C17...
April 26, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649414/mir-450b-promotes-osteogenic-differentiation-in-vitro-and-enhances-bone-formation-in-vivo-by-targeting-bmp3
#18
Linyuan Fan, Junfen Fan, Yan Liu, Tangping Li, Haoying Xu, Yanlei Yang, Luchan Deng, Hongling Li, Robert Chunhua Zhao
Osteoporosis is characterized by deterioration of bone microarchitecture and low bone mass. One of the primary causes of osteoporosis is the decrease in the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Tissue engineering therapy with genetically modified MSCs has attracted much attention in the study of bone regeneration. In this study, we found that the expression level of miR-450b was upregulated during osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADSCs). To explore the effect of miR-450b on the osteogenesis of hADSCs, we performed a series of gain- and loss-of-function analyses and demonstrated that miR-450b not only promoted the process of hADSC differentiation to osteoblasts in vitro but also enhanced ectopic bone formation in vivo...
April 23, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669468/inducible-alpha-synuclein-expression-affects-human-neural-stem-cell-behavior
#19
Jacopo Zasso, Ahmed Mastad, Alessandro Cutarelli, Luciano Conti
Converging evidence suggest that levels of alpha-Synuclein (aSyn) expression play a critical role in Parkinson's disease (PD). Several mutations of the SNCA gene, encoding for aSyn have been associated to either the familial or the sporadic forms of PD. Nonetheless, the mechanism underlying wild type aSyn-mediated neurotoxicity in neuronal cells as well as its specific driving role in PD pathogenesis has yet to be fully clarified. In this view, the development of proper in vitro cellular systems is a crucial step...
April 19, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661116/crispr-cas9-targeted-deletion-of-polyglutamine-in-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-3-derived-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#20
Shuming Ouyang, Yingjun Xie, Zeyu Xiong, Yi Yang, Yexing Xian, Zhanhui Ou, Bing Song, Yuchang Chen, Yuhuan Xie, Haoxian Li, Xiaofang Sun
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) is caused by an abnormal expansion of the CAG triplet in ATXN3, which translates into a polyglutamine (polyQ) tract within ataxin-3 (ATXN3) protein. Although the pathogenic mechanisms remain unclear, it is well established that expression of mutant forms of ATXN3 carrying an expanded polyQ domain are involved in SCA3 pathogenesis, and several strategies to suppress mutant ATXN3 have showed promising potential for SCA3 treatment. In this study, we described successful CRISPR/Cas9-mediated deletion of the expanded polyQ-encoding region of ATXN3 in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from a SCA3 patient, and these patient-specific iPSCs retained pluripotency and neural differentiation following expanded polyQ deletion...
April 17, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
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