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Stem Cells and Development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095743/adult-murine-pancreatic-progenitors-require-egf-and-nicotinamide-for-self-renewal-and-differentiation-in-a-serum-and-conditioned-medium-free-culture
#1
Lena Wedeken, Angela Luo, Jacob R Tremblay, Jeffrey Rawson, Liang Jin, Dan Gao, Janine Quijano, Hsun Teresa Ku
Adult pancreatic stem and progenitor cells may serve as an alternative source of insulin-secreting endocrine cells in cell replacement therapy for type 1 diabetes, but much remained unknown about these cells. We previously identified adult murine pancreatic progenitor-like cells that displayed in vitro self-renewal and tri-lineage differentiation activities in a 3-dimensional colony/organoid assay containing 1% methylcellulose and 5% Matrigel. However, the presence of other undefined culture components, such as serum and conditioned medium, has prevented a complete understanding of the signals required for progenitor cell growth...
January 17, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095733/decoding-crucial-lncrnas-implicated-in-neurogenesis-and-neurological-disorders
#2
R Ayana, Shailja Singh, Soumya Pati
Unraveling transcriptional heterogeneity and the labyrinthine nature of neurodevelopment can probe insights into neuropsychiatric disorders. It is noteworthy that adult neurogenesis is restricted to the Sub Ventricular and Sub Granular zones (SVZ/SGZ) of the brain. Recent studies suggest long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) as an avant-garde class of regulators implicated in neurodevelopment. But, paucity exists in the knowledge regarding lncRNAs in neurogenesis and their associations with neurodevelopmental defects...
January 17, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998208/increasing-stem-cell-dose-promotes-posttransplant-immune-reconstitution
#3
Ning Xu, Sylvie Shen, Alla Dolnikov
Umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplantation can provide a successful therapeutic option for patients that have no suitable related donor. UCB transplantation is often limited by the relatively small hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) numbers in UCB especially for adult recipients. Early neutrophil and platelet engraftment correlates with the stem cell numbers in UCB transplant. Compared to other HSC sources, immune reconstitution following UCB transplant is slower and complicated by increased frequency of opportunistic infections...
January 16, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958776/autologous-and-allogeneic-equine-mesenchymal-stem-cells-exhibit-equivalent-immunomodulatory-properties-in-vitro
#4
Aimée C Colbath, Steven W Dow, Jennifer N Phillips, C Wayne McIlwraith, Laurie R Goodrich
The use of allogeneic bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMDMSCs) may provide an effective alternative to autologous BMDMSCs for treatment of equine musculoskeletal injuries. However, concerns have been raised regarding the potential safety and effectiveness of allogeneic BMDMSCs. We conducted studies to assess the immunological properties of equine allogeneic BMDMSCs compared with those of autologous BMDMSCs. For assessment of inherent immunogenicity, the relative ability of allogeneic and autologous BMDMSCs to stimulate spontaneous proliferation of equine lymphocytes was compared...
January 12, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068868/mir-26a-mediates-adipogenesis-of-amniotic-fluid-mesenchymal-stem-stromal-cells-via-pten-cyclin-e1-and-cdk6
#5
Ourania Trohatou, Dimitra Zagoura, Nikos Orfanos, Kalliopi I Pappa, Evangelos Marinos, Nicholas Anagnou, Maria G Roubelakis
Recent findings indicate that microRNAs (miRNAs) are critical for the regulatory network of adipogenesis in human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs). Fetal MSCs derived from amniotic fluid (AF-MSCs) represent a population of multipotent stem cells characterized by a wide range of differentiation properties that can be applied in cell-based therapies. In this study, miRNA microarray analysis was performed to assess miRNA expression in terminal differentiated AF-MSCs into adipocyte-like cells (AL cells). MiR-26a was identified in high expression levels in AL cells indicating a critical role in the process of adipogenesis...
January 9, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052733/melanoma-induced-anemia-could-be-rescued-by-sca-1-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-in-mice
#6
Ning An, Yaozhen Chen, Dandan Yin, Hui-Jie Zhang, Zheng Liu, Fan Feng, Na Li, Jiajia Xin, Wen Yin, Xueqing Xu, Xingbin Hu
The intrinsic basis of cancer-related anemia (CRA) is erythropoiesis disorder, which is a common complication of cancer and exerts a negative influence on the life quality of cancer patients. Cell therapy using mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) is considered as a promising method in cancer treatment. Furthermore, MSCs have been used to cure few type of anemia and be considered as a potential strategy to recover anemia radically. However, none reports its application in CRA treatment. In CRA model mice, we found that the number of lin-c-kit+Sca-1+ (LSK) and Sca-1+ MSCs was decreased...
January 4, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052725/paracrine-activity-from-adipose-derived-stem-cells-on-in-vitro-wound-healing-in-human-tympanic-membrane-keratinocytes
#7
Huan Ting Ong, Sharon Redmond, Robert Marano, Marcus Atlas, Magnus von Unge, Peder Aabel, Rodney J Dilley
Stem cell therapies for tympanic membrane repair have shown initial experimental success using mesenchymal stem cells in rat models to promote healing, however the mechanisms providing this benefit are not known. We investigated in vitro the paracrine effects of human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC) on wound healing mechanisms for human tympanic membrane-derived keratinocytes (hTM) and immortalised human keratinocytes (HaCat). ADSC conditioned media (CMADSC) were assessed for paracrine activity on keratinocyte proliferation and migration, with hypoxic conditions for ADSC culture used to generate contrasting effects on cytokine gene expression...
January 4, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052723/inducing-heat-shock-proteins-enhances-the-stemness-of-frozen-thawed-adipose-tissue-derived-stem-cells
#8
Shahensha Shaik, Daniel Hayes, Jeffrey Gimble, Ram Devireddy
Extensive research has been performed to determine the effect of freezing protocol and cryopreservation agents on the viability of ASCs as well other cells. Unfortunately, the conclusion one may draw after decades of research utilizing fundamentally similar cryopreservation techniques is that a barrier exists, which precludes full recovery. We hypothesize that agents capable of inducing a subset of heat shock proteins (HSPs) and chaperones will reduce the intrinsic barriers to the post-thaw recovery of ASCs...
January 4, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051360/the-notch-ligand-jag1-regulates-gdnf-expression-in-sertoli-cells
#9
Thomas Xavier Garcia, Parag Parekh, Pooja Gandhi, Krishna M Sinha, Marie-Claude Hofmann
In the seminiferous epithelium of the testis, Sertoli cells are key niche cells directing proliferation and differentiation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) into spermatozoa. Sertoli cells produce glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), which is essential for SSC self-renewal and progenitor expansion. While the role of GDNF in the testis stem cell niche is established, little is known about how this factor is regulated. Our previous studies on NOTCH activity in Sertoli cells demonstrated a role of this pathway in limiting stem/progenitor cell numbers, thus ultimately down-regulating sperm cell output...
January 4, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927130/p311-accelerates-skin-wound-reepithelialization-by-promoting-epidermal-stem-cell-migration-through-rhoa-and-rac1-activation
#10
Zhihui Yao, Haisheng Li, Weifeng He, Sisi Yang, Xiaorong Zhang, Rixing Zhan, Rui Xu, Jianglin Tan, Junyi Zhou, Jun Wu, Gaoxing Luo
P311 is a newly discovered functional gene, and it has been proved to play a key role in blood pressure homeostasis, glioblastoma invasion, renal fibrosis, hypertrophic scar formation, and others. In this study, for the first time, we found that P311 could enhance reepithelialization during wound healing via promoting epidermal stem cell (EpSC) migration through Rho GTPases. P311 expression was highly increased in neo-epidermal cells during human and mouse skin wound healing, and P311was co-localized with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine positive label-retaining cells in a mouse superficial second-degree burn wound model...
January 3, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006991/efficacy-of-autologous-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-mononuclear-cells-transplantation-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-comparative-study
#11
Shobhit Bhansali, Pinaki Dutta, Vinod Kumar, Mukesh Kumar Yadav, Ashish Jain, Sunder Mudaliar, Shipra Bhansali, R R Sharma, Vivekanand Jha, N Marwaha, N Khandelwal, Anand Srinivasan, Naresh Sachdeva, Meredith Hawkins, Anil Bhansali
Drugs targeting β-cells have provided new options in the management of T2DM; however, their role in β-cell regeneration remains elusive. The recent emergence of cell-based therapies like autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ABM-MSCs) and mononuclear cells (ABM-MNCs) seems to offer a pragmatic approach to augment β-cell function/mass. This study aims to examine the efficacy and safety of ABM-MSCs and ABM-MNCs transplantation in T2DM and explores the alterations in glucose-insulin homeostasis by metabolic studies...
December 23, 2016: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863459/properties-of-human-embryonic-stem-cells-and-their-differentiated-derivatives-depend-on-nonhistone-dna-binding-hmgb1-and-hmgb2-proteins
#12
Alireza Jian Bagherpoor, Dasa Dolezalova, Tomas Barta, Martin Kučírek, Soodabeh Abbasi Sani, Milan Ešner, Michaela Kunova Bosakova, Vladimír Vinarský, Lucie Peskova, Aleš Hampl, Michal Štros
HMGB1 and HMGB2 proteins have been implicated in numerous cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and tumor growth. It is unknown whether they are involved in regulating the typical functions of pluripotent human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and/or those of the differentiated derivatives of hESCs. Using inducible, stably transfected hESCs capable of shRNA-mediated knockdown of HMGB1 and HMGB2, we provide evidence that downregulation of HMGB1 and/or HMGB2 in undifferentiated hESCs does not affect the stemness of cells and induces only minor changes to the proliferation rate, cell-cycle profile, and apoptosis...
December 23, 2016: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855539/mouse-p2y4-nucleotide-receptor-is-a-negative-regulator-of-cardiac-adipose-derived-stem-cell-differentiation-and-cardiac-fat-formation
#13
Anne Lemaire, Marion Vanorlé, Michael Horckmans, Larissa di Pietrantonio, Sophie Clouet, Bernard Robaye, Jean-Marie Boeynaems, Didier Communi
Cardiac adipose tissue-derived stem cells (cASCs) have the ability to differentiate into multiple cell lineages giving them a high potential for use in regenerative medicine. Cardiac fat tissue still raises many unsolved questions related to its formation and features. P2Y nucleotide receptors have already been described as regulators of differentiation of bone-marrow derived stem cells, but remain poorly investigated in cASCs. We defined, in this study, the P2Y4 nucleotide receptor as a negative regulator of cardiac fat formation and cASC adipogenic differentiation...
December 23, 2016: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27937745/ionizing-radiation-alters-human-embryonic-stem-cell-properties-and-differentiation-capacity-by-diminishing-the-expression-of-activin-receptors
#14
Sabine Luft, Onetsine Arrizabalaga, Ireen Kulish, Elena Nasonova, Marco Durante, Sylvia Ritter, Insa S Schroeder
Exposure of the embryo to ionizing radiation (IR) is detrimental as it can cause genotoxic stress leading to immediate and latent consequences such as functional defects, malformations, or cancer. Human embryonic stem (hES) cells can mimic the preimplantation embryo and help to assess the biological effects of IR during early development. In this study, we describe the alterations H9 hES cells exhibit after X-ray irradiation in respect to cell cycle progression, apoptosis, genomic stability, stem cell signaling, and their capacity to differentiate into definitive endoderm...
December 22, 2016: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842458/suppression-of-canine-dendritic-cell-activation-maturation-and-inflammatory-cytokine-release-by-mesenchymal-stem-cells-occurs-through-multiple-distinct-biochemical-pathways
#15
William H Wheat, Lyndah Chow, Jade N Kurihara, Daniel P Regan, Jonathan W Coy, Tracy L Webb, Steven W Dow
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) represent a readily accessible source of cells with potent immune modulatory activity. MSC can suppress ongoing inflammatory responses by suppressing T cell function, while fewer studies have examined the impact of MSC on dendritic cell (DC) function. The dog spontaneous disease model represents an important animal model with which to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of cellular therapy with MSC. This study evaluated the effects of canine MSC on the activation and maturation of canine monocyte-derived DC, as well as mechanisms underlying these effects...
December 22, 2016: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998209/immunodepletion-and-hypoxia-preconditioning-of-mouse-compact-bone-cells-as-a-novel-protocol-to-isolate-highly-immunosuppressive-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#16
Kisha Nandini Sivanathan, Stan Gronthos, Shane T Grey, Darling Rojas-Canales, Patrick T Coates
Compact bones (CB) are major reservoirs of mouse mesenchymal stem cells (mMSC). Here, we established a protocol to isolate MSC from CB and tested their immunosuppressive potential. Collagenase type II digestion of BM-flushed CB from C57B/6 mice was performed to liberate mMSC precursors from bone surfaces to establish nondepleted mMSC. CB cells were also immunodepleted based on the expression of CD45 (leukocytes) and TER119 (erythroid cells) to eliminate hematopoietic cells. CD45-TER119- CB cells were subsequently used to generate depleted mMSC...
December 21, 2016: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796171/direct-conversion-through-trans-differentiation-efficacy-and-safety
#17
Ankshita Prasad, Daniel Boon Loong Teh, Fathima R Shah Jahan, Janani Manivannan, Soo Min Chua, Angelo H All
Direct conversion through transdifferentiation is a promising cell reprogramming approach that induces a cell lineage conversion among adult cells without passing through an intermediate pluripotent phase. However, there is a need to critically evaluate the efficacy and safety of direct conversion to establish its feasibility as a clinically viable cell reprogramming technique. This review article aims to delineate some critical constraints of direct conversion as a cellular reprogramming approach. We report the most important challenges of lineage reprogramming through direct conversion and divide them into two major sections...
December 19, 2016: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842457/wharton-s-jelly-mesenchymal-stem-cells-protect-the-immature-brain-in-rats-and-modulate-cell-fate
#18
Martin Mueller, Byron Oppliger, Marianne Joerger-Messerli, Ursula Reinhart, Eytan Barnea, Michael Paidas, Boris W Kramer, Daniel V Surbek, Andreina Schoeberlein
The development of a mammalian brain is a complex and long-lasting process. Not surprisingly, preterm birth is the leading cause of death in newborns and children. Advances in perinatal care reduced mortality, but morbidity still represents a major burden. New therapeutic approaches are thus desperately needed. Given that mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) emerged as a promising candidate for cell therapy, we transplanted MSCs derived from the Wharton's Jelly (WJ-MSCs) to reduce the burden of immature brain injury in a murine animal model...
December 16, 2016: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821019/molecular-signatures-of-primary-human-spermatogonial-progenitors-and-its-neighboring-peritubular-stromal-compartment
#19
Abhishek Harichandan, Kavitha Sivasubramaniyan, Jörg Hennenlotter, Sven Poths, Jens Bedke, Stephan Kruck, Arnulf Stenzl, Hans-Jörg Bühring
In-depth understanding of human spermatogenesis requires studying specific molecular signatures and interactions of spermatogonia with other testicular cell populations, for which isolation of pure populations of different cell types is crucial. Here, we describe a technique to simultaneously enrich pure, multiple testicular cell populations, including spermatogonia, endothelial (TECs), and perivascular mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (TMSCs), from testicular tissue by flow cytometry using a combination of defined markers...
December 16, 2016: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960587/combining-gene-and-stem-cell-therapy-for-peripheral-nerve-tissue-engineering
#20
Francesca Busuttil, Ahad A Rahim, James B Phillips
Despite a substantially increased understanding of neuropathophysiology, insufficient functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury (PNI) remains a significant clinical challenge. Nerve regeneration following injury is dependent on Schwann cells, the supporting cells in the peripheral nervous system. Following nerve injury, Schwann cells adopt a pro-regenerative phenotype which supports and guides regenerating nerves. However, this phenotype may not persist long enough to ensure functional recovery. Tissue engineered nerve repair devices containing therapeutic cells that maintain the appropriate phenotype may help enhance nerve regeneration...
December 14, 2016: Stem Cells and Development
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