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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333715/noninvasive-imaging-of-stored-red-blood-cell-transfusion-aggravating-sepsis-induced-liver-injury-associated-with-increased-activation-of-m1-polarized-kupffer-cells
#1
Tao Wu, Lei Wang, Jie An, Chao Y Wu, Yue Wang, Lu Qian, Jun Zhou, Yu L Zhang, Qian Q Zhou, Xiao H Wang, Hua F Wang, Qiu X Fu, Lin S Zhan
Liver injury has a critical effect on the severity and outcome of sepsis. The impact of stored RBCs on the pathogenesis of sepsis-associated hepatic injury is not well understood. Therefore, to investigate the effects of stored-RBC transfusion on sepsis-induced liver damage as well as the associated mechanism, we constructed a sepsis mouse model enabling non-invasive imaging of bacterial infection caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a common gram-negative respiratory pathogen. We showed that transfusions with stored RBCs enhanced sepsis-induced liver injury in vivo, and liver injury exacerbated the severity of sepsis and decreased survival in P...
March 22, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328711/management-of-atrial-fibrillation-with-rapid-ventricular-response-in-the-intensive-care-unit-a-secondary-analysis-of-electronic-health-record-data
#2
Ari Moskowitz, Kenneth P Chen, Avraham Z Cooper, Abdullah Chahin, Mohammad M Ghassemi, Leo Anthony Celi
PURPOSE: Atrial fibrillation with rapid ventricular response (RVR) is common during critical illness. In this study, we explore the comparative effectiveness of three commonly used drugs (metoprolol, diltiazem, and amiodarone) in the management of atrial fibrillation with RVR in the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: Data pertaining to the first ICU admission were extracted from the Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care (MIMIC) III database. Patients who received one of the above pharmacologic agents while their heart rate was > 110bpm and had atrial fibrillation documented in the clinical chart were included...
March 21, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328710/fatty-acid-saturation-of-albumin-used-in-resuscitation-fluids-modulates-cell-damage-in-shock-in-vitro-results-using-a-novel-technique-to-measure-fatty-acid-binding-capacity
#3
Alexander H Penn, Michael A Dubick, Ivo P Torres Filho
The use of albumin for resuscitation has not proven as beneficial in human trials as expected from numerous animal studies. One explanation could be the practice of adding fatty acid (FA) during manufacture of pharmaceutical albumin. During ischemia, unbound free FAs (FFA) in the circulation could potentially induce cellular damage. We hypothesized that albumins with higher available binding capacities (ABC) for FFAs may prevent that damage. Therefore, we developed a technique to measure ABC, determined if pharmaceutical human serum albumin (HSA) has decreased ABC compared to FA-free bovine serum albumin (BSA), and if binding capacity would affect hemolysis when blood is mixed with exogenous FFA at levels similar to those observed in shock...
March 21, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319494/heparin-binding-protein-hbp-a-causative-marker-and-potential-target-for-heparin-treatment-of-human-sepsis-induced-acute-kidney-injury
#4
Jane Fisher, James A Russell, Peter Bentzer, Devyn Parsons, Stefano Secchia, Matthias Mörgelin, Keith R Walley, John H Boyd, Adam Linder
RATIONALE: Sepsis-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common condition with high morbidity and mortality. Neutrophil-derived heparin-binding protein (HBP) induces vascular leakage and is a promising biomarker of sepsis-induced organ dysfunction. It remains unknown if HBP is prognostic of AKI in septic shock and if HBP could play a role in the pathophysiology of sepsis-induced AKI. OBJECTIVES: To determine the association of plasma HBP levels with development of AKI, investigate the role of HBP in the pathophysiology of sepsis-induced AKI, and test the effect of blocking HBP using heparin derivatives...
March 17, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296657/neuroendocrine-derangements-in-early-septic-shock-pharmacotherapy-for-relative-adrenal-and-vasopressin-insufficiency
#5
James W Schurr, Paul M Szumita, Jeremy R DeGrado
Septic shock is a leading cause of mortality in intensive care units throughout the world. While this disease state represents a highly complex pathophysiology involving numerous organ systems, the early approach to care includes adequate hemodynamic support traditionally achieved via infusions of vasoactive medications after adequate fluid resuscitation. Relative adrenal and vasopressin deficiencies are a common feature of septic shock that contribute to impaired hemodynamics. Hydrocortisone and vasopressin are endocrine system hormone analogues that target the acute neuroendocrine imbalance associated with septic shock...
March 14, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282360/an-alpha7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-agonist-gts-21-promotes-c2c12-myonuclear-accretion-in-association-with-release-of-interleukin-6-il-6-and-improves-survival-in-burned-mice
#6
Mohammed A S Khan, Mohammed F Khan, Shizuka Kashiwagi, William R Kem, Shingo Yasuhara, Masao Kaneki, Ronald G Tompkins, J A Jeevendra Martyn
The role of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in physiological processes and disease is poorly understood. The hypothesis tested in this study was that selective alpha7 acetylcholine receptor (α7AChR) agonist, GTS-21, releases of IL-6 in association with myonuclear accretion and enhances insulin signaling in muscle cells, and improves survival of burn injured (BI) mice. The in vitro effects of GTS-21 were determined in C2C12 myoblasts and 7-day differentiated myotubes (myotubes). The in vivo effects of GTS-21 were tested in BI wild type (WT) and IL-6 knockout (IL6KO) mice...
March 9, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272166/inhibition-of-myosin-light-chain-kinase-enhances-the-clearance-of-lipopolysaccharide-induced-lung-inflammation-possibly-by-accelerating-neutrophil-apoptosis
#7
Wei Shi, Chengyun Xu, Musaddique Hussain, Fugen Wu, Meiping Lu, Xiling Wu, Lanfang Tang, Ximei Wu, Junsong Wu
Neutrophils are a population of inflammatory cell involved in acute lung injury (ALI), and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced prolonged neutrophil survival and delayed neutrophil apoptosis hinder the alleviation of lung inflammation. Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) involved the RhoA/Rho kinase signaling pathway responsible for the cytoskeletal arrangement, and previous studies have revealed that inhibition of MLCK induces apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. In this study, glycogen-induced neutrophils isolated from rats or mice were incubated with ML-7, a MLCK specific inhibitor, and LPS-induced ALI mice administrated with ML-7 were investigated, to demonstrate the roles of MLCK in neutrophils apoptosis as well as the possibility of which contributing to the clearance of inflammation...
March 7, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272165/reduced-insulin-resistance-contributes-to-the-beneficial-effect-of-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-1b-deletion-in-a-mouse-model-of-sepsis
#8
Eugénie Delile, Rémi Nevière, Pierre-Alain Thiébaut, Julie Maupoint, Paul Mulder, David Coquerel, Sylvanie Renet, Jennifer Rieusset, Vincent Richard, Fabienne Tamion
Hyperglycemia is a common feature of septic patients and has been associated with poor outcome and high mortality. In contrast, insulin has been shown to decrease mortality and to prevent the incidence of multi-organ failure but is often associated with deleterious hypoglycemia. Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a negative regulator of both insulin signaling and NO production, and has been shown to be an aggravating factor in septic shock. To evaluate the potential therapeutic effect of PTP1B blockade on glucose metabolism and insulin resistance in an experimental model of sepsis, we assessed the effect of PTP1B gene deletion in a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model of sepsis...
March 7, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248722/mortality-is-greater-in-septic-patients-with-hyperlactatemia-than-with-refractory-hypotension
#9
Robert Gotmaker, Sandra L Peake, Andrew Forbes, Rinaldo Bellomo
BACKGROUND: In septic patients, it is uncertain whether isolated hyperlactatemia (lactate ≥ 4 mmol/L without refractory hypotension) can be used to diagnose septic shock and whether mortality rate differs from that of isolated refractory hypotension (refractory to 1000 ml or greater fluid bolus). AIMS: To compare baseline characteristics, treatments and outcomes of participants enrolled into the Australian Resuscitation in Sepsis Evaluation (ARISE) trial according to the presence of isolated hyperlactatemia or isolated refractory hypotension...
February 28, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28234792/hydrogen-gas-protects-against-intestinal-injury-in-wild-type-but-not-nrf2-knockout-mice-with-severe-sepsis-by-regulating-ho-1-and-hmgb1-release
#10
Yang Yu, Yongyan Yang, Yingxue Bian, Yuan Li, Lingling Liu, Hongtao Zhang, Keliang Xie, Guolin Wang, Yonghao Yu
The intestine plays an important role in the pathogenesis of sepsis. Hydrogen gas (H2), which has anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic effects, can be effectively used to treat septic mice. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a redox-sensitive master switch that regulates the expression of antioxidant and protective enzymes. This study investigated the effects of 2% H2 on intestinal injuries and the underlying mechanisms in a mouse model of severe sepsis. Male Nrf2-KO and wild-type (WT) mice were randomized into four groups: sham, sham+H2, cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), and CLP+H2...
February 23, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28234791/is-coagulopathy-an-appropriate-therapeutic-target-during-critical-illness-such-as-trauma-or-sepsis
#11
Hunter B Moore, Robert D Winfield, Mayuki Aibiki, Matthew D Neal
Coagulopathy is a common and vexing clinical problem in critically ill patients. Recently, major advances focused on the treatment of coagulopathy in trauma and sepsis have emerged. However, the targeting of coagulopathy with blood product transfusion and drugs directed at attenuating the physiologic response to these conditions have major potential risk to the patient. Therefore, the identification of coagulopathy as a clinical target is an area of uncertainty and controversy. In order to analyze the state of the science regarding coagulopathy in critical illness, a symposium addressing the problem was organized at the 39 annual meeting of the Shock Society in the summer of 2016...
February 23, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28234790/effects-of-levosimendan-on-cellular-metabolic-alterations-in-patients-with-septic-shock-a-randomized-controlled-pilot-study
#12
Zied Hajjej, Bilel Meddeb, Walid Sellami, Iheb Labbene, Andrea Morelli, Mustapha Ferjani
INTRODUCTION: Mitochondrial dysfunction and consequent cellular energetic failure play a key role in the development of sepsis-related organs failure. Evidence suggest that the pleiotropic effects of levosimendan may positively affect cellular metabolism during septic shock. OBJECTIVES: To investigate changes in the concentration of glucose, lactate, pyruvate and glycerol in the extracellular fluid of the skeletal muscle following levosimendan administration in patients with septic shock...
February 23, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28234789/reply-to-packed-red-blood-cells-accumulate-oxidative-stress-with-increased-storage-duration
#13
Alex L Chang, Timothy A Pritts
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 23, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28234788/the-role-of-microglia-in-the-etiology-and-evolution-of-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy
#14
Hadijat M Makinde, Talia B Just, Carla M Cuda, Harris Perlman, Steven J Schwulst
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that presents as a late sequela from traumatic brain injury (TBI). Traumatic brain injury is a growing and under-recognized public health concern with a high degree of morbidity and large associated global costs. While the immune response to TBI is complex, its contribution to the development of CTE remains largely unknown. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the link between CTE and the resident innate immune system of the brain- microglia...
February 23, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230708/cell-derived-nanoparticles-are-endogenous-modulators-of-sepsis-with-therapeutic-potential
#15
Natalia Kunz, Brent T Xia, Kai-Uwe Kalies, Matthias Klinger, Timo Gemoll, Jens K Habermann, Brynne E Whitacre, Aaron P Seitz, Kathrin Kalies, Charles C Caldwell
Cell-derived nanoparticles (CDNPs) containing cytosolic proteins and RNAs/DNAs can be isolated from stressed eukaryotic cells. Previously, CDNPs isolated from cultured cells exerted immunomodulatory activities in different infections. Here, we sought to elucidate the role of CDNPs using a murine model of cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). We hypothesized that CDNPs influence the immune response at the site of infection, where severe cellular stress occurs. We observed early CDNP accumulation in the peritoneum after 4 h and continued CDNP presence 24 h after CLP...
February 22, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221243/effects-of-glycyrrhizin-on-the-differentiation-of-myeloid-cells-of-the-heart-and-lungs-in-lipopolysaccharide-induced-septic-mice
#16
Eun-Hye Seo, Ga-Yun Song, Byung Ok Kwak, Chung-Sik Oh, Seung Hyun Lee, Seong-Hyop Kim
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the effects of glycyrrhizin (GR) on the ratio of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) to cluster of differentiation (CD)11b+Gr1 myeloid cells in the heart and lungs in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced septic mice. METHODS: Mice were divided into three groups: Control, LPS, and LPS+GR. After intraperitoneal injection of phosphate-buffered saline for the Control group, LPS for the LPS group, and a combination of LPS and GR for the LPS+GR group, fluorescence-activated cell sorting was utilized to evaluate cytokines and immune cells in the blood, heart, and lungs...
February 17, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221242/disseminated-intravascular-coagulation-in-emergency-department-patients-with-primary-postpartum-hemorrhage
#17
Chang Hwan Sohn, So Ra Kim, Youn-Jung Kim, Dong Woo Seo, Shin Ahn, Yoon-Seon Lee, Jae Ho Lee, Bum Jin Oh, Hye-Sung Won, Jae-Yoon Shim, Kyoung-Soo Lim, Won Young Kim
The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of disseminated intravascular coagulation and to determine whether the presence of disseminated intravascular coagulation is associated with major adverse events in patients with primary postpartum hemorrhage who present to the emergency department.This retrospective case-control study was conducted in the emergency department of a university-affiliated, tertiary referral center between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2013. Patients were classified into disseminated intravascular coagulation (disseminated intravascular coagulation score ≥ 5) and non-disseminated intravascular coagulation groups...
February 17, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207628/earlier-endpoints-are-required-for-hemorrhagic-shock-trials-among-severely-injured-patients
#18
Erin E Fox, John B Holcomb, Charles E Wade, Eileen M Bulger, Barbara C Tilley
BACKGROUND: Choosing the appropriate endpoint for a trauma hemorrhage control trial can determine the likelihood of its success. Recent Phase 3 trials and observational studies have used 24-h and/or 30-day all-cause mortality as the primary endpoint and some have not used exception from informed consent (EFIC), resulting in multiple failed trials. Five recent high-quality prospective studies among 4,064 hemorrhaging trauma patients provide new evidence to support earlier primary endpoints...
February 15, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187039/plasma-neutrophil-elastase-and-elafin-as-prognostic-biomarker-for-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-a-multicenter-survival-and-longitudinal-prospective-observation-study
#19
Zhaozhong Zhu, Tiehua Wang, Zhuang Liu, Liang Yi, Zhixu Yang, Weishuai Bian, Wei Chen, Shupeng Wang, Gang Li, Ang Li, Greg S Martin, Xi Zhu
BACKGROUND: Neutrophil elastase (HNE) is a destructive enzyme and plays crucial roles in the pathophysiology of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Endogenous proteinase inhibitors elafin (PI3) is important to protect against lung tissue destruction. We proposed to examine whether HNE and PI3 serve as prognostic biomarkers for ARDS. METHODS: This study is a survival and longitudinal analysis of plasma profiles of HNE and PI3 in ARDS patients from a multi-center prospective observational cohort in Beijing, China...
February 9, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187038/minocycline-prevents-the-impairment-of-hippocampal-long-term-potentiation-in-the-septic-mouse
#20
Koji Hoshino, Mineji Hayakawa, Yuji Morimoto
Sepsis-associated encephalopathy is a major complication during sepsis, and an effective treatment remains unknown. Although minocycline (MINO) has neuroprotective effects and is an attractive candidate for treating sepsis-associated encephalopathy, the effect of MINO on synaptic plasticity during sepsis is still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effects of MINO on long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus in a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) mouse model. We divided mice into 4 groups; (1) sham + vehicle, (2) sham + MINO (60 mg/kg, i...
February 9, 2017: Shock
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