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Shock

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462003/toll-like-receptor-4-signaling-licenses-the-cytosolic-transport-of-lipopolysaccharide-from-bacterial-outer-membrane-vesicles
#1
Lan Gu, Ran Meng, Yiting Tang, Kai Zhao, Fang Liang, Rui Zhang, Qianqian Xue, Fangping Chen, Xianzhong Xiao, Huadong Wang, Haichao Wang, Timothy R Billiar, Ben Lu
Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs), released by variety of bacteria, are membrane-enclosed entities enriched in microbial components, toxins and virulent factors. OMVs could deliver lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the cytosol of host cells and subsequently activate caspase-11, which critically orchestrates immune responses and mediates septic shock. Though it is known that caspase-11 is activated by intracellular LPS, how OMVs deliver LPS into the cytosol remains largely unknown. Here we show that the activation of toll like receptor 4 (TLR4), a LPS receptor on the cytoplasmic membrane, licenses macrophages to transport LPS from OMVs into the cytosol through TIR domain-containing adaptor-inducing interferon-β (TRIF)...
February 16, 2018: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461465/septic-shock-alters-mitochondrial-respiration-of-lymphoid-cell-lines-and-human-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-the-role-of-plasma
#2
Raphael Clere-Jehl, Julie Helms, Mohamad Kassem, Pierrick Le Borgne, Xavier Delabranche, Anne-Laure Charles, Bernard Geny, Ferhat Meziani, Pascal Bilbault
INTRODUCTION: In septic shock patients, post-septic immunosuppression state following the systemic inflammatory response syndrome is responsible for nosocomial infections, with subsequent increased mortality. The aim of the present study was to assess the underlying cellular mechanisms of the post-septic immunosuppression state, by investigating mitochondrial functions of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from septic shock patients over 7 days. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen patients admitted to a French intensive care unit for septic shock were included...
February 14, 2018: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461464/protective-effects-of-the-complement-inhibitor-compstatin-cp40-in-hemorrhagic-shock
#3
Martijn van Griensven, Daniel Ricklin, Stephanie Denk, Rebecca Halbgebauer, Christian K Braun, Anke Schultze, Felix Hönes, Sofia Koutsogiannaki, Alexandra Primikyri, Edimara Reis, David Messerer, Sebastian Hafner, Peter Radermacher, Ali-Reza Biglarnia, Ranillo R G Resuello, Joel V Tuplano, Benjamin Mayer, Kristina Nilsson, Bo Nilsson, John D Lambris, Markus Huber-Lang
Trauma-induced hemorrhagic shock (HS) plays a decisive role in the development of immune, coagulation, and organ dysfunction often resulting in a poor clinical outcome. Imbalanced complement activation is intricately associated with the molecular danger response and organ damage after HS. Thus, inhibition of the central complement component C3 as turnstile of both inflammation and coagulation is hypothesized as a rational strategy to improve the clinical course after HS.Applying intensive care conditions, anaesthetized, monitored, and protectively ventilated non-human primates (NHP; cynomolgus monkeys) received a pressure-controlled severe HS (60 min at MAP 30 mmHg) with subsequent volume resuscitation...
February 14, 2018: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461463/prognostic-value-of-the-lactate-albumin-ratio-for-predicting-28-day-mortality-in-critically-ill-sepsis-patients
#4
Jikyoung Shin, Sung Yeon Hwang, Ik Joon Jo, Won Young Kim, Seung Mok Ryoo, Gu Hyun Kang, Kyuseok Kim, You Hwan Jo, Sung Phil Chung, Young Seon Joo, Jin Ho Beom, Young Hoon Yoon, Kap Su Han, Tae Ho Lim, Han Sung Choi, Woon Yong Kwon, Gil Joon Suh, Sung-Hyuk Choi, Tae Gun Shin
AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical utility of the lactate/albumin (L/A) ratio as a predictive factor of 28-day mortality in critically ill sepsis patients. METHODS: This is a retrospective observational study from a prospectively-collected multi-center registry of 10 emergency departments (EDs) in teaching hospitals that participated in the Korean Shock Society (KoSS). It enrolled patients who were 19 years of age or older who had a suspected or confirmed infection and evidence of refractory hypotension or hypoperfusion...
February 14, 2018: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438224/erlotinib-protects-lps-induced-acute-lung-injury-in-mice-by-inhibiting-egfr-tlr4-signaling-pathway
#5
Huan Tao, Na Li, Zhao Zhang, Honglan Mu, Chen Meng, Huimin Xia, Lisha Fu, Younian Xu, Shihai Zhang
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been reported to initiate the inflammatory response, but its activation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced murine model of acute lung injury (ALI) remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of EGFR in the LPS-induced murine model of ALI and explored whether its inhibitor erlotinib could affect the progression of lung injury. We first detected the phosphorylated EGFR (p-EGFR)/EGFR ratio at different time points after LPS stimulation, and then different concentrations of erlotinib were used to treat mice at 1 h before LPS stimulation and collected samples at the time point of the highest p-EGFR/EGFR ratio...
February 12, 2018: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438223/knockdown-of-tfpi-anchored-endothelial-cells-exacerbates-lipopolysaccharide-induced-acute-lung-injury-via-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway
#6
Bao Q Wang, Meng Shi, Jian P Zhang, Xie Wu, Mei J Chang, Zhi H Chen, Hua H Shen, Yuan L Song, Jian Zhou, Chun X Bai
BACKGROUND: As activation of the coagulation system is both a consequence and contributor to acute lung injury (ALI), pulmonary coagulopathy has become a potential target for therapeutic intervention in ALI patients. We investigated the effects and possible mechanisms of endothelial cell (EC)-anchored tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI in mice. METHODS: To assess the effect of endothelial cell-anchored TFPI deletion on ALI indices, TFPI knockout (cKO) mice were generated...
February 12, 2018: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438222/high-crp-levels-after-critical-illness-are-associated-with-an-increased-risk-of-re-hospitalization
#7
Wilhelm Grander, Bernhard Koller, Christine Ludwig, Martin W Dünser, Ilse Gradwohl-Matis
PURPOSE: Chronic inflammation, even at subclinical levels, is associated with adverse long-term outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective, observational study, sixty-six critically ill patients surviving to hospital discharge were included. CRP levels were determined at hospital discharge, one, two and six weeks after hospital discharge. All patients were repeatedly screened for adverse events resulting into re-hospitalization or death for 1.5 years. RESULTS: After hospital discharge, over two thirds of patients exhibited elevated CRP levels (> 2...
February 12, 2018: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438221/plasma-concentration-of-biomarkers-reflecting-endothelial-cell-and-glycocalyx-damage-are-increased-in-patients-with-suspected-st-elevation-myocardial-infarction-complicated-by-cardiogenic-shock
#8
Martin Frydland, Sisse Rye Ostrowski, Jacob Eifer Møller, Edina Hadziselimovic, Lene Holmvang, Hanne Berg Ravn, Lisette Okkels Jensen, Anna Sina Pettersson, Jesper Kjaergaard, Matias Greve Lindholm, Pär Ingemar Johansson, Christian Hassager
BACKGROUND: Mortality in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI)-patients developing cardiogenic shock (CS) during hospitalization is high. Catecholamines, ischemia, and inflammation (parameters present in CS) affect the endothelium. We hypothesized that plasma level of biomarkers reflecting endothelial damage would be associated with CS and mortality. METHODS: In 96% of 1467 consecutive patients with suspected STEMI, biomarkers reflecting endothelial cell- (soluble thrombomodulin, sTM) and glycocalyx- (syndecan-1) damage were measured on admission...
February 12, 2018: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432382/association-between-macroscopic-tongue-ischemia-and-enterocyte-injury-and-poor-outcome-in-patients-with-septic-shock-a-preliminary-observational-study
#9
Motohiro Sekino, Hiroyuki Funaoka, Shuntaro Sato, Kyoko Okada, Haruka Inoue, Rintaro Yano, Sojiro Matsumoto, Taiga Ichinomiya, Ushio Higashijima, Shuhei Matsumoto, Tetsuya Hara
A correlation between sublingual and intestinal mucosa microcirculation, and ischemic necrosis of the tongue as a sign of poor prognosis has been reported. However, an association between tongue ischemia and intestinal health and subsequent outcome has never been studied. This preliminary prospective observational study evaluated the association between macroscopic tongue ischemia and enterocyte injury and poor outcome in patients with septic shock. In this study, 57 adults with septic shock on mechanical ventilators were enrolled...
February 9, 2018: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424796/activation-of-sigma-1-receptor-by-cutamesine-attenuates-neuronal-apoptosis-by-inhibiting-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-a-rat-model-of-asphyxia-cardiac-arrest
#10
Jiahong Qin, Peng Wang, Yi Li, Lan Yao, Yuanshan Liu, Tao Yu, Jiali Lin, Xiangshao Fang, Zitong Huang
BACKGROUND: Global cerebral ischemic/reperfusion (I/R) injury after cardiac arrest (CA) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in survivors of resuscitation. We utilized a rat model of asphyxia CA to explore the functional effects and mechanisms of Sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) activation in cerebral protection using the Sig-1R agonist cutamesine (SA-4503). METHODS: After resuscitation, the surviving rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 18 each): (1) the CPR group (0...
February 8, 2018: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424794/crocin-alleviates-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-via-regulation-of-mir-34a-sirt1-nrf2-pathway
#11
Xiaowu Wang, Binbin Yuan, Biao Cheng, Ying Liu, Ben Zhang, Xianyue Wang, Xi Lin, Bo Yang, Gu Gong
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is associated with ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Crocin could protect myocardial cells against I/R injury and suppress ER stress. This study aimed to explore the molecular mechanism of crocin related to ER stress in myocardial I/R injury. We found crocin alleviated I/R-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis both in I/R-induced primary cardiomyocytes and in mouse models. The expression of Bax, active caspase 3, Glucose-regulated protein of 78 kDa (GRP78), and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) induced by I/R injury was reduced, whereas Bcl-2 expression was enhanced by crocin, the effect of which was abrogated by ER stress activator thapsigargin treatment...
February 8, 2018: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424793/regulators-of-intestinal-epithelial-migration-in-sepsis
#12
Mei Meng, Nathan J Klingensmith, Zhe Liang, John D Lyons, Katherine T Fay, Ching-Wen Chen, Mandy L Ford, Craig M Coopersmith
The gut is a continuously renewing organ, with cell proliferation, migration and death occurring rapidly under basal conditions. Since the impact of critical illness on cell movement from crypt base to villus tip is poorly understood, the purpose of this study was to determine how sepsis alters enterocyte migration. Wild type, transgenic and knockout mice were injected with 5-bromo-2'deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label cells in S phase before and after the onset of cecal ligation and puncture and were sacrificed at pre-determined endpoints to determine distance proliferating cells migrated up the crypt-villus unit...
February 8, 2018: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424792/in-depth-characterization-of-the-effects-of-cigarette-smoke-exposure-on-the-acute-trauma-response-and-hemorrhage-in-mice
#13
Clair Hartmann, Michael Gröger, Jan-Philipp Noirhomme, Angelika Scheuerle, Peter Möller, Ulrich Wachter, Markus Huber-Lang, Benedikt Nussbaum, Birgit Jung, Tamara Merz, Oscar McCook, Sandra Kress, Bettina Stahl, Enrico Calzia, Michael Georgieff, Peter Radermacher, Martin Wepler
INTRODUCTION: Hemorrhagic shock accounts for a large amount of trauma-related mortality. The severity of trauma can be further aggravated by an additional blunt chest trauma (TxT), which independently contributes to mortality upon the development of an acute lung injury (ALI). Besides, cigarette smoke (CS) exposure before TxT enhanced posttraumatic inflammation, thereby aggravating ALI. We therefore aimed to characterize the impact of an acute and/or chronic lung injury on organ dysfunction in a murine model of traumatic hemorrhagic shock (HS)...
February 8, 2018: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424795/evaluation-of-vasopressin-for-vasoplegic-shock-in-patients-with-preoperative-left-ventricular-dysfunction-after-cardiac-surgery-a-propensity-score-analysis
#14
Yongqing Cheng, Tuo Pan, Min Ge, Tao Chen, Jiaxin Ye, Lichong Lu, Cheng Chen, Qiuyan Zong, Yi Ding, Dongjin Wang
PURPOSE: Postoperative vasoplegic shock after cardiac surgery seems to be a frequent complication with poor outcomes. We hypothesized that vasopressin may increase the risk of poor outcomes in patients with preoperative Left Ventricular Dysfunction (pLVD) rather than norepinephrine. The aim of this study was to assess whether vasopressin is superior to norepinephrine to improve outcomes in patients with pLVD after cardiac surgery. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included 1,156 patients with postoperative vasoplegic shock (mean arterial pressure <65 mmHg resistant to fluid challenge and cardiac index >2...
February 7, 2018: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401137/differential-effects-of-selective-and-nonselective-potassium-channel-inhibitors-in-ovine-endotoxemic-shock-macrocirculation-and-in-a-rat-model-of-septic-shock-microcirculation
#15
Michael Hessler, Bernardo B Pinto, Philip-Helge Arnemann, Tim-Gerald Kampmeier, Laura Seidel, Andrea Morelli, Hugo Van Aken, Martin Westphal, Sebastian Rehberg, Christian Ertmer
BACKGROUND: Potassium-(K)-channel inhibitors may increase systemic vascular resistance in vasodilatory shock states. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to compare the macro- and microvascular effects of the adenosine triphosphate-sensitive K-channel-(KATP)-inhibitor glipizide and the nonselective K-channel inhibitor tetraethylammonium (TEA) in ovine endotoxemic shock and septic shock in rats. DESIGN: Two randomized, controlled laboratory studies...
February 2, 2018: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394242/pulmonary-arterial-thrombosis-in-a-murine-model-of-blunt-thoracic-trauma
#16
Ian E Brown, Robert R Rigor, Linda M Schutzman, Nasim Khosravi, Karen Chung, James A Becker, Christopher D Pivetti, Gavin T Best, Jessica C Chavez, Joseph M Galante
Pulmonary thromboembolic events cause significant morbidity and mortality after severe trauma. Clinically, these lesions are believed to be emboli arising secondary to deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in the lower extremities. Recently this notion has been challenged by clinical studies showing that pulmonary clots arise after trauma in the absence of DVT. This suggests that pulmonary blood clots arise in situ via de novo thrombosis. In the present study we characterize a murine weight-drop model of lateral blunt thoracic trauma...
February 1, 2018: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394241/chlorinated-lipids-elicit-inflammatory-responses-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#17
Hong Yu, Meifang Wang, Derek Wang, Theodore J Kalogeris, Jane McHowat, David A Ford, Ronald J Korthuis
Increased endothelial cell adhesion molecule (ECAM) expression, leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesive interactions (LECA), platelet-endothelial cell adhesion (PECA), mast cell activation, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and microvascular permeability are hallmarks of the inflammatory response. The infiltration of inflammatory phagocytes is associated with myeloperoxidase (MPO)-dependent production of hypochlorous acid (HOCl), a reactive chlorinating species (RCS) that targets membrane lipids to produce halogenated lipids such as 2-chlorohexadecanal (2-ClHDA) and 2-chloropalmitic acid (2-ClPA)...
February 1, 2018: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394240/beneficial-effects-of-adrenal-androgen-supplement-in-bleeding-cirrhotic-rats
#18
Hui-Chun Huang, Shao-Jung Hsu, Ching-Chih Chang, Ming-Hung Tsai, Fa-Yauh Lee, Ming-Chih Hou, Shou-Dong Lee
Critical illness is accompanied by hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation, but adrenal insufficiency characterized by inadequate glucocorticoid synthesis is common in critically ill cirrhotic patients, the 'hepato-adrenal syndrome'. Adrenal cortex also synthesizes androgen (dehydroepiandrosterone, DHEA). DHEA maintains microcirculation by enhancing vascular endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity. In critical patients of other disease entities, a shift of adrenal steroidogenesis away from androgens towards glucocorticoid has been noted, arousing interests in androgen replacement in critical settings...
February 1, 2018: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394239/matrine-protects-cardiomyocytes-from-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-by-regulating-hsp70-expression-via-activation-of-the-jak2-stat3-pathway
#19
Suping Guo, Chuanyu Gao, Wentao Xiao, Jing Zhang, Yongsheng Qu, Jiang Li, Famin Ye
Studies have shown that matrine showed cardiovascular protective effects; however, its role and mechanism in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury remain unknown. The Janus kinase 2/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (JAK2/STAT3) pathway activation and elevated heat shock protein (HSP) 70 are closely related to the prevention of myocardial I/R injury. The cardioprotective effects of matrine were determined in hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) treated primary rat cardiomyocytes and left anterior descending coronary artery ligation and reperfusion animal models...
February 1, 2018: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394238/plasmodium-salmonella-co-infection-induces-intense-inflammatory-responsanirban-pal-phd-cisr-central-institute-of-medicinal-and-aromatic-plants-lucknow-uttar-pradesh-indiae-oxidative-stress-and-liver-damage-a-mice-model-study-for-therapeutic-strategy
#20
Dinesh Kumar Patel, Sandeep Mittal, Nimisha Tiwari, Anil Kumar Maurya, Dhirendra Singh, Alok Kumar Pandey, Anirban Pal
Impairment of host immune response in malaria favours bacteraemia caused by typhoidal or non-typhoidal serovars of Salmonella enterica. Ofloxacin and Artesunate are the drugs that are clinically proven for treating typhoid and malaria respectively. The study evaluates the host responses upon treatment with antibiotic (Ofloxacin) and anti-malarial (Artesunate) in a standardized mice model harbouring co-infection. BALB/c mice (18-22 gm) were simultaneously co-infected with Plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis (Pyn) and Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium (STm) and then treated with Ofloxacin or/and Artesunate from day 4 to day 7...
February 1, 2018: Shock
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