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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028772/heme-oxygenase-1-protects-the-liver-from-septic-injury-by-modulating-tlr4-mediated-mitochondrial-quality-control-in-mice
#1
Jin-Sook Park, Hyo-Sun Choi, So-Yeon Yim, Sun-Mee Lee
Mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in the pathogenesis of sepsis-induced multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Mitochondrial quality control (QC) is characterized by self-recovering mitochondrial damage through mitochondrial biogenesis, mitophagy, and fission/fusion. Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 acts as a signaling molecule to modulate inflammation. The present study elucidated the cytoprotective mechanisms of HO-1 in sepsis, particularly focusing on toll-like receptor (TLR)4-mediated mitochondrial QC. Mice were subjected to sepsis by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)...
October 12, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028771/mechanisms-of-thrombocytopenia-during-septic-shock-a-multiplex-cluster-analysis-of-endogenous-sepsis-mediators
#2
Alexandre Bedet, Keyvan Razazi, Florence Boissier, Mathieu Surenaud, Sophie Hue, Stéphane Giraudier, Christian Brun-Buisson, Armand Mekontso Dessap
BACKGROUND: Thrombocytopenia is a common feature of sepsis and may involve various mechanisms often related to the inflammatory response. This study aimed at evaluating factors associated with thrombocytopenia during human septic shock. In particular, we used a multiplex analysis to assess the role of endogenous sepsis mediators. METHODS: Prospective, observational study. Thrombocytopenia was defined as an absolute platelet count <100 G/L or a 50% relative decrease in platelet count during the first week of septic shock...
October 12, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028770/expression-and-clinical-correlations-of-co-stimulatory-molecules-on-peripheral-t-lymphocyte-subsets-of-early-stage-severe-sepsis-a-prospective-observational-study
#3
Yi Lu, Le An, Qiang Liu, Chunsheng Li
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression and clinical correlations of co-stimulatory molecules on peripheral T cell subsets of severe sepsis (SS) patients. METHODS: Blood samples of patients with community-acquired pneumonia associated SS and healthy controls (HCs) were analyzed. SS patients were followed up for 28 days. Co-stimulatory molecules expression on T cell subsets was determined by flow cytometry analysis. The clinical correlations of these parameters were examined...
October 12, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028769/activation-of-the-nuclear-receptor-fxr-improves-intestinal-cell-tolerance-to-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#4
Xuan Wang, Shuo Li, Man Chen, Jing Liu, Ruirui Dong, Humin Wang, Shigong Zhu
The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) plays an important role in bile acid metabolism, intestinal homeostasis, and intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. We aimed to clarify the potential effects of FXR on intestinal epithelial cell tolerance to intestinal I/R injury and reveal the underlying mechanisms. An intestinal I/R injury model was established by the occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery for ischemia for 1 h, followed by reperfusion for 4 h in C57BL/6 (wild-type; WT)and FXR mice. The small intestine injury was assessed by histological analysis...
October 12, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028768/hydrogen-gas-treatment-improves-the-neurological-outcome-after-traumatic-brain-injury-via-increasing-mir-21-expression
#5
Lu Wang, Chongfa Zhao, Shuang Wu, Guanghui Xiao, Xin Zhuge, Ping Lei, Keliang Xie
Hydrogen gas (H2) exerts a beneficial effect against traumatic brain injury (TBI). miR-21 is one of the most highly expressed members of small non-coding microRNA family in mammalian cells. miR-21 can improve the neurological outcome after TBI. In the present study, we investigated whether H2 treatment could improve the neurological outcome after TBI via increasing miR-21 expression. TBI was induced by controlled cortical impact (CCI) in rats. H2 treatment was given by exposure to 2% H2 from 30 minutes to 5 hours after TBI operation...
October 12, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023363/lps-induced-systemic-inflammation-does-not-alter-atherosclerotic-plaque-area-or-inflammation-in-apoe3-leiden-mice-in-the-early-phase-up-to-15-days
#6
Wessel W Fuijkschot, Martine C Morrison, Ilse P A Zethof, Paul A J Krijnen, Robert Kleemann, Hans W M Niessen, Yvo M Smulders
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Observational studies show a peak incidence in cardiovascular events during and early after clinical conditions associated with substantial systemic inflammation, such as pneumonia. The acuteness of this increased risk suggests rapid plaque destabilization and associated intra-plaque inflammation. We evaluated whether LPS-evoked acute systemic inflammation would induce such detrimental vascular changes in murine aortas with manifest atherosclerotic lesions. METHODS AND RESULTS: ApoE3*Leiden mice were fed a high cholesterol diet for 20 weeks to establish atherosclerosis...
October 11, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023362/glycocalyx-shedding-is-enhanced-by-age-and-correlates-with-increased-fluid-requirement-in-patients-with-major-burns
#7
Akinori Osuka, Hirofumi Kusuki, Kazuhiro Yoneda, Hiroshi Matsuura, Hisatake Matsumoto, Hiroshi Ogura, Masashi Ueyama
BACKGROUND: Massive fluid shift following severe burn injury leads to edema and intravascular fluid loss that may result in burn-induced compartment syndrome (BICS) when corrected by aggressive fluid resuscitation. Factors causing this fluid shift remain unclear. Because glycocalyx regulates endothelial permeability, we hypothesized that glycocalyx shedding would increase fluid requirements in burn patients. This prospective cohort study aimed to identify relationships between shedding of the glycocalyx and fluid requirements following burn injury...
October 11, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023361/procalcitonin-and-mr-proadrenomedullin-combination-with-sofa-and-qsofa-scores-for-sepsis-diagnosis-and-prognosis-a-diagnostic-algorithm
#8
Silvia Spoto, Eleonora Cella, Marina de Cesaris, Luciana Locorriere, Silvia Mazzaroppi, Edoardo Nobile, Arcangela M Lanotte, Lucia Pedicino, Marta Fogolari, Sebastiano Costantino, Giordano Dicuonzo, Massimo Ciccozzi, Silvia Angeletti
PURPOSE: The third Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock (Sepsis-3) defined sepsis as an organ dysfunction consequent to infection. A SOFA score ≥2 identifies sepsis. In this study, PCT and MR-proADM were evaluated along with SOFA and qSOFA scores in patients with sepsis or septic shock. METHODS: One hundred and nine septic patients and 50 patients with non-infectious disease admitted at the Department of Internal Medicine and General Surgery of the University Hospital Campus Bio-Medico of Rome were enrolled...
October 11, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023360/honokiol-increases-cd4-t-cell-activation-and-decreases-tnf-but-fails-to-improve-survival-following-sepsis
#9
Nathan J Klingensmith, Ching-Wen Chen, Zhe Liang, Eileen M Burd, Alton B Farris, Jack L Arbiser, Mandy L Ford, Craig M Coopersmith
Honokiol is a biphenolic isolate extracted from the bark of the magnolia tree that has been used in traditional Chinese and Japanese medicine, and has more recently been investigated for its anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial properties. Honokiol has previously been demonstrated to improve survival in sepsis models that have rapid 100% lethality. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of Honokiol on the host response in a model of sepsis that more closely approximates human disease. Male and female C57BL/6 mice underwent cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) to induce polymicrobial intraabdominal sepsis...
October 11, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016484/a-novel-combination-of-biomarkers-to-herald-the-onset-of-sepsis-prior-to-the-manifestation-of-symptoms
#10
Hallie H Dolin, Thomas J Papadimos, Stanislaw Stepkowski, Xiaohuan Chen, Zhixing K Pan
Sepsis, which kills over 200,000 patients and costs over $20 billion in the U.S. alone, presents a constant but preventable challenge in the healthcare system. Among the more challenging problems that it presents is misdiagnosis due to conflation with other inflammatory processes, as its mechanisms are identical to those of other inflammatory states. Unfortunately, current biomarker tests can only assess the severity and mortality risk of each case, While no single test exists that can predict sepsis prior to the onset of symptoms for the purpose of pre-emptive care and monitoring...
October 6, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991052/somatostatin-2-receptor-activation-in-the-rostral-ventrolateral-medulla-does-not-mediate-the-decompensatory-phase-of-haemorrhage
#11
Phillip Bokiniec, Peter Gr Burke, Anita J Turner, Simon McMullan, Ann K Goodchild
Decompensation, a critical phase in the response to haemorrhage, is characterized by profound sympathoinhibition and the overriding of baroreflex mediated compensation. As sympathoexcitatory neurons of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) maintain vasomotor tone and are essential for sympathetic baroreceptor reflex function, the RVLM is the likely mediator. However, how decompensation occurs is a mystery. Our previous work demonstrated that the inhibitory neuropeptide somatostatin (SST), evokes potent sympathoinhibition (1)...
October 4, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991051/association-between-cardiac-surgery-and-mortality-among-patients-with-infective-endocarditis-complicated-by-sepsis-and-septic-shock
#12
Vladimir Krajinovic, Stipe Ivancic, Petar Gezman, Bruno Barsic
BACKGROUND: Sepsis and septic shock are common presentations of infective endocarditis (IE), but little is known about clinical characteristics in this group of patients, use of surgical treatment, and their associations with outcome. We sought to determine the influence of cardiac surgery (CS) on the outcome of patients with IE in different stages of sepsis severity. METHODS: Two hundred ninety four patients with definite IE native or prosthetic valve IE admitted between 2000 and 2011...
October 4, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991050/selective-lps-adsorption-using-polymyxin-b-immobilized-fiber-cartridges-in-sepsis-patients-following-cardiac-surgery
#13
Michael Yaroustovsky, Marina Abramyan, Ekaterina Komardina, Helen Nazarova, Dmitrii Popov, Marina Plyushch, Alina Soldatkina, Ekaterina Rogalskaya
Sepsis remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in intensive care units. The extracorporeal therapy in the complex treatment of sepsis seems to be the most promising direction.The aim of this study was to assess the safety and effectiveness of selective endotoxin adsorption on the basis of the analysis of our own experience with the intensive therapy for sepsis in adult cardiac surgical patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our single-center study included 143 patients with sepsis...
October 4, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991049/stearoyl-lysophosphatidylcholine-inhibits-endotoxin-induced-caspase-11-activation
#14
Wenbo Li, Wei Zhang, Meihong Deng, Patricia Loughran, Yiting Tang, Hong Liao, Xianying Zhang, Jian Liu, Timothy R Billiar, Ben Lu
Stearoyl lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) exerts protective effect during endotoxemia and in experimental sepsis, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. Here, we demonstrated that stearoyl LPC could block caspase-11 mediated macrophage pyroptosis. In vitro, stearoyl LPC significantly decreased caspase-11 activation and pyroptosis induced by LPS plus CTB independent of the receptor G2A. Stearoyl LPC did not affect LPS uptake by mouse peritoneal macrophages but, did significantly inhibit the interaction between LPS and caspase-11...
October 4, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991048/is-inappropriate-response-to-cosyntropin-stimulation-test-an-indication-of-corticosteroid-resistance-in-septic-shock
#15
Hervé Hyvernat, Denis Doyen, Rémy Barel, Michel Kaidomar, Bernard Goubaux, Christian Pradier, Patricia Panaïa-Ferrari, Jean Dellamonica, Gilles Bernardin
PURPOSE: We recently published a comparison of two hydrocortisone dosage regimens in patients with septic shock. We compare the results conferred by the two regimens as a function of the response to cosyntropin stimulation test (CST). METHOD: Patients with septic shock were treated by one of two hydrocortisone regimens: either a 50-mg intravenous bolus every six hours during seven days (200 mg group; n = 49), or a 100-mg initial bolus followed by a continuous infusion of 300 mg daily for five days (300 mg group; n = 50)...
October 4, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991047/vasopressors-do-not-influence-cerebral-critical-closing-pressure-during-systemic-inflammation-evoked-by-experimental-endotoxemia-and-sepsis-in-humans
#16
Judith Maria Dimphena van den Brule, Roeland Stolk, Elisabeth Janine Vinke, Lex Maxim van Loon, Peter Pickkers, Johannes Gerardus van der Hoeven, Matthijs Kox, Cornelia Wilhelmina Elisabeth Hoedemaekers
AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different vasopressors on the cerebral vasculature during experimental human endotoxemia and sepsis. We used the critical closing pressure (CrCP) as a measure of cerebral vascular tone. METHODS: We performed a prospective pilot study, at the intensive care department (ICU) of a tertiary care university hospital in the Netherlands, in 40 healthy male subjects during experimental human endotoxemia (administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) and in 10 patients with severe sepsis or septic shock...
October 4, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968286/2017-military-supplement-hemoglobin-based-oxygen-carriers-current-state-of-the-art-and-novel-molecules
#17
Anirban Sen Gupta
In blood, the primary role of RBCs is to transport oxygen via highly regulated mechanisms involving hemoglobin (Hb). Hb is a tetrameric porphyrin protein comprising of two α- and two β-polypeptide chains, each containing an iron-containing heme group capable of binding one oxygen molecule. In military as well as civilian traumatic exsanguinating hemorrhage, rapid loss of RBCs can lead to sub-optimal tissue oxygenation and subsequent morbidity and mortality. In such cases, transfusion of whole blood or RBCs can significantly improve survival...
September 29, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968287/establishing-a-rodent-model-of-ventricular-fibrillation-cardiac-arrest-with-graded-histologic-and-neurologic-damage-with-different-cardiac-arrest-durations
#18
Florian Ettl, Ingrid A M Magnet, Wolfgang Weihs, Alexandra Warenits, Daniel Grassmann, Michael Wagner, Ursula Teubenbacher, Sandra Högler, Fritz Sterz, Andreas Janata
PURPOSE: To establish a ventricular fibrillation (VF) cardiac arrest (CA) resuscitation model with consistent neurologic and neuropathologic damage as potential therapeutic target. METHODS: Prospectively randomized groups of experiments in 2 phases. In phase 1 four groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 5) were resuscitated after 6 min VFCA with 2 and 6 min basic life support durations (BLS) with and without adrenaline. In phase 2 the most promising group regarding return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and survival was compared to a group of 8 min CA...
September 28, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957876/xiphoid-surface-temperature-predicts-mortality-in-a-murine-model-of-septic-shock
#19
Orlando Laitano, David Van Steenbergen, Alex J Mattingly, Christian K Garcia, Gerard P Robinson, Kevin O Murray, Thomas L Clanton, Elizabeth A Nunamaker
Sepsis continues to be a major challenge for modern medicine. Several preclinical models were developed to study sepsis and each has strengths and weaknesses. The cecal slurry (CS) method is a practical alternative because it does not require surgery, and the infection can be dosed. However, one disadvantage is that the dosage must be determined for each CS preparation using survival studies. Our aim was to refine a survival protocol for the CS model by determining a premonitory humane endpoint that would reduce animal suffering...
September 27, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957875/host-s-endogenous-caveolin-1-expression-is-downregulated-in-the-lung-during-sepsis-to-promote-cytoprotection
#20
Agapi Kataki, Ioannis Karagiannidis, Nikolaos Memos, Efthymios Koniaris, P Antonakis, Apostolos Papalois, George C Zografos, Manoussos M Konstadoulakis
The present study focuses on the profile of 'endogeneous' caveolin-1 protein in septic lung (CLP model).Caveolin-1, CD25, pP38, pAkt and 14-3-3b protein expression profiles were studied using flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 36 h and 48 h following sepsis induction. Cell viability was determined by 7-AAD staining and fibrosis by Masson trichrome stain. The effect of protein C zymogen concentrate (PC) on caveolin-1 expression was also investigated given that PC, once dissociated from caveolin-1, elicits a PAR-1-mediated protective signaling by forming a complex with endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR)...
September 27, 2017: Shock
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