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Seminars in Perinatology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625554/exploring-the-social-determinants-of-racial-ethnic-disparities-in-prenatal-care-utilization-and-maternal-outcome
#1
Alexis Gadson, Eloho Akpovi, Pooja K Mehta
Rates of maternal morbidity and mortality are rising in the United States. Non-Hispanic Black women are at highest risk for these outcomes compared to those of other race/ethnicities. Black women are also more likely to be late to prenatal care or be inadequate users of prenatal care. Prenatal care can engage those at risk and potentially influence perinatal outcomes but further research on the link between prenatal care and maternal outcomes is needed. The objective of this article is to review literature illuminating the relationship between prenatal care utilization, social determinants of health, and racial disparities in maternal outcome...
June 15, 2017: Seminars in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624126/racial-and-ethnic-disparities-in-the-u-s-breastfeeding-and-implications-for-maternal-and-child-health-outcomes
#2
Adetola Louis-Jacques, Tara F Deubel, Melina Taylor, Alison M Stuebe
Marked racial and ethnic disparities exist in infant feeding in the United States. Based on a review of recent literature, this article examines current discrepancies between the 2020 Healthy People breastfeeding goals and current breastfeeding rates among women from different ethnic groups in the United States. We discuss maternal and child health outcomes associated with breastfeeding, and we review potential causes of racial and ethnic disparities in breastfeeding outcomes in the United States, especially among non-Hispanic Black, American Indian/Alaska Native, and Hispanic/Latina populations...
June 14, 2017: Seminars in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600029/racial-and-ethnic-disparities-in-obstetric-anesthesia
#3
Elizabeth M S Lange, Suman Rao, Paloma Toledo
Racial and ethnic disparities are prevalent within healthcare and have persisted despite advances in medicine and public health. Disparities have been described in the use of neuraxial labor analgesia, with minority women being less likely to use neuraxial labor analgesia than non-minority white women. Minority women are also more likely to have a general anesthetic for cesarean delivery than non-minority women. The origins of these disparities are likely multi-factorial, with patient-, provider-, and systems-level contributors...
June 6, 2017: Seminars in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600028/ethnic-and-racial-disparities-in-hypertension-management-among-women
#4
Theresa M Beckie
Hypertension is a major independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease for all ethnic and racial groups. Compared with other lifestyle and metabolic risk factors, hypertension is the leading cause of death in women. Women with preeclampsia are three times more likely to develop chronic hypertension and have an elevated risk of future cardiovascular disease. The objective of this article is to provide a review of the factors related to racial and ethnic disparities in blood pressure control. This is followed by a summary of contemporary clinical practice guidelines for the prevention, through lifestyle behavioral modification, and treatment of hypertension with pharmacotherapy...
June 6, 2017: Seminars in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595909/strategies-to-reduce-disparities-in-maternal-morbidity-and-mortality-patient-and-provider-education
#5
Joses Jain, Leslie Moroz
A reduction in racial disparities in maternal morbidity and mortality requires effective education of both patients and providers. Although providers seem to recognize that disparities exist, there is a widespread need for improving our understanding differences in health care and outcomes and the factors that contribute to them. There are increasingly more educational materials available for the purpose of augmenting disparities education among patients and providers. However, it is important to incorporate contemporary learning methodologies and technologies to address our current knowledge deficit...
June 5, 2017: Seminars in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552386/tools-and-methods-for-quality-improvement-and-patient-safety-in-perinatal-care
#6
Amy T Nathan, Heather C Kaplan
The quality of health care is now recognized to vary widely in all medical specialties, including perinatal medicine. A national focus on quality improvement (QI) and patient safety is prompting providers to change and improve the care given to patients. All QI and safety efforts require the use of an improvement model to manage the complex process of improving care. This article reviews the most common frameworks in use today, including the Model for Improvement, Six Sigma, and Lean. Specific tools such as affinity, key driver and fishbone diagrams, process maps and statistical process control, as well as checklists are reviewed, with examples from the perinatal literature to illustrate their use in perinatal QI efforts...
May 25, 2017: Seminars in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549789/systematic-approaches-to-adverse-events-in-obstetrics-part-i-event-identification-and-classification
#7
Christian M Pettker
Despite our best intentions to improve health when a patient presents for care, adverse events are ubiquitous in medical practice today. Known complications related to the course of a patient's illness or condition or to the characteristics of the treatment have been an openly stated part of taking care of patients for centuries. However, it is only in the past decade that preventable adverse events, instances of harm related to error and deviations in accepted practice have become a primary part of these conversations...
May 23, 2017: Seminars in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549788/implementation-of-a-multicenter-shoulder-dystocia-injury-prevention-program
#8
Linda Szymanski, Christine Arnold, Arthur J Vaught, Susan LaMantia, Theresa Harris, Andrew J Satin
Although the evidence for supporting the effectiveness of many patient safety practices has increased in recent years, the ability to implement programs to positively impact clinical outcomes across multiple institutions is lagging. Shoulder dystocia simulation has been shown to reduce avoidable patient harm. Neonatal injury from shoulder dystocia contributes to a significant percentage of liability claims. We describe the development and the process of implementation of a shoulder dystocia simulation program across five academic medical centers and their affiliated hospitals united by a common insurance carrier...
May 23, 2017: Seminars in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545652/using-quality-improvement-to-increase-human-milk-use-for-preterm-infants
#9
Margaret G Parker, Aloka L Patel
This review will provide an overview of quality improvement methods that have been used to improve human milk use (mother's own milk and donor milk) for very low-birth-weight infants in the hospital setting in the last decade. We will review the following: (1) evidence-based practices known to increase mother's own milk for very low-birth-weight infants; (2) individual hospitals with exemplary lactation programs and past and current US-based statewide quality improvement collaboratives focused on increasing mother's own milk; and (3) existing quality metrics for human milk and gaps in metrics...
May 23, 2017: Seminars in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545654/genetic-approach-to-ambiguous-genitalia-and-disorders-of-sex-development-what-clinicians-need-to-know
#10
Svetlana A Yatsenko, Selma Feldman Witchel
Genetic tools such as microarray and next-generation sequencing have initiated a new era for the diagnosis and management of patients with disorders of sex development (DSDs). These tools supplement the traditional approach to the evaluation and care of infants, children, and adolescents with DSDs. These tests can detect genetic variations known to be associated with DSDs, discover novel genetic variants, and elucidate novel mechanisms of gene regulation. Herein, we discuss these tests and their role in the management of patients with DSDs...
May 22, 2017: Seminars in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545653/systematic-approaches-to-adverse-events-in-obstetrics-part-ii-event-analysis-and-response
#11
Christian M Pettker
The critical arm of improvement and change comes after events are identified and classified. Getting and making things right when things go wrong defines a successful safety program. This article reviews the important tasks that should be familiar to any team approaching a serious event on an obstetrics unit. Root cause analysis is a critical, but often misunderstood, tool for dissecting the contributing factors leading to an adverse event. Successful root cause analyses have a standardized approach that result in meaningful action plans...
May 22, 2017: Seminars in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535944/restoring-normal-anatomy-in-female-patients-with-atypical-genitalia
#12
Laurence S Baskin
Female patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) have varying degrees of atypical genitalia secondary to prenatal and postnatal androgen exposure. Surgical treatment is focused on restoring normal genitalia anatomy by bringing the vagina to the normal position on the perineum, separating the distal vagina from the urethra, forming a normal introitus and preserving sexual function of the clitoris by accepting moderate degrees of hypertrophy as normal and strategically reducing clitoral size only in the most severely virilized patients...
May 20, 2017: Seminars in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535943/pragmatic-approach-to-intersex-including-genital-ambiguity-in-the-newborn
#13
Kanthi Bangalore Krishna, Christopher P Houk, Peter A Lee
The evaluation and management of a newborn with ambiguous genitalia must be undertaken as quickly as possible and with great sensitivity for the child's family. Where possible, a comprehensive team approach with a pediatric urologist, endocrinologist, geneticist, neonatologist, and child psychiatrist/psychologist should work closely with the family to establish the diagnosis and determine gender. Although the preferred gender assignment is not always clear, a thorough examination of endocrine function, karyotype, and potential for fertility should guide the determination...
May 20, 2017: Seminars in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478089/legal-ethical-and-human-rights-considerations-for-physicians-treating-children-with-atypical-or-ambiguous-genitalia
#14
Julie A Greenberg
Some governments, human rights organizations, intersex organizations, and doctors have called for a moratorium on genital and gonadal surgeries for infants born with atypical or ambiguous genitalia. Moratorium supporters believe that the surgeries carry physical and emotional risks, the psychosocial benefits of these procedures have not been proven, and the surgeries violate the patients׳ fundamental human rights if they are performed before these patients can provide informed consent. Given these calls for a moratorium, treatment teams must determine how to treat their patients and how to counsel their patients׳ parents...
May 3, 2017: Seminars in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478088/fluidity-models-in-ancient-greece-and-current-practices-of-sex-assignment
#15
Min-Jye Chen, Bonnie McCann-Crosby, Sheila Gunn, Paraskevi Georgiadis, Frank Placencia, David Mann, Marni Axelrad, L P Karaviti, Laurence B McCullough
Disorders of sexual differentiation such as androgen insensitivity and gonadal dysgenesis can involve an intrinsic fluidity at different levels, from the anatomical and biological to the social (gender) that must be considered in the context of social constraints. Sex assignment models based on George Engel's biopsychosocial aspects model of biology accept fluidity of gender as a central concept and therefore help establish expectations within the uncertainty of sex assignment and anticipate potential changes...
May 3, 2017: Seminars in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478087/update-on-the-surgical-approach-for-reconstruction-of-the-male-genitalia
#16
Rodrigo L P Romao, Joao L Pippi Salle
The majority of patients with DSD will be found to carry an XY karyotype and be assigned male gender. From a phenotypical standpoint, most will present with proximal hypospadias ± cryptorchidism. In this review article, the authors present the current status of reconstruction of the male genitalia in this setting. The report addresses the following topics: surgical input in the evaluation of the newborn with an undervirilized external genitalia, including gender assignment considerations; controversies surrounding timing and indication for hypospadias surgery in proximal cases as well as use of testosterone; surgical techniques and decision-making process for one- vs...
May 3, 2017: Seminars in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478086/gender-identity-outcomes-in-children-with-disorders-differences-of-sex-development-predictive-factors
#17
Dana M Bakula, Alexandria J Mullins, Christina M Sharkey, Cortney Wolfe-Christensen, Larry L Mullins, Amy B Wisniewski
Disorders/differences of sex development (DSD) comprise multiple congenital conditions in which chromosomal, gonadal, and/or anatomical sex are discordant. The prediction of future gender identity (i.e., self-identifying as male, female, or other) in children with DSD can be imprecise, and current knowledge about the development of gender identity in people with, and without DSD, is limited. However, sex of rearing is the strongest predictor of gender identity for the majority of individuals with various DSD conditions...
May 3, 2017: Seminars in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416176/maternal-early-warning-systems-towards-reducing-preventable-maternal-mortality-and-severe-maternal-morbidity-through-improved-clinical-surveillance-and-responsiveness
#18
Lisa C Zuckerwise, Heather S Lipkind
Despite increasing awareness of obstetric safety initiatives, maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity in the United States have continued to increase over the past 20 years. Since results from large-scale surveillance programs suggest that up to 50% of maternal deaths may be preventable, new efforts are focused on developing and testing early warning systems for the obstetric population. Early warning systems are a set of specific clinical signs or symptoms that trigger the awareness of risk and an urgent patient evaluation, with the goal of reducing severe morbidity and mortality through timely diagnosis and treatment...
April 14, 2017: Seminars in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411947/central-line-associated-bloodstream-infections-in-the-nicu-successes-and-controversies-in-the-quest-for-zero
#19
Renée E Mobley, Matthew J Bizzarro
Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) are among the most common healthcare-acquired infections in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) population and are associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality, as well as increased healthcare costs, and duration of hospitalization. Over the past decade, numerous local, statewide, and national quality improvement initiatives have resulted in a significant reduction in CLABSI rates. The majority of successful initiatives have utilized similar strategies to implement and sustain their efforts, including education of NICU staff in the principles of quality improvement, creation and implementation of central line insertion and maintenance bundles and methods for assessing compliance, formation of dedicated central line insertion and maintenance teams, and utilization of reliable and effective methods for collecting, analyzing, and displaying data...
April 12, 2017: Seminars in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411946/introduction
#20
EDITORIAL
Christian M Pettker, Munish Gupta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 12, 2017: Seminars in Perinatology
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