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Seminars in Nuclear Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626946/implementation-of-quality-systems-in-nuclear-medicine-why-it-matters-an-outcome-analysis-quality-management-audits-in-nuclear-medicine-part-iii
#1
REVIEW
Maurizio Dondi, Diana Paez, Leonel Torres, Mario Marengo, Angelika Bischof Delaloye, Kishor Solanki, Annare Van Zyl Ellmann, Enrique Estrada Lobato, Rodolfo Nunez Miller, Francesco Giammarile, Thomas Pascual
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) developed a comprehensive program-Quality Management Audits in Nuclear Medicine (QUANUM). This program covers all aspects of nuclear medicine practices including, but not limited to, clinical practice, management, operations, and services. The QUANUM program, which includes quality standards detailed in relevant checklists, aims at introducing a culture of comprehensive quality audit processes that are patient oriented, systematic, and outcome based. This paper will focus on the impact of the implementation of QUANUM on daily routine practices in audited centers...
May 2018: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626945/molecular-imaging-of-vulnerable-plaque
#2
REVIEW
Takehiro Nakahara, Jagat Narula, H William Strauss
Molecular imaging provides multiple imaging techniques to identify characteristics of vulnerable plaque including I) Inflammatory cells (the presence and metabolic activity of macrophages), II) synthesis of lipid and fatty acid in the plaque, III) the presence of hypoxia in severely inflamed lesions, IV) expression of factors stimulating angiogenesis, V) expression of protease enzymes in the lesion, VI) development of microthrombi in late-phase lesions, VII) apoptosis, and VIII) microcalcification.
May 2018: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626944/molecular-imaging-of-inflammatory-arthritis-and-related-disorders
#3
REVIEW
François Jamar, Annibale Versari, Filippo Galli, Frédéric Lecouvet, Alberto Signore
Rheumatic disorders comprise a number of diseases that range from benign, mildly symptomatic degenerative disease to severe systemic disorders such as giant-cell vasculitis with dramatic consequences such as acute blindness. The former is relatively common, whereas the latter is rare. In between, commonly encountered disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis and the various spondyloarthritides, with or without peripheral enthesitis, are daily challenges for the caring physician. Clinical evaluation is of utmost importance and is constantly described under the form of specialist guidelines in all parts of the world...
May 2018: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626943/new-spect-and-pet-radiopharmaceuticals-for-imaging-inflammatory-diseases-a-meta-analysis-of-the-last-10-years
#4
REVIEW
Marta Pacilio, Chiara Lauri, Daniela Prosperi, Agnese Petitti, Alberto Signore
Modern molecular nuclear medicine is rapidly developing in the field of imaging of chronic inflammatory diseases, and many new radiopharmaceuticals have been recently described and tested in animals and man. These can detect early pathophysiological changes before the development of anatomical changes and, often, before clinical onset of symptoms. This field includes new radiopharmaceuticals for SPECT and PET use to define new strategies for imaging immune cells as well as tissue modifications induced by the inflammatory process...
May 2018: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626942/nuclear-imaging-in-sarcoidosis
#5
REVIEW
Eve Piekarski, Khadija Benali, François Rouzet
Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatosis which may result in a wide variety of clinical and biological presentations. Symptoms are often nonspecific, and incidental abnormal findings on chest radiography is rather common. Although sarcoidosis resolves favorably in most cases, some localizations can provoke functional impairment or even impact on patients' prognosis. The diagnosis is based on a pathological hallmark which is the non-necrotizing epithelioid-cell rich granuloma. Owing to the ability to detect inflammation throughout the body with a high sensibility, FDG-PET/CT gained a central role in sarcoidosis because it can suggest the diagnosis in certain clinical context, guide biopsy, evaluate the extent of the disease, help assess the prognosis, and monitor immunosuppressive therapy...
May 2018: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626941/imaging-macrophage-associated-inflammation
#6
REVIEW
Catherine A Foss, Julian Sanchez-Bautista, Sanjay K Jain
Macrophages belong to the mononuclear phagocyte system comprising closely related cells of bone marrow origin. Activated macrophages are critical in several diseases such as tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, Crohn's disease, and atherosclerosis. Noninvasive imaging techniques that can specifically image activated macrophages could therefore help in differentiating various forms of inflammatory diseases and to monitor therapeutic responses.
May 2018: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626940/pet-mri-in-infection-and-inflammation
#7
REVIEW
Martina Sollini, Raffaella Berchiolli, Margarita Kirienko, Alexia Rossi, A W J M Glaudemans, Riemer Slart, Paola Anna Erba
Hybrid positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MR) systems are now more and more available for clinical use. PET/MR combines the unique features of MR including excellent soft tissue contrast, diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging, fMRI and other specialized sequences as well as MR spectroscopy with the quantitative physiologic information that is provided by PET. Most of the evidence of the potential clinical utility of PET/MRI is available for neuroimaging. Other areas, where PET/MR can play a larger role include head and neck, upper abdominal, and pelvic tumours...
May 2018: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626939/the-3m-approach-to-cardiovascular-infections-multimodality-multitracers-and-multidisciplinary
#8
REVIEW
Martina Sollini, Raffaella Berchiolli, Roberto C Delgado Bolton, Alexia Rossi, Margarita Kirienko, Roberto Boni, Elena Lazzeri, Riemer Slart, Paola Anna Erba
Cardiovascular infections are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis is crucial for adequate patient management, as early treatment improves the prognosis. The diagnosis cannot be made on the basis of a single symptom, sign, or diagnostic test. Rather, the diagnosis requires a multidisciplinary discussion in addition to the integration of clinical signs, microbiology data, and imaging data. The application of multimodality imaging, including molecular imaging techniques, has improved the sensitivity to detect infections involving heart valves and vessels and implanted cardiovascular devices while also allowing for early detection of septic emboli and metastatic infections before these become clinically apparent...
May 2018: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626938/guest-editorial-on-molecular-imaging-of-infection-and-inflammation
#9
EDITORIAL
Christopher J Palestro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626937/letter-from-the-editors-may-2018-issue
#10
EDITORIAL
Leonard M Freeman, M Donald Blaufox
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452623/currently-available-radiopharmaceuticals-for-imaging-infection-and-the-holy-grail
#11
REVIEW
Ebru Salmanoglu, Sung Kim, Mathew L Thakur
Infection is ubiquitous. However, its management is challenging for both the patients and the health-care providers. Scintigraphic imaging of infection dates back nearly half a century. The advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of disease at cellular and molecular levels have paved the way to the development of a large number of radiopharmaceuticals for scintigraphic imaging of infection. These include radiolabeling of blood elements such as serum proteins, white blood cells (WBCs), and cytokines, to name a few...
March 2018: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452622/letter-from-the-guest-editor
#12
EDITORIAL
Christopher J Palestro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452621/letter-from-the-editors
#13
EDITORIAL
Leonard M Freeman, M Donald Blaufox
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452620/pathogen-specific-bacterial-imaging-in-nuclear-medicine
#14
REVIEW
Alvaro A Ordonez, Sanjay K Jain
When serious infections are suspected, patients are often treated empirically with broad-spectrum antibiotics while awaiting results that provide information on the bacterial class and species causing the infection, as well as drug susceptibilities. For deep-seated infections, these traditional diagnostic techniques often rely on tissue biopsies to obtain clinical samples which can be expensive, dangerous, and has the potential of sampling bias. Moreover, these procedures and results can take several days and may not always provide reliable information...
March 2018: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452619/monitoring-response-to-therapy
#15
REVIEW
Mike M Sathekge, Alfred O Ankrah, Ismaheel Lawal, Mariza Vorster
Monitoring response to treatment is a key element in the management of infectious diseases, yet controversies still persist on reliable biomarkers for noninvasive response evaluation. Considering the limitations of invasiveness of most diagnostic procedures and the issue of expression heterogeneity of pathology, molecular imaging is better able to assay in vivo biologic processes noninvasively and quantitatively. The usefulness of 18 F-FDG-PET/CT in assessing treatment response in infectious diseases is more promising than for conventional imaging...
March 2018: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452618/radionuclide-imaging-of-infection-and-inflammation-in-children-a-review
#16
REVIEW
Marguerite T Parisi, Jeffrey P Otjen, A Luana Stanescu, Barry L Shulkin
With the exception of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies, antibody fragments and radiolabeled peptides which have seen little application in the pediatric population, the nuclear medicine imaging procedures used in the evaluation of infection and inflammation are the same for both adults and children. These procedures include (1) either a two- or a three-phase bone scan using technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate; (2) Gallium 67-citrate; (3) in vitro radiolabeled white blood cell imaging (using 111 Indium-oxine or 99m Technetium hexamethyl-propylene-amine-oxime-labeled white blood cells); and (4) hybrid imaging with 18 F-FDG...
March 2018: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452617/imaging-of-spondylodiscitis
#17
REVIEW
Meera Raghavan, Elena Lazzeri, Christopher J Palestro
Spondylodiscitis is an infection of the vertebral body or disc and may also involve the epidural space, posterior elements, and paraspinal soft tissues. It is a cause of morbidity and mortality, and warrants early diagnosis and prompt treatment. Diagnosis can be difficult because of nonspecific signs and symptoms. Magnetic resonance imaging is sensitive and specific and is the imaging modality of choice for spondylodiscitis. Gadolinium contrast can show the extent of soft tissue and bone phlegmon and abscess...
March 2018: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452616/tuberculosis
#18
REVIEW
Alfred O Ankrah, Andor W J M Glaudemans, Alex Maes, Christophe Van de Wiele, Rudi A J O Dierckx, Mariza Vorster, Mike M Sathekge
Tuberculosis (TB) is currently the world's leading cause of infectious mortality. Imaging plays an important role in the management of this disease. The complex immune response of the human body to Mycobacterium tuberculosis results in a wide array of clinical manifestations, making clinical and radiological diagnosis challenging. 18 F-FDG-PET/CT is very sensitive in the early detection of TB in most parts of the body; however, the lack of specificity is a major limitation. 18 F-FDG-PET/CT images the whole body and provides a pre-therapeutic metabolic map of the infection, enabling clinicians to accurately assess the burden of disease...
March 2018: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452615/fever-of-unknown-origin-the-value-of-fdg-pet-ct
#19
REVIEW
Ilse J E Kouijzer, Catharina M Mulders-Manders, Chantal P Bleeker-Rovers, Wim J G Oyen
Fever of unknown origin (FUO) is commonly defined as fever higher than 38.3°C on several occasions during at least 3 weeks with uncertain diagnosis after a number of obligatory investigations. The differential diagnosis of FUO can be subdivided in four categories: infections, malignancies, noninfectious inflammatory diseases, and miscellaneous causes. In most cases of FUO, there is an uncommon presentation of a common disease. FDG-PET/CT is a sensitive diagnostic technique for the evaluation of FUO by facilitating anatomical localization of focally increased FDG uptake, thereby guiding further diagnostic tests to achieve a final diagnosis...
March 2018: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195620/pet-ct-in-lymphoma-current-overview-and-future-directions
#20
REVIEW
Bruce D Cheson
Over the past several decades, PET has emerged as critical to accurate staging and restaging of lymphomas. Nonetheless, a number of critical issues regarding its optimal use remain. Whereas risk-adapted strategies appear to improve the outcome of patients with Hodgkin lymphoma, results are less convincing in non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Assessment of metabolic tumor volume before treatment may permit novel induction strategies. New drugs that may induce an immune response may result in a false-positive FDG/PET scan, mandating modifications of current criteria to consider tumor flare reactions...
January 2018: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
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