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Seminars in Nuclear Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583280/clinical-value-of-fdg-pet-ct-for-the-evaluation-of-rheumatic-diseases-rheumatoid-arthritis-polymyalgia-rheumatica-and-relapsing-polychondritis
#1
REVIEW
Kazuo Kubota, Hiroyuki Yamashita, Akio Mimori
FDG is a tracer for visualizing glucose metabolism. PET/CT using FDG is widely used for the diagnosis of cancer, because glycolysis is elevated in cancer cells. Similarly, active inflammatory tissue also exhibits elevated glucose metabolism because of glycolysis in activated macrophages and proliferating fibroblasts. Elevated FDG uptake by active inflammatory tissues, such as those affected by arthritis, vasculitis, lymphadenitis, and chondritis, has enabled the diagnosis of inflammatory diseases using FDG-PET/CT...
July 2017: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583279/pet-in-benign-bone-marrow-disorders
#2
REVIEW
Wouter van der Bruggen, Andor W J M Glaudemans, Edo Vellenga, Riemer H J A Slart
This review aims to describe the current status of benign bone marrow (BM) imaging using PET. BM imaging is important as the BM is not only involved in poiesis of different vital cell lines and can be affected by primary BM disorders, but it is also frequently affected by several extramedullary diseases. Indications for the use of PET in benign BM disorders are the detection of extramedullary hematopoiesis, evaluation of patients with a discrepancy between BM histology and clinical status, visualizing BM infarctions, location of the optimal site for BM biopsy, diagnosing and staging of other hematological BM disorders, evaluation of radiotherapy effect on BM, and evaluation of BM transplantation...
July 2017: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583278/spectrum-of-benign-bone-conditions-on-naf-pet
#3
REVIEW
Eric M Rohren, Homer A Macapinlac
Fluoride imaging with (18)F (NaF-PET), although not a new technique, is becoming increasingly utilized for evaluation of skeletal metastatic disease using PET/CT. As its use becomes more widespread, a variety of nonmalignant bone disorders will be encountered by the interpreting physician. It is important, therefore, to recognize these nonmalignant conditions to avoid errors in interpretation. Beyond this, there is increasing evidence in the literature that NaF-PET/CT imaging may provide valuable information for the primary diagnosis of these nonmalignant conditions, and furthermore may provide insight into the underlying biology leading to management decisions...
July 2017: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583277/dual-time-point-18-f-fdg-pet-and-pet-ct-for-differentiating-benign-from-malignant-musculoskeletal-lesions-opportunities-and-limitations
#4
REVIEW
Rahul V Parghane, Sandip Basu
In this review, we summarize the false-positive and false-negative results of standard (18)F-FDG-PET/CT in characterizing musculoskeletal lesions and discussed the added value and limitations of dual-time point imaging (DTPI) and delayed imaging in differentiating malignant from benign musculoskeletal lesions, based on review of the peer-reviewed literature. The quantitative and semiquantitative parameters adopted for DTPI are standardized uptake value (mainly maximum standardized uptake value [SUVmax]) and retention index (RI), calculated as RI (%) = 100% × (SUV [maxD-Delayed] - SUV [maxE-Early])/SUV [maxE-Early], although the criteria and cutoff for diagnosing malignancy in studies have varied considerably...
July 2017: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583276/fdg-pet-ct-in-skeletal-muscle-pitfalls-and-pathologies
#5
REVIEW
Girish Kumar Parida, Shambo Guha Roy, Rakesh Kumar
FDG-PET/CT is an integral part of modern-day practice of medicine. By detecting increased cellular metabolism, FDG-PET/CT can help us detect infection, inflammatory disorders, or tumors, and also help us in prognostication of patients. However, one of the most important challenges is to correctly differentiate the abnormal uptake that is potentially pathologic from the physiological uptake. So while interpreting a PET/CT, one must be aware of normal biodistribution and different physiological variants of FDG uptake...
July 2017: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583275/benign-cutaneous-and-subcutaneous-lesions-on-fdg-pet-ct
#6
REVIEW
Ur Metser, Noam Tau
(18)F-FDG, the most commonly used PET radiopharmaceutical in clinical practice, can also accumulate in inflammatory and infectious conditions. This may account for false-positive PET findings when staging or restaging a patient with malignancy. As clinical use of FDG-PET-CT is increasing, nuclear medicine physicians are encountering a myriad of cutaneous and subcutaneous lesions, many of which are incidental and benign. The most common cause for the FDG avidity of these lesions is inflammation. Although a specific diagnosis may not always be possible, background clinical history and morphologic features of the lesion on CT may help narrow the differential diagnosis...
July 2017: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583274/benign-bone-conditions-that-may-be-fdg-avid-and-mimic-malignancy
#7
REVIEW
Thomas C Kwee, John M H de Klerk, Maarten Nix, Ben G F Heggelman, Stefan V Dubois, Hugo J A Adams
Positron emission tomography with the radiotracer (18)F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) plays an important role in the evaluation of bone pathology. However, FDG is not a cancer-specific agent, and knowledge of the differential diagnosis of benign FDG-avid bone alterations that may resemble malignancy is important for correct patient management, including the avoidance of unnecessary additional invasive tests such as bone biopsy. This review summarizes and illustrates the spectrum of benign bone conditions that may be FDG-avid and mimic malignancy, including osteomyelitis, bone lesions due to benign systemic diseases (Brown tumor, Erdheim-Chester disease, Gaucher disease, gout and other types of arthritis, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, and sarcoidosis), benign primary bone lesions (bone cysts, chondroblastoma, chondromyxoid fibroma, desmoplastic fibroma, enchondroma, giant cell tumor and granuloma, hemangioma, nonossifying fibroma, and osteoid osteoma and osteoblastoma), and a group of miscellaneous benign bone conditions (post bone marrow biopsy or harvest status, bone marrow hyperplasia, fibrous dysplasia, fractures, osteonecrosis, Paget disease of bone, particle disease, and Schmorl nodes)...
July 2017: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583273/guest-editorial-on-pet-of-benign-musculoskeletal-conditions
#8
EDITORIAL
Hugo J A Adams, Thomas C Kwee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583272/letter-from-the-editors
#9
EDITORIAL
Leonard M Freeman, M Donald Blaufox
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417858/-18-f-fdg-pet-ct-imaging-of-thoracic-and-extrathoracic-tuberculosis-in-children
#10
REVIEW
Matthieu Pelletier-Galarneau, Patrick Martineau, Lionel S Zuckier, Xuan Pham, Raymond Lambert, Sophie Turpin
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major health problem, affecting approximately one-third of the world׳s population. The tubercle bacillus can affect virtually any organ of the human body and if left untreated can lead to severe morbidity and death. Diagnosis of active TB is challenging, especially in children. As a "great imitator," the disease can mimic numerous other pathologies, both clinically and at imaging. Although recognition of active TB is crucial to initiate adequate treatment in a timely fashion, thereby preventing transmission of disease, differentiation of active and quiescent disease is not always straightforward...
May 2017: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417857/nuclear-medicine-imaging-in-pediatric-infection-or-chronic-inflammatory-diseases
#11
REVIEW
Alberto Signore, Andor W J M Glaudemans, Olivier Gheysens, Chiara Lauri, Onofrio A Catalano
In this review article, we focus on the most recent applications of nuclear medicine techniques (mainly (99m)Tc/(111)In white blood cells (WBC) scan, [(18)F]-FDG-PET/CT, [(18)F]-FDG-PET/MRI, and (99m)Tc-IL-2 scintigraphy) in the study of children affected by peripheral bone osteomyelitis, fungal infections, inflammatory bowel diseases, and type 1 diabetes, owing to recent important published evidences of their role in the management of these diseases. For osteomyelitis in children, both bone scintigraphy and [(18)F]-FDG-PET have a major advantage of assessing the whole body in one imaging session to confirm or exclude multifocal involvement, whereas WBC scan has a limited role...
May 2017: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417856/scintigraphic-evaluation-of-gastroesophageal-reflux-and-pulmonary-aspiration-in-children
#12
REVIEW
Zvi Bar-Sever
Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and pulmonary aspiration are encountered in children of all ages. Signs, symptoms, and complications vary from mild and transient to severe life-threatening conditions. This review will present relevant clinical information on these conditions as well as common diagnostic procedures. The role of scintigraphic techniques used in the evaluation of these conditions will be discussed in detail including protocols and performance in comparison to other diagnostic methods.
May 2017: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417855/optimization-of-pediatric-pet-ct
#13
REVIEW
Marguerite T Parisi, Mohammed S Bermo, Adam M Alessio, Susan E Sharp, Michael J Gelfand, Barry L Shulkin
PET/CT, the most common form of hybrid imaging, has transformed oncologic imaging and is increasingly being used for nononcologic applications as well. Performing PET/CT in children poses unique challenges. Not only are children more sensitive to the effects of radiation than adults but, following radiation exposure, children have a longer postexposure life expectancy in which to exhibit adverse radiation effects. Both the PET and CT components of the study contribute to the total patient radiation dose, which is one of the most important risks of the study in this population...
May 2017: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417854/current-role-of-fdg-pet-in-pediatric-hodgkin-s-lymphoma
#14
REVIEW
Regine Kluge, L Kurch, Thomas Georgi, Monika Metzger
Hodgkin's lymphoma is one of the most curable pediatric cancers with long-term survival rates exceeding 90% following intensive treatment. Collaborative group studies worldwide aim on reduction or elimination of radiotherapy to avoid potentially life-limiting late effects especially second cancers and cardiovascular diseases. Large prospective trials have integrated early response FDG-PET scans to identify adequate responders to chemotherapy in whom radiotherapy may safely be omitted. The criteria for interpretation of early response PET have changed during the past years and will be further refined based on trial results...
May 2017: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417853/the-role-of-18-f-fdg-pet-ct-in-pediatric-sarcoma
#15
REVIEW
Douglas J Harrison, Marguerite T Parisi, Barry L Shulkin
Considerable debate remains regarding how best to incorporate (18)F-FDG-PET/CT into clinical practice for pediatric sarcomas. Although there is a clear role for (18)F-FDG-PET/CT in staging pediatric sarcoma, the value of (18)F-FDG-PET/CT in prognostication for pediatric sarcomas remains unclear. In osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma, (18)F-FDG-PET/CT may be most useful in the identification of skeletal metastases, where the literature consistently suggests that it has improved sensitivity and specificity as compared to bone scintigraphy...
May 2017: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417852/nuclear-medicine-in-pediatric-nephro-urology-an-overview
#16
REVIEW
Iosif Mendichovszky, Bernardita Troncoso Solar, Naima Smeulders, Marina Easty, Lorenzo Biassoni
In the context of ante-natally diagnosed hydronephrosis, the vast majority of children with a dilated renal pelvis do not need any surgical treatment, as the dilatation resolves spontaneously with time. Slow drainage demonstrated at Tc-99m-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) renography does not necessarily mean obstruction. Obstruction is defined as resistance to urinary outflow with urinary stasis at the level of the pelvic-ureteric junction (PUJ) which, if left untreated, will damage the kidney. Unfortunately this definition is retrospective and not clinically helpful...
May 2017: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417851/nuclear-medicine-techniques-in-pediatric-bone-imaging
#17
REVIEW
Laura A Drubach
An important mandate when imaging pediatric patients is the reduction of radiation exposure to the lowest possible level consistent with good quality diagnostic imaging, so individual selection of radiopharmaceutical dosage and imaging technique is essential. Although the logistics of image acquisition and the approach to interpretation mirror the more common use in adults, the challenges of imaging young children typically require greater attention to patient preparation, positioning, and supervision during imaging, with the use of parental or family engagement in the procedure, gentle restraint, and occasionally the need for sedation...
May 2017: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417850/guest-editorial
#18
EDITORIAL
Pietro Zucchetta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417849/letter-from-the-editors
#19
EDITORIAL
Leonard M Freeman, M Donald Blaufox
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237006/letter-from-the-editors
#20
EDITORIAL
Leonard M Freeman, M Donald Blaufox
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
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