journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Seminars in Liver Disease

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201851/the-design-of-clinical-trials-in-portal-hypertension
#1
Juan G Abraldes, Guadalupe Garcia-Tsao
Portal hypertension (PH) is the main consequence of cirrhosis and is responsible for the majority of its complications. Gastroesophageal varices and variceal hemorrhage are direct consequences of PH; therefore, most clinical trials in PH have been directed toward treating or preventing variceal hemorrhage. However, varices and variceal hemorrhage are not isolated events; they must be considered in the context of the presence (or absence) of other complications of cirrhosis/PH. Cirrhosis progresses across different stages, each with a different prognosis and pathophysiology and hence different therapeutic targets...
February 2017: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201850/novel-treatment-strategies-for-primary-biliary-cholangitis
#2
Albert Parés
Despite the presumed immunological pathogenesis of primary biliary cholangitis, no clear or even harmful consequences have resulted from treatments designed to modify the immunological condition. Ursodeoxycholic acid (13-16 mg/kg/d) has, however, clear favorable effects that not only improve biochemical cholestasis, but also delay histological progression. Long-term treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid is associated with excellent transplant-free survival in cases showing a biochemical response at 1 year. Data on the effects of obeticholic acid and fibrates are encouraging...
February 2017: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201849/the-role-of-value-based-care-in-patients-with-cirrhosis
#3
Michael L Volk
Value-based care means delivering high-quality care while keeping costs at a reasonable level. Many physicians have long viewed quality care and the responsible utilization of resources to be an integral part of their professional responsibilities. As the health care system changes, however, physicians are increasingly being asked to objectively demonstrate value. In this review article, the author describes the reimbursement and regulatory shift toward value-based care, and provides specific strategies for meeting this care...
February 2017: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201848/new-advances-in-polycystic-liver-diseases
#4
A Santos-Laso, L Izquierdo-Sánchez, P Y Lee-Law, M J Perugorria, M Marzioni, J J G Marin, L Bujanda, J M Banales
Polycystic liver diseases (PLDs) include a heterogeneous group of congenital disorders inherited as dominant or recessive genetic traits; they are manifested alone or in association with polycystic kidney disease. Ductal plate malformation during embryogenesis and the loss of heterozygosity linked to second-hit mutations may promote the dilatation and/or development of a large number (> 20) of biliary cysts, which are the main cause of morbidity in these patients. Surgical procedures aimed to eliminate symptomatic cysts show short-term beneficial effects, but are not able to block the disease progression...
February 2017: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201847/the-differentiation-of-intestinal-failure-associated-liver-disease-from-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-and-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#5
Alan L Buchman, Bita V Naini, Bert Spilker
Intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD), formerly known as parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease has often been listed in textbooks as an example of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the etiology, pathophysiology, epidemiology, histology, and progression differ substantially between the conditions defined as NAFLD and the disease, IFALD. Therefore, IFALD should not be defined or considered as a type or a cause of nonalcoholic fatty liver or nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, but rather as a distinct disease...
February 2017: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201846/hemostasis-in-acute-and-chronic-liver-disease
#6
Armando Tripodi
Acute and chronic liver diseases have long been considered prototypes of acquired hemorrhagic diseases. Over the last decade, evidence stemming from the laboratory bench and clinical practice has indicated that hemostasis abnormalities, until recently considered as the cause of bleeding in these conditions, are rebalanced to normal despite the abnormal results of the hemostasis tests such as prothrombin time and platelet counts. Consequently, the commonly used therapeutic approach-the infusion of plasma, platelets, or other prohemostatic agents-are not biologically plausible and should be reconsidered...
February 2017: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201845/regenerative-medicine-and-the-biliary-tree
#7
Thiago M De Assuncao, Nidhi Jalan-Sakrikar, Robert C Huebert
Despite decades of basic research, biliary diseases remain prevalent, highly morbid, and notoriously difficult to treat. We have, however, dramatically increased our understanding of biliary developmental biology, cholangiocyte pathophysiology, and the endogenous mechanisms of biliary regeneration and repair. All of this complex and rapidly evolving knowledge coincides with an explosion of new technological advances in the area of regenerative medicine. New breakthroughs such as induced pluripotent stem cells and organoid culture are increasingly being applied to the biliary system; it is only a matter of time until new regenerative therapeutics for the cholangiopathies are unveiled...
February 2017: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201844/the-role-of-akt-in-chronic-liver-disease-and-liver-regeneration
#8
Manuel Morales-Ruiz, Ansgar Santel, Jordi Ribera, Wladimiro Jiménez
The liver is continuously exposed to diverse insults, which may culminate in pathological processes causing liver disease. An effective therapeutic strategy for chronic liver disease should control the causal factors of the disease and stimulate functional liver regeneration. Preclinical studies have shown that interventions aimed at maintaining Akt activity in a dysfunctional liver meet most of the criteria. Although the central function of Akt is cell survival, other cellular aspects such as glucose uptake, glycogen synthesis, cell-cycle progression, and lipid metabolism have been shown to be prominent functions of Akt in the context of hepatic physiology...
February 2017: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201843/regression-of-liver-fibrosis
#9
Lara Campana, John P Iredale
Liver fibrosis is the final common pathway of chronic or iterative liver damage. Advanced chronic fibrosis is described as cirrhosis with a loss of architecture and attendant functional failure and the development of life-threatening complications. However, compelling evidence from rodent models and human studies indicates that if the injury is removed liver fibrosis is reversible. Hepatocytes, activated hepatic stellate cells, endothelial and immune cells, particularly macrophages, cooperate in the establishment and resolution of liver fibrosis...
February 2017: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997977/regulation-of-hepatocellular-fatty-acid-uptake-in-mouse-models-of-fatty-liver-disease-with-and-without-functional-leptin-signaling-roles-of-nfkb-and-srebp-1c-and-the-effects-of-spexin
#10
Jasmine F Ge, J L Walewski, D Anglade, P D Berk
The processes causing increased hepatic triglycerides (TGs) in mouse models of hepatic steatosis (HS) due to high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity (DIO), EtOH consumption, or obesity mutations (ob/ob, db/db) are uncertain. This report summarizes two studies. Study 1 focused on regulation by five transcription factors (TFs) (NfKb, Srebp-lc, AMPK, PPARα, PPARγ) of seven, much-studied hepatic long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) transporters (FABPpm, CD36, FATPl, FATP2, FATP4, FATP5, & Caveolin-1 [CAV-1]), and expression of genes for enzymes of LCFA synthesis (SCD-1, FASN) in mice with HS from various causes...
September 2016: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997976/the-microbiome-what-will-the-future-hold
#11
Howard Paul Monsour, Eamonn M M Quigley
Current research on the human microbiome has opened our eyes to the intimate relationship that we have with the bacteria that populate our gastrointestinal tract and its potential relationship to health and disease. To date, clinical research on the microbiome has identified intriguing associations between an altered microbiome and disease states, but proven therapeutic applications have been very limited. The ingestion of prebiotics, probiotics, and/or synbiotics is appealing to the general public and has significant commercial value, but as yet, solid evidence for clinical efficacy in liver disease has been lacking due, in large part, to the paucity of high-quality clinical trials...
September 2016: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997975/primary-biliary-cirrhosis-and-the-microbiome
#12
Eamonn M M Quigley
Primary biliary cirrhosis is a rather uncommon, slowly progressive, cholestatic liver disease that predominantly affects middle-aged women. Apart from the changes in the gut microbiome that have been described in liver disease in general, little is known of the composition of the microbiome in primary biliary cirrhosis. Nevertheless, epidemiological, clinical, and some experimental evidence points to the possible role of a bacterium (or bacteria) in the initiation of the autoimmune process that leads to the development of this unique clinical phenotype...
September 2016: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997974/the-microbiome-and-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis
#13
Ahmad H Ali, Elizabeth J Carey, Keith D Lindor
Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease with detrimental sequela. In many patients, PSC progresses to end-stage liver disease and hepatobiliary cancer. There is no medical therapy that is proven to halt or reverse the progression of PSC. Approximately 70 to 80% of PSC patients have inflammatory bowel disease, usually ulcerative colitis. The etiology of PSC is poorly understood. Several lines of evidence suggest that the intestinal microbiota plays an important role in the etiopathogenesis of PSC...
September 2016: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997973/bidirectional-communication-between-liver-and-gut-during-alcoholic-liver-disease
#14
Peter Stärkel, Bernd Schnabl
Alcoholic liver disease is a major medical burden. Alcohol abuse is the cause for end-stage liver disease in approximately 50% of all patients with cirrhosis. Chronic alcohol consumption is associated with changes in the composition of the intestinal microbiota and gut barrier dysfunction. The portal vein is the major communication route between the intestine and the liver. Increased intestinal permeability allows microbial components, bacteria, and metabolites to translocate to the liver. The liver communicates with the intestine via mediators in the systemic circulation and the biliary system...
September 2016: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997972/changes-in-the-microbiome-in-cirrhosis-and-relationship-to-complications-hepatic-encephalopathy-spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis-and-sepsis
#15
Jatinder Lachar, Jasmohan S Bajaj
Chronic liver disease with progression to decompensated cirrhosis and its associated complications, including hepatic encephalopathy, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, and sepsis, is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity. The pathophysiology of decompensated cirrhosis, which is being intensively studied, leads to the development of gut microbiome changes causing dysbiosis. This is likely related to altered bile acid composition, with a subsequent increase in the relative abundance of potentially pathogenic bacteria that contributes to hepatic encephalopathy and leads to their translocation and the development of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and bacteremia...
September 2016: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997971/microbiome-host-immune-system-interactions
#16
Sylwia Smolinska, Liam O'Mahony
The intestinal immune system recognizes and responds to the vast diversity of microbes present within the gut. Highly sophisticated cellular and molecular networks are continuously coordinated to tolerate the presence of a large number and diversity of bacteria on mucosal surfaces. Different types of bacteria induce different immune responses, and bacterial metabolism of dietary factors generates metabolites that have significant effects on host immune responses. Dendritic cells, epithelial cells, innate lymphoid cells, T-regulatory cells, effector lymphocytes, natural killer T cells, and B-cell responses can all be influenced by the microbiome...
September 2016: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997970/the-metabolic-role-of-the-microbiome-implications-for-nafld-and-the-metabolic-syndrome
#17
Eamonn M M Quigley, Ahmed Abu-Shanab, Eileen F Murphy, Catherine Stanton, Howard P Monsour
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has rapidly emerged as one of the most prevalent liver diseases worldwide and is set to achieve virtually epidemic proportions if current trends in obesity continue. A considerable volume of data from animal experiments has revealed the magnitude of the metabolic contribution of the gut microbiome and how a disordered microbial population could contribute to the development of obesity and its complications, including NAFLD. Although considerable progress has been made in developing a role for the microbiome in NAFLD and nonalcoholic steatosis (NASH), there are still many issues to be resolved, including the nature and location of the altered microbiome (i...
September 2016: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997969/studying-the-microbiome-omics-made-accessible
#18
Paul W O'Toole, Burkhardt Flemer
The term microbiome refers to the collection of microbes or microbial genes in a specified location or clinical sample. Identifying micro-organisms has historically relied upon bacteriological culture, which is time consuming and difficult to effectively implement. The recent adaptation of culture-independent techniques for profiling microbial communities, allied with next-generation massively parallel DNA sequencing, allows clinician scientists to determine the entire microbial content of a specimen to a forensic level of detail within 48 hours...
September 2016: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997968/the-microbiome-and-the-liver-the-basics
#19
David W Victor, Eamonn M M Quigley
The relationships between the microbiota and other aspects of normal human biology continue to be explored. Indeed, the volume of information relating to the interplay between the host and the microbiota has grown exponentially-especially with the advent of ever-improving techniques for rapidly sequencing and identifying bacterial populations and their functions. The gut is initially sterile at birth and colonization and dynamic changes occur during infancy and early childhood in order to establish a mature microbiome...
September 2016: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997967/the-last-hurrah
#20
Paul D Berk
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Seminars in Liver Disease
journal
journal
20238
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"