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Seminars in Liver Disease

Lei Dou, Yoshihiro Ono, Yi-Fa Chen, Angus W Thomson, Xiao-Ping Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Seminars in Liver Disease
Sasha Deutsch-Link, Danielle Fortuna, Ethan M Weinberg
Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease, which is characterized by the development of noncaseating granulomas amid healthy tissue. While most commonly affecting the mediastinum and/or lungs, sarcoid can also affect the liver, resulting in "hepatic sarcoid." The spectrum of disease in hepatic sarcoid is variable, ranging from asymptomatic or mild liver enzyme abnormalities to end-stage liver disease requiring liver transplantation. Because clinically-significant hepatic sarcoid is rare, research on epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and treatment is limited...
August 2018: Seminars in Liver Disease
Shao-Hua Shi, Zheng-Long Zhai, Shu-Sen Zheng
Pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) of biliary origin in Southeast Asia mainly occurs in patients with intrahepatic bile duct stone (IBDS) and extrahepatic bile duct stone (EBDS), bilioenteric anastomosis, or biliary stent. IBDS, as an endemic to Southeast Asia, remains a frequent etiology of acute cholangitis and PLA. PLA related to IBDS is characterized by high incidences of PLA recurrence and death related to infection, and difficulties in diagnosis of concomitant cholangicarcinoma. PLA of biliary origin is more likely caused by Escherichia coli, more often presented as polymicrobial infections, and more associated with extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates...
August 2018: Seminars in Liver Disease
Patrizia Burra, Alberto Zanetto, Francesco Paolo Russo, Giacomo Germani
The discrepancy between the number of patients awaiting liver transplantation and the number of available donors has become a key issue in the transplant setting. Various strategies to cope with the donor shortage problem and to increase the use of suboptimal grafts have been explored. Machine perfusion has been applied ex situ to liver grafts in the effort to improve static cold-storage preservation. If a more extensive application of this technology confirms the preliminary results, machine perfusion will become crucial in increasing the donor pool as well as improving recipients' outcomes...
August 2018: Seminars in Liver Disease
Ricky H Bhogal, Hynek Mergental, Darius F Mirza, Simon C Afford
While majority of liver transplants worldwide continue to be performed using deceased donor organs, the demands for donor livers continues to exceed the current supply. In an attempt to maximize the number of potentially usable donor livers and expand the current donor pool, there is intense global research by various groups exploring the role of machine perfusion in the liver transplantation, particularly with respect to the machine perfusion of extended-criteria liver donors. In this review, the authors summarize the current field of machine perfusion strategies as applied to deceased donor liver transplantation and how therapeutic targeting of the liver sinusoidal endothelial cell may improve the quality of donor livers...
August 2018: Seminars in Liver Disease
Po-Hong Liu, Teh-Ia Huo, Rebecca A Miksad
Portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT) commonly occurs in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Patients with PVTT usually have an aggressive disease course, decreased liver function reserve, limited treatment options, higher recurrence rates after treatment, and, therefore, worse overall survival. Among untreated HCC patients with PVTT, the median overall survival has been reported as low as 2 to 4 months. Historically, many aspects of PVTT have impacted the theoretical and practical safety and efficacy of treatment, for example, disordered blood flow and associated impairment of liver function, heat-sink effects of blood flow in the area of the PVTT, and risk of recurrence due to tumor location in the blood vessel...
August 2018: Seminars in Liver Disease
Salvatore Piano, Alessandra Brocca, Paolo Angeli
Patients with cirrhosis have a high prevalence of renal dysfunction. The susceptibility to renal dysfunction is due to both the severe splanchnic arterial vasodilation and the systemic inflammation observed in these patients. An accurate assessment of renal function is recommended in all patients with cirrhosis. Indeed, the renal function assessment guides the management of patients, helps to refine prognosis and to define transplant strategies. Despite its limitations, serum creatinine is still the most used biomarker for the estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and the assessment of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with cirrhosis...
August 2018: Seminars in Liver Disease
Filippo Schepis, Laura Turco, Marcello Bianchini, Erica Villa
Cirrhosis represents the end stage of chronic liver disease and its transition from a compensated to a decompensated status is mainly driven by portal hypertension and systemic inflammation. Although relevant modifications in the evaluation of the coagulative balance in cirrhosis across its natural history have occurred and alterations in routine indices of hemostasis have lost their role as indicators of the hemorrhagic risk of patients with liver cirrhosis, these are still perceived as prone to bleed when admitted to invasive procedures...
August 2018: Seminars in Liver Disease
Louise J M Alferink, Jessica C Kiefte-de Jong, Sarwa Darwish Murad
Coffee, the most consumed hot beverage worldwide, is composed of many substances, of which polyphenols, caffeine, and diterpenoids are well studied. Evidence on potential effects of coffee on human health has been accumulating over the past decades. Specifically, coffee has been postulated to be hepatoprotective in several epidemiological and clinical studies. Several underlying molecular mechanisms as to why coffee influences liver health have been proposed. In this review, the authors summarized the evidence on potential mechanisms by which coffee affects liver steatosis, fibrosis, and hepatic carcinogenesis...
August 2018: Seminars in Liver Disease
Jeffrey V Lazarus, Kelly Safreed-Harmon, Mark R Thursz, John F Dillon, Manal H El-Sayed, Ahmed M Elsharkawy, Angelos Hatzakis, Michel Jadoul, Tullio Prestileo, Homie Razavi, Jürgen K Rockstroh, Stefan Z Wiktor, Massimo Colombo
The introduction of efficacious new hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatments galvanized the World Health Organization to define ambitious targets for eliminating HCV as a public health threat by 2030. Formidable obstacles to reaching this goal can best be overcome through a micro-elimination approach, which entails pursuing elimination goals in discrete populations through multi-stakeholder initiatives that tailor interventions to the needs of these populations. Micro-elimination is less daunting, less complex, and less costly than full-scale, country-level initiatives to eliminate HCV, and it can build momentum by producing small victories that inspire more ambitious efforts...
August 2018: Seminars in Liver Disease
Lei Dou, Yoshihiro Ono, Yi-Fa Chen, Angus W Thomson, Xiao-Ping Chen
The unique liver immune microenvironment favors resistance to inflammation that promotes normal physiological function. At the same time, it endows the liver with tolerogenic properties that may promote pathological processes. Hepatic dendritic cells (HDCs) initiate and orchestrate immune responses depending on signals they receive from the local environment and are thought to contribute to liver tolerance. Thus, HDCs facilitate impaired T cell responses that are observed in persistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, hepatocellular carcinoma progression, and liver allograft transplantation...
May 2018: Seminars in Liver Disease
Sumera Rizvi, John Eaton, Ju Dong Yang, Vinay Chandrasekhara, Gregory J Gores
The diagnosis of malignant biliary strictures remains problematic, especially in the perihilar region and in primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Conventional cytology obtained during endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC)-guided brushings of biliary strictures is suboptimal due to limited sensitivity, albeit it remains the gold standard with a high specificity. Emerging technologies are being developed and validated to address this pressing unmet patient need. Such technologies include enhanced visualization of the biliary tree by cholangioscopy, intraductal ultrasound, and confocal laser endomicroscopy...
May 2018: Seminars in Liver Disease
Mihai Rimbaş, Luca Di Maurizio, Gianenrico Rizzatti, Antonio Gasbarrini, Guido Costamagna, Alberto Larghi
In the last few years, the diagnostic and therapeutic utilization of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) for a variety of liver conditions has exponentially grown. We performed a thorough search for all available studies on the performance of diagnostic and therapeutic EUS in the field of hepatology. This article reviews the indication of EUS in the evaluation and treatment of portal hypertension, portal vein pressure measurement, focal liver lesions, and parenchymal liver diseases, and presents all the clinical evidences available so far in this regard...
May 2018: Seminars in Liver Disease
Lingling Yang, Tianzhou Wu, Jiang Li, Jun Li
Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a newly recognized clinical syndrome characterized by preexisting chronic liver disease or cirrhosis with organ failure and high 28-day mortality (50-90%). Bacterial infections (BIs) play pivotal roles in the development and progression of ACLF either as a main precipitating event or a specific complication. The main organisms isolated as triggering ACLF are Gram-positive bacteria, followed by Gram-negative bacteria. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and skin infections are prevalent infections that trigger and complicate ACLF...
May 2018: Seminars in Liver Disease
Maria Grazia Rumi, Vito Di Marco, Massimo Colombo
Chronic infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) has long been the dominant complication of substitution therapy in patients with inherited blood disorders and the cause of anticipated death due to end-stage liver disease. In hemophilia, transmission of HCV with clotting factors concentrates started to be curbed in the mid-1980s following the adoption of procedures of virus inactivation of concentrates based on heat, whereas in the 1990s treatment of HCV infection with interferon monotherapy was attempted, however, with little success...
May 2018: Seminars in Liver Disease
Nghia H Nguyen, Siddharth Singh
With the rapid growth of biomedical literature, there is increasing need to make meaningful inferences from a comprehensive and complex body of evidence. Systematic reviews with or without meta-analyses offer an objective and summative approach to synthesize knowledge and critically appraise evidence to inform clinical practice. Systematic reviews also help identify key knowledge gaps for future investigation. In this review, the authors provide a step-by-step approach to conducting a systematic review. These include: (1) formulating a focused and clinically-relevant question; (2) designing a detailed review protocol with explicit inclusion and exclusion criteria; (3) performing a systematic literature search of multiple databases and unpublished data, in consultation with a medical librarian, to identify relevant studies; (4) meticulous data abstraction by at least two sets of investigators independently; (5) assessing risk of bias in individual studies; (6) quantitative synthesis with meta-analysis; and (7) critically and transparently ascertaining quality of evidence...
May 2018: Seminars in Liver Disease
Emmanuel Lesaffre
For decades, the superiority trial has been the most popular design to assess the efficacy of newly developed drugs in a randomized controlled clinical trial. In a superiority trial, the aim is to show that the new (experimental) treatment is better than the standard treatment or placebo. However, it becomes increasingly difficult to improve the efficacy upon that of existing drugs. For this reason, noninferiority designs have been suggested. In a noninferiority study, one aims to show that the experimental treatment does not lower the efficacy of the standard treatment too much, but this loss of efficacy should be compensated by other better properties...
May 2018: Seminars in Liver Disease
Andre Gorgen, Nicolas Goldaracena, Wei Zhang, Roizar Rosales, Anand Ghanekar, Les Lilly, Mark Cattral, Paul Greig, Stuart McCluskey, Ian McGilvray, Nazia Selzner, Mamatha Bhat, Markus Selzner, Gary Levy, David Grant, Gonzalo Sapisochin
The authors assessed the incidence, management, and risk factors for postoperative complications after right lobe (RL) live donor hepatectomy in a high-volume center in North America. All donors undergoing an RL live donor hepatectomy between 2000 and 2017 at our institution were included. The primary outcome was the development of complications (both medical and surgical). Predictors of postoperative complications were determined by logistic regression. A total of 587 patients underwent RL live donor hepatectomy...
May 2018: Seminars in Liver Disease
Jonel Trebicka
Does transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt stent (TIPS) improve survival in a subgroup of patients? Yes. TIPS nearly halves portal pressure and increases the effective blood volume. In cases of acute variceal hemorrhage and with a high risk of treatment failure, defined as either hepatic venous pressure gradient higher than 20 mm Hg, Child B with active bleeding at the endoscopy, or Child C with less than 14 points, early or preemptive placement of TIPS (within 72 hours) improves survival. Also, in suitable patients with intractable or refractory ascites, TIPS improves survival if placed early in the course of treatment...
February 2018: Seminars in Liver Disease
Lily Dara
The receptor interacting serine/threonine kinase1 and 3 (RIPK1, RIPK3) are regulators of cell death and survival. RIPK1 kinase activity is required for necroptosis and apoptosis, while its scaffolding function is necessary for survival. Although both proteins can mediate apoptosis, RIPK1 and RIPK3 are most well-known for their role in the execution of necroptosis via the mixed lineage domain like pseudokinase. Necroptosis is a caspase-independent regulated cell death program which was first described in cultured cells with unknown physiologic relevance in the liver...
February 2018: Seminars in Liver Disease
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