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Seminars in Liver Disease

Andre Gorgen, Nicolas Goldaracena, Wei Zhang, Roizar Rosales, Anand Ghanekar, Les Lilly, Mark Cattral, Paul Greig, Stuart McCluskey, Ian McGilvray, Nazia Selzner, Mamatha Bhat, Markus Selzner, Gary Levy, David Grant, Gonzalo Sapisochin
The authors assessed the incidence, management, and risk factors for postoperative complications after right lobe (RL) live donor hepatectomy in a high-volume center in North America. All donors undergoing an RL live donor hepatectomy between 2000 and 2017 at our institution were included. The primary outcome was the development of complications (both medical and surgical). Predictors of postoperative complications were determined by logistic regression. A total of 587 patients underwent RL live donor hepatectomy...
March 22, 2018: Seminars in Liver Disease
Jonel Trebicka
Does transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt stent (TIPS) improve survival in a subgroup of patients? Yes. TIPS nearly halves portal pressure and increases the effective blood volume. In cases of acute variceal hemorrhage and with a high risk of treatment failure, defined as either hepatic venous pressure gradient higher than 20 mm Hg, Child B with active bleeding at the endoscopy, or Child C with less than 14 points, early or preemptive placement of TIPS (within 72 hours) improves survival. Also, in suitable patients with intractable or refractory ascites, TIPS improves survival if placed early in the course of treatment...
February 2018: Seminars in Liver Disease
Lily Dara
The receptor interacting serine/threonine kinase1 and 3 (RIPK1, RIPK3) are regulators of cell death and survival. RIPK1 kinase activity is required for necroptosis and apoptosis, while its scaffolding function is necessary for survival. Although both proteins can mediate apoptosis, RIPK1 and RIPK3 are most well-known for their role in the execution of necroptosis via the mixed lineage domain like pseudokinase. Necroptosis is a caspase-independent regulated cell death program which was first described in cultured cells with unknown physiologic relevance in the liver...
February 2018: Seminars in Liver Disease
Mario Rizzetto
New therapeutic strategies to treat chronic hepatitis D are directed to deprive the hepatitis D virus (HDV) of functions necessary to complete its life cycle that are provided by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and by the host. Current options are (1) the block by the synthetic peptide Myrcludex B of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) entry into cells through the inhibition of the sodium taurocholate cotransporting receptor; (2) the inhibition with lonafarnib of the farnesylation of the large HD antigen, required for virion assembly; (3) the presumed reduction by the nucleic acid polymer REP 2139 of the release of the HBsAg and subviral HBV particles necessary for HD virion morphogenesis...
February 2018: Seminars in Liver Disease
Fabian J Bolte, Barbara Rehermann
The broadening field of microbiome research has led to a substantial reappraisal of the gut-liver axis and its role in chronic liver disease. The liver is a central immunologic organ that is continuously exposed to food and microbial-derived antigens from the gastrointestinal tract. Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are enriched in the human liver and can be activated by inflammatory cytokines and microbial antigens. In chronic inflammatory liver disease, MAIT cells are depleted suggesting an impaired MAIT cell-dependent protection against bacterial infections...
February 2018: Seminars in Liver Disease
Gadi Lalazar, Sanford M Simon
Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FLC) is a rare form of primary liver cancer that affects adolescents and young adults without underlying liver disease. Surgery remains the mainstay of therapy; however, most patients are either not surgical candidates or suffer from recurrence. There is no approved systemic therapy and the overall survival remains poor. Historically classified as a subtype of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), FLC has a unique clinical, histological, and molecular presentation. At the genomic level, FLC contains a single 400kB deletion in chromosome 19, leading to a functional DNAJB1-PRKACA fusion protein...
February 2018: Seminars in Liver Disease
Ryan A Hlady, Keith D Robertson
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most prevalent primary tumor of the liver, and is steadily becoming one of the most lethal cancers worldwide. Liver resection, which is the recommended procedure for early localized HCC, results in frequent recurrence (50-70%), while the standard of care for late-stage HCC, multikinase inhibitors, only improves survival by a few months. The lack of success for these treatment modalities is attributable, at least in part, to marked phenotypic heterogeneity within the tumor...
February 2018: Seminars in Liver Disease
Raul J Andrade, Inmaculada Medina-Caliz, Andres Gonzalez-Jimenez, Miren Garcia-Cortes, M Isabel Lucena
The rising burden of herbal and dietary supplement hepatotoxicity (HILI) is a growing concern in Western countries. The estimated incidence of HILI in well-designed prospective studies ranges from less than 1 to 3 individuals per 100,000 inhabitants/year. Herbal hepatotoxicity has a particular signature encompassing female predominance, hepatocellular type of damage with markedly elevated transaminases on presentation, more common unintentional rechallenge, and a greater risk of death/liver transplantation...
February 2018: Seminars in Liver Disease
Veeral Ajmera, Rohit Loomba
Ultrasound and magnetic resonance (MR)-based elastography have demonstrated excellent performance for noninvasive staging of fibrosis in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); however, their ability to differentiate isolated fatty liver from nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is unclear. In this review, the authors provide background on elastography and review the ability of elastography to discriminate between isolated steatosis and NASH. Studies with available data on the diagnosis of NASH histology are limited to vibration-controlled transient elastography and MR elastography...
February 2018: Seminars in Liver Disease
Jake P Mann, Luca Valenti, Eleonora Scorletti, Christopher D Byrne, Valerio Nobili
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, a progressive form of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), is one of the most common hepatic diseases in children who present with particular risk factors including obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and/or a predisposing genetic background. The worldwide prevalence of NAFLD in children is a worrying phenomenon because this disease is closely associated with the development of both cirrhosis and cardiometabolic syndrome in adulthood. To date, the etiopathogenesis of primary NAFLD in children is unknown...
February 2018: Seminars in Liver Disease
Ayesha Shah, Erin Shanahan, Graeme A Macdonald, Linda Fletcher, Pegah Ghasemi, Mark Morrison, Mike Jones, Gerald Holtmann
The authors conducted a meta-analysis of the prevalence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) and controls. Using the search terms "small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO)" and "chronic liver disease (CLD)" or "cirrhosis," 19 case-control studies were identified. Utilizing breath tests, the prevalence of SIBO in CLD was 35.80% (95% CI, 32.60-39.10) compared with 8.0% (95% CI, 5.70-11.00) in controls. Using culture techniques, the prevalence was 68...
November 2017: Seminars in Liver Disease
Laurie D DeLeve, Ana C Maretti-Mira
This update focuses on two main topics. First, recent developments in our understanding of liver sinusoidal endothelial cell (LSEC) function will be reviewed, specifically elimination of blood-borne waste, immunological function of LSECs, interaction of LSECs with liver metastases, LSECs and liver regeneration, and LSECs and hepatic fibrosis. Second, given the current emphasis on rigor and transparency in biomedical research, the update discusses the need for standardization of methods to demonstrate identity and purity of isolated LSECs, pitfalls in methods that might lead to a selection bias in the types of LSECs isolated, and questions about long-term culture of LSECs...
November 2017: Seminars in Liver Disease
Mengjie Zhang, Yi Zhang, Shuang Yang, Jian Zhou, Weiwu Gao, Xia Yang, Di Yang, Zhiqiang Tian, Yuzhang Wu, Bing Ni
The transcription factor Yin Yang 1 (YY1) is a multifunctional protein that can activate or repress gene expression, depending on the cellular context. While YY1 is ubiquitously expressed and highly conserved between species, its role varies among the diverse cell types and includes proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Upregulated YY1 expression is found in pathogenic conditions, such as human hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatitis B virus infection, and its roles in the molecular pathogenic mechanisms in liver (i...
November 2017: Seminars in Liver Disease
Stuart K Roberts, William Kemp
Several salvage therapies have been identified for autoimmune hepatitis refractory or recalcitrant to conventional therapy; however, the optimal salvage strategy remains unclear. High-dose prednisolone is currently recommended as the front-line salvage therapy, with alternative immunosuppressive therapies reserved for continuing treatment failure. Of the second-line therapies, the calcineurin inhibitors, cyclosporine and tacrolimus, and mycophenolate mofetil are preferred and have the most accrued clinical data...
November 2017: Seminars in Liver Disease
Gyongyi Szabo
Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is an acute and clinically distinct manifestation of alcoholic liver disease. While severe AH causes 30% or higher mortality in 3 months, treatment options are limited and ineffective. Recent advances on the understanding of the pathomechanisms of AH have identified numerous potential targets for new therapeutic interventions. Many of those targets are currently under preclinical testing and/or in human clinical trials for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Thus, the field of AH should be ready to launch new efforts and targeted clinical trials for this underserved patient population...
November 2017: Seminars in Liver Disease
Johannes R Hov, Tom H Karlsen
The close relationship between primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and inflammatory bowel disease has inspired hypothetical models in which gut bacteria or bacterial products are key players in PSC pathogenesis. Several studies using high-throughput sequencing technology to characterize the gut microbiota in PSC have been published over the past years. They all report reduced diversity and significant shifts in the overall composition of the gut microbiota. However, it remains unclear as to whether the observed changes are primary or secondary to PSC development and further studies are needed to assess the biological implications of the findings...
November 2017: Seminars in Liver Disease
Eric F Martin, Cynthia Levy
Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic, immune-mediated cholestatic liver disease that often progresses to secondary biliary cirrhosis and end-stage liver disease. Short of liver transplantation (LT), there is no effective treatment for PSC. PSC accounts for approximately 5% of total adult LTs in the US and is currently the fifth most common indication for LT. Patient and graft survival for PSC is among the highest for all indications for LT. The main factors that impact outcomes after LT for PSC include biliary strictures, rejection, and recurrence of PSC...
November 2017: Seminars in Liver Disease
Nicole E Rich, Neehar D Parikh, Amit G Singal
Overdiagnosis, the detection of clinically insignificant disease that would not otherwise impact the patient's lifespan, is a phenomenon that has been described in several solid tumors, such as prostate, breast, thyroid, and lung cancers. Population-based efforts to reduce hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) mortality in cirrhosis patients by screening and early detection may result in the overdiagnosis of HCC. One of the harms of overdiagnosis is subsequent overtreatment, which can result in increased costs, as well as physical side effects, psychological harms, and poorer quality of life...
November 2017: Seminars in Liver Disease
Morris Sherman
The advent and efficacy of surveillance for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has necessitated the refinement of assessing who is at risk for this cancer. Initially, risk was assessed for all individuals with hepatitis B and all those with cirrhosis. However, the majority of these individuals do not develop HCC so that providing surveillance for all is a waste of resources. There are now many different scores that have been developed that allow better identification of who is at risk and who is not. Specific models have been developed for hepatitis B before and on treatment, for hepatitis C before and after treatment, and for cirrhosis in general...
November 2017: Seminars in Liver Disease
Ferran Torres, José Ríos, Joaquín Saez-Peñataro, Caridad Pontes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Seminars in Liver Disease
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