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Seminars in Liver Disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29272899/systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-prevalence-of-small-intestinal-bacterial-overgrowth-in-chronic-liver-disease
#1
Ayesha Shah, Erin Shanahan, Graeme A Macdonald, Linda Fletcher, Pegah Ghasemi, Mark Morrison, Mike Jones, Gerald Holtmann
The authors conducted a meta-analysis of the prevalence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) and controls. Using the search terms "small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO)" and "chronic liver disease (CLD)" or "cirrhosis," 19 case-control studies were identified. Utilizing breath tests, the prevalence of SIBO in CLD was 35.80% (95% CI, 32.60-39.10) compared with 8.0% (95% CI, 5.70-11.00) in controls. Using culture techniques, the prevalence was 68...
November 2017: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29272898/liver-sinusoidal-endothelial-cell-an-update
#2
Laurie D DeLeve, Ana C Maretti-Mira
This update focuses on two main topics. First, recent developments in our understanding of liver sinusoidal endothelial cell (LSEC) function will be reviewed, specifically elimination of blood-borne waste, immunological function of LSECs, interaction of LSECs with liver metastases, LSECs and liver regeneration, and LSECs and hepatic fibrosis. Second, given the current emphasis on rigor and transparency in biomedical research, the update discusses the need for standardization of methods to demonstrate identity and purity of isolated LSECs, pitfalls in methods that might lead to a selection bias in the types of LSECs isolated, and questions about long-term culture of LSECs...
November 2017: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29272897/multifunctional-yy1-in-liver-diseases
#3
Mengjie Zhang, Yi Zhang, Shuang Yang, Jian Zhou, Weiwu Gao, Xia Yang, Di Yang, Zhiqiang Tian, Yuzhang Wu, Bing Ni
The transcription factor Yin Yang 1 (YY1) is a multifunctional protein that can activate or repress gene expression, depending on the cellular context. While YY1 is ubiquitously expressed and highly conserved between species, its role varies among the diverse cell types and includes proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Upregulated YY1 expression is found in pathogenic conditions, such as human hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatitis B virus infection, and its roles in the molecular pathogenic mechanisms in liver (i...
November 2017: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29272896/salvage-therapies-for-autoimmune-hepatitis-a-critical-review
#4
Stuart K Roberts, William Kemp
Several salvage therapies have been identified for autoimmune hepatitis refractory or recalcitrant to conventional therapy; however, the optimal salvage strategy remains unclear. High-dose prednisolone is currently recommended as the front-line salvage therapy, with alternative immunosuppressive therapies reserved for continuing treatment failure. Of the second-line therapies, the calcineurin inhibitors, cyclosporine and tacrolimus, and mycophenolate mofetil are preferred and have the most accrued clinical data...
November 2017: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29272895/clinical-trial-design-for-alcoholic-hepatitis
#5
Gyongyi Szabo
Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is an acute and clinically distinct manifestation of alcoholic liver disease. While severe AH causes 30% or higher mortality in 3 months, treatment options are limited and ineffective. Recent advances on the understanding of the pathomechanisms of AH have identified numerous potential targets for new therapeutic interventions. Many of those targets are currently under preclinical testing and/or in human clinical trials for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Thus, the field of AH should be ready to launch new efforts and targeted clinical trials for this underserved patient population...
November 2017: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29272894/the-microbiome-in-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis-current-evidence-and-potential-concepts
#6
Johannes R Hov, Tom H Karlsen
The close relationship between primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and inflammatory bowel disease has inspired hypothetical models in which gut bacteria or bacterial products are key players in PSC pathogenesis. Several studies using high-throughput sequencing technology to characterize the gut microbiota in PSC have been published over the past years. They all report reduced diversity and significant shifts in the overall composition of the gut microbiota. However, it remains unclear as to whether the observed changes are primary or secondary to PSC development and further studies are needed to assess the biological implications of the findings...
November 2017: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29272893/timing-management-and-outcomes-of-liver-transplantation-in-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis
#7
Eric F Martin, Cynthia Levy
Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic, immune-mediated cholestatic liver disease that often progresses to secondary biliary cirrhosis and end-stage liver disease. Short of liver transplantation (LT), there is no effective treatment for PSC. PSC accounts for approximately 5% of total adult LTs in the US and is currently the fifth most common indication for LT. Patient and graft survival for PSC is among the highest for all indications for LT. The main factors that impact outcomes after LT for PSC include biliary strictures, rejection, and recurrence of PSC...
November 2017: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29272892/overdiagnosis-an-understudied-issue-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-surveillance
#8
Nicole E Rich, Neehar D Parikh, Amit G Singal
Overdiagnosis, the detection of clinically insignificant disease that would not otherwise impact the patient's lifespan, is a phenomenon that has been described in several solid tumors, such as prostate, breast, thyroid, and lung cancers. Population-based efforts to reduce hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) mortality in cirrhosis patients by screening and early detection may result in the overdiagnosis of HCC. One of the harms of overdiagnosis is subsequent overtreatment, which can result in increased costs, as well as physical side effects, psychological harms, and poorer quality of life...
November 2017: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29272891/hcc-risk-scores-useful-or-not
#9
Morris Sherman
The advent and efficacy of surveillance for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has necessitated the refinement of assessing who is at risk for this cancer. Initially, risk was assessed for all individuals with hepatitis B and all those with cirrhosis. However, the majority of these individuals do not develop HCC so that providing surveillance for all is a waste of resources. There are now many different scores that have been developed that allow better identification of who is at risk and who is not. Specific models have been developed for hepatitis B before and on treatment, for hepatitis C before and after treatment, and for cirrhosis in general...
November 2017: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847037/is-propensity-score-analysis-a-valid-surrogate-of-randomization-for-the-avoidance-of-allocation-bias
#10
Ferran Torres, José Ríos, Joaquín Saez-Peñataro, Caridad Pontes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847036/functional-imaging-and-assessment-of-antitumor-activity-in-systemic-therapy-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#11
Avinash Kambadakone, Vinit Baliyan, Andrew X Zhu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847035/quantitative-imaging-in-diffuse-liver-diseases
#12
Bernard E Van Beers, Philippe Garteiser, Benjamin Leporq, Pierre-Emmanuel Rautou, Dominique Valla
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847034/challenges-to-a-cure-for-hbv-infection
#13
Barbara Testoni, Massimo Levrero, Fabien Zoulim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847033/epigenetics-in-liver-fibrosis
#14
Veronica Massey, Joaquin Cabezas, Ramon Bataller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847032/learning-the-roles-of-the-hepatic-adaptive-immune-system-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-nature-s-guide-for-successful-cancer-immunotherapy
#15
Mathias Heikenwälder, Eli Pikarsky
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847031/natural-killer-cells-in-liver-disease
#16
Victoria Male, Kerstin A Stegmann, Nicholas J Easom, Mala K Maini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847030/macrophages-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-role-model-of-pathogenic-immunometabolism
#17
Oliver Krenkel, Frank Tacke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28564725/disorders-in-hepatic-copper-secretion-wilson-s-disease-and-pleomorphic-syndromes
#18
Vasiliki Lalioti, Akihito Tsubota, Ignacio V Sandoval
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28564724/epigenetics-in-the-primary-biliary-cholangitis-and-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis
#19
Angela C Cheung, Nicholas F LaRusso, Gregory J Gores, Konstantinos N Lazaridis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28564723/emerging-concepts-and-human-trials-in-alpha-1-antitrypsin-deficiency-liver-disease
#20
Jeffrey H Teckman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Seminars in Liver Disease
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