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Seminars in Liver Disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28564725/disorders-in-hepatic-copper-secretion-wilson-s-disease-and-pleomorphic-syndromes
#1
Vasiliki Lalioti, Akihito Tsubota, Ignacio V Sandoval
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28564724/epigenetics-in-the-primary-biliary-cholangitis-and-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis
#2
Angela C Cheung, Nicholas F LaRusso, Gregory J Gores, Konstantinos N Lazaridis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28564723/emerging-concepts-and-human-trials-in-alpha-1-antitrypsin-deficiency-liver-disease
#3
Jeffrey H Teckman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28564722/update-on-the-mechanisms-of-liver-regeneration
#4
Morgan E Preziosi, Satdarshan P Monga
Liver possesses many critical functions such as synthesis, detoxification, and metabolism. It continually receives nutrient-rich blood from gut, which incidentally is also toxin-rich. That may be why liver is uniquely bestowed with a capacity to regenerate. A commonly studied procedure to understand the cellular and molecular basis of liver regeneration is that of surgical resection. Removal of two-thirds of the liver in rodents or patients instigates alterations in hepatic homeostasis, which are sensed by the deficient organ to drive the restoration process...
May 2017: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28564721/the-human-gut-microbiome-in-liver-diseases
#5
Brian C Davis, Jasmohan S Bajaj
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28564720/inflammasomes-in-liver-fibrosis
#6
Fernando Alegre, Pablo Pelegrin, Ariel E Feldstein
Cell death and inflammation are two central elements in the development of liver fibrosis. Inflammasomes are intracellular multiprotein complexes expressed in both hepatocytes and nonparenchymal cells in the liver that are key regulators of inflammation and cell fate. They respond to cellular danger signals by activating caspase 1, releasing the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18, as well as initiating a novel pathway of programmed cell death termed "pyroptosis." These processes can initiate and perpetuate an abnormal wound-healing response with the principle cellular target being the activation of hepatic stellate cells...
May 2017: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28564719/immunotolerance-in-liver-transplantation
#7
Sotiris Mastoridis, Marc Martinez-Llordella, Alberto Sanchez-Fueyo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28564718/clinical-trial-design-for-immune-based-therapy-of-hepatitis-b-virus
#8
Upkar S Gill, Antonio Bertoletti
The treatment paradigm in hepatitis B virus is on the cusp of major development, with a multitude of novel agents undergoing testing for clinical efficacy. Such new immune therapies are urgently required for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus. The current direct antiviral therapies, although able to control viral replication and limit the progression to cirrhosis, require lifelong administration due to frequent viral rebound on treatment cessation, and immune modulation with interferon is only effective in a subpopulation of patients...
May 2017: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28564717/the-importance-of-facts-and-the-role-of-academic-publishers-in-today-s-world-a-publisher-s-view
#9
Daniel Schiff
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388736/liver-cancer-emergence-associated-with-antiviral-treatment-an-immune-surveillance-failure
#10
María Reig, Loreto Boix, Zoe Mariño, Ferran Torres, Xavier Forns, Jordi Bruix
The availability of new direct antiviral agents to safely and effectively treat the hepatitis C virus represents a major advancement in the field of liver disease. Most patients achieve complete viral eradication sustained over time. In addition, the administration of these new agents is safe and does not require limitations when liver function is impaired. Some now expect the hepatitis C virus to be completely eradicated in a few years. However, not all data are positive. In April 2016, we published a cohort study suggesting that viral eradication with the new agents could be associated in time with the emergence of recurrent cancer sites in patients previously treated for hepatocellular carcinoma...
May 2017: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201851/the-design-of-clinical-trials-in-portal-hypertension
#11
Juan G Abraldes, Guadalupe Garcia-Tsao
Portal hypertension (PH) is the main consequence of cirrhosis and is responsible for the majority of its complications. Gastroesophageal varices and variceal hemorrhage are direct consequences of PH; therefore, most clinical trials in PH have been directed toward treating or preventing variceal hemorrhage. However, varices and variceal hemorrhage are not isolated events; they must be considered in the context of the presence (or absence) of other complications of cirrhosis/PH. Cirrhosis progresses across different stages, each with a different prognosis and pathophysiology and hence different therapeutic targets...
February 2017: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201850/novel-treatment-strategies-for-primary-biliary-cholangitis
#12
Albert Parés
Despite the presumed immunological pathogenesis of primary biliary cholangitis, no clear or even harmful consequences have resulted from treatments designed to modify the immunological condition. Ursodeoxycholic acid (13-16 mg/kg/d) has, however, clear favorable effects that not only improve biochemical cholestasis, but also delay histological progression. Long-term treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid is associated with excellent transplant-free survival in cases showing a biochemical response at 1 year. Data on the effects of obeticholic acid and fibrates are encouraging...
February 2017: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201849/the-role-of-value-based-care-in-patients-with-cirrhosis
#13
Michael L Volk
Value-based care means delivering high-quality care while keeping costs at a reasonable level. Many physicians have long viewed quality care and the responsible utilization of resources to be an integral part of their professional responsibilities. As the health care system changes, however, physicians are increasingly being asked to objectively demonstrate value. In this review article, the author describes the reimbursement and regulatory shift toward value-based care, and provides specific strategies for meeting this care...
February 2017: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201848/new-advances-in-polycystic-liver-diseases
#14
A Santos-Laso, L Izquierdo-Sánchez, P Y Lee-Law, M J Perugorria, M Marzioni, J J G Marin, L Bujanda, J M Banales
Polycystic liver diseases (PLDs) include a heterogeneous group of congenital disorders inherited as dominant or recessive genetic traits; they are manifested alone or in association with polycystic kidney disease. Ductal plate malformation during embryogenesis and the loss of heterozygosity linked to second-hit mutations may promote the dilatation and/or development of a large number (> 20) of biliary cysts, which are the main cause of morbidity in these patients. Surgical procedures aimed to eliminate symptomatic cysts show short-term beneficial effects, but are not able to block the disease progression...
February 2017: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201847/the-differentiation-of-intestinal-failure-associated-liver-disease-from-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-and-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#15
Alan L Buchman, Bita V Naini, Bert Spilker
Intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD), formerly known as parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease has often been listed in textbooks as an example of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the etiology, pathophysiology, epidemiology, histology, and progression differ substantially between the conditions defined as NAFLD and the disease, IFALD. Therefore, IFALD should not be defined or considered as a type or a cause of nonalcoholic fatty liver or nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, but rather as a distinct disease...
February 2017: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201846/hemostasis-in-acute-and-chronic-liver-disease
#16
Armando Tripodi
Acute and chronic liver diseases have long been considered prototypes of acquired hemorrhagic diseases. Over the last decade, evidence stemming from the laboratory bench and clinical practice has indicated that hemostasis abnormalities, until recently considered as the cause of bleeding in these conditions, are rebalanced to normal despite the abnormal results of the hemostasis tests such as prothrombin time and platelet counts. Consequently, the commonly used therapeutic approach-the infusion of plasma, platelets, or other prohemostatic agents-are not biologically plausible and should be reconsidered...
February 2017: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201845/regenerative-medicine-and-the-biliary-tree
#17
Thiago M De Assuncao, Nidhi Jalan-Sakrikar, Robert C Huebert
Despite decades of basic research, biliary diseases remain prevalent, highly morbid, and notoriously difficult to treat. We have, however, dramatically increased our understanding of biliary developmental biology, cholangiocyte pathophysiology, and the endogenous mechanisms of biliary regeneration and repair. All of this complex and rapidly evolving knowledge coincides with an explosion of new technological advances in the area of regenerative medicine. New breakthroughs such as induced pluripotent stem cells and organoid culture are increasingly being applied to the biliary system; it is only a matter of time until new regenerative therapeutics for the cholangiopathies are unveiled...
February 2017: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201844/the-role-of-akt-in-chronic-liver-disease-and-liver-regeneration
#18
Manuel Morales-Ruiz, Ansgar Santel, Jordi Ribera, Wladimiro Jiménez
The liver is continuously exposed to diverse insults, which may culminate in pathological processes causing liver disease. An effective therapeutic strategy for chronic liver disease should control the causal factors of the disease and stimulate functional liver regeneration. Preclinical studies have shown that interventions aimed at maintaining Akt activity in a dysfunctional liver meet most of the criteria. Although the central function of Akt is cell survival, other cellular aspects such as glucose uptake, glycogen synthesis, cell-cycle progression, and lipid metabolism have been shown to be prominent functions of Akt in the context of hepatic physiology...
February 2017: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201843/regression-of-liver-fibrosis
#19
Lara Campana, John P Iredale
Liver fibrosis is the final common pathway of chronic or iterative liver damage. Advanced chronic fibrosis is described as cirrhosis with a loss of architecture and attendant functional failure and the development of life-threatening complications. However, compelling evidence from rodent models and human studies indicates that if the injury is removed liver fibrosis is reversible. Hepatocytes, activated hepatic stellate cells, endothelial and immune cells, particularly macrophages, cooperate in the establishment and resolution of liver fibrosis...
February 2017: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997977/regulation-of-hepatocellular-fatty-acid-uptake-in-mouse-models-of-fatty-liver-disease-with-and-without-functional-leptin-signaling-roles-of-nfkb-and-srebp-1c-and-the-effects-of-spexin
#20
Jasmine F Ge, J L Walewski, D Anglade, P D Berk
The processes causing increased hepatic triglycerides (TGs) in mouse models of hepatic steatosis (HS) due to high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity (DIO), EtOH consumption, or obesity mutations (ob/ob, db/db) are uncertain. This report summarizes two studies. Study 1 focused on regulation by five transcription factors (TFs) (NfKb, Srebp-lc, AMPK, PPARα, PPARγ) of seven, much-studied hepatic long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) transporters (FABPpm, CD36, FATPl, FATP2, FATP4, FATP5, & Caveolin-1 [CAV-1]), and expression of genes for enzymes of LCFA synthesis (SCD-1, FASN) in mice with HS from various causes...
September 2016: Seminars in Liver Disease
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