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Sophie C Cheshire, Ruth E Board, Alexandra R Lewis, Laxminarayan D Gudur, Michael J Dobson
Pembrolizumab is a programmed cell death protein 1, or PD-1, inhibitor therapy immunotherapy for patients with advanced melanoma. This report discusses a series of documented cases of sarcoid-like reactions associated with this therapy. Three patients with malignant melanoma developed metastatic disease and were treated with pembrolizumab immunotherapy. Subsequent imaging showed lymphadenopathy in the mediastinum and hilar regions that was confirmed to represent a sarcoid-like reaction at histologic examination...
August 14, 2018: Radiology
Xiaokai Mo, Shuixing Zhang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 14, 2018: Radiology
Ramin Hamidizadeh, Arash Eftekhari, E Ashley Wiley, Don Wilson, Tina Alden, François Bénard
Purpose To investigate the relationship of 24- and 48-hour metformin discontinuation to bowel uptake of fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) on PET/CT scans. Materials and Methods Patients with diabetes who were treated with metformin and referred for FDG PET/CT were randomized to three equal groups based on duration of metformin discontinuation: 24 hours, 48 hours, and no discontinuation (control group). Two interpreters blinded to the study groups assessed FDG uptake in multiple segments of small and large bowel qualitatively and semiquantitatively by using maximum standardized uptake values (SUVsmax )...
August 14, 2018: Radiology
Andrew S Mikhail, William F Pritchard, Ayele H Negussie, Venkatesh P Krishnasamy, Daniel B Amchin, John G Thompson, Paul G Wakim, David Woods, Ivane Bakhutashvili, Juan A Esparza-Trujillo, John W Karanian, Sean L Willis, Andrew L Lewis, Elliot B Levy, Bradford J Wood
Purpose To correlate bead location and attenuation on CT images with the quantity and distribution of drug delivered to the liver following transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) with radiopaque drug-eluting beads (DEB) in a rabbit tumor model. Materials and Methods All procedures were performed with a protocol approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. TACE was performed in rabbits (n = 4) bearing VX2 liver tumors by using radiopaque DEB (70-150 µm) loaded with doxorubicin (DOX). Livers were resected 1 hour after embolization, immediately frozen, and cut by using liver-specific three-dimensional-printed molds for colocalization of liver specimens and CT imaging...
August 14, 2018: Radiology
Karoly A Viragh, Seth A Cohen, Luyao Shen, Nicole Kurzbard-Roach, Shlomo Raz, Steven S Raman
Purpose To evaluate the performance of translabial (TL) US in preoperative detection of sling erosion into pelvic organs with cystourethroscopic and surgical correlation. Materials and Methods The study cohort included women who underwent surgery at a subspecialty center (from 2008 to 2016) for suspected mesh complications in the setting of previous midurethral sling placement for stress urinary incontinence (from 1999 to 2012) with available preoperative TL US imaging. Clinical information, the finding of sling erosion identified intraoperatively and at cystourethroscopy, and blinded dual-reader radiologic analysis of the TL US studies for mesh location (intraluminal, mural, or extramural) relative to pelvic organs (bladder, urethra, vagina, or rectum) were evaluated...
August 14, 2018: Radiology
Jin Wook Chung, Hyo-Cheol Kim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 14, 2018: Radiology
Wen-Hui Chan, Yen-Ling Huang, Chieh Lin, Chia-Yu Lin, Ming-Huei Cheng, Sung-Yu Chu
Purpose To evaluate the feasibility of cutaneous and subcutaneous limb tissue elasticity measurement in participants with limb lymphedema by using acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography. Materials and Methods From July 2015 to June 2017, ARFI elastography was performed in 64 participants with lymphedema (seven men and 57 women; age range, 23-85 years) by using a US system. Tissue stiffness quantification with shear-wave velocity (SWV) was obtained in the cutaneous and subcutaneous limb tissues...
August 14, 2018: Radiology
Steve Y Cho
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 14, 2018: Radiology
Carol B Benson, Catherine H Phillips
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 14, 2018: Radiology
Nathan Banaste, Bérénice Caurier, Flavie Bratan, Jean-François Bergerot, Vivien Thomson, Ingrid Millet
Purpose To determine radiologic and clinical markers predictive of missed injuries at early whole-body CT image interpretation. Materials and Methods For this retrospective study, 2354 consecutive whole-body CT examinations were performed in patients with multiple traumas from 26 hospitals interpreted at a teleradiology center study during on-call period from February 2011 to September 2016. All whole-body CT images were interpreted by the on-call radiologist and reviewed within 12-48 hours by another radiologist to detect missed injury as the standard of reference...
August 7, 2018: Radiology
David J Breen, Alexander J King, Nirav Patel, Richard Lockyer, Matthew Hayes
Purpose To evaluate the long-term efficacy of image-guided cryoablation of sporadic clinical T1 (cT1) biopsy-proven renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and the technical success and safety of all cryoablation treatments. Materials and Methods For this retrospective single-institution study, 433 patients (median age, 68 years; range, 19-90 years), of whom 293 were men (median age, 69 years; range, 19-90 years) and 140 were women (median age, 68 years; range, 30-89 years), who had 484 cT1 renal masses (mean size, 33 mm) and who were treated between 2007 and 2016 were identified from a prospectively maintained tumor registry...
August 7, 2018: Radiology
Christos S Georgiades
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 7, 2018: Radiology
Bettina Baessler, Christian Luecke, Julia Lurz, Karin Klingel, Maximilian von Roeder, Suzanne de Waha, Christian Besler, David Maintz, Matthias Gutberlet, Holger Thiele, Philipp Lurz
Purpose To assess the diagnostic potential of texture analysis applied to T1 and T2 maps obtained with cardiac MRI for the diagnosis of acute infarctlike myocarditis. Materials and Methods This prospective study from August 2012 to May 2015 included 39 participants (overall mean age ± standard deviation, 34.7 years ± 12.2 [range, 18-63 years]; mean age of women, 46.1 years ± 10.8 [range, 24-63 years]; mean age of men, 29.8 years ± 9.2 [range, 18-56 years]) from the Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Myocarditis (MyoRacer) trial with clinical suspicion of acute myocarditis and infarctlike presentation...
August 7, 2018: Radiology
Ryan P Gately, Muddassir B Rashid
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 7, 2018: Radiology
Kyung Hee Lee, Ji Hoon Park, Young Hoon Kim, Kyung Won Lee, Jin Won Kim, Heung-Kwon Oh, Jong-June Jeon, Hyuk Yoon, Jihang Kim, Kyoung Ho Lee
Purpose To measure the diagnostic yield and false-referral rate (FRR) of staging contrast material-enhanced chest CT based on the clinical stage from contrast-enhanced abdominal CT in patients with colon cancer. Materials and Methods This retrospective study included 1743 patients (mean age, 63.4 years; range, 18-96 years) with a diagnosis of colon cancer. The primary outcomes were diagnostic yield and FRR of contrast-enhanced chest CT in the detection of thoracic metastasis. The proportions of patients with occult thoracic metastasis and those undergoing pulmonary metastasectomy for true-positive metastases were key secondary outcomes...
August 7, 2018: Radiology
Robert A Novelline
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 7, 2018: Radiology
Roy P Marcus, Joel G Fletcher, Andrea Ferrero, Shuai Leng, Ahmed F Halaweish, Ralf Gutjahr, Terri J Vrtiska, Mike L Wells, Felicity T Enders, Cynthia H McCollough
Purpose To compare a research photon-counting-detector (PCD) CT scanner to a dual-source, dual-energy CT scanner for the detection and characterization of renal stones in human participants with known stones. Materials and Methods Thirty study participants (median age, 61 years; 10 women) underwent a clinical renal stone characterization scan by using dual-energy CT and a subsequent research PCD CT scan by using the same radiation dose (as represented by volumetric CT dose index). Two radiologists were tasked with detection of stones, which were later characterized as uric acid or non-uric acid by using a commercial dual-energy CT analysis package...
August 7, 2018: Radiology
Fang Liu, Zhaoye Zhou, Alexey Samsonov, Donna Blankenbaker, Will Larison, Andrew Kanarek, Kevin Lian, Shivkumar Kambhampati, Richard Kijowski
Purpose To determine the feasibility of using a deep learning approach to detect cartilage lesions (including cartilage softening, fibrillation, fissuring, focal defects, diffuse thinning due to cartilage degeneration, and acute cartilage injury) within the knee joint on MR images. Materials and Methods A fully automated deep learning-based cartilage lesion detection system was developed by using segmentation and classification convolutional neural networks (CNNs). Fat-suppressed T2-weighted fast spin-echo MRI data sets of the knee of 175 patients with knee pain were retrospectively analyzed by using the deep learning method...
July 31, 2018: Radiology
Jonathan R Weir-McCall, Philipp Blanke, Christopher Naoum, Victoria Delgado, Jeroen J Bax, Jonathon Leipsic
The role of noninvasive imaging to help guide transcatheter aortic valvular interventions is well established and has grown with the advances in the procedure. With the rapid development of new transcatheter mitral valve interventions there is both an opportunity and a challenge for noninvasive imaging to grow understanding of mitral valve anatomy and disease, help with patient selection, and improve downstream clinical outcomes. This review will discuss the role of both echocardiography and multidetector CT in the diagnosis of mitral regurgitation, as well as grading of its severity and defining its etiology...
July 31, 2018: Radiology
Steven Kecskemeti, Alexey Samsonov, Julia Velikina, Aaron S Field, Patrick Turski, Howard Rowley, Janet E Lainhart, Andrew L Alexander
Purpose To develop and evaluate a retrospective method to minimize motion artifacts in structural MRI. Materials and Methods The motion-correction strategy was developed for three-dimensional radial data collection and demonstrated with MPnRAGE, a technique that acquires high-resolution volumetric magnetization-prepared rapid gradient-echo, or MPRAGE, images with multiple tissue contrasts. Forty-four pediatric participants (32 with autism spectrum disorder [mean age ± standard deviation, 13 years ± 3] and 12 age-matched control participants [mean age, 12 years ± 3]) were imaged without sedation...
July 31, 2018: Radiology
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