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Neena Kapoor, Daniel M Blumenthal, Stacy E Smith, Ivan K Ip, Ramin Khorasani
Purpose To determine whether there were sex differences in full professorship after accounting for factors known to influence academic advancement. Materials and Methods Institutional review board approval was obtained for this HIPAA-compliant study, with waiver of informed consent. In this cross-sectional study, the authors used a comprehensive 2014 physician database (5089 academic radiologists, inclusive of all U.S. academic radiologists in 2014; 11.3% of all U.S. radiologists) containing information on physician age, years since residency, National Institutes of Health funding, scientific publications (first or last author and total), clinical trial investigation, and clinical volume measured according to 2013 Medicare reimbursement...
October 21, 2016: Radiology
Ai Ueki, Tomohisa Okuma, Shinichi Hamamoto, Yukio Miki
Purpose To evaluate survival time with concurrent, combined use of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and one of the commonly used platinum-doublet chemotherapies (cisplatin [CDDP]/paclitaxel [PTX], CDDP/vinorelbine [VNR], CDDP/adriamycin [ADR], or CDDP/pemetrexed [MTA] combinations) by using a rabbit VX2 lung tumor model. Materials and Methods The experiment was approved by the institutional animal care committee. VX2 cells were implanted into the lungs of 60 rabbits randomized into groups treated with supportive care (control group), RFA alone, chemotherapy alone (CDDP/PTX, CDDP/VNR, CDDP/ADR, or CDDP/MTA), or a combination of RFA and chemotherapy (RFA/CDDP/PTX, RFA/CDDP/VNR, RFA/CDDP/ADR, or RFA/CDDP/MTA)...
October 21, 2016: Radiology
Neema Jamshidi, Danshan Huang, Fereidoun G Abtin, Christopher T Loh, Stephen T Kee, Robert D Suh, Shota Yamamoto, Kingshuk Das, Sarah Dry, Scott Binder, Dieter R Enzmann, Michael D Kuo
Purpose To identify the variables and factors that affect the quantity and quality of nucleic acid yields from imaging-guided core needle biopsy. Materials and Methods This study was approved by the institutional review board and compliant with HIPAA. The authors prospectively obtained 232 biopsy specimens from 74 patients (177 ex vivo biopsy samples from surgically resected masses were obtained from 49 patients and 55 in vivo lung biopsy samples from computed tomographic [CT]-guided lung biopsies were obtained from 25 patients) and quantitatively measured DNA and RNA yields with respect to needle gauge, number of needle passes, and percentage of the needle core...
October 18, 2016: Radiology
Emily Etchell, Lauriane Jugé, Alice Hatt, Ralph Sinkus, Lynne E Bilston
Purpose To determine if healthy hepatic mechanical properties differ between pediatric and adult subjects at magnetic resonance (MR) elastography. Materials and Methods Liver shear moduli in 24 healthy pediatric participants (13 children aged 5-14 years [seven boys, six girls] and 11 adolescents aged 15-18 years [six boys, five girls]) and 10 healthy adults (aged 22-36 years [five men, five women]) were obtained with 3-T MR elastography at 28, 56, and 84 Hz. Relationships between shear moduli and age were assessed with Spearman correlations...
October 17, 2016: Radiology
Charles S White, Ekta Dharaiya, Erin Campbell, Lilla Boroczky
Purpose To assess the likelihood of malignancy among a subset of nodules in the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) by using a risk calculator based on nodule and patient characteristics. Materials and Methods All authors received approval for use of NLST data. An institutional review board exemption and a waiver for informed consent were granted to the author with an academic appointment. Nodule characteristics and patient attributes with regard to benign and malignant nodules in the NLST were applied to a nodule risk calculator from a group in Vancouver, Canada...
October 13, 2016: Radiology
Matthew E Brice, Marisa Gossweiler, Larry Bennett
Artifacts are universal across all imaging modalities, varying in their conspicuity and significance. In this report three patients with pathology-proven breast cancer who had densities masquerading as microcalcifications at the resection margins of the lumpectomy specimens, but had negative microscopic margins, will be discussed. It was determined that these pseudocalcifications were the result of ink precipitates from a commonly utilized tissue marking dye. This artifact was further evaluated and reproduced by utilizing a boneless chicken breast as a phantom...
October 13, 2016: Radiology
Yuko Y Inoue, Bharath Ambale-Venkatesh, Nathan Mewton, Gustavo J Volpe, Yoshiaki Ohyama, Ravi K Sharma, Colin O Wu, Chia-Ying Liu, David A Bluemke, Elsayed Z Soliman, João A C Lima, Hiroshi Ashikaga
Purpose To examine the associations of myocardial diffuse fibrosis and scar with surface electrocardiographic (ECG) parameters in individuals free of prior coronary heart disease in four different ethnicities. Materials and Methods This prospective cross-sectional study was approved by the institutional review boards, and all participants gave informed consent. A total of 1669 participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, or MESA, who were free of prior myocardial infarction underwent both ECG and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging...
October 13, 2016: Radiology
Tahreema N Matin, Najib Rahman, Annabel H Nickol, Mitchell Chen, Xiaojun Xu, Neil J Stewart, Tom Doel, Vicente Grau, James M Wild, Fergus V Gleeson
Purpose To compare lobar ventilation and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values obtained with hyperpolarized xenon 129 ((129)Xe) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to quantitative computed tomography (CT) metrics on a lobar basis and pulmonary function test (PFT) results on a whole-lung basis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Materials and Methods The study was approved by the National Research Ethics Service Committee; written informed consent was obtained from all patients. Twenty-two patients with COPD (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stage II-IV) underwent hyperpolarized (129)Xe MR imaging at 1...
October 12, 2016: Radiology
George A Carberry, Elisabetta Nocerino, Peter J Mason, Denise J Schwahn, Scott Hetzel, Alyssa M Turnquist, Fred T Lee, Christopher L Brace
Purpose To determine how close to the heart pulmonary microwave ablation can be performed without causing cardiac tissue injury or significant arrhythmia. Materials and Methods The study was performed with approval from the institutional animal care and use committee. Computed tomographic fluoroscopically guided microwave ablation of the lung was performed in 12 swine. Antennas were randomized to either parallel (180° ± 20°) or perpendicular (90° ± 20°) orientation relative to the heart surface and to distances of 0-10 mm from the heart...
October 12, 2016: Radiology
Suraj D Serai, Jonathan R Dillman, Andrew T Trout
Purpose To compare two-dimensional (2D) gradient-recalled echo (GRE) and 2D spin-echo (SE) echo-planar imaging (EPI) magnetic resonance (MR) elastography for measurement of hepatic stiffness in pediatric and young adult patients suspected of having liver disease. Materials and Methods In this institutional review board-approved, HIPAA-compliant study, 58 patients underwent both 2D GRE and 2D SE-EPI MR elastography at 1.5 T during separate breath holds. Liver stiffness (mean of means; in kilopascals) was measured by five blinded reviewers...
October 10, 2016: Radiology
Simon Veldhoen, Andreas M Weng, Janine Knapp, Andreas S Kunz, Daniel Stäb, Clemens Wirth, Florian Segerer, Helge Hebestreit, Uwe Malzahn, Herbert Köstler, Thorsten A Bley
Purpose To assess the clinical feasibility of self-gated non-contrast-enhanced functional lung (SENCEFUL) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for quantitative ventilation (QV) imaging in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Materials and Methods Twenty patients with CF and 20 matched healthy volunteers underwent functional 1.5-T lung MR imaging with the SENCEFUL imaging approach, in which a two-dimensional fast low-angle shot sequence is used with quasi-random sampling. The lungs were manually segmented on the ventilation-weighted images to obtain QV measurements, which were compared between groups...
October 6, 2016: Radiology
Min Sun Bae, Su Hyun Lee, A Jung Chu, Sung Ui Shin, Han Suk Ryu, Woo Kyung Moon
Purpose To determine additional cancer yield of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in women with breast cancer detected at screening ultrasonography (US) and to identify a subgroup of women who are likely to benefit from preoperative MR imaging. Materials and Methods This study was approved by the institutional review board, and the requirement for informed consent was waived. A retrospective review of 374 women (median age, 48 years; age range, 30-74 years) with breast cancer detected at screening US (invasive, n = 321) who underwent preoperative breast MR imaging between 2007 and 2013 was performed...
October 6, 2016: Radiology
Cindy Mai, Stijn E Verleden, John E McDonough, Stijn Willems, Walter De Wever, Johan Coolen, Adriana Dubbeldam, Dirk E Van Raemdonck, Eric K Verbeken, Geert M Verleden, James C Hogg, Bart M Vanaudenaerde, Wim A Wuyts, Johny A Verschakelen
Purpose To elucidate the underlying lung changes responsible for the computed tomographic (CT) features of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and to gain insight into the way IPF proceeds through the lungs and progresses over time. Materials and Methods Micro-CT studies of tissue cores obtained from explant lungs were examined and were correlated 1:1 with a CT study obtained immediately before transplantation. Samples for histologic analysis were obtained from selected cores. Results In areas with no or minimal abnormalities on CT images, small areas of increased attenuation located in or near the interlobular septa can be seen on micro-CT studies...
October 6, 2016: Radiology
Jae-Hun Kim, Eun Sook Ko, Yaeji Lim, Kyung Soo Lee, Boo-Kyung Han, Eun Young Ko, Soo Yeon Hahn, Seok Jin Nam
Purpose To determine the relationship between tumor heterogeneity assessed by means of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging texture analysis and survival outcomes in patients with primary breast cancer. Materials and Methods Between January and August 2010, texture analysis of the entire primary breast tumor in 203 patients was performed with T2-weighted and contrast material-enhanced T1-weighted subtraction MR imaging for preoperative staging. Histogram-based uniformity and entropy were calculated. To dichotomize texture parameters for survival analysis, the 10-fold cross-validation method was used to determine cutoff points in the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis...
October 4, 2016: Radiology
Kai Jiang, Christopher M Ferguson, Behzad Ebrahimi, Hui Tang, Timothy L Kline, Tyson A Burningham, Prassana K Mishra, Joseph P Grande, Slobodan I Macura, Lilach O Lerman
Purpose To test the utility of magnetization transfer imaging in detecting and monitoring the progression of renal fibrosis in mice with unilateral renal artery stenosis. Materials and Methods This prospective study was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Renal artery stenosis surgery (n = 10) or sham surgery (n = 5) was performed, and the stenotic and contralateral kidneys were studied longitudinally in vivo at baseline and 2, 4, and 6 weeks after surgery. After a 16.4-T magnetic resonance imaging examination, magnetization transfer ratio was measured as an index of fibrosis (guided by parameters selected in preliminary phantom studies)...
October 3, 2016: Radiology
Jeong Hee Yoon, Jeong Min Lee, Eunju Kim, Tomoyuki Okuaki, Joon Koo Han
Purpose To determine whether B1 inhomogeneity-corrected volumetric T1 maps of gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver magnetic resonance (MR) imaging are able to demonstrate global liver function and functional heterogeneity in patients with cirrhosis and to investigate their relationship with the development of hepatic insufficiency and decompensation. Materials and Methods This institutional review board-approved retrospective study with waiver of informed consent included 234 consecutive patients who underwent gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MR imaging, including B1 inhomogeneity-corrected volumetric T1 mapping...
October 3, 2016: Radiology
Bashir Zikria, Nima Hafezi-Nejad, Frank W Roemer, Ali Guermazi, Shadpour Demehri
Purpose To investigate the risk of radiographic joint space narrowing (JSN) progression evaluated in subjects with and those without underlying osteoarthritis at baseline and knee replacement (KR) associated with meniscal surgery in subjects with and those without a reported history of preceding knee trauma. Materials and Methods The HIPAA-compliant protocol was approved by the institutional review boards of the participating centers. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants. Subjects who underwent meniscal surgery with a preceding knee trauma at baseline (n = 564) and those without (n = 147) were drawn from the Osteoarthritis Initiative cohort (n = 4796)...
October 3, 2016: Radiology
Marc Dilauro, Matthew D F McInnes, Nicola Schieda, Ania Z Kielar, Raman Verma, Cynthia Walsh, Andrey Vizhul, William Petrcich, Joseph Mamazza
Purpose To evaluate the accuracy of computed tomography (CT) for diagnosis of internal hernia (IH) in patients who have undergone laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and to develop decision tree models to optimize diagnostic accuracy. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective, ethics-approved study of patients who had undergone laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass with surgically confirmed IH (n = 76) and without IH (n = 78). Two radiologists independently reviewed each examination for the following previously established CT signs of IH: mesenteric swirl, small-bowel obstruction (SBO), mushroom sign, clustered loops, hurricane eye, small bowel behind the superior mesenteric artery, and right-sided anastomosis...
September 30, 2016: Radiology
Annika Reddig, Mahsa Fatahi, Dirk Roggenbuck, Jens Ricke, Dirk Reinhold, Oliver Speck, Björn Friebe
Purpose To determine the impact of different magnetic field strengths (1, 1.5, 3, and 7 T) and the effect of contrast agent on DNA double-strand-break (DSB) formation in patients undergoing magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Materials and Methods This in vivo study was approved by the local ethics committee, and written informed consent was obtained from each patient. To analyze the level of DNA DSBs, peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from blood samples drawn directly before, as well as 5 minutes and 30 minutes after MR imaging examination...
September 30, 2016: Radiology
Izabela Aleksanderek, Stuart M K McGregor, Todd K Stevens, Sandy Goncalves, Robert Bartha, Neil Duggal
Purpose To characterize longitudinal metabolite alterations in the motor cortex of patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) by using proton magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy and to evaluate white matter integrity with diffusion-tensor imaging in patients who are recovering neurologic function after decompression surgery. Materials and Methods Informed written consent was obtained for all procedures and the study was approved by Western University's Health Sciences Research Ethics Board. Twenty-eight patients with CSM and 10 healthy control subjects were prospectively recruited and underwent two separate 3-T MR imaging examinations 6 months apart...
September 30, 2016: Radiology
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