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Prostate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093792/prognostic-role-of-preoperative-serum-lipid-levels-in-patients-undergoing-radical-prostatectomy-for-clinically-localized-prostate-cancer
#1
Marian S Wettstein, Karim Saba, Martin H Umbehr, Teemu J Murtola, Christian D Fankhauser, Jean-Pascal Adank, Marc Hofmann, Tullio Sulser, Thomas Hermanns, Holger Moch, Peter Wild, Cédric Poyet
BACKGROUND: The prognostic role of preoperative serum lipid levels in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP) for clinically localized prostate cancer (PCa) is unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate preoperative serum lipid levels in patients with clinically localized PCa undergoing RP and their association with clinicopathological features and oncological outcome. METHODS: Preoperative lipid levels (total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides) and statin use from consecutive patients with clinically localized PCa undergoing RP in a tertiary referral center between 2008 and 2015 were recorded and patients were followed prospectively...
January 17, 2017: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093791/local-therapy-improves-overall-survival-in-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-metastatic-prostate-cancer
#2
Rahul R Parikh, John Byun, Sharad Goyal, Isaac Yi Kim
BACKGROUND: The role of local therapy, in the form of radiation therapy (RT) or radical prostatectomy(RP), and its association on outcomes is not well established in patients with metastatic prostate cancer. METHODS: Using the National Cancer Database (NCDB), we evaluated patterns of care and outcomes among patients diagnosed with metastatic prostate cancer from 2004 to 2013 treated with local therapy (RP, intensity-modulated radiation therapy [IMRT], or 2D/3D-conformal radiation therapy [CRT])...
January 17, 2017: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093789/chronic-infection-of-the-prostate-by-chlamydia-muridarum-is-accompanied-by-local-inflammation-and-pelvic-pain-development
#3
Leonardo R Sanchez, Maria L Breser, Gloria J Godoy, Florencia C Salazar, Juan P Mackern-Oberti, Cecilia Cuffini, Ruben D Motrich, Virginia E Rivero
BACKGROUND: Chlamydia trachomatis urogenital infections are the leading cause of sexually transmitted bacterial infections. Although the prevalence of chlamydial infection is similar in men and women, current research is mainly focused on women, neglecting the study of male genital tract infections. We, therefore, investigated Chlamydia infection in the rodent male genital tract. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male NOD and C57BL/6 mice were inoculated in the meatus urethra with C...
January 17, 2017: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093788/north-american-population-based-validation-of-the-national-comprehensive-cancer-network-practice-guideline-recommendation-of-pelvic-lymphadenectomy-in-contemporary-prostate-cancer
#4
Sami-Ramzi Leyh-Bannurah, Lars Budäus, Raisa Pompe, Emanuele Zaffuto, Alberto Briganti, Firas Abdollah, Francesco Montorsi, Jonas Schiffmann, Mani Menon, Shahrokh F Shariat, Margit Fisch, Felix Chun, Hartwig Huland, Markus Graefen, Pierre I Karakiewicz
BACKGROUND: National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines recommend a pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) in prostate cancer (PCa) patients treated with radical prostatectomy (RP) if a nomogram predicted risk of lymph node invasion (LNI) is ≥2%. We examined this and other thresholds, including nomogram validation. METHODS: We examined records of 26,713 patients treated with RP and PLND between 2010 and 2013, within the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database...
January 17, 2017: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990667/clinical-correlates-of-benefit-from-radium-223-therapy-in-metastatic-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer
#5
Ajjai Alva, Luke Nordquist, Stephanie Daignault, Saby George, Jorge Ramos, Costantine Albany, Sudhir Isharwal, Matthew McDonald, Gregory Campbell, Pongwut Danchaivijitr, Sarah Yentz, Aseem Anand, Evan Y Yu
BACKGROUND: We sought to identify potential clinical variables associated with outcomes after radium-223 therapy in routine practice. METHODS: Consecutive non-trial mCRPC patients who received ≥1 dose of radium dichloride-223 at four academic and one community urology-specific cancer centers from May 2013 to June 2014 were retrospectively identified. Association of baseline and on-therapy clinical variables with number of radium doses received and clinical outcomes including overall survival were analyzed using chi-square statistics, cox proportional hazards, and Kaplan-Meier methods...
December 19, 2016: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990666/increased-intracellular-reactive-oxygen-species-mediates-the-anti-cancer-effects-of-wz35-via-activating-mitochondrial-apoptosis-pathway-in-prostate-cancer-cells
#6
Minxiao Chen, Bin Zhou, Peng Zhong, Vinothkumar Rajamanickam, Xuanxuan Dai, Kanchana Karvannan, Huiping Zhou, Xiuhua Zhang, Guang Liang
BACKGROUND: The limited treatment option for recurrent prostate cancer and eventual resistant to conventional chemotherapy drugs has fueled continued interest in finding new anti-neoplastic agents. WZ35, a chemical analog of curcumin, had been demonstrated to have high chemical stability and potential anticancer effects in gastric cancer cells. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-prostate cancer effects of WZ35 in vitro and in vivo as well as the underlying mechanism. METHODS: Two prostate cancer cell lines RM-1 and DU145 were utilized to test the anti-cancer effects of WZ35 and the underlying mechanism...
December 19, 2016: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990661/association-of-obesity-related-hemodilution-of-prostate-specific-antigen-dihydrotestosterone-and-testosterone
#7
Zachary Klaassen, Lauren E Howard, Daniel M Moreira, Gerald L Andriole, Martha K Terris, Stephen J Freedland
BACKGROUND: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) hemodilution is the leading theory for lower PSA values in obese men. However, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT), which are necessary for PSA production, are reduced in obese men. We assessed the relationship of body mass index (BMI) and PSA, taking into consideration the effect of testosterone and DHT. METHODS: Among 8,122 participants in Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events (REDUCE), complete data were available for 7,275...
December 19, 2016: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990656/exosomal-and-non-exosomal-urinary-mirnas-in-prostate-cancer-detection-and-prognosis
#8
Laura Foj, Ferran Ferrer, Marta Serra, Antonio Arévalo, Montserrat Gavagnach, Nuria Giménez, Xavier Filella
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding small RNAs, involved in post-transcriptional regulation of many target genes. METHODS: Five miRNAs that have been consistently found deregulated in PCa (miR-21, miR-141, miR-214, miR-375, and let-7c) were analyzed in urinary pellets from 60 prostate cancer (PCa) patients and 10 healthy subjects by qRT-PCR. Besides, urinary exosomes were isolated by differential centrifugation and analyzed for those miRNAs. RESULTS: Significant upregulation of miR-21, miR-141, and miR-375 was found comparing PCa patients with healthy subjects in urinary pellets, while miR-214 was found significantly downregulated...
December 19, 2016: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976415/up-regulation-of-follistatin-like-1-by-the-androgen-receptor-and-melanoma-antigen-a11-in-prostate-cancer
#9
Shifeng Su, Amanda B Parris, Gail Grossman, James L Mohler, Zengjun Wang, Elizabeth M Wilson
BACKGROUND: High affinity androgen binding to the androgen receptor (AR) activates genes required for male sex differentiation and promotes the development and progression of prostate cancer. Human AR transcriptional activity involves interactions with coregulatory proteins that include primate-specific melanoma antigen-A11 (MAGE-A11), a coactivator that increases AR transcriptional activity during prostate cancer progression to castration-resistant/recurrent prostate cancer (CRPC). METHODS: Microarray analysis and quantitative RT-PCR were performed to identify androgen-regulated MAGE-A11-dependent genes in LAPC-4 prostate cancer cells after lentivirus shRNA knockdown of MAGE-A11...
December 14, 2016: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976414/low-testosterone-alters-the-activity-of-mouse-prostate-stem-cells
#10
Ye Zhou, Ben Copeland, Maya Otto-Duessel, Miaoling He, Susan Markel, Tim W Synold, Jeremy O Jones
BACKGROUND: Low serum testosterone (low T) has been repeatedly linked to worse outcomes in men with newly diagnosed prostate cancer (PC). How low T contributes to these outcomes is unknown. Here we demonstrate that exposure to low T causes significant changes in the mouse prostate and prostate stem cells. METHODS: Mice were castrated and implanted with capsules to achieve castrate, normal, or sub-physiological levels of T. After 6 weeks of treatment, LC-MS/MS was used to quantify the levels of T and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in serum and prostate tissue...
December 14, 2016: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900799/tissue-sources-for-accurate-measurement-of-germline-dna-genotypes-in-prostate-cancer-patients-treated-with-radical-prostatectomy
#11
Nima C Emami, Lancelote Leong, Eunice Wan, Erin L Van Blarigan, Matthew R Cooperberg, Imelda Tenggara, Peter R Carroll, June M Chan, John S Witte, Jeffry P Simko
BACKGROUND: Benign tissue from a tumor-containing organ is commonly the only available source for obtaining a patient's unmutated genome for use in cancer research. While it is critical to identify histologically normal tissue that is independent of the tumor lineage, few additional considerations are applied to the choice of this material for such measurements. METHODS: Normal formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded seminal vesicle, and urethral tissues, in addition to whole blood, were collected from 31 prostate cancer patients having undergone radical prostatectomy...
November 30, 2016: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900797/evidence-for-feedback-regulation-following-cholesterol-lowering-therapy-in-a-prostate-cancer-xenograft-model
#12
Elizabeth M Masko, Mahmoud A Alfaqih, Keith R Solomon, William T Barry, Christopher B Newgard, Michael J Muehlbauer, Nikolaos A Valilis, Tameika E Phillips, Susan H Poulton, Alexis R Freedland, Stephanie Sun, Shweta K Dambal, Sergio E Sanders, Everardo Macias, Michael R Freeman, Mark W Dewhirst, Salvatore V Pizzo, Stephen J Freedland
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic data suggest cholesterol-lowering drugs may prevent the progression of prostate cancer, but not the incidence of the disease. However, the association of combination therapy in cholesterol reduction on prostate or any cancer is unclear. In this study, we compared the effects of the cholesterol lowering drugs simvastatin and ezetimibe alone or in combination on the growth of LAPC-4 prostate cancer in vivo xenografts. METHODS: Proliferation assays were conducted by MTS solution and assessed by Student's t-test...
November 30, 2016: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882567/autoantibodies-directed-against-the-endothelin-a-receptor-in-patients-with-benign-prostatic-hyperplasia
#13
Gerd Wallukat, Burkhard Jandrig, Rudolf Kunze, Johann J Wendler, Johannes Müller, Martin Schostak, Ingolf Schimke
BACKGROUND: Over-stimulation of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) such as α1-adrenergic, muscarinic, endothelin, and AT1 receptors is considered to drive benign prostatic hyperplasia (BHP) which is often associated with lower urinary tract syndrome (LUTS). However, in addition to physiologic GPCR ligands, there is a new class of autoantibodies called functional autoantibodies that target the same GPCRs (GPCR-AABs) for over-stimulation, thus, presenting pathogenic potency. We hypothesize that patients with BPH/LUTS could carry GPCR-AABs representing potential targets for treatment...
November 24, 2016: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868214/low-intratumoral-mast-cells-are-associated-with-a-higher-risk-of-prostate-cancer-recurrence
#14
Heidi A Hempel, Nathan S Cuka, Ibrahim Kulac, John R Barber, Toby C Cornish, Elizabeth A Platz, Angelo M De Marzo, Karen S Sfanos
BACKGROUND: Mast cells are of interest in prostate cancer because they possess both pro- and anti-tumorigenic properties and are present in the tumor microenvironment. We studied the association of mast cell count and densities with prostate cancer recurrence using tissue microarrays (TMAs) for 462 men who recurred (cases) and 462 controls that were matched to the cases nested in a cohort of radical prostatectomy patients. METHODS: Dual-immunostaining for mast cell tryptase and epithelial cytokeratin-8 and whole slide image analysis were used to assess total mast cell number, mast cell density (mast cell number/tissue area), and mast cell number per epithelial or stromal area in TMA spots containing tumor (up to 4 per man)...
November 21, 2016: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868212/myelodysplastic-syndromes-and-acute-myeloid-leukemia-after-radiotherapy-for-prostate-cancer-a-population-based-study
#15
Rong Wang, Amer M Zeidan, James B Yu, Pamela R Soulos, Amy J Davidoff, Steven D Gore, Scott F Huntington, Cary P Gross, Xiaomei Ma
BACKGROUND: To understand the impact of radiotherapy on the development of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) among elderly prostate cancer patients. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of elderly prostate cancer patients diagnosed during 1999-2011 by using the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare linked database. Competing risk analyses adjusting for patient characteristics were conducted to assess the impact of radiotherapy on the development of subsequent MDS/AML, compared with surgery...
November 21, 2016: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862129/anogenital-distance-a-biomarker-of-prenatal-androgen-exposure-is-associated-with-prostate-cancer-severity
#16
Ana B Maldonado-Cárceles, Carlos Sánchez-Rodríguez, Eva M Vera-Porras, Julián J Árense-Gonzalo, Julián Oñate-Celdrán, Paula Samper-Mateo, Damián García-Escudero, Marcos Torres-Roca, Francisco Martínez-Díaz, Jaime Mendiola, Alberto M Torres-Cantero
BACKGROUND: Anogenital distance (AGD), the distance from the centre of the anus to the genitals, is a sexually dimorphic phenotype in mammals. Experimental studies have shown that AGD is a biomarker of prenatal androgen exposure during the masculinisation period of development. The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between anogenital distance (AGD), as an indirect marker of prenatal hormonal environment, and prostate cancer (PCa) severity. MATERIALS: We conducted a cross-sectional study with a total of 120 PCa patients with confirmed biopsy of the tumour from April 2007 to July 2015...
November 16, 2016: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862105/blind-biobanking-of-the-prostatectomy-specimen-critical-evaluation-of-the-existing-techniques-and-development-of-the-new-4-level-tissue-extraction-model-with-high-sampling-efficacy
#17
Yuri Tolkach, Okyaz Eminaga, Fabian Wötzel, Sebastian Huss, Olaf Bettendorf, Elke Eltze, Mahmoud Abbas, Florian Imkamp, Axel Semjonow
BACKGROUND: Fresh tissue is mandatory to perform high-quality translation studies. Several models for tissue extraction from prostatectomy specimens without guidance by frozen sections are already introduced. However, little is known about the sampling efficacy of these models, which should provide representative tissue in adequate volumes, account for multifocality and heterogeneity of tumor, not violate the routine final pathological examination, and perform quickly without frozen section-based histological control...
November 16, 2016: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862097/phase-ib-trial-of-cabazitaxel-and-tasquinimod-in-men-with-heavily-pretreated-metastatic-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-mcrpc-the-catch-trial
#18
Andrew J Armstrong, Michael S Humeniuk, Patrick Healy, Russell Szmulewitz, Carolyn Winters, Julie Kephart, Michael R Harrison, Elia Martinez, Kelly Mundy, Susan Halabi, Daniel George
BACKGROUND: Tasquinimod is an immunomodulating and anti-antiangiogenic oral agent with anti-prostate cancer activity in preclinical studies and in clinical trials of men with metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), including single agent activity and in combination with taxanes. We sought to identify the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D) of tasquinimod in combination with cabazitaxel and prednisone in men with chemorefractory mCRPC. METHODS: Men with mCRPC who had failed prior docetaxel chemotherapy received cabazitaxel 25 mg/m(2) every 3 weeks with oral tasquinimod at 1 of 3 escalating dose levels (0...
November 16, 2016: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862100/role-of-epigenetic-modification-and-immunomodulation-in-a-murine-prostate-cancer-model
#19
Jay E Sulek, Samuel P Robinson, Albert A Petrossian, Shaoqing Zhou, Ekaterine Goliadze, Masoud H Manjili, Amir Toor, Georgi Guruli
INTRODUCTION: Decreased expression of highly immunogenic cancer-testis antigens (CTA) might help tumor to achieve low immunogenicity, escape immune surveillance and grow unimpeded. Our aim was to evaluate CTA expression in tumor and normal tissues and to investigate possible means of improving the immune response in a murine prostate cancer (CaP) model by using the combination of epigenetic modifier 5-azacitidine (5-AzaC) and immunomodulator lenalidomide. No study to date has examined the effect of this combination on the prostate cancer or its impact on antigen-presenting cells (APC)...
November 8, 2016: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862098/simvastatin-up-regulates-annexin-a10-that-can-inhibit-the-proliferation-migration-and-invasion-in-androgen-independent-human-prostate-cancer-cells
#20
Yoshiyuki Miyazawa, Yoshitaka Sekine, Haruo Kato, Yosuke Furuya, Hidekazu Koike, Kazuhiro Suzuki
BACKGROUND: Statins have recently been studied for their proapoptotic and antimetastatic effects. However, the exact mechanisms of their anticancer actions remain unclear. Using microarrays, we discovered up-regulation of annexin A10 (ANXA10) in PC-3 cells after simvastatin treatment. ANXA10 reportedly has antitumor effects. In this study, we evaluated the effects of simvastatin on ANXA10 signaling in androgen-independent prostate cancer cells. METHODS: PC-3, LNCaP-LA (which were derived from LNCaP cells and cultured in 10% charcoal-stripped fetal bovine serum for 3 months), and DU145 human prostate cancer cell lines were used...
November 8, 2016: Prostate
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