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Roberto Giulianelli, Stefano Nardoni, Dario Bruzzese, Cristina Falavolti, Gabriella Mirabile, Mariangela Bellangino, Giorgia Tema, Barbara Cristina Gentile, Luca Albanesi, Maurizio Buscarini, Paola Tariciotti, Riccardo Lombardo
BACKGROUND: Urotensin II receptor has been poorly studied in prostate cancer. To evaluate the expression of urotensin II receptor (UII-R) in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy. METHODS: Overall, we identified 140 patients treated with retropubic radical prostatectomy (RP) in one center. UII-R was evaluated in prostate biopsies with immunohistochemical staining, resulting in a granular cytoplasmic positivity, through automated system using the kit Urotensin II Receptor Detection System provided by Pharmabullet srl...
November 8, 2018: Prostate
Andrea K Miyahira, Robert B Den, Maria I Carlo, Renée de Leeuw, Thomas A Hope, Fatima Karzai, Rana R McKay, Simpa S Salami, Jonathan W Simons, Kenneth J Pienta, Howard R Soule
INTRODUCTION: The 2018 Coffey-Holden Prostate Cancer Academy (CHPCA) Meeting, "Tumor Cell Heterogeneity and Resistance," was held in Los Angeles, California from June 21 to 24, 2018. METHODS: The CHPCA Meeting is a unique, discussion-oriented scientific conference convened annually by the Prostate Cancer Foundation (PCF), which focuses on the most critical topics in need of further study to advance the treatment of lethal prostate cancer. The 6th Annual CHPCA Meeting was attended by 70 investigators and concentrated on prostate cancer heterogeneity and treatment resistance...
October 31, 2018: Prostate
Jean-Michel Lavoie, Kevin Zou, Daniel Khalaf, Bernhard J Eigl, Christian K Kollmannsberger, Joanna Vergidis, Krista Noonan, Muhammad Zulfiqar, Daygen Finch, Kim N Chi
BACKGROUND: Adding docetaxel to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for the treatment of metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer (mCSPC) has known efficacy, with an overall survival benefit in Phase III clinical trials. The effectiveness of docetaxel with ADT in the general patient population remains undefined. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a population-based retrospective review using the British Columbia Provincial Pharmacy Database. To be included, patients had to have castration-sensitive prostate cancer not previously treated (except in the adjuvant setting) and have received at least one cycle of docetaxel, with complete records available for review...
October 28, 2018: Prostate
Takeshi Sasaki, Omar E Franco, Kohshi Ohishi, Yana Filipovich, Kenichiro Ishii, Susan E Crawford, Naoto Takahashi, Naoyuki Katayama, Yoshiki Sugimura, Simon W Hayward
BACKGROUND: The tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), imatinib and nilotinib, are used to treat chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). In three CML patients being monitored for urologic diseases, we observed that switching of TKI therapy affected prostate-specific antigen (PSA) titers. Urologists and other medical professionals need to be aware of the potential side-effects of drugs that patients may be receiving for other indications to modify this important prostate diseases indicator. TKIs may affect PSA titers independent of prostate growth or volume...
October 28, 2018: Prostate
Matthias E Meunier, Yann Neuzillet, Jean-Pierre Raynaud, Camelia Radulescu, Tarek Ghoneim, Jean Fiet, Franck Giton, Mathieu Rouanne, Jean-François Dreyfus, Thierry Lebret, Henry Botto
BACKGROUND: Currently, there is no consensus regarding the expected concentration levels of intra-prostatic sex steroids in patients with Prostate Cancer (PCa). Our objective was to assess the concentration levels of sex steroids in prostatic tissue and serum, in two cohorts of patients with localized PCa or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). METHODS: Between September 2014 and January 2017, men selected for radical cystectomy (for bladder cancer) or open prostatectomy (for BPH), and men selected for radical prostatectomy for localized PCa were included...
October 28, 2018: Prostate
Shu-Han Yu, Janielle P Maynard, Ajay M Vaghasia, Angelo M De Marzo, Charles G Drake, Karen S Sfanos
BACKGROUND: Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a mediator of inflammation that can facilitate prostate cancer progression. We previously demonstrated that IL-6 is present in the prostate tumor microenvironment and is restricted almost exclusively to the stromal compartment. The present study examined the influence of paracrine IL-6 signaling on prostate tumor growth using allograft models of mouse prostate cancer (TRAMP-C2), colon cancer (MC38), and melanoma (B16) cell lines in wildtype (WT) and IL-6 knockout (IL-6-/- ) mice...
October 21, 2018: Prostate
Ilknur Suer, Esra Guzel, Omer F Karatas, Chad J Creighton, Michael Ittmann, Mustafa Ozen
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy in men who are especially over the age of 50 years in the western countries. Currently used therapeutic modalities mostly fail to give positive clinical outcomes and nearly 30% of the PCa patients eventually develop clinical recurrence. Therefore, understanding the underlying mechanisms of PCa progression is of paramount importance to help determining the course of disease. In this study, we aimed at profiling the differentially expressed microRNAs in recurrent PCa samples...
October 21, 2018: Prostate
Jillian N Eskra, Michael J Schlicht, Maarten C Bosland
BACKGROUND: Patients with cancer, including prostate cancer, often use dietary supplements, such as soy or isoflavones, before, during, or after therapy. There is little information about possible interactions between supplements and cancer chemotherapy. There are some reports suggesting enhancement by genistein of taxane chemotherapy for castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). METHODS: We investigated whether physiologically attainable concentrations of soy isoflavones (≤10 μM) interact with taxanes on growth inhibition of CRPC cells in vitro and in vivo in nude mice exposed via the diet, on microtubule disassembly in vitro, and on P-glycoprotein-mediated drug efflux in 22Rv1 cells and CYP3A4 activity in microsomes...
October 21, 2018: Prostate
Benedikt Kranzbühler, Souzan Salemi, Ashkan Mortezavi, Tullio Sulser, Daniel Eberli
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Multiple androgen receptor (AR)-dependent and -independent resistance mechanisms limit the efficacy of current castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) treatment. Novel N-terminal domain (NTD) binding AR-targeting compounds, including EPI-001 (EPI), have the promising ability to block constitutively active splice variants, which represent a major resistance mechanism in CRPC. Autophagy is a conserved lysosomal degradation pathway that acts as survival mechanism in cells exposed to anticancer treatments...
October 21, 2018: Prostate
Yohei Sekino, Naohide Oue, Shoichiro Mukai, Yoshinori Shigematsu, Keisuke Goto, Naoya Sakamoto, Kazuhiro Sentani, Tetsutaro Hayashi, Jun Teishima, Akio Matsubara, Wataru Yasui
Background Prostate cancer (PCa) is a common malignancy worldwide and is the second leading cause of cancer death in men. The standard therapy for advanced PCa is androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Although ADT, including bicalutamide treatment, is initially effective, resistance to bicalutamide frequently occurs and leads to the development of castration-resistant PCa. Thus, clarifying the mechanisms of bicalutamide resistance is urgently needed. We designed this study to assess the expression and function of PCDHB9, which encodes the protocadherin B9 protein...
October 16, 2018: Prostate
Diya B Joseph, Anoop S Chandrashekar, Li-Fang Chu, James A Thomson, Chad M Vezina
BACKGROUND: Serum folate concentrations in the United States have risen since dietary folic acid fortification was first mandated in 1998. Although maternal folic acid offers protection against neural tube defects in conceptuses, its impact on other organ systems and life stages have not been fully examined. Here, we used a mouse model to investigate the impact of a Folic acid (FA) enriched diet on prostate homeostasis and response to androgen deprivation. METHODS: Male mice were fed a control diet (4 mg FA/kg feed) or a folic acid supplemented diet (24 mg FA/kg feed) beginning at conception and continuing through early adulthood, when mice were castrated...
October 8, 2018: Prostate
I Ezgi Eryilmaz, Berna Aytac Vuruskan, Onur Kaygısız, Unal Egeli, Berrin Tunca, Yakup Kordan, Gulsah Cecener
BACKGROUND: Atypical small acinar proliferation (ASAP) is a precursor lesion of prostate cancer (PC), and PC develops from this suspicious focus or an unsampled malignant gland nearby. However, PC-related molecular alterations that could guide the timing of repeat biopsies and help monitor PC risk in ASAP-diagnosed patients have not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to first investigate the expression of seven different PC-related RNAs that included serine 2 (TMPRSS2): erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog (ERG) gene (TMPRSS2-ERG, T2E) fusion, alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR), kallikrein related peptidase 3 (KLK3), androgen receptor (AR), prostate cancer specific antigen 3 (PCA3), and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and 9...
October 7, 2018: Prostate
Kristine M Wadosky, Mojgan Shourideh, David W Goodrich, Shahriar Koochekpour
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PCa) is diagnosed at the highest rate of all non-cutaneous male cancers in the United States. The androgen-dependent (AD) transcription factor, androgen receptor (AR), drives PCa-but inhibiting AR or androgen biosynthesis induces remission for only a short time. At which point, patients acquire more aggressive castration-resistant (CR) disease with re-activated AR-dependent signaling. To combat treatment resistance, down-regulating AR protein expression has been considered as a potential treatment strategy for CR-PCa...
October 2, 2018: Prostate
Sumeet Jain, Pujarini Dash, Aliva P Minz, Sanghamitra Satpathi, Ajit G Samal, Prativa K Behera, Partha S Satpathi, Shantibhusan Senapati
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown the effect of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on enhanced cancer cells' growth and metastasis. However, the effect of LPS on prostate cancer (PCa) cells metastasis has not been investigated in details. This study aimed to investigate the functional role of LPS on PCa cells metastasis and determine the effect of dexamethasone (DEX) on this event. METHODS: Two different PCa reporter cells lines (DU145-NF-κB-Luc and MAT-LyLu- NF-κB-Luc) were used to assess the direct effect of LPS on NF-κB activation in PCa cells...
September 27, 2018: Prostate
Stephen F Murphy, Jonathan F Anker, Daniel J Mazur, Christel Hall, Anthony J Schaeffer, Praveen Thumbikat
INTRODUCTION: Chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) is a complex disorder that affects a large proportion of all men. A limited understanding of its etiology and pathogenesis is reflected by the absence of effective therapies. Although CPPS is deemed clinically non-infectious with no well-defined etiological role for microbes, bacteria is readily isolated from both healthy and patient prostate secretion and urine samples. Our laboratory has previously demonstrated that a specific gram-negative bacterial isolate can induce CPPS-like symptoms in mice...
September 21, 2018: Prostate
Jiajia Wang, Zongliang Lu, Changpeng Wu, Yanwu Li, Ya Kong, Rui Zhou, Kun Shi, Jing Guo, Na Li, Jie Liu, Wei Song, He Wang, Mingxing Zhu, Hongxia Xu
BACKGROUND: Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) are involved in several cellular processes related to cancer cell growth and metastasis, including adhesion, proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion. We here in investigated the effects of S0154 and S0161, two novel synthetic sodium channel blockers (SCBs), on human prostate cancer cells (PC3, DU145, and LnCaP) and a prostate cancer xenograft model. METHODS: The MTT assay was used to assess the anticancer effects of SCBs in PC3, DU145, and LnCaP cells...
September 21, 2018: Prostate
Domenica Roberto, Laurence H Klotz, Vasundara Venkateswaran
BACKGROUND: Cannabinoids have demonstrated anticarcinogenic properties in a variety of malignancies, including in prostate cancer. In the present study, we explored the anti-cancer effects of the synthetic cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 (WIN) in prostate cancer. METHODS: Established prostate cancer cells (PC3, DU145, LNCaP) were treated with varying concentrations of WIN. Cell proliferation was determined by the MTS assay. The anti-migration and anti-invasive potential of WIN was examined by the wound healing assay and the matrigel invasion assay...
September 21, 2018: Prostate
Niall P Kelly, Hugh D Flood, David A Hoey, Patrick A Kiely, Subhasis K Giri, J Calvin Coffey, Michael T Walsh
BACKGROUND: Direct mechanical characterization of tissue is the application of engineering techniques to biological tissue to ascertain stiffness or elasticity, which can change in response to disease states. A number of papers have been published on the application of these techniques to prostate tissue with a range of results reported. There is a marked variability in the results depending on testing techniques and disease state of the prostate tissue. We aimed to clarify the utility of direct mechanical characterization of prostate tissue in identifying disease states...
September 17, 2018: Prostate
Jie Liu, Degang Ding, Zhaoqiang Jiang, Tao Du, Jianjun Liu, Zhaohui Kong
BACKGROUND: Macrophage polarization plays an important role in tumor microenvironment, which regulated the prognosis of prostate cancer. However, the potential role of it is still need further identification. METHODS: The M1 Macrophages were inducted using 100 ng/mL LPS and 100 ng/mL IFN-γ, the M1 Macrophages were inducted using 20 ng/mL IL-4. TAMs were obtained by culturing monocytes for 7 days in RPMI 1640 10% FBS with 50% of conditioned medium from PC-3 cells real-time PCR was performed to determine the expression of miR-148a, CCAT1, and PKCζ...
September 16, 2018: Prostate
Nassim Ghorbanmehr, Sedigheh Gharbi, Eberhard Korsching, Mahmood Tavallaei, Behzad Einollahi, Seyed Javad Mowla
BACKGROUND: Early detection of cancers improves patients' survival and decreases the treatment cost. Unfortunately, the current methods for diagnosis of bladder and prostate cancers, two most common urothelial malignancies, suffer from a low sensitivity and specificity. MicroRNAs, as a group of endogenously produced non-coding RNAs, regulate gene expression and their expression is observed to be altered in many cancers and cancer progression phenomena. The remarkable stability of microRNAs in biofluids and their unique expression pattern in different pathological conditions make them an appealing, noninvasive diagnostic method in cancer diagnosis...
September 7, 2018: Prostate
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