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Prostate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905453/sexual-steroids-in-serum-and-prostatic-tissue-of-human-non-cancerous-prostate-sterproser-trial
#1
Yann Neuzillet, Jean-Pierre Raynaud, Camélia Radulescu, Jean Fiet, Franck Giton, Jean-François Dreyfus, Tarek P Ghoneim, Thierry Lebret, Henry Botto
BACKGROUND: The specific involvement of the sex steroids in the growth of the prostatic tissue remains unclear. Sex steroid concentrations in plasma and in fresh surgical samples of benign central prostate were correlated to prostate volume. METHODS: Monocentric prospective study performed between September 2014 and January 2017. Age, obesity parameters, and both serum and intraprostatic concentrations of sex steroids were collected complying with the latest Endocrine Society guidelines and the steroids assessed by GC/MS...
September 14, 2017: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905446/impact-of-five-tiered-gleason-grade-groups-on-prognostic-prediction-in-clinical-stage-t3-prostate-cancer-undergoing-high-dose-rate-brachytherapy
#2
Hideyasu Tsumura, Hiromichi Ishiyama, Ken-Ichi Tabata, Hiroki Katsumata, Momoko Kobayashi, Masaomi Ikeda, Shinji Kurosaka, Tetsuo Fujita, Masashi Kitano, Takefumi Satoh, Nobuyuki Yanagisawa, Kazushige Hayakawa, Masatsugu Iwamura
BACKGROUND: We evaluated a five-tiered Gleason grade groups arising from the 2014 International Society of Urological Pathology consensus conference on prognostic prediction in clinical stage T3a (extracapsular invasion) and T3b (seminal vesicle involvement) prostate cancer undergoing high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT). METHODS: From November 2003 to December 2012, 283 patients with stage T3 prostate cancer received HDR-BT and external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) with long-term androgen deprivation therapy (ADT)...
September 14, 2017: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905415/hyperactive-mtor-induces-neuroendocrine-differentiation-in-prostate-cancer-cell-with-concurrent-up-regulation-of-irf1
#3
Mayuko Kanayama, Toshiya Hayano, Michinori Koebis, Tatsuya Maeda, Yoko Tabe, Shigeo Horie, Atsu Aiba
BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine-differentiated prostate cancer (NEPCa) is refractory to androgen deprivation therapy and shows a poor prognosis. The underlying mechanisms responsible for neuroendocrine differentiation (NED) are yet to be clarified. In this study, we investigated the role of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in NEPCa. METHODS: We utilized a gain-of-function analysis by establishing a human PCa LNCaP stable line that expresses hyperactive mTOR (LNCaP-mTOR)...
September 14, 2017: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905400/somatostatin-receptor-subtype-1-as-a-potential-diagnostic-marker-and-therapeutic-target-in-prostate-cancer
#4
Sergio Pedraza-Arévalo, Daniel Hormaechea-Agulla, Enrique Gómez-Gómez, María J Requena, Luke A Selth, Manuel D Gahete, Justo P Castaño, Raul M Luque
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PCa) is a highly prevalent neoplasia that is strongly influenced by the endocrine system. Somatostatin (SST) and its five receptors (sst1-5 encoded by SSTR1-5 genes) comprise a pleiotropic system present in most endocrine-related cancers, some of which are successfully treated with SST analogs. Interestingly, it has been reported that SSTR1 is overexpressed in PCa, but its regulation, functional role, and clinical implications are still poorly known. METHODS: PCa specimens (n = 52) from biopsies and control prostates from cystoprostatectomies (n = 12), as well as in silico databases were used to evaluate SSTR1 and miRNAs expression...
September 14, 2017: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880401/reduced-number-of-cd169-macrophages-in-pre-metastatic-regional-lymph-nodes-is-associated-with-subsequent-metastatic-disease-in-an-animal-model-and-with-poor-outcome-in-prostate-cancer-patients
#5
Kerstin Strömvall, Kristoffer Sundkvist, Börje Ljungberg, Sofia Halin Bergström, Anders Bergh
BACKGROUND: Tumor-derived antigens are captured by CD169(+) (SIGLEC1(+) ) sinus macrophages in regional lymph nodes (LNs), and are presented to effector cells inducing an anti-tumor immune response. Reduced CD169 expression in pre-metastatic regional LNs is associated with subsequent metastatic disease and a poor outcome in several tumor types, but if this is the case in prostate cancer has not been explored. METHODS: CD169 expression was measured with immunohistochemistry in metastasis-free regional LNs from 109 prostate cancer patients treated with prostatectomy (January 1996 to April 2002)...
September 7, 2017: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875501/the-protein-kinase-c-super-family-member-pkn-is-regulated-by-mtor-and-influences-differentiation-during-prostate-cancer-progression
#6
Chun-Song Yang, Tiffany A Melhuish, Adam Spencer, Li Ni, Yi Hao, Kasey Jividen, Thurl E Harris, Chelsi Snow, Henry F Frierson, David Wotton, Bryce M Paschal
BACKGROUND: Phosphoinositide-3 (PI-3) kinase signaling has a pervasive role in cancer. One of the key effectors of PI-3 kinase signaling is AKT, a kinase that promotes growth and survival in a variety of cancers. Genetically engineered mouse models of prostate cancer have shown that AKT signaling is sufficient to induce prostatic epithelial neoplasia (PIN), but insufficient for progression to adenocarcinoma. This contrasts with the phenotype of mice with prostate-specific deletion of Pten, where excessive PI-3 kinase signaling induces both PIN and locally invasive carcinoma...
September 6, 2017: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856702/avoidance-of-androgen-deprivation-therapy-in-radiorecurrent-prostate-cancer-as-a-clinically-meaningful-endpoint-for-salvage-cryoablation
#7
Kevin B Ginsburg, Ahmed Elshafei, Changhong Yu, J Stephen Jones, Michael L Cher
BACKGROUND: To investigate the ability of salvage cryoablation of the prostate (SCAP) to delay the need for androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in local recurrence after radiation therapy to the prostate using the Cryo-On-Line Database (COLD) registry. METHODS: The COLD registry is comprised of a combination of retrospectively and prospectively collected data on patients undergoing primary and SCAP. Patients with local recurrence after radiation therapy were identified...
August 29, 2017: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856701/extracellular-vesicles-for-personalized-therapy-decision-support-in-advanced-metastatic-cancers-and-its-potential-impact-for-prostate-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Carolina Soekmadji, Niall M Corcoran, Irina Oleinikova, Lidija Jovanovic, Grant A Ramm, Colleen C Nelson, Guido Jenster, Pamela J Russell
The use of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and circulating extracellular vesicles (EVs), such as exosomes, as liquid biopsy-derived biomarkers for cancers have been investigated. CTC enumeration using the CellSearch based platform provides an accurate insight on overall survival where higher CTC counts indicate poor prognosis for patients with advanced metastatic cancer. EVs provide information based on their lipid, protein, and nucleic acid content and can be isolated from biofluids and analyzed from a relatively small volume, providing a routine and non-invasive modality to monitor disease progression...
August 29, 2017: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853167/a-urinary-biomarker-based-risk-score-correlates-with-multiparametric-mri-for-prostate-cancer-detection
#9
Rianne J Hendriks, Marloes M G van der Leest, Siebren Dijkstra, Jelle O Barentsz, Wim Van Criekinge, Christina A Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, Jack A Schalken, Peter F A Mulders, Inge M van Oort
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PCa) diagnostics would greatly benefit from more accurate, non-invasive techniques for the detection of clinically significant disease, leading to a reduction of over-diagnosis and over-treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the association between a novel urinary biomarker-based risk score (SelectMDx), multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) outcomes, and biopsy results for PCa detection. METHODS: This retrospective observational study used data from the validation study of the SelectMDx score, in which urine was collected after digital rectal examination from men undergoing prostate biopsies...
August 29, 2017: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28850686/estradiol-promotes-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-in-human-benign-prostatic-epithelial-cells
#10
Xiaoyu Shi, Yanfei Peng, Xiaoling Du, Haitao Liu, Helmut Klocker, Qimei Lin, Jiandang Shi, Ju Zhang
BACKGROUND: Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is involved in pathogenesis of human benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Estrogenic signaling pathways may stimulate the induction of EMT. However, the details of estradiol (E2) and estrogen receptors (ERs) effects on EMT, as well as E2-induced modulation of benign prostatic epithelial cell phenotype in vitro have not been completely clarified. METHODS: The effects of E2 on EMT markers and cytokeratins (CKs) expression were evaluated in benign epithelial cell lines BPH-1 and RWPE-1, which were cultured both in two-dimensional (2D) culture and three-dimensional (3D) culture model using hanging drop technique or 3D Matrigel model...
August 29, 2017: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845585/intrafocal-heterogeneity-of-erg-protein-expression-and-gene-fusion-pattern-in-prostate-cancer
#11
Ja Hee Suh, Jeong Hwan Park, Cheol Lee, Kyung Chul Moon
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is considered to be highly heterogeneous, with various morphologic features and biologic behaviors. The TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion is the most frequently observed genetic aberration in prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to elucidate the intrafocal heterogeneity of ERG gene fusion status. METHODS: ERG immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed in samples from 168 prostate cancer patients who had undergone radical prostatectomy, and 40 cases showing ERG-positive IHC staining were selected for tissue microarray (TMA) construction...
August 28, 2017: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845570/peripheral-blood-monocyte-count-reflecting-tumor-infiltrating-macrophages-is-a-predictive-factor-of-adverse-pathology-in-radical-prostatectomy-specimens
#12
Takuji Hayashi, Kazutoshi Fujita, Satoshi Nojima, Yujiro Hayashi, Kosuke Nakano, Yu Ishizuya, Cong Wang, Yoshiyuki Yamamoto, Toshiro Kinouchi, Kyosuke Matsuzaki, Norihiko Kawamura, Kentaro Jingushi, Atsunari Kawashima, Akira Nagahara, Takeshi Ujike, Motohide Uemura, Ryoichi Imamura, Eiichi Morii, Norio Nonomura
BACKGROUND: Tumor-infiltrating macrophages, which are thought to be derived from blood monocytes, interact with tumor cells to promote cancer progression. The aim of this study was to assess the association of peripheral blood monocyte count with pathological findings and local tumor-infiltrating macrophages in prostatectomy specimens. METHODS: Preoperative peripheral blood monocyte counts were retrospectively assessed for their associations with pathological findings (pathological T stage, Gleason Score, extraprostatic extension, seminal vesicle invasion, and surgical margin) and biochemical recurrence of 248 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy...
August 28, 2017: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845520/psca-regulates-il-6-expression-through-p38-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-in-prostate-cancer
#13
Luhao Liu, Ermao Li, Lianmin Luo, Shankun Zhao, Futian Li, Jiamin Wang, Jintai Luo, Zhigang Zhao
BACKGROUND: Prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored cell surface protein. We previously reported that PSCA involved in proliferation and invasion of PCa cells, however, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. In this study, we aimed to explore the regulating role of PSCA gene expression in interleukin-6 (IL-6) autocrine of PCa cells. METHODS: The stable knockdown-PSCA and ectopically overexpressed-PSCA vector were constructed and transfected into human PCa DU145 and PC-3M cells...
August 28, 2017: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845514/neoadjuvant-hormonal-therapy-for-low-risk-prostate-cancer-induces-biochemical-recurrence-after-radical-prostatectomy-via-increased-lymphangiogenesis-related-parameters
#14
Yasuyoshi Miyata, Yuichiro Nakamura, Takuji Yasuda, Tomohiro Matsuo, Kojiro Ohba, Bungo Furusato, Junya Fukuoka, Hideki Sakai
BACKGROUND: The effects of neoadjuvant hormonal therapy (NHT) on pathological features and lymphangiogenesis in patients with prostate cancer (PCa) for each pre-operative risk classification are unclear. METHODS: To clarify the anti-cancer effects of NHT, we investigated 153 patients (non-NHT group = 80 and NHT group = 73) who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) in Nagasaki University Hospital. Lymph vessel density and area (evaluated by D2-40-positive vessels), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C and VEGF-D expressions, and biochemical recurrence (BCR)-free survival were compared between these two groups for each D'Amico risk classification (low = 33, intermediate = 58, high = 62 patients)...
August 28, 2017: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804908/influence-of-abiraterone-acetate-on-neuroendocrine-differentiation-in-chemotherapy-naive-metastatic-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer
#15
Baijun Dong, Liancheng Fan, Yanqing Wang, Chenfei Chi, Xiaowei Ma, Rui Wang, Wen Cai, Xiaoguang Shao, Jiahua Pan, Yinjie Zhu, Xun Shangguan, Zhixiang Xin, Jianian Hu, Shaowei Xie, Xiaonan Kang, Lixin Zhou, Wei Xue
BACKGROUND: To determine the influence of abiraterone Acetate (AA) on neuroendocrine differentiation (NED) in patients with chemotherapy-naive metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). METHODS: We conducted an analysis in 115 chemotherapy-naïve mCRPC patients who would be treated with chemotherapy. The serum levels of chromogranin A (CgA), neurone-specific enolase (NSE) were measured in 67 mCRPC patients without AA treatment and 48 patients after the failure of AA treatment, in which these markers were also measured in 34 patients before and after 6 months of AA treatment...
August 14, 2017: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28786159/magnetically-actuated-drug-delivery-device-maddd-for-minimally-invasive-treatment-of-prostate-cancer-an-in-vivo-animal-pilot-study
#16
Werner J Struss, Zheng Tan, Payam Zachkani, Igor Moskalev, John K Jackson, Ali Shademani, Ninadh M D'Costa, Peter A Raven, Sebastian Frees, Claudia Chavez-Munoz, Mu Chiao, Alan I So
BACKGROUND: The vast majority of prostate cancer presents clinically localized to the prostate without evidence of metastasis. Currently, there are several modalities available to treat this particular disease. Despite radical prostatectomy demonstrating a modest prostate cancer specific mortality benefit in the PIVOT trial, several novel modalities have emerged to treat localized prostate cancer in patients that are either not eligible for surgery or that prefer an alternative approach...
August 8, 2017: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762517/immunoaffinity-based-methods-are-superior-to-kits-for-purification-of-prostate-derived-extracellular-vesicles-from-plasma-samples
#17
Sabine I Brett, Fabrice Lucien, Charles Guo, Karla C Williams, Yohan Kim, Paul N Durfee, C J Brinker, Joseph I Chin, Jun Yang, Hon S Leong
BACKGROUND: The ability to isolate extracellular vesicles (EVs) such as exosomes or microparticles is an important method that is currently not standardized. While commercially available kits offer purification of EVs from biofluids, such purified EV samples will also contain non-EV entities such as soluble protein and nucleic acids that could confound subsequent experimentation. Ideally, only EVs would be isolated and no soluble protein would be present in the final EV preparation. METHODS: We compared commercially available EV isolation kits with immunoaffinity purification techniques and evaluated our final EV preparations using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and nanoscale flow cytometry (NFC)...
August 1, 2017: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744948/a-subset-of-high-gleason-grade-prostate-carcinomas-contain-a-large-burden-of-prostate-cancer-syndecan-1-positive-stromal-cells
#18
Benjamin Sharpe, Dhafer A Alghezi, Claire Cattermole, Mark Beresford, Rebecca Bowen, John Mitchard, Andrew D Chalmers
BACKGROUND: There is a pressing need to identify prognostic and predictive biomarkers for prostate cancer to aid treatment decisions in both early and advanced disease settings. Syndecan-1, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan, has been previously identified as a potential prognostic biomarker by multiple studies at the tissue and serum level. However, other studies have questioned its utility. METHODS: Anti-Syndecan-1 immunohistochemistry was carried out on 157 prostate tissue samples (including cancerous, adjacent normal tissue, and non-diseased prostate) from three independent cohorts of patients...
July 26, 2017: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762545/epigenetic-risk-score-improves-prostate-cancer-risk-assessment
#19
Leander Van Neste, Jack Groskopf, William E Grizzle, George W Adams, Mark S DeGuenther, Peter N Kolettis, James E Bryant, Gary P Kearney, Michael C Kearney, Wim Van Criekinge, Sandra M Gaston
BACKGROUND: Early detection of aggressive prostate cancer (PCa) remains crucial for effective treatment of patients. However, PCa screening remains controversial due to a high rate of overdiagnosis and overtreatment. To better reconcile both objectives, more effective methods for assessing disease severity at the time of diagnosis are needed. METHODS: The relationship between DNA-methylation and high-grade PCa was examined in a cohort of 102 prospectively enrolled men who received standard 12-core prostate biopsies...
September 2017: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752926/prognostic-nutritional-index-predicts-initial-response-to-treatment-and-prognosis-in-metastatic-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-patients-treated-with-abiraterone
#20
Liancheng Fan, Xiao Wang, Chenfei Chi, Yanqing Wang, Wen Cai, Xiaoguang Shao, Fan Xu, Jiahua Pan, Yinjie Zhu, Xun Shangguan, Zhixiang Xin, Jianian Hu, Shaowei Xie, Rui Wang, Lixin Zhou, Baijun Dong, Wei Xue
OBJECTIVE: To determine if prognostic nutritional index (PNI) and its variation could predict initial response to treatment and prognosis in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients treated with Abiraterone (AA). PATIENTS AND METHODS: One-hundred-twelve chemotherapy pretreated or chemotherapy-naive patients were scheduled for systemic treatment with AA. PNI levels were measured before and after one month of AA treatment. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify predictive factors of initial response to AA treatment...
September 2017: Prostate
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