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Placenta

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089505/corrigendum-to-maternal-plasma-antioxidant-status-in-the-first-trimester-of-pregnancy-and-development-of-obstetric-complications-yplac-47c-2016-37-45
#1
David Ramiro-Cortijo, Teresa Herrera, Pilar Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Ángel L López de Pablo, María De La Calle, María R López-Giménez, Ana I Mora-Urda, Perla Y Gutiérrez-Arzapalo, Rubén Gómez-Rioja, Yolanda Aguilera, María A Martín-Cabrejas, Luis Condezo-Hoyos, M Carmen González, Pilar Montero, Bernardo Moreno-Jiménez, Silvia M Arribas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 12, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089506/evaluation-of-the-predictive-value-of-placental-vascularisation-indices-derived-from-3-dimensional-power-doppler-whole-placental-volume-scanning-for-prediction-of-pre-eclampsia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
K A Eastwood, C Patterson, A J Hunter, D R McCance, I S Young, V A Holmes
Pre-eclampsia remains a leading cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. This systematic review aims to evaluate the ability of placental vascularisation indices (PVIs) derived from 3D power Doppler whole placental volume scanning to predict early, late and any-onset pre-eclampsia (PE). The following databases were searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science. Studies selected for inclusion measured PVIs: Vascularisation Index (%) (VI) and/or Flow Index (FI) and/or Vascularisation Flow Index (VFI) derived from 3D power Doppler whole placental volume scanning via Virtual Organ Computer-aided Analysis (VOCAL) technique prior to diagnosis of PE...
January 5, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087122/human-trophoblast-stem-cells-real-or-not-real
#3
Ching-Wen Chang, Mana M Parast
Abnormal trophoblast differentiation is the root cause of many placenta-based pregnancy complications, including preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction. Human trophoblast differentiation is difficult to study due to the lack of a stem cell model. Such a multipotent "trophoblast stem" (TS) cell, with the ability to differentiate into all trophoblast subtypes, has been derived from mouse blastocysts, but attempts to derive similar human cells have failed. We consider here several possibilities for the TS cell niche in the human placenta...
January 5, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089504/review-nutrient-sulfate-supply-from-mother-to-fetus-placental-adaptive-responses-during-human-and-animal-gestation
#4
REVIEW
P A Dawson, K Richard, A Perkins, Z Zhang, D G Simmons
Nutrient sulfate has numerous roles in mammalian physiology and is essential for healthy fetal growth and development. The fetus has limited capacity to generate sulfate and relies on sulfate supplied from the maternal circulation via placental sulfate transporters. The placenta also has a high sulfate requirement for numerous molecular and cellular functions, including sulfate conjugation (sulfonation) to estrogen and thyroid hormone which leads to their inactivation. Accordingly, the ratio of sulfonated (inactive) to unconjugated (active) hormones modulates endocrine function in fetal, placental and maternal tissues...
January 4, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043658/genes-epigenetics-and-mirna-regulation-in-the-placenta
#5
Daniel Vaiman
This text reviews briefly the context in which epigenetics regulate gene expression in trophoblast development and function. It is an attempt to focus on a limited number of recent papers that, according to the author, shed new light on placental development, and constitute possible trails for improving knowledge and women follow-up in pathological pregnancies.
December 25, 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043657/breaking-the-first-lineage-barrier-many-roads-to-trophoblast-stem-cell-fate
#6
Caroline Kubaczka, Franziska Kaiser, Hubert Schorle
Recently, direct cell fate conversion attempts between the embryonic and extra-embryonic lineage gained new momentum. Two concomitant publications were published, describing the successful generation of transgene-independent, self-renewing trophoblast stem cells (TSCs) from murine fibroblasts. Cells were faithfully converted, displaying high similarity to blastocyst or extraembryonic ectoderm derived TSCs. Here, we summarize and compare published attempts aiming at the direct induction of trophoblast-fate from either mouse embryonic stem cells or fibroblasts...
December 23, 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031147/review-effects-of-maternal-micronutrient-supplementation-on-placental-function
#7
REVIEW
Kerry Richard, Olivia Holland, Kelly Landers, Jessica J Vanderlelie, Pierre Hofstee, James S M Cuffe, Anthony V Perkins
Pregnancy is a physiological challenge that may require additional nutritional support. Suboptimal micronutrient intakes and micronutrient deficiencies during pregnancy are a global problem, often leading to poor maternal and child outcomes. Micronutrient supplementation is commonly recommended during pregnancy to support and enhance maternal metabolism. Recent studies suggest that the use of multiple micronutrient supplements may be of benefit during a normal pregnancy and may significantly reduce the risk of preeclampsia, preterm delivery, gestational diabetes, and improve pregnancy outcomes...
December 20, 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017357/review-the-role-of-multiple-placental-glucocorticoid-receptor-isoforms-in-adapting-to-the-maternal-environment-and-regulating-fetal-growth
#8
REVIEW
V L Clifton, J Cuffe, K M Moritz, T J Cole, P J Fuller, N Z Lu, S Kumar, S Chong, Z Saif
The physiological mechanisms that confer different outcomes in morbidity and mortality of the fetus exposed to stressful environments may be driven by significant differences in the expression and function of the placental glucocorticoid receptor (GR). The recent discovery that the placenta contains at least 8 different isoforms of the GR raises questions about the regulation and physiological relevance of the many GR variants expressed in the placenta. The current data also highlights that individual differences in glucocorticoid sensitivity, variations in the effect of different complications of pregnancy on birth outcomes and sex differences in the response to stress, may all be dependent on a specific GR isoform expression profile...
December 19, 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024805/review-placental-mitochondrial-function-and-structure-in-gestational-disorders
#9
REVIEW
Olivia Holland, Marloes Dekker Nitert, Linda A Gallo, Meliha Vejzovic, Joshua J Fisher, Anthony V Perkins
The aetiology of many gestational disorders is still unknown. However, insufficient trans-placental nutrient and oxygen transfer due to abnormal placentation is characteristic of several pathologies, and may alter the function of placental mitochondria. Mitochondria are multifunctional organelles that respond to a wide range of stimuli - such as physiological changes in cellular energy demands or various pathologies - by reshaping via fusion or fission, increasing/decreasing in number, altering oxidative phosphorylation, and signalling cellular functions such as apoptosis...
December 14, 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043656/embryo-and-endometrium-derived-exosomes-and-their-potential-role-in-assisted-reproductive-treatments-liquid-biopsies-for-endometrial-receptivity
#10
REVIEW
Hayden Homer, Gregory E Rice, Carlos Salomon
Multiple pregnancies resulting from the transfer of more than one embryo pose a significant threat to offspring born through Assisted Reproductive Treatments (ART). Transferring one embryo at a time would eliminate this risk. However, current approaches of identifying the highest quality embryo to transfer are either unreliable (e.g. morphology assessment) or highly invasive and potentially detrimental to embryos (e.g. PGD). Approaches for non-invasive embryo selection would be a major advancement that would increase efficiency and reduce both the costs and the risks associated with ART...
December 9, 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988062/review-eicosanoids-in-preterm-labor-and-delivery-potential-roles-of-exosomes-in-eicosanoid-functions
#11
REVIEW
H N Peiris, K Vaswani, F Almughlliq, Y Q Koh, M D Mitchell
Preterm delivery is a major obstetric health problem contributing to poor neonatal outcome including low birth weight, respiratory distress syndrome, gastrointestinal, immunologic, central nervous system, hearing, and vision problems. Worldwide, approximately 15 million babies are born prematurely each year. The critical question which remains is how to identify women destined to deliver preterm from those who will achieve a term delivery. Prostaglandins, in all mammals are important in the parturient process...
December 9, 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027804/william-b-robertson-the-pioneer-of-the-placental-bed
#12
Ivo Brosens
A fortuitous collaboration between British and Belgian researchers more than 50 years ago led to discovery that major obstetrical disorders, such as preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction, originate from vascular lesions in placental bed, i.e. the myometrial portion of the uterine spiral arteries. William B Robertson, a gregarious pioneering vascular pathologist, played a key role in this seminal discovery that continues to shape obstetrical research to date.
December 8, 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979377/review-sexual-dimorphism-in-the-formation-function-and-adaptation-of-the-placenta
#13
REVIEW
J I Kalisch-Smith, D G Simmons, H Dickinson, K M Moritz
Exposure of the embryo or fetus to perturbations in utero can result in intrauterine growth restriction, a primary risk factor for the development of adult disease. However, despite similar exposures, males and females often have altered disease susceptibility or progression from different stages of life. Fetal growth is largely mediated by the placenta, which, like the fetus is genetically XX or XY. The placenta and its associated trophoblast lineages originate from the trophectoderm (TE) of the early embryo...
December 8, 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993398/review-placental-transport-and-metabolism-of-energy-substrates-in-maternal-obesity-and-diabetes
#14
REVIEW
L A Gallo, H L Barrett, M Dekker Nitert
Maternal obesity is growing in prevalence and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality for both mother and child. Women who are obese during pregnancy have a greater risk of metabolic complications such as gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) as well as type 2 diabetes after pregnancy. Children of obese and/or GDM mothers have an increased susceptibility to congenital abnormalities and a range of cardio-metabolic disorders. The placenta is at the interface of the maternal and fetal environments and, its function per se, plays a major role in dictating the impact of maternal health on fetal development...
December 7, 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939102/the-blood-brain-barrier-protecting-the-developing-fetal-brain
#15
REVIEW
Kate Goasdoué, Stephanie M Miller, Paul B Colditz, S Tracey Björkman
While placental function is fundamental to normal fetal development, the blood-brain barrier provides a second checkpoint critical to protecting the fetal brain and ensuring healthy brain development. The placenta is considered the key barrier between the mother and fetus, regulating delivery of essential nutrients, removing waste as well as protecting the fetus from potentially noxious substances. However, disturbances to the maternal environment and subsequent adaptations to placental function may render the placenta ineffective for providing a suitable environment for the developing fetus and to providing sufficient protection from harmful substances...
December 6, 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939894/fetal-maternal-communication-via-extracellular-vesicles-implications-for-complications-of-pregnancies
#16
REVIEW
Stefanie Adam, Omar Elfeky, Vyjayanthi Kinhal, Suchismita Dutta, Andrew Lai, Nanthini Jayabalan, Zarin Nuzhat, Carlos Palma, Gregory E Rice, Carlos Salomon
The maternal physiology experiences numerous changes during pregnancy which are essential in controlling and maintaining maternal metabolic adaptations and fetal development. The human placenta is an organ that serves as the primary interface between the maternal and fetal circulation, thereby supplying the fetus with nutrients, blood and oxygen through the umbilical cord. During gestation, the placenta continuously releases several molecules into maternal circulation, including hormones, proteins, RNA and DNA...
December 5, 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034467/maternal-health-and-the-placental-microbiome
#17
REVIEW
Elise Pelzer, Luisa F Gomez-Arango, Helen L Barrett, Marloes Dekker Nitert
Over the past decade, the role of the microbiome in regulating metabolism, immune function and behavior in humans has become apparent. It has become clear that the placenta is not a sterile organ, but rather has its own endogenous microbiome. The composition of the placental microbiome is distinct from that of the vagina and has been reported to resemble the oral microbiome. Compared to the gut microbiome, the placental microbiome exhibits limited microbial diversity. This review will focus on the current understanding of the placental microbiota in normal healthy pregnancy and also in disease states including preterm birth, chorioamnionitis and maternal conditions such as obesity, gestational diabetes mellitus and preeclampsia...
December 2, 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939101/bio-compartmentalization-of-micrornas-in-exosomes-during-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#18
REVIEW
Juvita D Iljas, Dominic Guanzon, Omar Elfeky, Gregory E Rice, Carlos Salomon
Analysis of the human genome revealed that only 1.2% encoded for proteins, which raised questions regarding the biological significance of the remaining genome. We now know that approximately 80% of the genome serves at least one biochemical function within the cell. A portion of this 80% consists of a family of non-coding regulatory RNAs, one important member being microRNAs (miRNAs). miRNAs can be detected in tissues and biofluids, where miRNAs in the latter can be bound to proteins or encapsulated within lipid vesicles such as exosomes...
December 2, 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932033/cellular-analysis-of-trophoblast-and-placenta
#19
Frances Wong, Brian J Cox
The placenta is composed of two lineages: the trophoblast and mesoderm. While morphological assessment of the placenta has highlighted major cell types and developmental structures, the human placenta is relatively unexplained on a molecular level. Current molecular analysis of the placenta has largely been confined to assessing whole organs that include both cell lineages and their differentiated progeny. This has confounded our understanding of the processes of placental development and function for two reasons...
November 30, 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916232/neuroinflammation-in-intrauterine-growth-restriction
#20
REVIEW
Julie A Wixey, Kirat K Chand, Paul B Colditz, S Tracey Bjorkman
Disruption to the maternal environment during pregnancy from events such as hypoxia, stress, toxins, inflammation, and reduced placental blood flow can affect fetal development. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is commonly caused by chronic placental insufficiency, interrupting supply of oxygen and nutrients to the fetus resulting in abnormal fetal growth. IUGR is a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality, occurring in approximately 5-10% of pregnancies. The fetal brain is particularly vulnerable in IUGR and there is an increased risk of long-term neurological disorders including cerebral palsy, epilepsy, learning difficulties, behavioural difficulties and psychiatric diagnoses...
November 25, 2016: Placenta
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