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T Y Khong, S F Cramer, D S Heller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 18, 2018: Placenta
Fernanda L Alvarado, Virtu Calabuig-Navarro, Maricela Haghiac, Michelle Puchowicz, Pai-Jong S Tsai, Perrie O'Tierney-Ginn
INTRODUCTION: Placentas of obese women have higher lipid content compared to lean women. We have previously shown that supplementation of overweight and obese women with omega-3 fatty acids decreases placental esterification pathways and total lipid content in a mid-western population (Ohio). We hypothesized that placental lipid accumulation and inflammation would be similar between lean and obese women living in a region of high omega-3 intake, such as Hawaii. METHODS: Fifty-five healthy, normal glucose tolerant women from Honolulu Hawaii, dichotomized based on pre-pregnancy BMI into lean (BMI <25 kg/m2 , n = 29) and obese (BMI >30 kg/m2 , n = 26), were recruited at scheduled term cesarean delivery...
September 2018: Placenta
Thomas F Rice, Beverly Donaldson, Marielle Bouqueau, Beate Kampmann, Beth Holder
The placenta sheds extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes, into the maternal circulation. We recently demonstrated that this trafficking of EVs is bi-directional; with uptake of macrophage exosomes by the placenta inducing cytokine release. The specificity of this response is currently unknown. THP-1 cells were cultured as monocytes or differentiated to macrophages, and EVs isolated by ultra-centrifugation. The effect of EVs on human placental explants was measured by cytokine ELISA/luminex. Macrophage, but not monocyte, EVs induce the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines by the placenta...
September 2018: Placenta
F Braun, A K Hardt, L Ehrlich, D M Sloboda, J R G Challis, A Plagemann, W Henrich, T Braun
INTRODUCTION: We have previously shown that even a single course of antenatal betamethasone (BET) as an inductor for lung maturity reduces birth weight and head circumference. Moreover, animal studies link BET administration to alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-gland-axis (HPA). The unhindered development of the fetal HPA axis is dependent on the function and activity of 11β-hydroxysteroiddehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2), a transplacental cortisol barrier. Therefore, we investigated the effects of BET on this transplacental barrier and fetal growth...
September 2018: Placenta
Dan Wu, Jiadi Xu, Jun Lei, Michael Mclane, Peter C van Zijl, Irina Burd
INTRODUCTION: We investigated the feasibility of dynamic glucose enhanced (DGE) MRI in accessing placental function in a mouse model of intrauterine inflammatory injury (IUI). DGE uses the glucose chemical exchange saturation transfer (glucoCEST) effect to reflect infused d-glucose. METHODS: IUI was induced in pregnant CD1 mice by intrauterine injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on embryonic day 17. In vivo MRI was performed on an 11.7 T scanner at 6 h s after injury, and glucoCEST effect was measured using an on-resonance variable delay multi-pulse (onVDMP) technique...
September 2018: Placenta
Alexa A Freedman, Lauren M Kipling, Katie Labgold, Carmen J Marsit, Carol J Hogue, Augustine Rajakumar, Alicia K Smith, Halit Pinar, Deborah L Conway, Radek Bukowski, Michael W Varner, Robert L Goldenberg, Donald J Dudley, Carolyn Drews-Botsch
Placental surface area is often estimated using diameter measurements. However, as many placentas are not elliptical, we were interested in the validity of these estimates. We compared placental surface area from images for 491 singletons from the Stillbirth Collaborative Research Network (SCRN) Study (416 live births, 75 stillbirths) to estimates obtained using diameter measurements. Placental images and diameters were obtained from pathologic assessments conducted for the SCRN Study and images were analyzed using ImageJ software...
September 2018: Placenta
C-J Arthuis, V Mendes, S Même, W Même, C Rousselot, N Winer, A Novell, F Perrotin
INTRODUCTION: Exploration of placental perfusion is essential in screening for dysfunctions impairing fetal growth. The objective of this study was to assess the potential value of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for examining placental perfusion in a murine model of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). We also studied the reproducibility of perfusion quantification by CEUS. METHODS: Pregnant Sprague Dawley rat models of IUGR were studied during the third trimester...
September 2018: Placenta
Prem S Shekhawat, Srinivas Sonne, Dietrich Matern, Vadivel Ganapathy
l-Carnitine plays a crucial role in uptake and subsequent β-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids in the mitochondria. Placental trophoblast cells oxidize long-chain fatty acids for energy production. Here we present data showing that l-carnitine deficiency due to a defect in the carnitine transporter OCTN2 (SLC22A5) in a mouse model leads to embryonic lethality. Placental levels of l-carnitine are reduced to <10% of normal and deficiency of l-carnitine is associated with markedly reduced expression of several growth factors and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) genes...
September 2018: Placenta
Ozge Senem Yucel Cicek, Emine Rumeysa Hekimoglu, Mert Turgal, Pergin Atilla, Ayse Nur Cakar, Alp Usubutun, Mehmet Sinan Beksac
INTRODUCTION: Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) are two of the most important growth factors mediating trophoblast actions. We hypothesized that the localization and expression patterns of LIF and IGF-1 in partial and complete hydatidiform moles (HM) compared with normal first trimester placentas may provide an understanding of the proliferative processes in HMs. METHODS: The study population included curettage material of women diagnosed as complete or partial HM as a result of histopathological and immunohistochemical examination (complete HM group, n = 8; partial HM group, n = 8) and women undergoing dilatation&curettage for unwanted pregnancies (control group, n = 8)...
September 2018: Placenta
Balázs Németh, Edit Murányi, Péter Hegyi, Péter Mátrai, Zsolt Szakács, Péter Varjú, Szilárd Hamvas, Benedek Tinusz, Ferenc Budán, József Czimmer, Bálint Bérczi, Bálint Erőss, Zoltán Gyöngyi, István Kiss
OBJECTIVE: Preeclampsia (PE) is the leading cause of maternal and perinatal mortality around the world. The impaired function of fetal-placental vasculature is a key factor in PE. Several studies have investigated the connection between PE and endothelial dysfunction. Also, many authors have examined the changes in asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) as a prominent marker of endothelial dysfunction. Our study aim is to review and analyse the connections between PE and ADMA levels. METHODS: To obtain data we performed a comprehensive literature search in Pubmed, Embase and Web of Science...
September 2018: Placenta
C Miles Harmon, Stacy McGonigal, Jacob C Larkin
INTRODUCTION: The Liver X Receptors (LXRs) drive the transcriptional response to excess intracellular cholesterol. Oxysterols, the products of cholesterol oxidation, are activating ligands for LXR that can accumulate under conditions of oxidative stress and disrupt cholesterol homeostasis. While activation of LXR inhibits trophoblast differentiation, the impact of LXR on trophoblast physiology or cholesterol homeostasis is incompletely understood. We sought to determine if the effects of LXR activation can be ameliorated through modification of cholesterol bioavailability or inhibition of LXR-driven cholesterol efflux in trophoblasts...
September 2018: Placenta
Nadia Berkane, Philippe Liere, Guillaume Lefevre, Nadia Alfaidy, Roland Abi Nahed, Jessica Vincent, Jean-Paul Oudinet, Antoine Pianos, Annie Cambourg, Patrick Rozenberg, Pierre Galichon, Alexandra Rousseau, Tabassome Simon, Michael Schumacher, Nathalie Chabbert-Buffet, Alexandre Hertig
INTRODUCTION: Estrogens and progesterone play critical roles in angiogenesis and vasodilation. Moreover, placental aromatase deficiency is detected in women with preeclampsia (PE) at delivery. We hypothesized that abnormal steroidogenesis occurs much earlier than typical PE diagnosis. Thus, we investigated whether the circulating steroid profile was already disturbed at 24-29 weeks of gestation in women with subsequent PE, and compared the profile with that of women with "placental" small gestational age (SGA) without PE...
September 2018: Placenta
Emily Pfeifer, Jessica Parrott, Gene T Lee, Ericka Domalakes, Helen Zhou, Lily He, Clifford W Mason
INTRODUCTION: The objectives of this study were to determine how HCV infection affects placental drug transporters, and to determine the role of drug transporters on the cellular accumulation of direct-acting antiviral drugs in human trophoblasts. METHODS: Eighty-four ABC and SLC transporter genes were first screened in normal and HCV infected pregnant women using PCR profiler array. The changes in expression were confirmed by qPCR and Western blot. The impact of selected drug transporters on the cellular accumulation of radiolabeled antiviral drugs sofosbuvir, entecavir, and tenofovir was measured in primary human trophoblasts (PHT) and BeWo b30 cells in the presence or absence of transporter-specific inhibitors...
September 2018: Placenta
Le Fu, Jun Zhang, Shiyi Xiong, Minghua Sun
OBJECTIVES: The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was associated with the onset of intrauterine growth restriction in singleton pregnancies. However, the correlation of ADC with selective intrauterine growth restriction (sIUGR) of monochorionic (MC) twin pregnancies remained unknown. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the association of ADC with sIUGR in MC twin pregnancies by exploring diffusion weighted MR imaging (DWI). METHODS: Fifty-one MC twin pregnancies, consisting 19 cases of sIUGR and 32 cases without sIUGR, were re-analyzed by DWI...
September 2018: Placenta
Mette Østergaard Thunbo, Marianne Sinding, Pauline Bogaard, Anne Sofie Korsager, Jens Brøndum Frøkjær, Lasse Riis Østergaard, Astrid Petersen, Anne Sørensen
INTRODUCTION: Pregnancy complicated by diabetes mellitus (DM) is a central obstetric problem often complicated by fetal macrosomia and increased risk of intrapartum asphyxia. This risk might be explained by fetoplacental vascular abnormalities. This study aimed to investigate the fetoplacental vascular volume by placental CT angiography in normal pregnancies and in pregnancies complicated by type 1 DM (T1DM), diet controlled gestational DM (GDMd), and insulin treated gestational DM (GDMi)...
September 2018: Placenta
Luckey C Reed, Sarah M Estrada, Robert B Walton, Peter G Napolitano, Nicholas Ieronimakis
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes affects almost 1 in 10 pregnancies and is associated with adverse outcomes including fetal demise. Pregnancy complications related to diabetes are attributed to placental vascular dysfunction. With diabetes, maternal hyperglycemia is thought to promote placental vasoconstriction. However, it remains poorly understood if and how hyperglycemia leads to placental vascular dysfunction or if humoral factors related to maternal diabetes are responsible. METHODS AND RESULTS: Utilizing a human placenta dual cotyledon, dual perfusion assay we examined the arterial pressure response to the thromboxane mimetic U44619, in cotyledons exposed to normal vs...
September 2018: Placenta
Vanessa Assibey-Mensah, W Tony Parks, Alison D Gernand, Janet M Catov
INTRODUCTION: The biological mechanisms that underlie racial disparities in placenta-mediated pregnancy complications remain unknown. Placental evidence of maternal vascular malperfusion (MVM), a common pathologic feature of these outcomes, represents hypoxic-ischemic damage to the placenta. We sought to separately estimate the risk of MVM and individual lesions associated with maternal race. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of black and white women with singleton live births and placental pathology data at Magee-Womens Hospital during 2008-2012 (n = 15,581)...
September 2018: Placenta
Imran N Mir, Lina F Chalak, Jie Liao, Sarah Johnson-Welch, Larry S Brown, Christopher Longoria, Rashmin C Savani, Charles R Rosenfeld
BACKGROUND: Cytokines modulate fetal well-being and contribute to parturition. Their origin in fetal blood, whether maternal, placental or fetal, at the time of parturition remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To determine fetal and placental contributions to circulating fetal cytokines by measuring umbilical arterial (UmA) and venous (UmV) concentration differences in uncomplicated term pregnancies in the absence and presence of labor. METHODS: Term uncomplicated pregnancies were assessed: Group 1 were not in labor and delivered by elective cesarean section (n = 20); Group 2 delivered vaginally following uncomplicated pregnancy and labor (n = 30)...
September 2018: Placenta
M Verheecke, A Cortès Calabuig, J Finalet Ferreiro, V Brys, R Van Bree, G Verbist, T Everaert, L Leemans, M M Gziri, I Boere, M J Halaska, J Van Houdt, F Amant, K Van Calsteren
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Placenta
Flavien Delhaes, Stephanie A Giza, Tianna Koreman, Genevieve Eastabrook, Charles A McKenzie, Samantha Bedell, Timothy R H Regnault, Barbra de Vrijer
Abnormal maternal lipid profiles, a hallmark of increased maternal adiposity, are associated with pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia and gestational diabetes, and offspring long-term metabolic health is impacted as the consequence of altered fetal growth, physiology and often iatrogenic prematurity. The metabolic changes associated with maternal obesity and/or the consumption of a high-fat diet effecting maternal lipid profiles and metabolism have also been documented to specifically affect placental function and may underlie changes in fetal development and life course disease risk...
September 2018: Placenta
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