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Placenta

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578983/staff-and-redman-response-to-placenta-letter-by-brosens
#1
LETTER
Anne Cathrine Staff, Christopher Redman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 25, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545651/the-dichotomy-of-placenta-derived-cells-in-cancer-growth
#2
Antonietta R Silini, Sara Cancelli, Patrizia Bonassi Signoroni, Anna Cargnoni, Marta Magatti, Ornella Parolini
Placenta-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have often been considered to linger behind their equivalents from other tissues, such as MSC from bone marrow, in many aspects including their therapeutic potential in regenerative medicine. Nowadays however, it is clear that certain aspects make placental MSC attractive as a cellular therapy, such as their lack of ethical concerns and ease of isolation from human term placenta, a material long regarded as biological waste. Moreover, placental MSC virtually lack expression of human leukocyte antigens and co-stimulatory molecules, making them very attractive for transplantation in allogeneic settings...
May 18, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526138/gata-factors-master-regulators-of-gene-expression-in-trophoblast-progenitors
#3
Soumen Paul, Pratik Home, Bhaswati Bhattacharya, Soma Ray
Mammalian reproduction is critically dependent on trophoblast cells, which ensure embryo implantation and placentation. Development of trophoblast cell lineages is a multi-step process and relies upon proper spatial and temporal gene expression, which is regulated by multiple transcription factors. However, most of the transcription factors that are implicated in trophoblast development regulate gene expression at a specific developmental stage or in a specific trophoblast subtype. In contrast, recent studies from our group and other laboratories indicate that conserved GATA family of transcription factors, GATA2 and GATA3, are important to regulate gene expression at multiple stages of trophoblast development...
May 10, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506493/strategies-for-investigating-the-maternal-fetal-interface-in-the-first-trimester-of-pregnancy-what-can-we-learn-about-pathology
#4
Judith E Cartwright, Guy StJ Whitley
The pathologies of the pregnancy complications pre-eclampsia (PE) and fetal growth restriction (FGR) are established in the first trimester of human pregnancy. In a normal pregnancy, decidual spiral arteries are transformed into wide diameter, non-vasoactive vessels capable of meeting the increased demands of the developing fetus for nutrients and oxygen. Disruption of this transformation is associated with PE and FGR. Very little is known of how these first trimester changes are regulated normally and even less is known about how they are compromised in complicated pregnancies...
May 6, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502524/human-chorionic-villous-mesenchymal-stem-stromal-cells-modify-the-effects-of-oxidative-stress-on-endothelial-cell-functions
#5
M H Abumaree, M Hakami, F M Abomaray, M A Alshabibi, B Kalionis, M A Al Jumah, A S AlAskar
Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells derived from chorionic villi of human term placentae (pMSCs) produce a unique combination of molecules, which modulate important cellular functions of their target cells while concurrently suppressing their immune responses. These properties make MSCs advantageous candidates for cell-based therapy. Our first aim was to examine the effect of high levels of oxidative stress on pMSC functions. pMSCs were exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and their ability to proliferate and adhere to an endothelial cell monolayer was determined...
May 4, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460838/editorial
#6
EDITORIAL
Gendie E Lash
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 27, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483162/quo-vadis-trophoblast-exploring-the-new-ways-of-an-old-cell-lineage
#7
Sascha Drewlo, D Randall Armant
Trophoblast cells are the first embryonic lineage to differentiate during human development, and are needed to sustain fetal life through their role in constructing a placenta. As the fetus grows, the trophoblast rapidly expands and further differentiates to produce an extravillous subtype that invades the maternal tissues. Some of the extravillous trophoblast cells find their way into the reproductive tract, and can be safely captured by noninvasive collection from the endocervical canal, similarly to a Pap smear...
April 26, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477969/placental-stem-cells-the-promise-of-curing-diseases-before-birth
#8
Diana Farmer
Regenerative medicine is a rapidly expanding and promising field for many diseases and injuries. Stem cells for regenerative therapies have originally been obtained from bone marrow, but are now readily extracted from a variety of adult tissues. Fetal tissue has recently garnered interest for its ease of differentiation into a variety of phenotypes and its relative abundance of pluripotent-linked transcription factors. However, much ethical concern surrounds the methods of obtaining fetal cells. The placenta has emerged as a potential source of fetal derived cells due to its favorable technical and ethical characteristics, as well as its promising therapeutic properties...
April 26, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477968/congenital-cytomegalovirus-infection-undermines-early-development-and-functions-of-the-human-placenta
#9
Lenore Pereira, Takako Tabata, Matthew Petitt, June Fang-Hoover
Congenital human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is a major viral cause of birth defects, including microcephaly, neurological deficits, loss of hearing and vision, and intrauterine growth restriction. Despite its public health significance, there is no approved treatment for congenital infection during pregnancy; existing antivirals have unacceptable toxicities. The mechanisms of HCMV-induced placental injury, reduced capacity for compensatory development and transmission to the fetus are poorly understood, limiting the development of alternative strategies for clinical management of the disease...
April 25, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456431/ifpa-meeting-2016-workshop-report-iii-decidua-trophoblast-interactions-trophoblast-implantation-and-invasion-immunology-at-the-maternal-fetal-interface-placental-inflammation
#10
John D Aplin, Alexander Beristain, Sonia DaSilva-Arnold, Caroline Dunk, Christina Duzyj, Thaddeus G Golos, Ulrike Kemmerling, Martin Knöfler, Murray D Mitchell, David M Olson, Margaret Petroff, Jürgen Pollheimer, Leticia Reyes, Pepper Schedin, Michael J Soares, Jennifer Stencel-Baerenwald, Kent L Thornburg, Gendie E Lash
Workshops are an important part of the IFPA annual meeting as they allow for discussion of specialised topics. At IFPA meeting 2016 there were twelve themed workshops, four of which are summarized in this report. These workshops related to various aspects of placental biology but collectively covered areas of decidual-trophoblast interaction, regulation of trophoblast invasion, immune cells at the maternal-fetal interface, and placental inflammation.
April 25, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473168/periconception-mhealth-platform-for-prevention-of-placental-related-outcomes-and-non-communicable-diseases
#11
Régine P M Steegers-Theunissen
Most placental-related pregnancy complications originate during the first trimester of pregnancy where gene-environmental interactions play a role. The environmental factors also include parental behaviors that can be positive, such as folic acid supplement use, or negative, e.g. poor lifestyle choices like smoking, and nutritional choices that contribute to obesity or micronutrient deficits. The overlapping risk factors associated with non-communicable disease are poor nutrition, smoking, and obesity. These modifiable factors differ between individuals, populations and high, middle and low income countries, but have in common that they are extremely difficult to change...
April 23, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522154/lumps-bumps-common-features-between-placental-development-and-cancer-growth
#12
EDITORIAL
Lesia O Kurlak, Martin Knöfler, Hiten D Mistry
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 20, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522153/foreword-for-lumps-and-bumps
#13
EDITORIAL
Fiona Broughton Pipkin, David Bates
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 20, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456432/maternal-immune-correlates-of-protection-against-placental-transmission-of-cytomegalovirus
#14
Hannah L Itell, Cody S Nelson, David R Martinez, Sallie R Permar
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the most common congenitally transmitted pathogen worldwide, impacting an estimated 1 million newborns annually. In a subset of infected infants, congenital HCMV causes severe, long-lasting sequelae, including deafness, microcephaly, neurodevelopmental delay, and even death. Accordingly, a maternal vaccine to prevent congenital HCMV infection continues to be a top public health priority. Nevertheless, all vaccines tested to date have failed to meet clinical trial endpoints. Maternal immunity provides partial protection against congenital HCMV transmission, as vertical transmission from seropositive mothers is relatively rare...
April 20, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416208/fetal-and-perinatal-stem-cells-in-cardiac-regeneration-moving-forward-to-the-paracrine-era
#15
C Balbi, S Bollini
Cardiovascular disease (CD) is a major burden for Western society. Regenerative medicine has provided encouraging results, yet it has not addressed the focal defects causing CD and mainly related to the inefficient repair programme of the heart. In this scenario, stem cells have been broadly investigated and their paracrine effect proposed as a possible working strategy to boost endogenous mechanisms of repair and regeneration from within the cardiac tissue. The scientific community is now focusing on identifying the most effective stem cell secretome, as the whole of bioactive factors and extracellular vesicles secreted by stem cells and endowed with regenerative potential...
April 12, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413063/amniotic-membrane-application-for-the-healing-of-chronic-wounds-and-ulcers
#16
Gregorio Castellanos, Ángel Bernabé-García, José M Moraleda, Francisco J Nicolás
Wound healing usually follows a predictable sequence and prognosis of events. Its evolutionary process is the result of a complicated interaction between patient-related factors, the wound, the treatment used and the skills and knowledge of the professionals who treat them. Only through a meticulous initial assessment of the wound is it possible to identify the factors that contribute to its complexity. The challenge for professionals will be to implement efficient therapies at the right time and in the most cost-efficient way in order to reduce associated problems, treat the symptoms and expectations of the patients and achieve adequate wound healing whenever possible...
April 10, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411943/immunomodulatory-properties-of-human-placental-mesenchymal-stem-stromal-cells
#17
M H Abumaree, F M Abomaray, M A Alshabibi, A S AlAskar, B Kalionis
Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are isolated from various fetal and adult tissues such as bone marrow, adipose tissue, cord blood and placenta. Placental MSCs (pMSCs), the main focus of this review, are relatively new MSC types that are not as intensively studied compared with bone marrow-derived MSCs (BMMSCs). MSCs modulate the immune functions of important immune cells involved in alloantigen recognition and elimination, including antigen presenting cells (APCs), T cells, B cells and natural killer (NK) cells...
April 7, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465002/effect-of-2-octylcyanoacrylate-on-placenta-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-on-extracellular-matrix
#18
Y Julia Chen, Lee Lankford, Sandra Kabagambe, Zoe Saenz, Priyadarsini Kumar, Diana Farmer, Aijun Wang
PURPOSE: Determine the effect of 2-octylcyanoacrylate on placenta derived mesenchymal stromal cells (PMSCs) seeded onto extracellular matrix (ECM) in order to assess its biocompatibility as a potential adhesive for in-vivo fetal cell delivery. METHODS: PMSCs isolated from chorionic villus tissue were seeded onto ECM. A MTS proliferation assay assessed cellular metabolic activity at various time points in PMSC-ECM with direct, indirect, and no glue contact. Conditioned media collected prior to and 24 hours after glue exposure was analyzed for secretion of human brain-derived neurotrophic factor, hepatocyte growth factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor...
April 2, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411944/differentiation-of-amniotic-epithelial-cells-into-various-liver-cell-types-and-potential-therapeutic-applications
#19
Maura Fanti, Roberto Gramignoli, Monica Serra, Erika Cadoni, Stephen C Strom, Fabio Marongiu
The aim of Regenerative Medicine is to replace or regenerate human cells, tissues or organs in order to restore normal function. Among all organs, the liver is endowed with remarkable regenerative capacity. Nonetheless, there are conditions in which this ability is impaired, and the use of isolated cells, including stem cells, is being considered as a possible therapeutic tool for the management of chronic hepatic disease. Placenta holds great promise for the field of regenerative medicine. It has long been used for the treatment of skin lesions and in ophthalmology, due to its ability to modulate inflammation and promote healing...
March 30, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372817/angiopoietin-2-in-placentation-and-tumor-biology-the-yin-and-yang-of-vascular-biology
#20
Qiong Wang, Gendie E Lash
There are several parallels between placental and tumor biology. Both require rapid acquisition of a blood supply to supply oxygen and nutrients, the placenta through neoangiogenesis and tumors by co-opting the existing vasculature. In addition, successful pregnancy also requires remodeling of the maternal uterine spiral arteries. Angiopoietins (Angs) are a family of angiogenic growth factors, the best studied being Ang-1 and Ang-2, which signal through the membrane tyrosine kinase receptor Tie2, and in simple terms have opposite effects with Ang-1 acting to stabilize newly formed blood vessels and Ang-2 having a destabilizing effect...
March 30, 2017: Placenta
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