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Placenta

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748088/innate-immune-cells-in-the-placental-bed-in-healthy-pregnancy-and-preeclampsia
#1
Marijke M Faas, Paul De Vos
Immune cells in the placental bed are important for adequate development of the placental bed. The most prominent immune cells in the placental bed early in pregnancy are uterine natural killer cells (uNK) cells and macrophages. Also dendritic cells and mast cells can be found in the early placental bed. These cells not only have an immune regulatory function, but are also involved in the regulation of trophoblast invasion, angiogenesis and spiral artery remodeling. In preeclampsia, one of the major complications of pregnancy, decreased trophoblast invasion and spiral artery remodeling has been found...
April 25, 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716747/mechanisms-of-the-effect-of-magnesium-salts-in-preeclampsia
#2
Delia I Chiarello, Reinaldo Marín, Fulgencio Proverbio, Paula Coronado, Fernando Toledo, Rocio Salsoso, Jaime Gutiérrez, Luis Sobrevia
Preeclampsia is a heterogeneous pregnancy-specific syndrome associated with abnormal trophoblast invasion and endothelial dysfunction. Magnesium (Mg2+ ) level may be normal or decreased in women with preeclampsia. However, the use of Mg2+ salts, such as Mg2+ sulphate, are useful in reducing the pathophysiological consequences of preeclampsia with severe features and eclampsia. Although the mechanism of action of this Mg2+ salt is not well understood, the available evidence suggests a beneficial effect of Mg2+ for the mother and foetus...
April 24, 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699712/foetoplacental-epigenetic-changes-associated-with-maternal-metabolic-dysfunction
#3
Bredford Kerr, Andrea Leiva, Marcelo Farías, Susana Contreras-Duarte, Fernando Toledo, Francisca Stolzenbach, Luis Silva, Luis Sobrevia
Metabolic-related diseases are attributed to a sedentary lifestyle and eating habits, and there is now an increased awareness regarding pregnancy as a preponderant window in the programming of adulthood health and disease. The developing foetus is susceptible to the maternal environment; hence, any unfavourable condition will result in foetal physiological adaptations that could have a permanent impact on its health. Some of these alterations are maintained via epigenetic modifications capable of modifying gene expression in metabolism-related genes...
April 12, 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680159/mechanism-of-hematopoiesis-and-vasculogenesis-in-mouse-placenta
#4
Nathália Azevedo Portilho, Marcelo Pelajo-Machado
The placenta plays a major role in the development of blood cells in the mouse and human embryo. Hematopoiesis and vasculogenesis in placenta are two closely interconnected processes. The mouse model has been widely used to study placental hematopoiesis. During mid-gestation, mouse placenta generate blood cells and support the proliferation, maturation and erythroid differentiation of hematopoietic cells within two major vascular niches in the labyrinth. Here, we review the vasculogenesis in chorioallantoic mouse placenta and the current knowledge on hematopoietic activity, niche and origin in mice placenta...
April 12, 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622278/oxidative-stress-in-placental-pathology
#5
Mirthe H Schoots, Sanne J Gordijn, Sicco A Scherjon, Harry van Goor, Jan-Luuk Hillebrands
The most important function of the placenta is the exchange of nutrients and oxygen between a mother and her fetus. To establish a healthy functioning placenta, placentation needs to occur with adequate remodelling of spiral arteries by extravillous trophoblasts. When this process is impaired, the resulting suboptimal and inadequate placenta function results in the manifestation of pregnancy complications. Impaired placenta function can cause preeclampsia and leads to fetal growth restriction due to hypoxia...
March 16, 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626984/the-proteome-of-fetal-fluids-in-mares-with-experimentally-induced-placentitis
#6
S C Loux, B A Ball
INTRODUCTION: Placental inflammation (placentitis) is one of the leading causes of late-term abortion in mares. Although prognosis is good assuming early diagnosis and treatment, diagnostics are limited. METHODS: To better characterize the disease and identify potential biomarkers, we analyzed the proteome of fetal fluids (amniotic and allantoic) in both control mares (n = 5) and mares with experimentally-induced placentitis (n = 5) using LTQ-Orbitrap mass-spectrometry...
April 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626983/hematopoietic-changes-in-the-offspring-induced-by-maternal-overweight-effect-on-placenta-and-fetal-liver-populations
#7
Luana Leirós, Juliana Barbosa Torreão Dáu, Daphne Pinheiro, Ana Carolina Stumbo Machado, Alessandra Alves Thole, Erika Afonso Costa Cortez, Laís de Carvalho, Simone Nunes de Carvalho
INTRODUCTION: Bone marrow cells (BMC) from obese adult mice display an increased apoptosis rate over proliferation. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) form all blood cells and are important BMC used in cell therapy. Because it is known that prenatal development can be affected by adverse metabolic epigenetic programming from the maternal organism, this work aimed to investigate the effects of maternal overweight on placenta and fetal liver hematopoietic niches. METHODS: Overweight was induced in female mice by overfeeding during lactation...
April 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626982/genetic-and-microscopic-assessment-of-the-human-chemotherapy-exposed-placenta-reveals-possible-pathways-contributive-to-fetal-growth-restriction
#8
M Verheecke, A Cortès Calabuig, J Finalet Ferreiro, V Brys, R Van Bree, G Verbist, T Everaert, L Leemans, M M Gziri, I Boere, M J Halaska, J Vanhoudt, F Amant, K Van Calsteren
INTRODUCTION: Fetal growth restriction (FGR) carries an increased risk of perinatal mortality and morbidity. A major cause of FGR is placental insufficiency. After in utero chemotherapy-exposure, an increased incidence of FGR has been reported. In a prospective cohort study we aimed to explore which pathways may contribute to chemotherapy-associated FGR. METHODS: Placental biopsies were collected from 25 cancer patients treated with chemotherapy during pregnancy, and from 66 control patients...
April 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626981/placental-lipoprotein-lipase-activity-is-positively-associated-with-newborn-adiposity
#9
Margaret J R Heerwagen, Diane L Gumina, Teri L Hernandez, Rachael E Van Pelt, Anita W Kramer, Rachel C Janssen, Dalan R Jensen, Theresa L Powell, Jacob E Friedman, Virginia D Winn, Linda A Barbour
INTRODUCTION: Recent data suggest that in addition to glucose, fetal growth is related to maternal triglycerides (TG). To reach the fetus, TG must be hydrolyzed to free fatty acids (FFA) and transported across the placenta, but regulation is uncertain. Placental lipoprotein lipase (pLPL) hydrolyzes TG, both dietary chylomicron TG (CM-TG) and very-low density lipoprotein TG (VLDL-TG), to FFA. This may promote fetal fat accretion by increasing the available FFA pool for placental uptake...
April 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626980/placental-function-and-structure-at-term-is-altered-in-broodmares-fed-with-cereals-from-mid-gestation
#10
M Robles, P Peugnet, C Dubois, F Piumi, L Jouneau, O Bouchez, M C Aubrière, M Dahirel, J Aioun, L Wimel, A Couturier-Tarrade, P Chavatte-Palmer
INTRODUCTION: Feeding pregnant broodmares with cereal concentrates has been shown to increase maternal insulin resistance and affect foal metabolism in the short and long-term. These effects are likely to be mediated by the placenta. Here, we investigated feto-placental biometry and placental structure and function at term in mares fed with or without cereals concentrates. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From 7 months of gestation, 22 multiparous mares were fed forage only (group F (n = 12)) or received forage and cracked barley (group B (n = 10)) until foaling...
April 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626979/placental-exosomes-profile-in-maternal-and-fetal-circulation-in-intrauterine-growth-restriction-liquid-biopsies-to-monitoring-fetal-growth
#11
Jezid Miranda, Cristina Paules, Soumyalekshmi Nair, Andrew Lai, Carlos Palma, Katherin Scholz-Romero, Gregory E Rice, Eduard Gratacos, Fatima Crispi, Carlos Salomon
INTRODUCTION: Placenta-derived exosomes may represent an additional pathway by which the placenta communicates with the maternal system to induce maternal vascular adaptations to pregnancy and it may be affected during Fetal growth restriction (FGR). The objective of this study was to quantify the concentration of total and placenta-derived exosomes in maternal and fetal circulation in small fetuses classified as FGR or small for gestational age (SGA). METHODS: Prospective cohort study in singleton term gestations including 10 normally grown fetuses and 20 small fetuses, sub-classified into SGA and FGR accordingly to birth weight (BW) percentile and fetoplacental Doppler...
April 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626978/a-novel-scoring-system-for-predicting-adherent-placenta-in-women-with-placenta-previa
#12
Kenji Tanimura, Mayumi Morizane, Masashi Deguchi, Yasuhiko Ebina, Utaru Tanaka, Yoshiko Ueno, Kazuhiro Kitajima, Tetsuo Maeda, Kazuro Sugimura, Hideto Yamada
INTRODUCTION: Placenta previa (PP) is one of the most significant risk factors for adherent placenta (AP). The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of a novel scoring system for predicting AP in pregnant women with PP. METHODS: This prospective cohort study enrolled 175 women with PP. The placenta previa with adherent placenta score (PPAP score) is composed of 2 categories: (1) past history of cesarean section (CS), surgical abortion, and/or uterine surgery; and (2) ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging findings...
April 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626977/ifn%C3%AF-mediates-chemotaxis-motility-metabolism-and-ck18-downregulation-in-bovine-trophoblast-cells-in-vitro-via-stat1-and-mapk42-44-signaling
#13
C Loch, J-D Haeger, C Pfarrer
INTRODUCTION: IFNτ is the ruminant pregnancy recognition signal. In the study we investigated the autocrine influence of IFNτ on bovine F3 trophoblast cells. In detail chemotaxis, motility, metabolism, cell polarisation (CK18; ezrin) and the underlying classical (STAT1) and non-classical (MAPK42/44) signaling pathways were examined. METHODS: Cellular signaling was analysed by densitometric Western blot (STAT1, MAPK42/44, proteinkinase B) and RT-PCR (IFNAR1, -2)...
April 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626976/chronic-histiocytic-intervillositis-clinical-biochemical-and-radiological-findings-an-observational-study
#14
Lawrence Koby, Sarah Keating, Ann Kinga Malinowski, Rohan D'Souza
INTRODUCTION: Chronic histiocytic intervillositis (CHI) of the placenta although rare, has a high recurrence rate, is associated with serious adverse pregnancy outcomes and has no available treatment. This study aims to determine clinical, biochemical and radiological factors associated with CHI, to guide management of subsequent pregnancies. METHODS: This retrospective observational study included consecutive cases with a histopathologic diagnosis of CHI after 18 weeks of gestation, between 2001 and 2014, and no controls...
April 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409677/virtual-reality-imaging-techniques-in-the-study-of-embryonic-and-early-placental-health
#15
Melek Rousian, Maria P H Koster, Annemarie G M G J Mulders, Anton H J Koning, Régine P M Steegers-Theunissen, Eric A P Steegers
Embryonic and placental growth and development in the first trimester of pregnancy have impact on the health of the fetus, newborn, child and even the adult. This emphasizes the importance of this often neglected period in life. The development of three-dimensional transvaginal ultrasonography in combination with virtual reality (VR) opens the possibility of accurate and reliable visualization of embryonic and placental structures with real depth perception. These techniques enable new biometry and volumetry measurements that contribute to the knowledge of the (patho)physiology of embryonic and early placental health...
April 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398014/ifpa-meeting-2017
#16
EDITORIAL
Melissa Westwood
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370939/knowledge-needed-about-the-exchange-physiology-of-the-placenta
#17
Colin P Sibley, Paul Brownbill, Jocelyn D Glazier, Susan L Greenwood
There is now a basic understanding of the driving forces and mechanisms underlying rates of solute exchange across the placenta but there are still major gaps in knowledge. Here we summarise this basic understanding, whilst highlighting gaps in knowledge. We then focus on two particular areas where more knowledge is needed: (1) the electrical potential difference (PD) across the placenta and (2) the paracellular permeability of the placenta to hydrophilic solutes. In many species a PD has been recorded between a catheter in a maternal blood vessel and one in a fetal vessel...
April 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352601/regulating-needs-exploring-the-role-of-insulin-like-growth-factor-2-signalling-in-materno-fetal-resource-allocation
#18
Amanda Nancy Sferruzzi-Perri
During pregnancy, the fetus requires nutrients supplied by the mother to grow and develop. However, the mother also requires sufficient resources to support the pregnancy, as well as, to maintain her health. Failure to regulate resource allocation between the mother and fetus can lead to pregnancy complications with immediate and life-long consequences for maternal and offspring health. This review explores the role of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-2 in regulating materno-fetal resource allocation, particularly via its regulation of placental development and function...
April 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486856/arhgef11-affecting-the-placental-insulin-signaling-pathway-in-fetal-macrosomia-of-normal-glucose-tolerance-pregnant-women
#19
Wanyi Zhang, Rina Su, Li Lin, Huixia Yang
INTRODUCTION: Fetal macrosomia has confirmed be related to multiple labor complications and metabolism syndromes later in life. However, the mechanism of fetal macrosomia in normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) pregnant women is still obscure. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 11 (ARHGEF11) and the insulin signaling pathway in placenta affecting fetal overgrowth in NGT and GDM pregnant women. METHODS: Eighty-nine pregnant women with paired antepartum BMI were recruited and divided into four groups: NGT with normal birth weight (NGT-N, n = 30) or macrosomia (NGT-M, n = 22) and GDM with normal birth weight (GDM-N, n = 22) or macrosomia (GDM-M, n = 15)...
March 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486855/the-placental-component-and-neonatal-outcome-in-singleton-vs-twin-pregnancies-complicated-by-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#20
Eran Weiner, Elad Barber, Ohad Feldstein, Letizia Schreiber, Ann Dekalo, Yossi Mizrachi, Jacob Bar, Michal Kovo
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare placental histopathological lesions and neonatal outcome in singleton vs. twin pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). METHODS: Maternal characteristics, neonatal outcomes, and placental histopathology reports of pregnancies complicated by GDM, between 1/2008-10/2016, were reviewed. Results were compared between singletons (singleton group) and dichorionic-diamniotic twins (twin group). Placental lesions were classified as placental weight abnormalities, maternal and fetal vascular malperfusion lesions (MVM, FVM), inflammatory lesions, and lesions associated with chronic villitis...
March 2018: Placenta
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