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Paddy Slator, Rosalind Aughwane, Georgina Cade, Daniel Taylor, Anna L David, Rohan Lewis, Eric Jauniaux, Adrien Desjardins, Laurent J Salomon, Anne-Elodie Millischer, Vassilis Tsatsaris, Mary Rutherford, Edward D Johnstone, Andrew Melbourne
The Centre for Medical Image Computing (CMIC) at University College London (UCL) hosted a two-day workshop on placenta imaging on April 12th and 13th 2018. The workshop consisted of 10 invited talks, 3 contributed talks, a poster session, a public interaction session and a panel discussion about the future direction of placental imaging. With approximately 50 placental researchers in attendance, the workshop was a platform for engineers, clinicians and medical experts in the field to network and exchange ideas...
October 31, 2018: Placenta
Mana M Parast
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 28, 2018: Placenta
Majd Abdulghani, Ashish Jain, Geetu Tuteja
Normal placental development is essential for a healthy pregnancy, and is contingent upon tight spatiotemporal regulation of gene expression. One level of transcriptional control is via enhancer elements in the genome. Enhancers are distal cis-regulatory elements that can impact gene expression regardless of their position or orientation. The study of enhancers in the placenta is usually focused on one or two at a time, and the simultaneous identification of all enhancers has been limited. However, such a holistic approach is necessary if we are to gain a systems-level understanding of gene expression regulation in the placenta...
September 15, 2018: Placenta
T Y Khong, S F Cramer, D S Heller
INTRODUCTION: Smooth muscle in the decidua of fetal membranes (membrane myofibers, MMF) is not mentioned in standard textbooks. METHODS: The current report presents collected observations on 52 patients with MMF at 2 institutions between 2004 and 2017 - including placentas, postpartum curettages, and hysterectomies. RESULTS: Clinical presentations include observation of adherent membranes during delivery, disrupted and incomplete membranes in placentas submitted for examination, postpartum bleeding associated with retained fetal membranes, association with membrane hematomas and membrane hemosiderin, morbidly adherent fetal membranes in hysterectomies; and association with grossly adherent pieces of tissue or nodules in fetal membranes...
August 18, 2018: Placenta
Chioma U Odozor, Nichole Peterson, Jessica Pudwell, Graeme N Smith
INTRODUCTION: Smokers have a significantly decreased risk of pre-eclampsia (PE), possibly attributed to an increase in blood carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations. At physiological concentrations, CO has been demonstrated to have placental vasodilatory and anti-inflammatory properties. Increasing endogenous CO production may have therapeutic potential to either prevent or treat PE. Menadione (MD), synthetic vitamin K3, increases CO in rat microsomes. Our objective was to investigate MD's ability to increase endogenous CO concentrations in pregnancy...
November 2018: Placenta
Hossein Motedayyen, Amir-Hassan Zarnani, Nader Tajik, Somayeh Ghotloo, Abbas Rezaei
INTRODUCTION: Immune imbalance at the maternal-fetal interface plays a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (URSA). Human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs) possess pregnancy-friendly immunomodulatory effects. Here, we investigated how function of naive CD4+ T cells from URSA patients is affected by hAECs. METHODS: Phenotypic characteristics of hAECs were determined by flow cytometry and their effect on proliferation of allogeneic peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was evaluated by a BrdU cell proliferation assay...
November 2018: Placenta
Kenji Ikeda, Yuka Kawasaki, Hitomi Matsuda, Saho Kishida, Arina Iwasaki, Sayaka Ohata, Yoko Urashima, Yoshihiko Hirotani
INTRODUCTION: Placental transport is the first step in chemotherapeutic safety evaluations during pregnancy. However, a well-established in vitro model is not available. We previously reported that a trophoblast layer model using differentiating choriocarcinoma JEG-3 cells (DJEGs) can be used for placental drug transport studies. However, it was necessary to increase the similarities between the syncytiotrophoblast, the main layer of the placental barrier, and the in vitro evaluation model in order for the model to be useful for placental drug transport evaluations...
November 2018: Placenta
R Machaalani, E Ghazavi, T Hinton, A Makris, A Hennessy
INTRODUCTION: Cigarette smoking (CS) and preeclampsia (PE), regulate the expression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits in the placenta, yet no data exist at the histological level. METHODS: Using immunohistochemistry of formalin fixed and paraffin embedded placental tissue, this study quantified the expression of nine nAChR subunits (α2, α3, α4, α5, α7, α9, β1, β2, δ) and compared the expression amongst four groups of non-smoker non-PE (controls, n = 8), smokers (n = 8), PE (n = 8), and those who were smokers with PE (smoke + PE, n = 4)...
November 2018: Placenta
Mary Mansilla, Yao Wang, Jonathan Hyett, Fabricio da Silva Costa, Guiying Nie
Podocalyxin is expressed on endothelial surface throughout the body and is likely released into the circulation during pregnancy in association with vessel remodeling. We have recently reported that serum podocalyxin is significantly increased in preeclampsia at disease presentation. In this study we investigated whether serum podocalyxin is altered prior to clinical presentation of preeclampsia. At 11-13 weeks of gestation, serum podocalyxin was significantly elevated in women who subsequently developed preeclampsia...
November 2018: Placenta
S G Groene, L S A Tollenaar, F Slaghekke, J M Middeldorp, M Haak, D Oepkes, E Lopriore
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to evaluate the placental characteristics of monochorionic twin pregnancies with selective intrauterine growth restriction (sIUGR) classified according to the Gratacós classification based on umbilical artery Doppler measurements. METHODS: All consecutive placentas from monochorionic twin pregnancies with sIUGR, (defined as a birthweight discordance > 25% and/or an estimated fetal weight in one twin <10th centile) examined between May 2002 and February 2018 were included in the study...
November 2018: Placenta
Shuhan Ji, Hong Xin, Yingchun Li, Emily J Su
INTRODUCTION: Fetoplacental angiogenesis plays a vital role in pregnancy outcome. Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) is one major regulator of angiogenesis. It primarily binds to FMS-like tyrosine kinase (FLT1) and kinase insert domain receptor (KDR). In most vascular beds, KDR appears to be the main mediator of angiogenesis. However, the role of both receptors within the human placenta remains unknown. METHODS: Human fetoplacental ECs were isolated/cultured from placentas of full-term, uncomplicated pregnancies after scheduled Cesarean section...
October 2018: Placenta
Kelly-Ann Eastwood, Alyson J Hunter, Christopher C Patterson, David R Mc Cance, Ian S Young, Valerie A Holmes
OBJECTIVE: To assess ability of first and second trimester Placental Vascularization Indices (PVIs) to predict pre-eclampsia (PE) in high-risk pregnancies. METHOD: PVIs derived from 3-Dimensional power Doppler imaging were measured at 11+0-13 + 6 (n = 194) and 19+0-21 + 6 weeks (n = 195). Logistic regression (LR) models used PE as the outcome. To quantify added value of PVIs to baseline characteristics in predicting PE, integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) and net reclassification improvement (NRI) indices were calculated...
October 2018: Placenta
Karolina Rutkowska, Monika Stachowiak, Jolanta Oprzadek, Stefan Bauersachs, Krzysztof Flisikowski
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a serious pregnancy complication caused by placental insufficiency. We previously reported that truncation of MIMT1 gene exons 3 and 4 (MIMT1Del ) causes IUGR in cattle. Here we investigated miRNA expression in the foetal and maternal placenta tissues of MIMT1Del/WT foetuses. Small RNA next generation sequencing and quantitative PCR revealed placental tissue-specific expression of the miR-4321, known to regulate many genes involved in early foetal development. This study also indicated that maternal and foetal components of the placenta respond differently to a deleterious conceptus mutation...
October 2018: Placenta
Amir Aviram, Ms Kristine Giltvedt, Christopher Sherman, John Kingdom, Arthur Zaltz, Jon Barrett, Nir Melamed
INTRODUCTION: In singletons, the pathogenesis of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) is attributed to abnormal placentation, characterized by maternal vascular malperfusion (MVM) lesions. Whether MVM plays a similar role in twin pregnancies is unclear. The purpose of the study was to compared placental pathology findings between dichorionic-twin and singleton pregnancies complicated by HDP. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of women with dichorionic-twin or singleton pregnancies complicated by HDP who gave birth in a single tertiary center between 2001 and 2015...
October 2018: Placenta
R G Shah, T Girardi, X Ma, C M Salafia
We present a novel approach to characterize and compare the placental chorionic surface arteries (PCSA) of normal, preterm, diabetic and preeclamptic pregnancies using their fractal dimension (FD) and branch point number (BPN). Mean FD of PCSA of normal pregnancies was similar to those of diabetic and preeclamptic pregnancies, but significantly different from those of preterm pregnancies. In contrast, the BPN of PCSA of normal and preterm pregnancies was similar but significantly different from diabetic and preeclamptic pregnancies...
October 2018: Placenta
Hongcai Cai, Li Chen, Mengdi Zhang, Wenpei Xiang, Ping Su
INTRODUCTION: Miscarriage is a common complication during pregnancy. Mitofusin-2 (MFN2) deficiency in trophoblastic cells is reported to be an important cause for early miscarriage. MFN2 can regulate mitochondrial autophagy, although the mechanisms remain unknown. This study aims to investigate the roles of MFN2 and autophagy in early unexplained miscarriage. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry and western blotting were used to detect the MFN2 expression in villous tissues from women who had early unexplained miscarriage...
October 2018: Placenta
Márcia Marques Silveira, Henrique Xavier Salgado Bayão, Anelise Dos Santos Mendonça, Naiara Araújo Borges, Luna Nascimento Vargas, Alexandre Rodrigues Caetano, Rodolfo Rumpf, Maurício Machaim Franco
INTRODUCTION: Cloning via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been associated with a variety of pathologies, primarily in the placenta, and these alterations may be associated with aberrant epigenetic reprogramming of the donor cell genome. We tested the hypothesis that DNA methylation patterns are not appropriately established after nuclear transfer and that those altered patterns are associated with specific aberrant phenotypes. METHODS: We compared global and specific placental DNA methylation patterns between aberrant and healthy SCNT-produced calves...
October 2018: Placenta
Claire Stenhouse, Charis O Hogg, Cheryl J Ashworth
INTRODUCTION: Inadequate fetal growth has severe consequences for both neonatal and adult development. It is hypothesised that the feto-maternal interface associated with the lightest and male fetuses will undergo more apoptosis and less proliferation than those supplying the closest to mean litter weight (CTMLW) and female fetuses respectively. METHODS: Placental and endometrial samples associated with the lightest and CTMLW (gestational day (GD) 18 and 30), male and female (GD45, 60 and 90) Large White X Landrace conceptuses or fetuses were obtained...
October 2018: Placenta
L Priliani, C A Febinia, B Kamal, A H Shankar, S G Malik
Fetal development depends on maternal metabolic energy from mitochondria. We investigated the association of maternal mitochondrial function, represented by mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNA-CN) of venous blood, with child birth weight (BW) from 528 randomly selected mothers enrolled in the Supplementation with Multiple Micronutrients Intervention Trial (ISRCTN 34151616). Real-time quantitative PCR of archived blood specimens and regression analysis adjusting for other primary determinants of BW showed that loge mtDNA-CN was inversely associated with BW (β = -204...
October 2018: Placenta
Luis Sobrevia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Placenta
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