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Placenta

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295743/editorial
#1
EDITORIAL
Gendie E Lash
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 27, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273272/ifpa-meeting-2017-workshop-report-clinical-placentology-3d-structure-based-modeling-of-placental-function-placental-bed-and-treating-placental-dysfunction
#2
Ganesh Acharya, John Aplin, Paul Brownbill, Judith Bulmer, Graham Burton, Larry Chamley, Igor Chernyavsky, Alys Clark, Sally Collins, Elizabeth Cottrell, Mark Dilworth, David Elad, Marcel Filoche, Natalie Hannan, Alexander E P Heazell, Oliver Jensen, Edward D Johnstone, Lopa Leach, Rohan Lewis, Terry Morgan, Jenny Myers, Gareth Nye, Michelle Oyen, Carolyn Salafia, Henning Schneider, Perrie O'Tierney-Ginn
Workshops are an important part of the IFPA annual meeting as they allow for discussion of specialized topics. At IFPA meeting 2017 there were four themed workshops, all of which are summarized in this report. These workshops discussed new knowledge and technological innovations in the following areas of research: 1) placental bed; 2) 3D structural modeling; 3) clinical placentology; 4) treatment of placental dysfunction.
December 15, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273273/utility-of-dna-methylation-to-assess-placental-health
#3
Samantha L Wilson, Wendy P Robinson
DNA methylation (DNAm), a mitotically stable epigenetic mark, can influence as well as reflect gene expression. DNAm has been gaining interest for use as a biomarker for many conditions including placental insufficiency, specifically preeclampsia (PE) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Additionally, DNAm may retain a "memory" of earlier in utero exposures and hence provide insight into pathogeneses occurring earlier in gestation. This review will discuss the placental DNA methylome, the uses of DNAm to assess placental health, and considerations and limitations to understand in epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS)...
December 14, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183631/birth-weight-to-placenta-weight-ratio-and-its-relationship-to-ultrasonic-measurements-maternal-and-neonatal-morbidity-a-prospective-cohort-study-of-nulliparous-women
#4
N Salavati, S J Gordijn, U Sovio, R Zill-E-Huma, A Gebril, D S Charnock-Jones, S A Scherjon, G C S Smith
INTRODUCTION: Birth weight to placenta weight (BWPW)-ratio is an indicator of the ability of the placenta to maintain adequate nutrient supply to the fetus. We sought to investigate the relationship between BWPW-ratio with fetal growth, utero-placental Doppler and neonatal and maternal morbidity. METHODS: We studied a group of 3311 women recruited to a prospective cohort study of nulliparous women (Rosie Hospital, Cambridge, UK) who delivered a live born infant at term and whose placental weight and birth weight were known...
November 15, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277277/new-imaging-markers-for-preconceptional-and-first-trimester-utero-placental-vascularization
#5
I F Reijnders, A G M G J Mulders, M P H Koster, A H J Koning, A Frudiger, S P Willemsen, E Jauniaux, G J Burton, R P M Steegers-Theunissen, E A P Steegers
INTRODUCTION: The availability of imaging makers of early placental circulation development is limited. This study aims to develop a feasible and reliable method to assess preconceptional and early first-trimester utero-placental vascular volumes using three-dimensional power Doppler (3D PD) ultrasound on two different Virtual Reality (VR) systems. METHODS: 3D PD ultrasound images of the uterine and placental vasculature were obtained in 35 women, either preconceptionally (n = 5), or during pregnancy at 7 (n = 10), 9 (n = 10) or 11 (n = 10) weeks of gestation...
January 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277276/preliminary-metabolomics-analysis-of-placenta-in-maternal-obesity
#6
Claudia Fattuoni, Chiara Mandò, Francesco Palmas, Gaia Maria Anelli, Chiara Novielli, Estefanìa Parejo Laudicina, Valeria Maria Savasi, Luigi Barberini, Angelica Dessì, Roberta Pintus, Vassilios Fanos, Antonio Noto, Irene Cetin
INTRODUCTION: Metabolomics identifies phenotypical groups with specific metabolic profiles, being increasingly applied to several pregnancy conditions. This is the first preliminary study analyzing placental metabolomics in normal weight (NW) and obese (OB) pregnancies. METHODS: Twenty NW (18.5 ≤ BMI< 25 kg/m2) and eighteen OB (BMI≥ 30 kg/m2) pregnancies were studied. Placental biopsies were collected at elective caesarean section. Metabolites extraction method was optimized for hydrophilic and lipophilic phases, then analyzed with GC-MS...
January 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277275/towards-standardized-criteria-for-diagnosing-chronic-intervillositis-of-unknown-etiology-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
M Bos, P G J Nikkels, D Cohen, J W Schoones, K W M Bloemenkamp, J A Bruijn, H J Baelde, M L P van der Hoorn, R J Turner
Chronic intervillositis of unknown etiology (CIUE) is a poorly understood, relatively rare condition characterized histologically by the intervillous infiltration of mononuclear cells in the placenta. Clinically, CIUE is associated with poor pregnancy outcome (e.g., impaired fetal growth, preterm birth, fetal death) and high risk of recurrence in subsequent pregnancies. Because CIUE is not defined consistently, it is essential to clearly define this condition. We therefore review the published definitions of CIUE...
January 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277274/maternal-high-estradiol-exposure-alters-cdkn1c-and-igf2-expression-in-human-placenta
#8
Xi-Jing Chen, Feng Chen, Ping-Ping Lv, Dan Zhang, Guo-Lian Ding, Xiao-Ling Hu, Chun Feng, Jian-Zhong Sheng, He-Feng Huang
INTRODUCTION: The increased maternal estradiol (E2) concentrations induced by assisted reproductive technology (ART) result in lower birth weight of offspring, which is associated with increased risk of adult diseases. However, the exact mechanism remains unknown. The present study investigated the effect of high E2 exposure on the expression of imprinted genes CDKN1C and IGF2 in human placentas and the DNA methylation status of their differential methylation regions (DMRs). METHODS: The mRNA expression of CDKN1C and IGF2 in human placentas and the human trophoblast cells (HTR8) treated with E2 were investigated by reverse transcription-real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
January 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277273/identification-of-potential-early-biomarkers-of-preeclampsia
#9
Angelika V Timofeeva, Vladyslava A Gusar, Nataliya E Kan, Kseniya N Prozorovskaya, Anna O Karapetyan, Oleg R Bayev, Vitaliy V Chagovets, Sergei F Kliver, Daria Yu Iakovishina, Vladimir E Frankevich, Gennadiy T Sukhikh
INTRODUCTION: It is thought that poor placental perfusion caused by inadequate remodelling of the maternal spiral arteries leads to preeclampsia (PE). To identify novel signalling pathways that contribute to PE pathogenesis and to create prerequisites for the non-invasive diagnosis of PE before clinical manifestations of the disease, this study aimed to evaluate miRNA expression levels in the placenta and blood plasma of pregnant women. METHODS: miRNA deep sequencing followed by real-time quantitative RT-PCR was applied to compare miRNA expression profiles in the placenta and blood plasma from women with early- and late-onset PE relative to the control group...
January 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277272/classics-revisited-miguel-fern%C3%A3-ndez-on-germ-layer-inversion-and-specific-polyembryony-in-armadillos
#10
REVIEW
A M Carter
BACKGROUND: Miguel Fernández was an Argentinian zoologist who published the first account of obligate polyembryony in armadillos. His contribution is here discussed in relation to his contemporaries, Newman and Patterson, and more recent work. FINDINGS: Fernandez worked on the mulita (Dasypus hybridus). He was able to get early stages before twinning occurred and show it was preceded by inversion of the germ layers. By the primitive streak stage there were separate embryonic shields and partition of the amnion...
January 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277271/is-there-a-role-for-exosomes-in-foetoplacental-endothelial-dysfunction-in-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#11
REVIEW
Tamara Sáez, Paul de Vos, Luis Sobrevia, Marijke M Faas
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a disease of pregnancy associated with endothelial dysfunction in the foetoplacental vasculature. Foetoplacental endothelial dysfunction is characterized by changes in the l-arginine-adenosine signalling pathway and inflammation. The mechanisms involved in these alterations are suggested to be hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinemia, and oxidative stress. These conditions increase the release of exosomes, nanovesicles that are generated from diverse cell types, including endothelial cells...
January 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277270/human-predecidual-stromal-cells-have-distinctive-characteristics-of-pericytes-cell-contractility-chemotactic-activity-and-expression-of-pericyte-markers-and-angiogenic-factors
#12
Raquel Muñoz-Fernández, Claudia de la Mata, Alejandro Prados, Ana Perea, María José Ruiz-Magaña, Tatiana Llorca, Pablo Fernández-Rubio, Osmany Blanco, Ana C Abadía-Molina, Enrique G Olivares
INTRODUCTION: Human decidual stromal cells (DSCs) play a key role in maternal-fetal interactions. Precursors of DSCs (preDSCs) localize around vessels in both the endometrium and decidua. Previous studies suggested a relationship between preDSCs and pericytes because these cells share a perivascular location, alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SM actin) expression and the ability to contract under the effects of cytokines. METHODS: To further study this relationship, we established 15 human preDSC lines and 3 preDSC clones...
January 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277269/chromosome-19-micrornas-exert-antiviral-activity-independent-from-type-iii-interferon-signaling
#13
Avraham Bayer, Nicholas J Lennemann, Yingshi Ouyang, Elena Sadovsky, Megan A Sheridan, R Michael Roberts, Carolyn B Coyne, Yoel Sadovsky
INTRODUCTION: Cultured primary human trophoblasts (PHT), derived from term placentas, are relatively resistant to infection by diverse viruses. The resistance can be conferred to non-trophoblastic cells by pre-exposing them to medium that was conditioned by PHT cells. This antiviral effect is mediated, at least in part, by microRNAs (miRNA) expressed from the chromosome 19 microRNA cluster (C19MC). Recently we showed that PHT cells and cells pre-exposed to PHT medium are also resistant to infection by Zika virus (ZIKV), an effect mediated by the constitutive release of the type III interferons (IFN) IFN lambda-1 and IFN lambda-2 in trophoblastic medium...
January 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277268/dysregulated-placental-micrornas-in-early-and-late-onset-preeclampsia
#14
Alexandra Lykoudi, Aggeliki Kolialexi, George I Lambrou, Maria Braoudaki, Charalampos Siristatidis, George Konstantinos Papaioanou, Maria Tzetis, Ariadni Mavrou, Nikolas Papantoniou
INTRODUCTION: To determine the miRNA expression profile in placentas complicated by Preeclampsia (PE) and compare it to uncomplicated pregnancies. METHODS: Sixteen placentas from women with PE, [11 with early onset PE (EOPE) and 5 with late onset PE (LOPE)], as well as 8 placentas from uncomplicated pregnancies were analyzed using miRNA microarrays. For statistical analyses the MATLAB® simulation environment was applied. The over-expression of miR-518a-5p was verified using Quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction...
January 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277267/placental-baseline-conditions-modulate-the-hyperoxic-bold-mri-response
#15
Marianne Sinding, David A Peters, Sofie S Poulsen, Jens B Frøkjær, Ole B Christiansen, Astrid Petersen, Niels Uldbjerg, Anne Sørensen
OBJECTIVES: Human pregnancies complicated by placental dysfunction may be characterized by a high hyperoxic Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) MRI response. The pathophysiology behind this phenomenon remains to be established. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether it is associated with altered placental baseline conditions, including a lower oxygenation and altered tissue morphology, as estimated by the placental transverse relaxation time (T2*). METHOD: We included 49 normal pregnancies (controls) and 13 pregnancies complicated by placental dysfunction (cases), defined by a birth weight < 10th percentile in combination with placental pathological signs of vascular malperfusion...
January 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277266/changes-in-maternal-placental-growth-factor-levels-during-term-labour
#16
Liam Dunn, Christopher Flatley, Sailesh Kumar
Placental growth factor (PlGF) has important angiogenic function that is critical to placental development. Lower levels of PlGF are associated with fetal growth restriction, pre-eclampsia and intrapartum fetal compromise. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of labour on maternal PlGF levels. METHOD: This was a prospective observational cohort study. Normotensive women with a singleton, normally grown, non-anomalous, fetus between 37 + 0 and 42 + 0 weeks gestation were eligible for inclusion...
January 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277265/fetal-sex-determination-of-human-placental-tissues
#17
Séverine A Degrelle, Thierry Fournier
It is now demonstrated that the sex-specific maternal-placental-fetal interaction plays an important role in placental functions and pathologies. Determination of fetal-sex may therefore be an important consideration in studies using placenta samples. In this present study, we describe a simple, fast, and cheap protocol, which allows the fetal-sex determination of placental tissues from various starting materials (villi or formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues, isolated cytotrophoblasts or cellular debris from whole cell lysates, and cDNA) by a single duplex PCR reaction followed by agarose gel electrophoresis...
January 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277264/proteomics-and-bioinformatics-analysis-of-altered-protein-expression-in-the-placental-villous-tissue-from-early-recurrent-miscarriage-patients
#18
Hai-Tao Pan, Hai-Gang Ding, Min Fang, Bin Yu, Yi Cheng, Ya-Jing Tan, Qi-Qin Fu, Bo Lu, Hong-Guang Cai, Xin Jin, Xian-Qing Xia, Tao Zhang
INTRODUCTION: Recurrent miscarriage (RM) affects 5% of women, it has an adverse emotional impact on women. Because of the complexities of early development, the mechanism of recurrent miscarriage is still unclear. We hypothesized that abnormal placenta leads to early recurrent miscarriage (ERM). The aim of this study was to identify ERM associated factors in human placenta villous tissue using proteomics. Investigation of these differences in protein expression in parallel profiling is essential to understand the comprehensive pathophysiological mechanism underlying recurrent miscarriage (RM)...
January 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208246/history-of-reptile-placentology-part-iii-giacomini-s-1891-histological-monograph-on-lizard-placentation
#19
REVIEW
D G Blackburn, L Paulesu, A M Avanzati, M Roth
By the 1890s, placental arrangements had been documented macroscopically in lizards and fishes, but placental studies on such species lagged far behind research on mammals. In 1891, the biologist Ercole Giacomini (at the University of Siena, Italy) published the first histological analysis of a reptile placenta. Focusing on a placentotrophic lizard (Chalcides chalcides) with a morphologically complex placenta, Giacomini documented the histological and cellular bases for placental nutrient transfer and gas exchange...
December 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208245/mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-signaling-is-a-mechanistic-link-between-increased-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-autophagy-in-the-placentas-of-pregnancies-complicated-by-growth-restriction
#20
Tai-Ho Hung, T'sang-T'ang Hsieh, Chung-Pu Wu, Meng-Jen Li, Yi-Lin Yeh, Szu-Fu Chen
INTRODUCTION: Increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy have been noted in the placentas of pregnancies complicated by idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR); however, the cause of these phenomena remains unclear. We surmised that oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) may increase ER stress and autophagy and that mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling is involved in regulating placental ER stress and autophagy in pregnancies complicated by IUGR. METHODS: We obtained placentas from women with normal term pregnancies and pregnancies complicated by IUGR to compare ER stress, mTOR signaling, and levels of autophagy-related proteins between the two groups and used primary cytotrophoblast cells treated with or without salubrinal (an ER stress inhibitor), MHY1485 (an mTOR activator), or rapamycin (an mTOR inhibitor) to investigate the effects of OGD on ER stress, mTOR activity, and autophagy levels in vitro...
December 2017: Placenta
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