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Placenta

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911790/microchimerism-defining-and-redefining-the-prepregnancy-context-a-review
#1
H S Gammill, W E Harrington
Bidirectional transplacental exchange characterizes human pregnancy. Cells exchanged between mother and fetus can durably persist as microchimerism and may have both short- and long-term consequences for the recipient. The amount, type, and persistence of microchimerism are influenced by obstetric characteristics, pregnancy complications, exposures to infection, and other factors. A reproductive-aged woman enters pregnancy harboring previously acquired microchimeric "grafts," which may influence her preconception health and her subsequent pregnancy outcomes...
August 31, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855067/what-are-the-metabolic-precursors-which-increase-the-risk-of-pre-eclampsia-and-how-could-these-be-investigated-further
#2
Jenny E Myers
Several maternal and pregnancy characteristics have been associated with an increased risk of preeclampsia in epidemiological studies. This review discusses metabolic risk factors in particular and their interaction with other maternal and/or pregnancy characteristics. Examples of research studies that have used data from women with specific characteristics or explored the interaction between risk factors are discussed. Suggestions for future research using large data sets and incorporating knowledge of cardiovascular disease and other metabolic diseases are also highlighted...
August 24, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778732/transposase-mediated-gene-modulation-in-the-placenta
#3
Marlee Elston, Johann Urschitz
The placenta is an organ vital to fetal development as well as the maintenance of a healthy pregnancy and plays a crucial role in developmental programming of the fetus. The mechanisms that link intrauterine milieu, fetal health and disease development later in life are poorly understood. Placenta-specific gene modulation, both by generating transgenic animals as well as by developing methods for in vivo genetic modifications is a growing area of interest as this approach provides the opportunity to investigate the role of particular genes or gene networks in regulating placental function and fetal growth...
July 29, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851560/nutritional-composition-and-heavy-metal-content-of-the-human-placenta
#4
Sydney Chang, Laura Lodico, Zev Williams
Despite the vital and diverse roles of the placenta, remarkably little is known about its actual composition. Moreover, as placentophagy becomes increasingly popular, understanding the nutritional and heavy metal composition of the human placenta has practical implications. Here we evaluated the carbohydrate, sugar, protein, fat, cholesterol, vitamin, and heavy metal composition of the human placenta from uncomplicated singleton pregnancies and found that it contains a significant amount of cholesterol, protein, iron, and selenium, but no detectable levels of cadmium, arsenic, or mercury...
July 27, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774476/new-frontiers-in-placenta-stem-cell-research-translation-and-clinical-application
#5
EDITORIAL
Ornella Parolini, Martin Knöfler, Mohamed Abumaree
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 26, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781143/global-pregnancy-collaboration-symposium-prepregnancy-and-very-early-pregnancy-antecedents-of-adverse-pregnancy-outcomes-overview-and-recommendations
#6
James M Roberts, Christopher W G Redman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 19, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716426/hormone-dependent-uterine-epithelial-stromal-communication-for-pregnancy-support
#7
Xiaoqiu Wang, San-Pin Wu, Francesco J DeMayo
Human fertility is a relatively inefficient process. Despite the presence of visibly healthy embryos, 30% of pregnancies generated by assisted reproductive technology (ART) fail before the second trimester. The uterine microenvironment plays a critical role in establishing and maintaining a successful pregnancy that requires coordinated communication between the epithelial and stromal cells of the endometrium. The epithelial cells must cease proliferation and become permissive for the conceptus (embryo and associated extraembryonic membranes), while the stromal cells undergoes mesenchymal-to-epithelioid transformation to form the decidua in support of subsequent embryo development...
July 6, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693892/the-application-of-decellularized-human-term-fetal-membranes-in-tissue-engineering-and-regenerative-medicine-term
#8
Aida Shakouri-Motlagh, Ramin Khanabdali, Daniel E Heath, Bill Kalionis
Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM) is a field that applies biology and engineering principles to "restore, maintain or repair a tissue after injury". Besides the potential to treat various diseases, these endeavours increase our understanding of fundamental cell biology. Although TERM has progressed rapidly, engineering a whole organ is still beyond our skills, primarily due to the complexity of tissues. Material science and current manufacturing methods are not capable of mimicking this complexity...
July 4, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697979/the-effect-of-endothelial-cell-activation-and-hypoxia-on-placental-chorionic-mesenchymal-stem-stromal-cell-migration
#9
Balta Al-Sowayan, Rosemary J Keogh, Mohammed Abumaree, Harry M Georgiou, Bill Kalionis
INTRODUCTION: Chorionic mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (CMSC) can be isolated from the placenta in large numbers. Although their functions are yet to be fully elucidated, they have a role in tissue development and repair. To fulfil such a role, CMSC must be able to migrate to the microenvironment of the injury site. This process is not fully understood and the aim of this study therefore, was to examine in vitro CMSC migration in response to tissue inflammation and hypoxic conditioning...
June 27, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864025/birth-weight-umbilical-and-placental-traits-in-relation-to-neonatal-loss-in-cloned-pigs
#10
Zheng Ao, Dewu Liu, Chengfa Zhao, Zhimin Yue, Junsong Shi, Rong Zhou, Gengyuan Cai, Enqin Zheng, Zicong Li, Zhenfang Wu
Cloned piglets generated through somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) have a high rate of neonatal death. Postnatal loss is associated with low birth weight, umbilical status and placental parameters in fertilisation-derived piglets. To investigate whether or not this relationship also exists in cloned piglets, birth weight, umbilical status, placental parameters, placental morphology and gene expression pattern were compared among four piglet groups, namely, SCNT-derived male piglets that died within 4 days (SCNT-DW4), SCNT-derived male piglets that survived over 4 days (SCNT-SO4), artificial insemination (AI)-generated male piglets that died within 4 days (AI-DW4) and AI-generated male piglets that survived over 4 days (AI-SO4)...
September 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864024/hemodynamic-analysis-of-blood-flow-in-umbilical-artery-using-computational-modeling
#11
Ruchit G Shah, Theresa Girardi, George Merz, Phillip Necaise, Carolyn M Salafia
The umbilical cord is the crucial pathway for blood flow between the fetus and the placenta. Umbilical coiling and length have been separately linked to adverse clinical outcomes; however, the effects of variations of these parameters on umbilical arterial blood flow are not well understood. Using 3D computational model, we studied the individual and combined effects of umbilical coiling index, cord length and arterial diameter on umbilical artery hemodynamics. We found that specific combinations of umbilical coiling index, cord length and arterial diameter yielded pressure and flow drops incompatible with fetal life...
September 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864023/clinicoplacental-correlates-of-amniocyte-vacuolization-in-association-with-gastroschisis
#12
Monique E De Paepe, Quanfu Mao, Sharon Chu, Yuqi Zhang, François I Luks
INTRODUCTION/OBJECTIVES: Gastroschisis has been associated with a characteristic type of amniocyte vacuolization. In this study, we determined the frequency and clinicoplacental correlates of this apparently unique alteration of the amniotic epithelium. METHODS: We performed a retrospective clinicopathologic analysis of 74 consecutive cases of isolated gastroschisis. Placental membrane sections were reviewed for presence and extent of amniocyte vacuolization, and immunostained for adipophilin, a lipid droplet-associated protein...
September 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864022/child-neurodevelopmental-outcomes-following-preterm-and-term-birth-what-can-the-placenta-tell-us
#13
REVIEW
Nicolette A Hodyl, Natalie Aboustate, Tina Bianco-Miotto, Claire T Roberts, Vicki L Clifton, Michael J Stark
A significant proportion of children born preterm will experience some level of neurodevelopmental impairment. Changes in placental function have been observed with many antenatal conditions that are risk factors for preterm birth and/or poor neurodevelopment including fetal growth restriction and in-utero inflammation. This review will highlight placental factors that have been studied to understand the underlying mechanisms and identify biomarkers that lead to poor child neurodevelopmental outcomes. These include changes in gross morphological and histopathological structure and the placental inflammatory response to prenatal infection...
September 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864021/the-core-transcriptome-of-mammalian-placentas-and-the-divergence-of-expression-with-placental-shape
#14
Don L Armstrong, Michael R McGowen, Amy Weckle, Priyadarshini Pantham, Jason Caravas, Dalen Agnew, Kurt Benirschke, Sue Savage-Rumbaugh, Eviatar Nevo, Chong J Kim, Günter P Wagner, Roberto Romero, Derek E Wildman
INTRODUCTION: The placenta is arguably the most anatomically variable organ in mammals even though its primary function is conserved. METHOD: Using RNA-Seq, we measured the expression profiles of 55 term placentas of 14 species of mammals representing all major eutherian superordinal clades and marsupials, and compared the evolution of expression across clades. RESULTS: We identified a set of 115 core genes which is expressed (FPKM ≥10) in all eutherian placentas, including genes with immune-modulating properties (ANXA2, ANXA1, S100A11, S100A10, and LGALS1), cell-cell interactions (LAMC1, LUM, and LGALS1), invasion (GRB2 and RALB) and syncytialization (ANXA5 and ANXA1)...
September 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864020/pre-clinical-evaluation-of-a-nanoparticle-based-blood-pool-contrast-agent-for-mr-imaging-of-the-placenta
#15
Ketan B Ghaghada, Zbigniew A Starosolski, Saakshi Bhayana, Igor Stupin, Chandreshkumar V Patel, Rohan C Bhavane, Haijun Gao, Andrey Bednov, Chandrasekhar Yallampalli, Michael Belfort, Verghese George, Ananth V Annapragada
INTRODUCTION: Non-invasive 3D imaging that enables clear visualization of placental margins is of interest in the accurate diagnosis of placental pathologies. This study investigated if contrast-enhanced MRI performed using a liposomal gadolinium blood-pool contrast agent (liposomal-Gd) enables clear visualization of the placental margins and the placental-myometrial interface (retroplacental space). Non-contrast MRI and contrast-enhanced MRI using a clinically approved conventional contrast agent were used as comparators...
September 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864019/glyburide-treatment-in-gestational-diabetes-is-associated-with-increased-placental-glucose-transporter-1-expression-and-higher-birth-weight
#16
Paula Díaz, Kris Genelyn Dimasuay, Lindsey Koele-Schmidt, Brian Jang, Linda A Barbour, Thomas Jansson, Theresa L Powell
Use of glyburide in gestational diabetes (GDM) has raised concerns about fetal and neonatal side effects, including increased birth weight. Placental nutrient transport is a key determinant of fetal growth, however the effect of glyburide on placental nutrient transporters is largely unknown. We hypothesized that glyburide treatment in GDM pregnancies is associated with increased expression of nutrient transporters in the syncytiotrophoblast plasma membranes. We collected placentas from GDM pregnancies who delivered at term and were treated with either diet modification (n = 15) or glyburide (n = 8)...
September 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864018/bovine-placentomal-heparanase-and-syndecan-expression-is-related-to-placental-maturation
#17
N Hambruch, S Kumstel, J-D Haeger, C Pfarrer
INTRODUCTION: Impaired placental maturation has been associated with retention of fetal membranes, which is a major reproductive disease in cattle. This maturation includes alterations in all tissue compartments of the placenta, specifically of epithelial and stroma cells and extracellular matrix. It is believed to be controlled by hormones, adhesion molecules and proteolytic enzymes. To investigate if the proteolytic enzyme heparanase and its substrates, the syndecans (SDCs) could be involved in the release of fetal membranes, their expression in bovine placentomes was analyzed...
September 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864017/maternal-grb10-microdeletion-is-a-novel-cause-of-cystic-placenta-spectrum-of-genomic-changes-in-the-etiology-of-enlarged-cystic-placenta
#18
Urvashi Surti, Svetlana Yatsenko, Jie Hu, Daniel Bellissimo, W Tony Parks, Lori Hoffner
INTRODUCTION: The genetics and pathology of diploid complete and triploid partial hydatidiform moles have been well established. Enlarged cystic placenta often indicates an underlying etiology and is frequently associated with adverse pregnancy outcome. Several imprinted genes are strongly expressed in placental tissues and essential for normal placental growth and development. Disruption of these imprinted genes can lead to abnormal placental pathology and placental stunting or overgrowth...
September 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864016/effects-of-maternal-diabetes-and-fetal-sex-on-human-placenta-mitochondrial-biogenesis
#19
Shaoning Jiang, April M Teague, Jeanie B Tryggestad, Christopher E Aston, Timothy Lyons, Steven D Chernausek
Abnormal placental function in maternal diabetes affects fetal health and can predispose offspring to metabolic diseases in later life. There are fetal sex-specific differences in placenta structure and gene expression, which may affect placental responses to maternal diabetes. The present study examined the effects of maternal diabetes on indices of mitochondrial biogenesis in placentae from male and female offspring. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number and expression of key regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis were assessed in placentae from 19 diabetic and 23 non-diabetic women...
September 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864015/availability-of-collect-a-database-for-pregnancy-and-placental-research-studies-worldwide
#20
Leslie Myatt, James M Roberts, Christopher W G Redman
Cost and availability of a database often impede research while the lack of compatibility inhibits collaboration by making merging of databases difficult or impossible. The Global Pregnancy Collaboration (CoLab) has promoted harmonization of studies and standardized data collection to facilitate pregnancy and placental research. Its online database, COLLECT, allows collection of minimal and optimal clinical datasets to accompany basic and applied science studies and provides a placental sample inventory system...
September 2017: Placenta
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