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Placenta

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778732/transposase-mediated-gene-modulation-in-the-placenta
#1
Marlee Elston, Johann Urschitz
The placenta is an organ vital to fetal development as well as the maintenance of a healthy pregnancy and plays a crucial role in developmental programming of the fetus. The mechanisms that link intrauterine milieu, fetal health and disease development later in life are poorly understood. Placenta-specific gene modulation, both by generating transgenic animals as well as by developing methods for in vivo genetic modifications is a growing area of interest as this approach provides the opportunity to investigate the role of particular genes or gene networks in regulating placental function and fetal growth...
July 29, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774476/new-frontiers-in-placenta-stem-cell-research-translation-and-clinical-application
#2
EDITORIAL
Ornella Parolini, Martin Knöfler, Mohamed Abumaree
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 26, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781143/global-pregnancy-collaboration-symposium-prepregnancy-and-very-early-pregnancy-antecedents-of-adverse-pregnancy-outcomes-overview-and-recommendations
#3
James M Roberts, Christopher W G Redman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 19, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716426/hormone-dependent-uterine-epithelial-stromal-communication-for-pregnancy-support
#4
Xiaoqiu Wang, San-Pin Wu, Francesco J DeMayo
Human fertility is a relatively inefficient process. Despite the presence of visibly healthy embryos, 30% of pregnancies generated by assisted reproductive technology (ART) fail before the second trimester. The uterine microenvironment plays a critical role in establishing and maintaining a successful pregnancy that requires coordinated communication between the epithelial and stromal cells of the endometrium. The epithelial cells must cease proliferation and become permissive for the conceptus (embryo and associated extraembryonic membranes), while the stromal cells undergoes mesenchymal-to-epithelioid transformation to form the decidua in support of subsequent embryo development...
July 6, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693892/the-application-of-decellularized-human-term-fetal-membranes-in-tissue-engineering-and-regenerative-medicine-term
#5
Aida Shakouri-Motlagh, Ramin Khanabdali, Daniel E Heath, Bill Kalionis
Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM) is a field that applies biology and engineering principles to "restore, maintain or repair a tissue after injury". Besides the potential to treat various diseases, these endeavours increase our understanding of fundamental cell biology. Although TERM has progressed rapidly, engineering a whole organ is still beyond our skills, primarily due to the complexity of tissues. Material science and current manufacturing methods are not capable of mimicking this complexity...
July 4, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697979/the-effect-of-endothelial-cell-activation-and-hypoxia-on-placental-chorionic-mesenchymal-stem-stromal-cell-migration
#6
Balta Al-Sowayan, Rosemary J Keogh, Mohammed Abumaree, Harry M Georgiou, Bill Kalionis
INTRODUCTION: Chorionic mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (CMSC) can be isolated from the placenta in large numbers. Although their functions are yet to be fully elucidated, they have a role in tissue development and repair. To fulfil such a role, CMSC must be able to migrate to the microenvironment of the injury site. This process is not fully understood and the aim of this study therefore, was to examine in vitro CMSC migration in response to tissue inflammation and hypoxic conditioning...
June 27, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673520/similarities-between-induced-membrane-and-amniotic-membrane-novelty-for-bone-repair
#7
Florelle Gindraux, Thomas Rondot, Benoit de Billy, Narcisse Zwetyenga, Jean-Christophe Fricain, Aurélie Pagnon, Laurent Obert
Previous clinical studies have shown the efficacy of a two-stage surgical procedure - the induced membrane (IM) technique - for reconstruction of large bone defects or bone non-union. The first stage involves radical debridement and insertion of a cement spacer into the bone defect. The second stage, performed weeks to months later, consists of removing the spacer while leaving the foreign body membrane induced by the cement in place, and then filling the cavity with bone autograft. The IM has been shown to (1) act as a protective physical barrier by preventing bone autograft resorption and (2) act as a bioreactor by promoting healing through revascularisation and growth factor secretion, and by concentrating mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) with osteogenic properties...
June 23, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651899/the-cytotrophoblastic-shell-and-complications-of-pregnancy
#8
Graham J Burton, Eric Jauniaux
Many complications of pregnancy have their pathophysiological roots in the early stages of placentation. Impaired trophoblast invasion and deficient remodelling of the maternal spiral arteries are a common feature. While malperfusion of the placenta may underpin cases of fetal growth restriction and early-onset pre-eclampsia, the mechanistic links to spontaneous miscarriage, pre-term labour and premature rupture of the membranes are less obvious. Here, we speculate that formation of a well-developed cytotrophoblastic shell at the maternal-fetal interface is crucial for pregnancy success...
June 13, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693893/emerging-role-for-dysregulated-decidualization-in-the-genesis-of-preeclampsia
#9
Kirk P Conrad, Maria Belen Rabaglino, Emiel D Post Uiterweer
In normal human placentation, uterine invasion by trophoblast cells and subsequent spiral artery remodeling depend on cooperation among fetal trophoblasts and maternal decidual, myometrial, immune and vascular cells in the uterine wall. Therefore, aberrant function of anyone or several of these cell-types could theoretically impair placentation leading to the development of preeclampsia. Because trophoblast invasion and spiral artery remodeling occur during the first half of pregnancy, the molecular pathology of fetal placental and maternal decidual tissues following delivery may not be informative about the genesis of impaired placentation, which transpired months earlier...
June 9, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647398/immune-modulatory-effects-of-syncytiotrophoblast-extracellular-vesicles-in-pregnancy-and-preeclampsia
#10
Claudia Göhner, Torsten Plösch, Marijke M Faas
Unique immunologic adaptations exist to successfully establish and maintain pregnancy and to avoid an immune attack against the semi allogenic fetus. These adaptations occur both locally at the maternofetal interface and in the peripheral circulation and affect the innate as well as the adaptive immune system. Pregnancy is characterized by a general inflammatory state with activation of monocytes and granulocytes, but also with suppressive lymphocytes (regulatory T cells), and skewing towards T helper 2 immunity...
June 7, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578983/staff-and-redman-response-to-placenta-letter-by-brosens
#11
LETTER
Anne Cathrine Staff, Christopher Redman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 25, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343731/endoplasmic-reticulum-aminopeptidase-2-a-common-immunological-link-to-adverse-pregnancy-outcomes-and-cancer-clearance
#12
Eun D Lee
Endoplasmic Reticulum Aminopeptidase 2 (ERAP2) trims HLA class I-binding peptides, determining the peptide repertoire presented for immune recognition. Variation in the ERAP2 amino acid sequence could affect the ability of some fetuses and tumors to achieve immune evasion. For example, homozygosity for an ERAP2 variant that has increased trimming efficiency for hydrophobic molecules has never been detected in mothers and fetuses. Thus, it is possible that this single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the ERAP2 gene has been selected against in order to prevent alteration of the immune privileged uterine environment, and to allow tumors to escape immune recognition...
August 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202182/implantation-and-extravillous-trophoblast-invasion-from-rare-archival-specimens-to-modern-biobanking
#13
Gerit Moser, Berthold Huppertz
Extravillous trophoblast invasion serves to attach the placenta to the uterus and to enable access to nutrients for the embryo throughout pregnancy - secretions of the uterine glands in the first trimester, maternal blood in the second and third trimester. For assessing extravillous trophoblast invasion, histology (in combination with immunohistochemistry) still plays a major role in placental research. This is especially true for the re-assessment of rare archival specimens from early human implantation sites or placenta in utero with the background of recent knowledge which may help to strengthen current hypotheses...
August 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094006/salt-aldosterone-and-extrarenal-na-sensitive-responses-in-pregnancy
#14
Paula Juliet Scaife, Markus Georg Mohaupt
Outside of pregnancy excessive salt consumption is known to be harmful being linked to increased blood pressure and cardiovascular disease. However, pregnancy represents a major change to a woman's physiology resulting in an intimate adaptation to environmental conditions. It is now becoming apparent that salt is essential for a number of these changes during pregnancy including haematological, cardiac adaptations as well as directly influencing placental development and the uteroplacental immune environment...
August 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623979/placental-glucose-transporter-glut-1-is-down-regulated-in-preeclampsia
#15
Benjamin P Lüscher, Camilla Marini, Marianne S Joerger-Messerli, Xiao Huang, Matthias A Hediger, Christiane Albrecht, Marc U Baumann, Daniel V Surbek
INTRODUCTION: Transplacental fetal glucose supply is predominantly regulated by glucose transporter-1 (GLUT1). Altered expression and/or function of GLUT1 may affect the intrauterine environment, which could compromise fetal development and may contribute to fetal programming. To date it is unknown whether placental GLUT1 is affected by preeclampsia, which is often associated with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). We addressed the hypothesis that preeclampsia leads to decreased expression and function of placental GLUT1...
July 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623978/gestational-diabetes-affects-fetal-autophagy
#16
Laura Avagliano, Valentina Massa, Laura Terraneo, Michele Samaja, Patrizia Doi, Gaetano Pietro Bulfamante, Anna Maria Marconi
Autophagy is a catabolic process involved in the preservation of energy homeostasis and its dysregulation has been implicated in the development of metabolic disorders, including diabetes mellitus. Gestational diabetes mellitus represents a risk for fetal morbidity and mortality. The present study focuses on the autophagy process in human diabetic placenta and fetal pancreas, compared with controls. Analysis of the autophagy markers LC3, Beclin-1 and p62 suggests an impairment of the autophagy process in diabetic placentas...
July 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623977/loss-of-selenocysteine-insertion-sequence-binding-protein-2-suppresses-the-proliferation-migration-invasion-and-hormone-secretion-of-human-trophoblast-cells-via-the-pi3k-akt-and-erk-signaling-pathway
#17
Mengdi Li, Wanpeng Cheng, Jincheng Luo, Xiaoyan Hu, Tingting Nie, Hehuan Lai, Xiaolin Zheng, Fenglan Li, Hui Li
INTRODUCTION: Selenocysteine insertion binding protein 2 (SECISBP2) plays a vital role in selenocysteine incorporation into selenoprotein in many creatures. However, the impact of SECISBP2 in development of trophoblast cells remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the roles of SECISBP2 in human trophoblast cells and the underlying molecular mechanism. METHODS: Low-expression of SECISBP2 in trophoblast cells was achieved by transfection with siRNAs...
July 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623976/adam28-localizes-to-hla-g-trophoblasts-and-promotes-column-cell-outgrowth
#18
L C De Luca, H T Le, D L Mara, A G Beristain
INTRODUCTION: Trophoblast progenitor cell differentiation towards the extravillous trophoblast (EVT) lineage initiates within proximal regions of anchoring columns of first trimester placental villi. While molecular processes controlling the initial stages of progenitor cell differentiation along the EVT pathway have been described, much remains unknown about factors important in distal column cell differentiation into invasive EVTs. ADAMs are proteases that regulate growth factor signaling, cell-matrix adhesion, and matrix proteolysis, and thus impact many processes relevant in placentation...
July 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623975/mitochondrial-dna-content-and-methylation-in-fetal-cord-blood-of-pregnancies-with-placental-insufficiency
#19
Chiara Novielli, Chiara Mandò, Silvia Tabano, Gaia M Anelli, Laura Fontana, Patrizio Antonazzo, Monica Miozzo, Irene Cetin
INTRODUCTION: Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and preeclampsia (PE) are pregnancy disorders characterized by placental insufficiency with oxygen/nutrient restriction and oxidative stress, all influencing mitochondria functionality and number. Moreover, IUGR and PE fetuses are predisposed to diseases later in life, and this might occur through epigenetic alterations. Here we analyze content and methylation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), for the first time in IUGR and PE singleton fetuses, to identify possible alterations in mtDNA levels and/or epigenetic control of mitochondrial loci relevant to replication (D-loop) and functionality (mt-TF/RNR1: protein synthesis, mt-CO1: respiratory chain complex)...
July 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623974/increased-placental-phospholipase-a2-gene-expression-and-free-f2-isoprostane-levels-in-response-to-oxidative-stress-in-preeclampsia
#20
M Brien, J Larose, K Greffard, P Julien, J F Bilodeau
Vasoactive eicosanoids such as thromboxane (TX) A2 and F2-isoprostanes (F2-isoPs) were shown to be increased in the preeclamptic placenta. Only one of the 64 possible isomers of F2-isoPs derived from the oxidation of arachidonic acid was investigated in the placenta so far. F2-isoPs are released from membrane phospholipids by phospholipases A2 (PLA2) and were shown to act on the TXA2 receptor (TBXA2R). However, the PLA2 deregulated in preeclampsia (PE) remains to be determined. In this study, we analyzed the concentrations of six isomers of F2-isoPs; 8-iso-PGF2α, 8-iso-15(R)-PGF2α, 15(R)-PGF2α, iPF2α-IV, iPF2α-VI, 5-iPF2α-VI and the concentrations of the stable metabolites of TXA2, TXB2, by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry in placentas of PE (n = 17) and normotensive (n = 15) pregnancies according to the biopsy site: peri-insertion or periphery...
July 2017: Placenta
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