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Placenta

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907450/altered-maternal-and-placental-lipid-metabolism-and-fetal-fat-development-in-obesity-current-knowledge-and-advances-in-non-invasive-assessment
#1
Flavien Delhaes, Stephanie A Giza, Tianna Koreman, Genevieve Eastabrook, Charles A McKenzie, Samantha Bedell, Timothy R H Regnault, Barbra de Vrijer
Abnormal maternal lipid profiles, a hallmark of increased maternal adiposity, are associated with pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia and gestational diabetes, and offspring long-term metabolic health is impacted as the consequence of altered fetal growth, physiology and often iatrogenic prematurity. The metabolic changes associated with maternal obesity and/or the consumption of a high-fat diet effecting maternal lipid profiles and metabolism have also been documented to specifically affect placental function and may underlie changes in fetal development and life course disease risk...
May 26, 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748088/innate-immune-cells-in-the-placental-bed-in-healthy-pregnancy-and-preeclampsia
#2
Marijke M Faas, Paul De Vos
Immune cells in the placental bed are important for adequate development of the placental bed. The most prominent immune cells in the placental bed early in pregnancy are uterine natural killer cells (uNK) cells and macrophages. Also dendritic cells and mast cells can be found in the early placental bed. These cells not only have an immune regulatory function, but are also involved in the regulation of trophoblast invasion, angiogenesis and spiral artery remodeling. In preeclampsia, one of the major complications of pregnancy, decreased trophoblast invasion and spiral artery remodeling has been found...
April 25, 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716747/mechanisms-of-the-effect-of-magnesium-salts-in-preeclampsia
#3
Delia I Chiarello, Reinaldo Marín, Fulgencio Proverbio, Paula Coronado, Fernando Toledo, Rocio Salsoso, Jaime Gutiérrez, Luis Sobrevia
Preeclampsia is a heterogeneous pregnancy-specific syndrome associated with abnormal trophoblast invasion and endothelial dysfunction. Magnesium (Mg2+ ) level may be normal or decreased in women with preeclampsia. However, the use of Mg2+ salts, such as Mg2+ sulphate, are useful in reducing the pathophysiological consequences of preeclampsia with severe features and eclampsia. Although the mechanism of action of this Mg2+ salt is not well understood, the available evidence suggests a beneficial effect of Mg2+ for the mother and foetus...
April 24, 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29941176/human-placentophagy-effects-of-dehydration-and-steaming-on-hormones-metals-and-bacteria-in-placental-tissue
#4
Sophia K Johnson, Tanja Groten, Jana Pastuschek, Jürgen Rödel, Ulrike Sammer, Udo R Markert
INTRODUCTION: Human maternal placentophagy, the behavior of ingesting the own raw or processed placenta postpartum, is a growing trend by women of western societies. This study aims to identify the impact of dehydration and steaming on hormone and trace element concentration as well as microbial contamination of placental tissue. METHODS: A total of nine placentas have been processed: six were studied for hormone and trace element concentrations; eight were studied for microbial contamination...
July 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29941175/the-newly-established-bovine-endometrial-gland-cell-line-begc-forms-gland-acini-in-vitro-and-is-only-ifn%C3%AF-responsive-mapk42-44-activation-after-e-2-and-p-4-pre-incubation
#5
Jan-Dirk Haeger, Christian Loch, Christiane Pfarrer
INTRODUCTION: Uterine glands (UG) are crucial for the establishment of ruminant pregnancy and influenced (orchestrated manner) by estrogen (E2 ), progesterone (P4 ) and interferon tau (IFNτ). In the study we established a bovine endometrial glandular cell line (BGEC) and tested its functional reactivity (signaling) to IFNτ. METHODS: BGEC was characterized by light microscopy (LM), epithelial markers (ezrin, CK18) [immunofluorescence (IF)/immunohistochemistry (IHC)] and ultrastructure (TEM/SEM) (apical microvilli)...
July 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29941174/subclinical-and-clinical-chorioamnionitis-fetal-vasculitis-and-risk-for-preterm-birth-a-cohort-study
#6
Kristin Palmsten, Katharine K Nelson, Louise C Laurent, Soojin Park, Christina D Chambers, Mana M Parast
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between subclinical and clinical chorioamnionitis and risk of preterm birth (PTB). METHODS: Demographic and clinical characteristics were abstracted from medical records and placental examinations performed (N = 1371 pregnancies including spontaneous and medically-indicated PTBs). Pregnancies were classified as having clinical chorioamnionitis (with or without histologic chorioamnionitis), subclinical chorioamnionitis (histologic, but not clinical, chorioamnionitis), or no chorioamnionitis; pregnancies with histologic chorioamnionitis were further evaluated for fetal vasculitis...
July 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29941173/altered-expression-of-p97-valosin-containing-protein-and-impaired-autophagy-in-preeclamptic-human-placenta
#7
Asker Zeki Ozsoy, Sevil Cayli, Cansu Sahin, Seda Ocakli, Tuba Ozdemir Sanci, Delibas Bahri Ilhan
INTRODUCTION: Autophagy increases in placenta-related obstetrical diseases such as preeclampsia and intrauterine growth retardation but the regulation of autophagy by ubiquitin proteasome pathway (UPP) proteins, p97/Valosin containing protein (VCP) and ubiquitin (Ub) have not been previuosly studied in preeclampsia. The objective of this study is to investigate the expression of UPP (p97/VCP and Ub), autophagosomal (p62 and LC3) and autolysosomal proteins (Lamp1 and Lamp2) in the normal and preeclamptic human placentas and to explore the regulatory mechanism of these proteins in autophagic pathway...
July 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29941172/estrogen-related-receptor-%C3%AE-regulates-expression-of-17%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-type-1-in-fetal-growth-restriction
#8
Hui Zhu, Linhuan Huang, Zhiming He, Zhiyong Zou, Yanmin Luo
INTRODUCTION: Estrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ) and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (HSD17B1) have important roles in cell invasion and in the proliferation of many types of cancer cells. However, it remains unknown whether ERRγ and HSD17B1 contribute to abnormal placental structure and dysfunction which characterize fetal growth restriction (FGR). Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the expression profiles of ERRγ and HSD17B1 in placenta tissues affected by FGR and to examine a possible molecular mechanism by which ERRγ is able to regulate HSD17B1 during development of FGR...
July 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29941171/the-association-of-the-placental-hypoxia-inducible-factor1-%C3%AE-polymorphisms-and-hif1-%C3%AE-mrna-expression-with-preeclampsia
#9
Mahdiyeh Harati-Sadegh, Leila Kohan, Batool Teimoori, Mehrnaz Mehrabani, Saeedeh Salimi
INTRODUCTION: Evidence has confirmed that placental/fetal hypoxia plays a key role in both endothelial cell dysfunction and PE pathogenesis. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether maternal/placental hypoxia-inducible factor1-α (HIF1-α) C1772T (rs11549465) and/or G1790A (rs11549467) polymorphisms and HIF1-α mRNA expression are associated with PE development. METHODS: The blood samples of 203 PE and 202 control women and the placenta of 86 PE and 84 control women were collected after delivery...
July 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29941170/classics-revisited-c-j-van-der-horst-on-pregnancy-and-menstruation-in-elephant-shrews
#10
REVIEW
A M Carter
BACKGROUND: Menstruation occurs only in higher primates, some bats, the spiny mouse and the elephant shrew. Our knowledge of the latter species is due to work by C. J. van der Horst. FINDINGS: Changes in the uterine stroma are initially similar in fertile and infertile cycles and are confined to a small area. In pregnant animals, the presence of the conceptus causes further development to an implantation chamber. In infertile cycles an outgrowth of highly glandular stroma (a polyp) appears...
July 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29941169/oxidative-stress-induces-p38mapk-dependent-senescence-in-the-feto-maternal-interface-cells
#11
Jin Jin, Lauren Richardson, Samantha Sheller-Miller, Nanbert Zhong, Ramkumar Menon
OBJECTIVE: This study tested the mechanism of the oxidative stress (OS)-induced senescence pathway at the feto-maternal interface cells. METHODS: Primary amnion mesenchymal cells (AMCs), chorion and decidual cells isolated from the placental membranes of women at normal term (not in labor) were exposed to OS-inducing cigarette smoke extract (CSE) for 48 h. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured using 2'7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein. Western blot analysis determined phosphorylated (P) p38MAPK and p53 expression...
July 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29941168/study-of-mitochondrial-function-in-placental-insufficiency
#12
Tiphaine Lefebvre, Ombeline Roche, Valérie Seegers, Majida Cherif, Salim Khiati, Naïg Gueguen, Valérie Desquiret-Dumas, Guillaume Geffroy, Odile Blanchet, Pascal Reynier, Guillaume Legendre, Guy Lenaers, Vincent Procaccio, Géraldine Gascoin
INTRODUCTION: It has been suggested that mitochondria play a crucial role in sustaining pregnancy and foetal growth. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of mitochondrial functions and genetics on placental insufficiency diseases. METHODS: A total of 115 patients were recruited, subdivided into 74 placenta samples and 41 maternal blood samples: placental insufficiency diseases including intra uterine growth restriction (IUGR) (n = 35), preeclampsia (PE) (n = 13), IUGR associated to PE (PER) (n = 25); and controls (n = 42)...
July 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29884306/genetic-variations-and-risk-of-placental-abruption-a-genome-wide-association-study-and-meta-analysis-of-genome-wide-association-studies
#13
Tsegaselassie Workalemahu, Daniel A Enquobahrie, Bizu Gelaye, Sixto E Sanchez, Pedro J Garcia, Fasil Tekola-Ayele, Anjum Hajat, Timothy A Thornton, Cande V Ananth, Michelle A Williams
INTRODUCTION: Accumulating epidemiological evidence points to strong genetic susceptibility to placental abruption (PA). However, characterization of genes associated with PA remains incomplete. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of PA and a meta-analysis of GWAS. METHODS: Participants of the Placental Abruption Genetic Epidemiology (PAGE) study, a population based case-control study of PA conducted in Lima, Peru, were genotyped using the Illumina HumanCore-24 BeadChip platform...
June 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29884305/understanding-abnormal-uterine-artery-doppler-waveforms-a-novel-computational-model-to-explore-potential-causes-within-the-utero-placental-vasculature
#14
Alys R Clark, Joanna L James, Gordon N Stevenson, Sally L Collins
INTRODUCTION: Uterine artery (UtA) Doppler indices are one of the most commonly employed screening tests for pre-eclampsia worldwide. Abnormal indices appear to result from increased uterine vascular resistance, but anatomical complexity and lack of appropriate animal models mean that little is known about the relative contribution of each of the components of the uterine vasculature to the overall UtA Doppler waveform. Previous computational models suggested that trophoblast-mediated spiral artery remodeling has a dominant effect on the UtA Doppler waveform...
June 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29884304/utility-of-metabolic-profiling-of-serum-in-the-diagnosis-of-pregnancy-complications
#15
Katie L Powell, Anthony Carrozzi, Alexandre S Stephens, Vitomir Tasevski, Jonathan M Morris, Anthony W Ashton, Anthony C Dona
INTRODUCTION: Currently there are no clinical screening tests available to identify pregnancies at risk of developing preeclampsia (PET) and/or intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), both of which are associated with abnormal placentation. Metabolic profiling is now a stable analytical platform used in many laboratories and has successfully been used to identify biomarkers associated with various pathological states. METHODS: We used nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) to metabolically profile serum samples collected from 143 pregnant women at 26-41 weeks gestation with pregnancy outcomes of PET, IUGR, PET IUGR or small for gestational age (SGA) that were age-matched to normal pre/term pregnancies...
June 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29884303/cdk1-inhibition-facilitates-formation-of-syncytiotrophoblasts-and-expression-of-human-chorionic-gonadotropin
#16
Rahim Ullah, Saira Dar, Tanvir Ahmad, Christelle de Renty, Mohammad Usman, Melvin L DePamphilis, Amir Faisal, Syed Shahzad-Ul-Hussan, Zakir Ullah
AIMS: The human placental syncytiotrophoblast (STB) cells play essential roles in embryo implantation and nutrient exchange between the mother and the fetus. STBs are polyploid which are formed by fusion of diploid cytotrophoblast (CTB) cells. Abnormality in STBs formation can result in pregnancy-related disorders. While a number of genes have been associated with CTB fusion the initial events that trigger cell fusion are not well understood. Primary objective of this study was to enhance our understanding about the molecular mechanism of placental cell fusion...
June 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29884302/effects-of-cxcl3-on-migration-invasion-proliferation-and-tube-formation-of-trophoblast-cells
#17
Hui Wang, Tao Wang, Li Dai, Wen Cao, Lei Ye, Linbo Gao, Bin Zhou, Rong Zhou
CXCL3 was reportedly associated with the invasion and metastasis of various malignancies, the role of CXCL3, however, in preeclampsia has not been fully discussed. We previously found placental CXCL3 level in severe preeclampsia was significantly lower than that in healthy pregnancy and exogenous recombinant human CXCL3 protein was able to promote trophoblasts' migration and proliferation. The current study, therefore, is further to investigate effects of endogenous CXCL3 on migration, invasion, proliferation, tube formation and apoptosis of trophoblasts...
June 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29884301/parental-ethnicity-and-placental-maternal-vascular-malperfusion-pathology-in-healthy-nulliparous-women
#18
Melanie C Audette, Khrystyna Levytska, Stephen J Lye, Nir Melamed, John C Kingdom
INTRODUCTION: Rates of some placental-associated pregnancy complications vary by ethnicity, though the strength of association with underlying placental pathology is presently unknown. Our objective was to determine whether an association between ethnicity and placental pathology occurs in low-risk pregnancies. METHODS: 829 low-risk nulliparous pregnant women were prospectively studied. Data were obtained from standardized obstetrical appointments (clinical history, serum biomarkers, placental ultrasound) and hospital delivery records (pregnancy complications, delivery details and perinatal outcomes)...
June 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29884300/marijuana-use-differentially-affects-cannabinoid-receptor-expression-in-early-gestational-human-endometrium-and-placenta
#19
Naveen K Neradugomma, Kaitlyn Drafton, Diana R O'Day, Michael Z Liao, Lyrialle W Han, Ian A Glass, Qingcheng Mao
Marijuana is one of the most abused drugs among pregnant women leading to maternal and fetal abnormalities. Cannabinoids are the active ingredients of marijuana, which interact with cannabinoid receptors such as CNR1 and CNR2 to activate cellular signaling pathways. Human endometrium and placenta are known to express CNR1 and CNR2 and can respond to cannabinoid signaling. In this study, we show that marijuana use significantly increases mRNA or protein expression of CNR1 and CNR2 in human endometrium from the first and early second trimester pregnancies, with minor effects on placental expression of CNRs...
June 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29884299/fetoplacental-endothelial-exosomes-modulate-high-d-glucose-induced-endothelial-dysfunction
#20
Tamara Sáez, Paul de Vos, Jeroen Kuipers, Luis Sobrevia, Marijke M Faas
INTRODUCTION: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with fetoplacental endothelial dysfunction, which may be induced by hyperglycemia. We hypothesized that endothelial exosomes, which are extracellular nanovesicles affecting endothelial function, play a role in the high glucose (HG)-induced endothelial dysfunction. METHODS: Exosomes were isolated from HUVECs incubated with basal glucose (5.5 mmol/L; HUVEC- BG; exo-BG) and from HUVECs incubated with HG for 24 h (25 mmol/L; HUVEC-HG; exo-HG) in exosome-free medium...
June 2018: Placenta
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