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Melissa Westwood
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2, 2018: Placenta
Angelika V Timofeeva, Vladyslava A Gusar, Nataliya E Kan, Kseniya N Prozorovskaya, Anna O Karapetyan, Oleg R Bayev, Vitaliy V Chagovets, Sergei F Kliver, Daria Yu Iakovishina, Vladimir E Frankevich, Gennadiy T Sukhikh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 20, 2018: Placenta
Colin P Sibley, Paul Brownbill, Jocelyn D Glazier, Susan L Greenwood
There is now a basic understanding of the driving forces and mechanisms underlying rates of solute exchange across the placenta but there are still major gaps in knowledge. Here we summarise this basic understanding, whilst highlighting gaps in knowledge. We then focus on two particular areas where more knowledge is needed: (1) the electrical potential difference (PD) across the placenta and (2) the paracellular permeability of the placenta to hydrophilic solutes. In many species a PD has been recorded between a catheter in a maternal blood vessel and one in a fetal vessel...
January 19, 2018: Placenta
Amanda Nancy Sferruzzi-Perri
During pregnancy, the fetus requires nutrients supplied by the mother to grow and develop. However, the mother also requires sufficient resources to support the pregnancy, as well as, to maintain her health. Failure to regulate resource allocation between the mother and fetus can lead to pregnancy complications with immediate and life-long consequences for maternal and offspring health. This review explores the role of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-2 in regulating materno-fetal resource allocation, particularly via its regulation of placental development and function...
January 11, 2018: Placenta
David J Hill
As pregnancy progresses the placental syncytiotrophoblast increasingly assumes control of maternal glucose homeostasis through the release and counter-balancing effects of placental lactogen (PL) and placental variant growth hormone (GH-V). While local actions of these hormones on placental growth and function are likely to exist, each also exerts indirect actions to ensure fetal nutritional availability through modulation of the maternal insulin/insulin-like growth factor axis. Peripheral insulin resistance results from the increasing levels of GH-V in the maternal circulation and is counter-balanced by an increase in insulin availability through an expansion of maternal pancreatic β-cell mass...
January 9, 2018: Placenta
Melek Rousian, Maria P H Koster, Annemarie G M G J Mulders, Anton H J Koning, Régine P M Steegers-Theunissen, Eric A P Steegers
Embryonic and placental growth and development in the first trimester of pregnancy have impact on the health of the fetus, newborn, child and even the adult. This emphasizes the importance of this often neglected period in life. The development of three-dimensional transvaginal ultrasonography in combination with virtual reality (VR) opens the possibility of accurate and reliable visualization of embryonic and placental structures with real depth perception. These techniques enable new biometry and volumetry measurements that contribute to the knowledge of the (patho)physiology of embryonic and early placental health...
January 5, 2018: Placenta
Gendie E Lash
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 27, 2017: Placenta
Wanyi Zhang, Rina Su, Li Lin, Huixia Yang
INTRODUCTION: Fetal macrosomia has confirmed be related to multiple labor complications and metabolism syndromes later in life. However, the mechanism of fetal macrosomia in normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) pregnant women is still obscure. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 11 (ARHGEF11) and the insulin signaling pathway in placenta affecting fetal overgrowth in NGT and GDM pregnant women. METHODS: Eighty-nine pregnant women with paired antepartum BMI were recruited and divided into four groups: NGT with normal birth weight (NGT-N, n = 30) or macrosomia (NGT-M, n = 22) and GDM with normal birth weight (GDM-N, n = 22) or macrosomia (GDM-M, n = 15)...
March 2018: Placenta
Eran Weiner, Elad Barber, Ohad Feldstein, Letizia Schreiber, Ann Dekalo, Yossi Mizrachi, Jacob Bar, Michal Kovo
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare placental histopathological lesions and neonatal outcome in singleton vs. twin pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). METHODS: Maternal characteristics, neonatal outcomes, and placental histopathology reports of pregnancies complicated by GDM, between 1/2008-10/2016, were reviewed. Results were compared between singletons (singleton group) and dichorionic-diamniotic twins (twin group). Placental lesions were classified as placental weight abnormalities, maternal and fetal vascular malperfusion lesions (MVM, FVM), inflammatory lesions, and lesions associated with chronic villitis...
March 2018: Placenta
Olga Vajnerova, Petr Kafka, Tereza Kratzerova, Karel Chalupsky, Vaclav Hampl
INTRODUCTION: Diabetes is a well-known risk factor in pregnancy. Because maternal diabetes involves oxidative stress that is also induced by chronic hypoxia and can alter vascular function, we sought to determine the effects of chronic maternal hyperglycemia on the fetoplacental vasculature in rats and to compare it with the effects of chronic hypoxia. METHODS: Diabetes was induced in female rats by a streptozotocin injection at a neonatal age. When these animals reached adulthood, their hyperglycemia was confirmed and they were inseminated...
March 2018: Placenta
Jossimara Polettini, Lauren S Richardson, Ramkumar Menon
OBJECTIVE: A physiologic increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is observed through pregnancy. ROS-induced damage to major cellular elements, specifically protein peroxidation, can lead to fetal and placental tissue senescence and inflammation often associated with normal parturition. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of oxidative stress (OS) in inducing changes in proteins, senescence, and sterile inflammation in pregnant mice. METHODS: CD-1 mice (n = 5/group) on day 14 of gestation were subjected to minilaparotomy and the uterine horn between gestational sacs was injected with the following: saline (control), cigarette smoke extract (CSE) CSE diluted in saline and CSE + SB 203580 (SB) (a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor)...
March 2018: Placenta
Weiqi Kong, Yunhui Gong, Rong Zhou, Yanyun Wang, Yanping Zhang, Xiaolei Luo, Lin Zhang, Tao Wang
INTRODUCTION: We aimed to elucidate whether soluble ST2 (sST2), a preeclampsia (PE)-related cytokine, in the maternal or fetal circulation could be transported to the other circulatory system across the placenta. METHODS: A placental perfusion model in a closed system was established and optimized. HPLC was performed to determine the dynamics of antipyrine levels in the perfusate. Placentas (n = 18) collected from healthy controls and PE patients were perfused without additional treatment or with added sST2 in the maternal or fetal circulation...
March 2018: Placenta
Eun Jung Jung, Hwa Jin Cho, Jung Mi Byun, Dae Hoon Jeong, Kyung Bok Lee, Moon Su Sung, Ki Tae Kim, Young Nam Kim
INTRODUCTION: Placenta previa is a condition in which the placenta implants in the poorly vascularized lower uterine segment, which may result in inadequate uteroplacental perfusion, in turn, adversely affect the neonatal outcome. Abnormal placentation may also lead to severe postpartum hemorrhage as placenta separation proceeds. We aimed to evaluate the differences in placental histopathology and perinatal outcomes in pregnancies complicated with placenta previa and controls. METHOD: We undertook a retrospective case-control study of 93 pregnancies with placenta previa and 81 controls between 2011 and 2017...
March 2018: Placenta
Aparna Kulkarni, Patricia Garcia-Cañadilla, Abdullah Khan, Jose Miguel Lorenzo, Karen Beckerman, Brenda Valenzuela-Alcaraz, Monica Cruz-Lemini, Olga Gomez, Eduard Gratacos, Fatima Crispi, Bart Bijnens
AIMS: Myocardial structural and functional abnormalities are known to occur in fetuses of mothers with diabetes mellitus (FMDM). The main aim of this investigation was to explore the cardiovascular circulatory patterns in FMDM using a validated lumped computational model of the cardiovascular system. METHODS: This was a multi-institutional study involving FMDM compared to fetuses of maternal controls (FC). Fetal echocardiographic Doppler data from left and right ventricular outflow tracts, aortic isthmus, middle cerebral and umbilical arteries were fitted into a validated fetal circulation computational model to estimate patient-specific placental and vascular properties...
March 2018: Placenta
N Salavati, S J Gordijn, U Sovio, R Zill-E-Huma, A Gebril, D S Charnock-Jones, S A Scherjon, G C S Smith
INTRODUCTION: Birth weight to placenta weight (BWPW)-ratio is an indicator of the ability of the placenta to maintain adequate nutrient supply to the fetus. We sought to investigate the relationship between BWPW-ratio with fetal growth, utero-placental Doppler and neonatal and maternal morbidity. METHODS: We studied a group of 3311 women recruited to a prospective cohort study of nulliparous women (Rosie Hospital, Cambridge, UK) who delivered a live born infant at term and whose placental weight and birth weight were known...
March 2018: Placenta
Allessandra Tramontana, Eleonore Pablik, Gerhard Stangl, Beda Hartmann, Hans Dieplinger, Erich Hafner
OBJECTIVE: Aim of the study was to assess the correlation of first trimester serum afamin levels with three-dimensional placental bed vascularization in pregnant women and its prognostic value for predicting pre-eclampsia and future fetal and maternal complications during pregnancy. METHODS: In this nested case-control study all pregnant women registered for delivery during a period of 3 years were routinely screened in the first trimester. Serum afamin levels were assessed in 764 women and correlated to 5 pregnancy outcome groups: gestational hypertension (n = 76), pre-eclampsia (n = 33), intrauterine growth restriction (n = 91), pre-term birth (n = 39), gestational diabetes mellitus (n = 170); In addition, measurements of first trimester myometrial vascularization index were performed and, in combination with afamin tested as a possible screening method to detect women at-risk for the development of adverse complications in low-risk pregnancies at the time of the first trimester...
February 2018: Placenta
A Corominas, S Balconi, M Ortíz, N Martinez, A E Damiano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Placenta
M Schanton, A Pérez-Pérez, Y Gambino, B Maskin, V Sánchez-Margalet, C Varone
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Placenta
Junichi Hasegawa
With the improvement of prenatal diagnoses of foetuses, the prevalence of stillbirth due to foetal anomaly after mid-gestation decreased, whereas that of stillbirth associated with umbilical cord factors tended to increase. Prenatal detection of umbilical cord abnormalities and appropriate management during the antenatal period and delivery based on the ultrasound diagnosis will improve the perinatal morbidity and mortality rates. In the present review, the strategy to reduce the incidence of foetal compromise due to umbilical cord problems is discussed considering the current knowledge regarding the physiological and pathological aspects of umbilical cord abnormalities...
February 2018: Placenta
H Huebner, B Knoerr, A Betzler, A Hartner, S Kehl, F Baier, D L Wachter, R Strick, M W Beckmann, F B Fahlbusch, M Ruebner
INTRODUCTION: Preeclampsia is a hypertensive, gestational disease, which is still the leading cause of pregnancy related morbidity and mortality. The impairment of placental angiogenesis and vascularization is discussed to be of etiopathologic relevance. Deytrosination and tyrosination of α-tubulin is important for the stability and dynamics of microtubules. An increase of α-tubulin detyrosination leads to microtubule stabilization, which is an essential prerequisite for physiologic vascular tube morphogenesis during angiogenesis...
February 2018: Placenta
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