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Placenta

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916232/neuroinflammation-in-intrauterine-growth-restriction
#1
REVIEW
Julie A Wixey, Kirat K Chand, Paul B Colditz, S Tracey Bjorkman
Disruption to the maternal environment during pregnancy from events such as hypoxia, stress, toxins, inflammation, and reduced placental blood flow can affect fetal development. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is commonly caused by chronic placental insufficiency, interrupting supply of oxygen and nutrients to the fetus resulting in abnormal fetal growth. IUGR is a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality, occurring in approximately 5-10% of pregnancies. The fetal brain is particularly vulnerable in IUGR and there is an increased risk of long-term neurological disorders including cerebral palsy, epilepsy, learning difficulties, behavioural difficulties and psychiatric diagnoses...
November 25, 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899180/syncytiotrophoblast-extracellular-vesicles-circulating-biopsies-reflecting-placental-health
#2
Dionne Tannetta, Gavin Collett, Manu Vatish, Chris Redman, Ian Sargent
The ability to directly monitor the status of the placenta throughout pregnancy would be a major advance in both general and personalized obstetric care, allowing treatments to be tailored to the dynamic changes that can occur in gestation. Syncytiotrophoblast extracellular vesicles (STBEV) are membrane bound vesicles, released from the surface of the placenta directly into the maternal circulation, in the form of exosomes, microvesicles and apoptotic bodies. They carry many syncytiotrophoblast derived factors such as proteins, lipids, glycans and nucleic acids, which together could dynamically signal to the mother the status of the placenta...
November 16, 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889063/andr%C3%A3-e-gruslin-award-lecture-metabolomics-as-an-important-modality-to-better-understand-preeclampsia
#3
S J Benton, C Ly, S Vukovic, S A Bainbridge
Preeclampsia (PE) is a complex disorder that affects 3-5% of all pregnancies and is a leading cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. To date, the heterogeneity of clinical presentation, disease severity and outcomes have limited significant advances in early prediction, diagnosis, and therapeutic intervention of PE. The rapidly expanding field of metabolomics, which has the capacity to quantitatively detect low molecular weight compounds (metabolites) in tissue and biological fluids, shows tremendous promise in gaining a better understanding of PE...
November 16, 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817870/biological-features-of-placental-programming
#4
Kent L Thornburg, Kevin Kolahi, Melinda Pierce, Amy Valent, Rachel Drake, Samantha Louey
The placenta is a key organ in programming the fetus for later disease. This review outlines nine of many structural and physiological features of the placenta which are associated with adult onset chronic disease. 1) Placental efficiency relates the placental mass to the fetal mass. Ratios at the extremes are related to cardiovascular disease risk later in life. 2) Placental shape predicts a large number of disease outcomes in adults but the regulators of placental shape are not known. 3) Non-human primate studies suggest that at about mid-gestation, the placenta becomes less plastic and less able to compensate for pathological stresses...
October 20, 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692483/corrigendum-to-placental-pro-renin-receptor-expression-and-plasma-soluble-pro-renin-receptor-levels-in-preeclampsia-yplac-37c-2016-72-78
#5
Tatsuya Nartita, Atsuhiro Ichihara, Kikumi Matsuoka, Yasushi Takai, Kanako Bokuda, Satoshi Morimoto, Hiroshi Itoh, Hiroyuki Seki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 27, 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871479/comparison-of-matrigel-and-matriderm-as-a-carrier-for-human-amnion-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-wound-healing
#6
Alexandru-Cristian Tuca, Juliane Ertl, Kerstin Hingerl, Melanie Pichlsberger, Jakob Fuchs, Paul Wurzer, Dagmar Pfeiffer, Vladimir Bubalo, Daryousch Parvizi, Lars-Peter Kamolz, Ingrid Lang
Amnion-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AMSC) are a promising tool in regenerative medicine. Here we evaluated the utility of Matrigel and Matriderm as carrier for the topical application of AMSC to mice skin wounds. In both application forms, AMSC promoted neovascularization of the wound area. Matrigel proved as excellent matrix for AMSC and immigrating mouse cells, but the solid Matriderm enabled a more adequate positioning of AMSC into the wound. Although AMSC did not attach to Matriderm, they reliably induced wound reduction...
December 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871478/transendothelial-migration-of-human-umbilical-mesenchymal-stem-cells-across-uterine-endothelial-monolayers-junctional-dynamics-and-putative-mechanisms
#7
Neven A Ebrahim, Lopa Leach
INTRODUCTION: During pregnancy, fetal stem cells can transfer to the maternal circulation and participate in tissue repair. How they transmigrate across maternal endothelial barriers and whether they can subsequently influence maternal endothelial integrity is not known. METHODS: Mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSC) were isolated from Wharton's jelly and their interactions with human uterine microvascular endothelial cell (HUtMEC) monolayers, junctional occupancy and expression/phosphorylation of vascular endothelial (VE)- cadherin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A) secretion was studied over 48h by real time, confocal microscopy, immunoblotting and ELISA...
December 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871477/hypermethylation-of-akt2-gene-is-associated-with-neural-tube-defects-in-fetus
#8
Fei Fei Ma, Ding Ding Cao, Shengrong Ouyang, Renqiao Tang, Zhuo Liu, Yuanyuan Li, Jianxin Wu
INTRODUCTION: Neural-tube defects (NTDs) are common birth defects of complex etiology. Although many studies have confirmed a genetic component, the exact mechanism between DNA methylation and NTDs remains unclear. METHODS: In this work, we investigated the alteration of methylation from placental tissues obtained from 152 normal infants or with NTDs in 130 children with neural-tube defects. Genome-wide changes in DNA methylation were measured using the NimbleGen microarray...
December 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871476/steroid-sulfatase-is-increased-in-the-placentas-and-whole-blood-of-women-with-early-onset-preeclampsia
#9
Amy M Gratton, Louie Ye, Fiona C Brownfoot, Natalie J Hannan, Clare Whitehead, Ping Cannon, Minh Deo, Peter J Fuller, Stephen Tong, Tu'uhevaha J Kaitu'u-Lino
INTRODUCTION: Preeclampsia is a serious complication of pregnancy affecting 5% of pregnancies. Our team identified 137 genes highly expressed in placenta relative to other human tissues. Here, we have explored a role for steroid sulfatase (STS) in preeclampsia by characterising STS expression and the functional effects of STS on primary placental trophoblasts. METHODS: Characterisation of STS was performed on preterm preeclamptic and gestation-matched normotensive preterm controls who delivered at <34 weeks gestation...
December 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871475/villus-packing-density-and-lacunarity-markers-of-placental-efficiency
#10
R G Shah, C M Salafia, T Girardi, G S Merz
We evaluate, in routine H&E histology slides, villus quantity in a given area (villous packing density, VPD) and the pattern or "gappiness" of villous distribution (lacunarity), and test for correlations with a proxy for fetoplacental metabolic rate, β calculated as (ln (placental weight)/ln (birthweight)) from Kleiber's law [1]. Three ∼4.3 mm(2) images each were obtained from 88 term placentas. Ranges of VPD and lacunarity were each correlated with β (r = 0.31, p = 0.003, r = 0.23, p = 0.03 and respectively)...
December 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871474/the-relationship-between-maternal-placental-growth-factor-levels-and-intrapartum-fetal-compromise
#11
Larissa N Bligh, Ristan M Greer, Sailesh Kumar
INTRODUCTION: Whilst some cases of intrapartum fetal compromise are the result of unpredictable catastrophic events, the majority arise from an unrecognised reduction in feto-placental reserve in otherwise healthy pregnancies. There is currently no reliable technique prior to labour that identifies the at-risk fetus. We aimed to investigate the relationship between maternal levels of serum placental growth factor (PlGF) and intrapartum fetal compromise in term pregnancies prior to labour...
December 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871473/placental-histology-in-spontaneous-and-indicated-preterm-birth-a-case-control-study
#12
Tobias A J Nijman, Elvira O G van Vliet, Manon J N Benders, Ben Willem J Mol, Arie Franx, Peter G J Nikkels, Martijn A Oudijk
INTRODUCTION: Placental pathology is an important contributor in preterm birth, both spontaneous and indicated. The aim of this study was to describe and compare placental histological features of spontaneous preterm birth versus indicated preterm birth. METHODS: A case control study was performed at the University Medical Center Utrecht. Women with spontaneous or indicated preterm birth (17-37 weeks of gestation) delivered in 2009 were included. Women with a pregnancy complicated by congenital and/or chromosomal abnormalities were excluded...
December 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871472/an-immunohistochemical-study-of-placental-syncytiotrophoblasts-in-neonatal-hemochromatosis
#13
Aiko Shimono, Yuko Imoto, Haruhiko Sakamoto, Yoichi Chiba, Koichi Matsumoto, Machi Kawauchi, Takashi Kusaka, Hirokazu Tanaka, Toshiyuki Hata, Yoshio Kushida, Masaki Ueno
INTRODUCTION: Neonatal hemochromatosis (NH) is a rare neonatal disorder that results in liver cirrhosis with hemosiderin deposition in the liver and other organs, similarly to hereditary hemochromatosis. Excess iron is transferred from the mother to fetus through the placenta in NH. We examined the expression of iron metabolism-related substances in placental syncytiotrophoblasts (STB) by immunostaining to clarify how the transfer of iron through STB increases in NH. METHODS: Immunostaining was performed using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of placentae from three NH cases, four gestational age-matched controls, and, depending on the antibody examined, five to seven full-term controls...
December 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871471/endocan-expression-is-increased-in-the-placenta-from-obese-women-with-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#14
Padma Murthi, Ramona Sarkis, Ratana Lim, Caitlyn Nguyen-Ngo, Anita Pratt, Stella Liong, Martha Lappas
INTRODUCTION: Endocan, a member of the proteoglycan family, is involved in a wide range of diseases including obesity and diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of (i) maternal obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on placental endocan expression; and (ii) endocan knockdown on markers of inflammation. METHODS: Endocan mRNA and protein expression was determined in human placenta from (i) lean and obese and normal glucose tolerant (NGT) pregnant women (n = 10 patients per group); and (ii) women with GDM and BMI-matched NGT women (n = 40 patients per group)...
December 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871470/the-function-of-mir-519d-in-cell-migration-invasion-and-proliferation-suggests-a-role-in-early-placentation
#15
REVIEW
Lan Xie, Yoel Sadovsky
The processes of proliferation, migration, and invasion of extravillous trophoblasts are critical for placental implantation and early development, and directly influence pregnancy outcome. Dysregulation of these processes has been associated with placental dysfunction, implicated in clinical conditions such as preeclampsia and placental accreta. Among diverse microRNA (miRNA) species that are expressed in placental trophoblasts, members of the chromosome 19 miRNA cluster (C19MC) stand out in their nearly exclusive expression in the placenta...
December 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871469/placental-telomere-length-decline-with-gestational-age-differs-by-sex-and-tert-dnmt1-and-dnmt3a-dna-methylation
#16
Samantha L Wilson, Yao Liu, Wendy P Robinson
INTRODUCTION: Telomere length (TL) has been suggested to be influenced by inherited genetic and epigenetic variation, hormonal effects, oxidative stress and age. However, the dynamics of TL during in utero development have not been well explored. This study investigates the relationship between placental TL and sex, gestational age (GA), and DNA methylation (DNAm). Placental TL is further evaluated in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia (PE) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), conditions hypothesized to lead to decreased placental TL due to increased oxidative stress...
December 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871468/increased-levels-of-soluble-corin-in-pre-eclampsia-and-fetal-growth-restriction
#17
Jun Miyazaki, Haruki Nishizawa, Asuka Kambayashi, Mayuko Ito, Yoshiteru Noda, Sumire Terasawa, Takema Kato, Hironori Miyamura, Kazuya Shiogama, Takao Sekiya, Hiroki Kurahashi, Takuma Fujii
Atrial natriuretic peptide is biologically activated by the atrial natriuretic peptide-converting enzyme, corin, and has an important role in regulating blood pressure. We detected elevated serum corin levels in women with pre-eclampsia. Interestingly, the serum corin levels were also found to be elevated in pregnancies with a related disorder, unexplained fetal growth restriction (FGR) without hypertension, suggesting that this phenomenon is not simply a response to maternal hypertension. CORIN mRNA levels were not elevated in placentas from pre-eclampsia or unexplained FGR cases...
December 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871467/the-effect-of-diabetes-and-hypertension-on-the-placental-permeation-of-the-hydrophilic-drug-ranitidine
#18
Mladena Lalic-Popovic, Jovana Paunkovic, Zorica Grujic, Svetlana Golocorbin-Kon, Velibor Vasovic, Hani Al-Salami, Momir Mikov
INTRODUCTION: Ranitidine is a hydrophilic weak base and an H2-receptor antagonist which is commonly used for gastroesophageal reflux, including during pregnancy. It has limited placental permeation and can be used as a pre-anesthetic antacid to prevent aspiration of acidic stomach contents. Recent studies suggest that diabetes and hypertension may influence placental permeation of hydrophilic drugs. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the influence of diabetes and hypertension on ranitidine's placental permeation in pregnant women...
December 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871466/autophagy-protects-against-oxidized-low-density-lipoprotein-mediated-inflammation-associated-with-preeclampsia
#19
Yan Zhang, Xiaoyu Hu, Guoqiang Gao, Yufang Wang, Pingping Chen, Yuanhua Ye
INTRODUCTION: Inflammatory responses play an important role in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Recently, the anti-inflammatory role played by autophagy has drawn increasing attention. Our aim was to investigate variations in autophagy in preeclampsia and protection against oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-mediated inflammation by autophagy. METHODS: We used immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, quantitative real-time PCR, and western blotting to analyze the expression of autophagy proteins (beclin-1 and LC3II/LC3I) in preeclampsia placentas and in JEG-3 cells treated with oxLDL and rapamycin...
December 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871465/identification-of-genes-for-normalization-of-real-time-rt-pcr-data-in-placental-tissues-from-intrahepatic-cholestasis-of-pregnancy
#20
Yanli Li, Huifang Lu, Yizhen Ji, Sufang Wu, Yongbin Yang
The selection of suitable reference genes is crucial for proper interpretation of RT-qPCR data. To date, a systematic screening for reference genes in placental tissues from intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is missing. Eighteen candidate reference genes were investigated to determine their applicability by descriptive statistics and published algorithms. HPRT1, YWHAZ and PUM1 were found to be the most stable genes and could be used for normalization in gene expression study of placentas from ICP...
December 2016: Placenta
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