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Tatsuya Nartita, Atsuhiro Ichihara, Kikumi Matsuoka, Yasushi Takai, Kanako Bokuda, Satoshi Morimoto, Hiroshi Itoh, Hiroyuki Seki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 27, 2016: Placenta
G M Johnsen, M S Weedon-Fekjær, K A R Tobin, A C Staff, A K Duttaroy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 9, 2016: Placenta
Gregory Edward Rice
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 31, 2016: Placenta
M H Abumaree, A Almutairi, S Cash, P Boeuf, L W Chamley, T Gamage, J L James, B Kalionis, T Y Khong, K S Kolahi, R Lim, S Liong, T K Morgan, K Motomura, H N Peiris, R A Pelekanos, E Pelzer, A Shafiee, G E Lash, D Natale
Workshops are an important part of the IFPA annual meeting as they allow for discussion of specialised topics. At the 2015 IFPA annual meeting there were 12 themed workshops, three of which are summarized in this report. These workshops related to various aspects of placental biology and collectively covered areas of obesity and the placenta, stem cells of the feto-maternal interface, and placental immunobiology and infection.
August 2, 2016: Placenta
Eran Weiner, Letizia Schreiber, Ehud Grinstein, Ohad Feldstein, Noa Rymer-Haskel, Jacob Bar, Michal Kovo
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare obstetric outcome and placental-histopathology in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia with severe features with and without HELLP syndrome. METHODS: Labor, maternal characteristics, neonatal outcome and placental histopathology of pregnancies complicated with severe preeclampsia during 2008-2015 were reviewed. Results were compared between those without signs of HELLP syndrome (severe preeclampsia group) and those with concomitant HELLP syndrome (HELLP group)...
November 2016: Placenta
Junichi Hasegawa, Nao Suzuki
Since superb Micro-vascular Imaging (SMI) is a new blood flow imaging technique that employs a unique algorithm to minimize motion artifacts, it can visualize low-velocity blood flow in small vessels. We demonstrate SMI imaging of the placental infarction in a case with fetal growth restriction, comparing a normal placenta on the same gestation. While SMI image in normal placenta clearly shows structures from the branching vessels to the peripheral villous trees in the cotyledons, they could not be seen in the case of fetal growth restriction...
November 2016: Placenta
Yingshi Ouyang, Avraham Bayer, Tianjiao Chu, Vladimir A Tyurin, Valerian E Kagan, Adrian E Morelli, Carolyn B Coyne, Yoel Sadovsky
INTRODUCTION: Primary human trophoblasts release a repertoire of extracellular vesicles (EVs). Among them are nano-sized exosomes, which we found to suppress the replication of a wide range of diverse viruses. These exosomes contain trophoblastic microRNAs (miRNAs) that are expressed from the chromosome 19 miRNA cluster and exhibit antiviral properties. Here, we report our investigation of the cargo of placental EVs, focusing on the composition and the antiviral properties of exosomes, microvesicles, and apoptotic blebs...
November 2016: Placenta
Olivia Cambiaso, De-Peng Zhao, Jose I Abasolo, Horacio A Aiello, Dick Oepkes, Enrico Lopriore, Lucas Otaño
INTRODUCTION: The type of cord insertion within monochorionic twin pairs could be different. The purpose of study is to evaluate the association of different combinations of placental umbilical cord insertions with birth weight discordance in a large cohort of monochorionic twins. METHODS: All consecutive monochorionic placentas from either uncomplicated twin pregnancies or with fetal weight discordance examined and injected with color dye at our centers were included in this study (n = 374)...
November 2016: Placenta
R J Buckley, G S Whitley, I E Dumitriu, J E Cartwright
INTRODUCTION: During the first trimester of human pregnancy, fetally-derived extravillous trophoblast (EVT) invade into the uterine decidua and remodel the uterine spiral arteries to ensure that sufficient blood reaches the maternal-fetal interface. Decidual macrophages have been implicated in the regulation of decidual remodelling, and aberrant activation of these immune cells is associated with pre-eclampsia. METHODS: The monocytic cell line THP-1 was activated to induce a classically- or alternatively-activated macrophage phenotype and the conditioned media was used to treat the EVT cell line SGHPL-4 in order to determine the effect of macrophage polarisation on trophoblast behaviour in-vitro...
November 2016: Placenta
Ratana Lim, Gillian Barker, Stella Liong, Caitlyn Nguyen-Ngo, Stephen Tong, Tu'uhevaha Kaitu'u-Lino, Martha Lappas
INTRODUCTION: Infection and inflammation stimulate pro-inflammatory cytokines, prostaglandins and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, which play a central role in myometrial contractions and rupture of fetal membranes. In human and mouse immune cells, activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is a negative regulator of inflammation. No studies have examined the role of ATF3 in human labour. METHODS: Primary amnion cells were used to determine the effect of interleukin (IL)-1β and the bacterial product fibroblast-stimulating lipopeptide (fsl-1) on ATF3 expression, and the effect of ATF3 siRNA on pro-labour mediators...
November 2016: Placenta
Thanyarat Wongwananuruk, Tomomi Sato, Takeshi Kajihara, Sachiko Matsumoto, Masumi Akita, Kazuhiro Tamura, Jan J Brosens, Osamu Ishihara
INTRODUCTION: To elucidate whether trophoblast expansion and invasion are modulated by androgen signaling in an in vitro co-culture model system with decidualizing endometrial stromal cells (ESCs). METHODS: We employed an in vitro co-culture model of early embryo implantation, consisting of human ESCs (EtsT499 cells) and spheroids generated by extravillous trophoblast (EVT) derived HTR8/Svneo. The ESCs were decidualized with 8-bromo-cAMP (8-br-cAMP) in the presence or absence of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) at various concentrations for 5 days before co-culture with EVT spheroids...
November 2016: Placenta
Yao Wang, Guiying Nie
INTRODUCTION: Preeclampsia (PE) is a life-threatening pregnancy disorder characterized by wide-spread endothelial dysfunction. Placental factors circulating in the maternal blood are believed to cause endothelial dysfunction. Our previous study identified HtrA4 as a placenta-specific serine protease that is released into the maternal circulation and significantly increased in early-onset PE. In this study, we examined the impact of HtrA4 on expression of endothelial genes related to vessel biology, using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) as a model...
November 2016: Placenta
David Ramiro-Cortijo, Teresa Herrera, Pilar Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Ángel L López De Pablo, María De La Calle, María R López-Giménez, Ana I Mora-Urda, Perla Y Gutiérrez-Arzapalo, Rubén Gómez-Rioja, Yolanda Aguilera, María A Martín-Cabrejas, Luis Condezo-Hoyos, M Carmen González, Pilar Montero, Bernardo Moreno-Jiménez, Silvia M Arribas
INTRODUCTION: Oxidative stress is present in pregnancy complications. However, it is unknown if early maternal antioxidant status could influence later development of complications. The use of assisted reproduction techniques (ART) is rising due to the delay of first pregnancy and there is scarce information on its influence on oxidative balance. OBJECTIVE: To assess the possible relationship between maternal plasma antioxidant status in first trimester of gestation with later development of pregnancy complications, evaluating the influence of ART and nutrition...
November 2016: Placenta
Yu-Han Meng, Xiao-Hui Zhu, Li-Ying Yan, Yan Zhang, Hong-Yan Jin, Xi Xia, Rong Li, Jie Qiao
INTRODUCTION: The successful pregnancy depends on maternal immune tolerance against the fetus. It has been reported that MSCs (mesenchymal stem cells) could play a regulatory role on immune cells such as CD4(+)T cells, macrophages and NK cells, but their effect on recurrent miscarriage is unknown. STUDY DESIGN: In a prospective study, the abortion-prone (CBA/J × DBA/2) H-2(d) × H-2(k) mice were utilized. Female CBA/J mice (8-10 weeks old) were injected with vehicle or MSCs via tail vein or uterine horns, and 14 days later, they were mated with DBA/2 males for the following experiments...
November 2016: Placenta
Edward Corry, Fionnuala Mone, Ricardo Segurado, Paul Downey, Peter McParland, Fionnuala M McAuliffe, Eoghan E Mooney
INTRODUCTION: The objectives of this study were firstly to determine the proportion of placental pathology in fetuses affected by trisomy 21 (T21) using current pathological descriptive terminology and secondly to examine if a correlation existed between the finding of an abnormal umbilical artery Doppler (UAD) waveform, the presence of T21 and defined placental pathological categories. METHODS: This case-control study assessed singleton fetuses with karyotypically confirmed trisomy 21 where placental histopathology had been conducted from 2003 to 2015 inclusive, within a university tertiary obstetric centre...
November 2016: Placenta
Josef Reznicek, Martina Ceckova, Lenka Tupova, Frantisek Staud
INTRODUCTION: All HIV positive pregnant women should receive combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) to prevent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of the virus. It has recently been shown that fetal exposure of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and abacavir is decreased by placental ABC transporters p-glycoprotein (ABCB1) and BCRP (ABCG2). The aim of this study was to evaluate transporter-mediated drug-drug interactions (DDI) between etravirine (TMC125), a novel non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used in cART, and the NRTIs and to assess the relevance of such DDI for transplacental pharmacokinetics of TDF and abacavir...
November 2016: Placenta
Wenyang Hou, Didem P Sarikaya, Loydie A Jerome-Majewska
INTRODUCTION: Chorioallantoic fusion is essential for development of the labyrinth layer of the mouse placenta. However, events that occur after chorioallantoic attachment remain poorly described, partly due to difficulties of conducting ex vivo analysis of the placenta. Herein, we report conditions for ex vivo culture of the developing murine placenta. METHODS: Mesometrial halves of decidua containing pre-attachment chorions were cultured alone or with explants of allantoides from stage-matched controls and analyzed by confocal and immunofluorescence microscopy...
November 2016: Placenta
Julie Bergeron, Noha Gerges, Clémence Guiraut, Djordje Grbic, Marie-Julie Allard, Louis-Charles Fortier, Cathy Vaillancourt, Guillaume Sébire
Infection or inflammation during pregnancy is known to lead to maternal immune activation triggering a fetal inflammatory response syndrome associated with deleterious effects, such as brain injury and neurodevelopmental disabilities. Group B Streptococcus (GBS) - one of the most common bacterium colonizing pregnant women - can be responsible for chorioamnionitis. Given that interleukin (IL)-1β has a major role in anti-GBS host defense, we hypothesized that IL-1β-driven innate immune response is implicated in GBS-induced chorioamnionitis...
November 2016: Placenta
Kamil Krawczynski, Takuya Mishima, Xin Huang, Yoel Sadovsky
MicroRNA-210 (miR-210) has been implicated in homeostatic adaptation during hypoxia. We hypothesized that miR-210 deficiency impacts feto-placental growth. As expected, mir-210 knockout (ko) mice exhibited markedly reduced placental miR-210 expression, compared to wild-type (wt) mice. Mating of mir-210 heterozygotes resulted in near Mendelian progeny distribution, with insignificant differences between wt and ko animals with regard to embryo or placental weight and gross morphology. Intriguingly, exposure of mice to non-severe hypoxia (O2 = 12%) between E11...
November 2016: Placenta
Hisanori Matsumoto, Yukiyasu Sato, Akihito Horie, Koh Suginami, Hirohiko Tani, Akira Hattori, Yoshihiko Araki, Kyosuke Kagami, Ikuo Konishi, Hiroshi Fujiwara
During human placentation, the extravillous trophoblast (EVT) invades the maternal decidua and reconstructs maternal spiral arteries. However, the precise mechanisms that control EVT behavior have not yet been elucidated in detail. CD9 has been reported to be a cell-motility-related molecule. Since we previously observed that CD9 was expressed on human EVT, we examined the possible involvement of CD9 in the invasion process of EVT. Placental and umbilical samples were obtained from patients who underwent legal abortions, normal delivery, or hysterectomy...
November 2016: Placenta
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