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Helen Jones, Thomas Jansson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 5, 2017: Placenta
Yehuda Ginosar, Yuval Gielchinsky, Nathalie Nachmansson, Lital Hagai, Joel Shapiro, Uriel Elchalal, Rinat Abramovitch
INTRODUCTION: We evaluated changes in placental and fetal hemodynamics in rodents during acute hypercapnia using BOLD-MRI and Doppler ultrasound. METHODS: Animals were anesthetized with pentobarbital and, in consecutive 4-min periods, breathed: air, 21%O2:5%CO2, and 95%O2:5%CO2. BOLD-MRI: Pregnant ICR mice (n = 6; E17.5) were scanned in a 4.7-T Bruker Biospec spectrometer. Placenta and fetal liver, heart and brain were identified on True-FISP images...
September 11, 2017: Placenta
D Lissauer, M D Kilby, P Moss
In human pregnancy the maternal immune system plays a critical role in the regulation of many aspects of human reproduction including implantation, placentation and defence against infection. Interest has been focussed on the role of uterine natural killer cells (uNK) in the maternal decidua whereas effector CD4+ and CD8+ T cells have received much less attention despite the observation that they represent a major proportion of decidual leucocytes in the latter phase of pregnancy. A range of recent studies have demonstrated that human decidual T cells are highly differentiated, express a range of cytokines and cytotoxic markers, and demonstrate a unique transcriptional profile characterized by high level expression of genes involved in interferon-signalling...
September 8, 2017: Placenta
H S Gammill, W E Harrington
Bidirectional transplacental exchange characterizes human pregnancy. Cells exchanged between mother and fetus can durably persist as microchimerism and may have both short- and long-term consequences for the recipient. The amount, type, and persistence of microchimerism are influenced by obstetric characteristics, pregnancy complications, exposures to infection, and other factors. A reproductive-aged woman enters pregnancy harboring previously acquired microchimeric "grafts," which may influence her preconception health and her subsequent pregnancy outcomes...
August 31, 2017: Placenta
Jenny E Myers
Several maternal and pregnancy characteristics have been associated with an increased risk of preeclampsia in epidemiological studies. This review discusses metabolic risk factors in particular and their interaction with other maternal and/or pregnancy characteristics. Examples of research studies that have used data from women with specific characteristics or explored the interaction between risk factors are discussed. Suggestions for future research using large data sets and incorporating knowledge of cardiovascular disease and other metabolic diseases are also highlighted...
August 24, 2017: Placenta
Ashley N Battarbee, Anna Palatnik, Linda M Ernst, William A Grobman
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that pregnancies complicated by placentas with an isolated single umbilical artery (iSUA) are at increased risk for small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births. The etiology of SGA in this population, however, remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study was to evaluate whether placental abnormalities in pregnancies with SGA births differ according to the presence of iSUA. STUDY DESIGN: This was an observational study of all women with pathologic examination of the placenta after delivering a non-anomalous, singleton SGA neonate between January 2009 and August 2015...
November 2017: Placenta
Wendy E Heywood, Rhian-Lauren Preece, Jeremy Pryce, Jenny Hallqvist, Robert Clayton, Alex Virasami, Kevin Mills, Neil J Sebire
Proteomic characterisation of the placenta has largely been focused on effect of disease, anatomical features or specific cell types. We describe an unbiased proteomic mapping analysis to investigate how the placental proteome changes throughout the organ. A transverse slice of a human placenta was sectioned into 1 × 1cm samples. Sections were analysed using label free proteomics. Analysis revealed two distinct sub-proteomes that did not have anatomical significance. One had a muscular proteome and the other had distinct immunomodulation functions...
November 2017: Placenta
I Garcia-Martin, A B Janssen, R E Jones, J W Grimstead, R J A Penketh, D M Baird, R M John
INTRODUCTION: Telomeres, are composed of tandem repeat sequences located at the ends of chromosomes and are required to maintain genomic stability. Telomeres can become shorter due to cell division and specific lifestyle factors. Critically shortened telomeres are linked to cellular dysfunction, senescence and aging. A number of studies have used low resolution techniques to assess telomere length in the placenta. In this study, we applied Single Telomere Length Analysis (STELA) which provides high-resolution chromosome specific telomere length profiles to ask whether we could obtain more detailed information on the length of individual telomeres in the placenta...
November 2017: Placenta
Natalia Szpilbarg, Alicia E Damiano
Recently, we have reported that the blocking of AQP3 abrogates the apoptotic response of the trophoblast. Since trophoblast apoptosis is exacerbated in preeclampsia, we hypothesized that placental AQP3 is increased in these placentas in order to trigger the programmed cell death. Here, we examined mRNA levels, protein expression and localization of AQP3 in placentas from pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia and against what we expected, we found that AQP3 expression was significantly reduced, both at protein and mRNA levels, compared to normal placentas...
November 2017: Placenta
Joanna Rakoczy, Nisha Padmanabhan, Ada M Krzak, Jens Kieckbusch, Tereza Cindrova-Davies, Erica D Watson
INTRODUCTION: Throughout pregnancy, the placenta dynamically changes as trophoblast progenitors differentiate into mature trophoblast cell subtypes. This process is in part controlled by epigenetic regulation of DNA methylation leading to the inactivation of 'progenitor cell' genes and the activation of 'differentiation' genes. TET methylcytosine dioxygenases convert 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) during DNA demethylation events. Here, we determine the spatiotemporal expression of TET1, TET2, and TET3 in specific trophoblast cell populations of mouse and human placentas throughout gestation, and consider their role in trophoblast cell differentiation and function...
November 2017: Placenta
Ran Zhang, Qi Zhou, Xueping Cai, Shan Dong, Zhiyin Le, Xiaxia Cai, Rong Xiao, Huanling Yu
Gestational hypercholesterolemia has been recognized as a risk factor of some pregnancy complications. We supposed that maternal hypercholesterolemia modified the lipid profile of the fetus. Thirty pregnant women with hypercholesterolemia and matched controls were recruited and cord blood was sampled. Lipidomic analysis was used to evaluate the lipid profile change between the two groups. The results showed that the content of diacylglycerophosphocholines (PC) was significantly high in cord blood from hypercholesterolemic pregnant women...
November 2017: Placenta
Jessica F Briffa, Sogand S Hosseini, Melanie Tran, Karen M Moritz, James S M Cuffe, Mary E Wlodek
The placenta plays a major role in the development of fetal growth restriction, which affects 10% of pregnancies and contributes to chronic adult disease risk. We have reported that female rats born small develop cardiometabolic dysfunction only during pregnancy. The physiological tests performed during pregnancy induced a maternal stress response as indicated by increased maternal corticosterone concentrations. This stress effected placental growth compared to females who were unhandled during pregnancy. Maternal stress and growth restriction independently program F2 offspring metabolic dysfunction...
November 2017: Placenta
Jaime Gutiérrez, Alejandro Aedo, Jacob Mora, Jorge Maldonado, Rocío Salsoso, Fernando Toledo, Marcelo Farías, Fabián Pardo, Andrea Leiva, Luis Sobrevia
INTRODUCTION: Preeclampsia is characterized by reduced invasion capacity of trophoblasts involving lower matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity. Cell invasion is reduced by reversion-inducing-cysteine-rich protein with Kazal motifs (RECK), a plasma membrane protein that inhibits MMP in several cell types. However, it is unknown whether this mechanism happens in the human placenta from preeclampsia. The hypothesis of this study sustains that RECK expression is increased leading to reduced trophoblasts invasion in preeclampsia...
November 2017: Placenta
Carolyn M Salafia, Ruchit G Shah, Dawn P Misra, Jennifer K Straughen, Drucilla J Roberts, Larry Troxler, Simon P Morgan, Barbara Eucker, John M Thorp
BACKGROUND: Novel measures of the chorionic plate and vessels are used to test the hypothesis that variation in placental structure is correlated with reduced birth weight (BW) independent of placental weight (PW), suggesting functionally compromised placentas. METHODS: 916 mothers recruited to the Pregnancy, Infection and Nutrition Study delivering singleton live born infants at >30 gestational weeks had placentas collected, digitally photographed and weighed prior to formalin fixation...
November 2017: Placenta
Suja Ann Mathew, Ramesh Bhonde
Pregnancy is known to be a diabetogenic state. With sedentary lifestyle and wrong dietary choices, gestational diabetes mellitus is on the rise. This raises a concern as placenta is becoming an acceptable choice, as a source of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSCs). In our current study we questioned whether there exists a difference between MSCs isolated from normal and diabetic (Gd-P-MSCs) placenta, as the health of the cells used in therapy is of prime importance. We isolated and verified the Gd-P-MSCs based on their surface markers and differentiation potential...
November 2017: Placenta
Anna L David
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a serious pregnancy complication affecting approximately 8% of all pregnancies. The aetiology is believed to be insufficient maternal uteroplacental perfusion which prevents adequate nutrient and oxygen availability for the fetus. There is no treatment that can improve uteroplacental perfusion and thereby increase fetal growth in the uterus. Maternal uterine artery gene therapy presents a promising treatment strategy for IUGR, with the use of adenoviral vectors encoding for proteins such as Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) demonstrating improvements in fetal growth and neonatal outcome in preclinical studies...
November 2017: Placenta
Tomohiro Tobita, Daiji Kiyozumi, Masahito Ikawa
The placenta is an essential organ for embryo development in the uterus of eutherian mammals. Large contributions in unveiling molecular mechanisms and physiological functions underlying placental formation were made by analyzing mutant and transgenic animals. However, it had been difficult to elucidate whether the placental defects observed in such animals originate from the placenta itself or from the fetus, as both placental and fetal genomes are modified. Therefore strategies to modify the placental genome without affecting the "fetal genome" had been needed...
November 2017: Placenta
Marlee Elston, Johann Urschitz
The placenta is an organ vital to fetal development as well as the maintenance of a healthy pregnancy and plays a crucial role in developmental programming of the fetus. The mechanisms that link intrauterine milieu, fetal health and disease development later in life are poorly understood. Placenta-specific gene modulation, both by generating transgenic animals as well as by developing methods for in vivo genetic modifications is a growing area of interest as this approach provides the opportunity to investigate the role of particular genes or gene networks in regulating placental function and fetal growth...
November 2017: Placenta
Ornella Parolini, Martin Knöfler, Mohamed Abumaree
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Placenta
Lenore Pereira, Takako Tabata, Matthew Petitt, June Fang-Hoover
Congenital human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is a major viral cause of birth defects, including microcephaly, neurological deficits, loss of hearing and vision, and intrauterine growth restriction. Despite its public health significance, there is no approved treatment for congenital infection during pregnancy; existing antivirals have unacceptable toxicities. The mechanisms of HCMV-induced placental injury, reduced capacity for compensatory development and transmission to the fetus are poorly understood, limiting the development of alternative strategies for clinical management of the disease...
November 2017: Placenta
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