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Physical Therapy

Eric N Beck, Quincy J Almeida
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) impairs control of well-learned movements. Movement control improvements are found when individuals complete tasks while focusing attention externally on manipulating an object, which is argued to occur due to automatic processing associated with well-learned movements. Focusing attention internally (on movements of ones' limbs) is believed to involve conscious control networks, and hinders movement performance. Previous work has found that an external focus of attention improved postural stability in individuals with PD (compared to internal), but this was when patients were taking dopamine medication, which modulates basal ganglia functioning responsible for well-learned movements...
October 6, 2016: Physical Therapy
Carol L Hodgson, Alison E Turnbull, Theodore J Iwashyna, Ann Parker, Wesley Davis, Clifton O Bingham, Nicola R Watts, Simon Finfer, Dale M Needham
BACKGROUND: There is increasing interest in measuring the quality of survivorship for patients admitted to the intensive care (ICU) for acute respiratory failure (ARF). However, there is substantial variability in the patient outcomes reported in studies evaluating these patients, with few data on which outcomes are essential to inform clinical practice. PURPOSE: To determine clinicians' perspectives on the outcome domains that should always be reported in studies evaluating ARF survivors after hospital discharge, and to compare findings between the US and Australian perspectives...
October 6, 2016: Physical Therapy
Fábio Azevedo Araújo, Milton Severo, Nuno Alegrete, Laura D Howe, Raquel Lucas
BACKGROUND: Sagittal postural patterns are associated with back pain in adolescents and adults. However, it is unknown if postural patterns are already observable during childhood. This would confirm childhood as a key period for posture differentiation and thus for chronic pain etiology. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify and describe postural patterns in school-aged girls and boys. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study. METHODS: Eligible children were evaluated at age 7 in the population-based birth cohort Generation XXI, Portugal...
October 6, 2016: Physical Therapy
Carolina Souza Neves da Costa, Sandra L Saavedra, Nelci Adriana Cicuto Ferreira Rocha, Marjorie H Woollacott
BACKGROUND: External support has been viewed as an important biomechanical constraint for children with deficits in postural control. Nonlinear analysis of head stability is necessary to confirm benefits of interaction between external trunk support and level of trunk control. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of biomechanical constraints (trunk support) on neural control of head stability during development of trunk control. DESIGN: Quasi-experimental repeated measure study...
October 6, 2016: Physical Therapy
Simona Crea, Benoni B Edin, Kristel Knaepen, Romain Meeusen, Nicola Vitiello
BACKGROUND: Reduced sensory feedback from lower-leg prostheses results in harmful gait patterns and entails a significant cognitive burden because users have to visually monitor their locomotion. OBJECTIVES: To validate a sensory feedback device designed to help elderly patients with transfemoral amputation to improve their temporal gait symmetry after a training program aimed at associating the vibrotactile patterns with symmetrical walking. DESIGN: A prospective quasi-experimental study including three elderly patients walking with lower-leg prostheses...
September 29, 2016: Physical Therapy
Stephanie A Nixon, Euson Yeung, James A Shaw, Ayelet Kuper, Barbara E Gibson
Critical analysis (or the ability to recognize taken-for-granted assumptions and their effects) is a skill that requires teaching and practice. The purpose of this article is to introduce a framework for critically analyzing assumptions within physical therapy and illustrate its utility through application to 2 examples: a physical therapy clinic logo and an outcome measure for health-related quality of life (HRQOL). This 7-step framework for critical analysis was created for a pilot project to develop reflexivity among senior physical therapist students and further developed through an iterative process of reflecting on its utility for advancing the field of physical therapy...
September 29, 2016: Physical Therapy
Charles D Ciccone
Medical marijuana continues to gain acceptance and become legalized in many states. Various species of the marijuana plant have been cultivated, and this plant can contain up to 100 active compounds known as cannabinoids. Two cannabinoids seem the most clinically relevant: Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which tends to produce the psychotropic effects commonly associated with marijuana, and cannabidiol (CBD), which may produce therapeutic effects without appreciable psychoactive properties. Smoking marijuana, or ingesting extracts from the whole plant orally (in baked goods, teas, and so forth), introduces variable amounts of THC, CBD, and other minor cannabinoids into the systemic circulation, where they ultimately reach the central and peripheral nervous systems...
September 22, 2016: Physical Therapy
Sharon L Kimble
INTRODUCTION: Functional outcome reports for quadrilateral amputees are not common in the rehabilitation medicine literature. The literature that does exist describing functional outcomes is primarily based on persons with single lower limb or bilateral lower limb amputation. This case report chronicles the interventions and outcomes in a single person with four limb amputation during an inpatient rehabilitation admission. CASE DESCRIPTION: The patient is a 59 year old woman who became a person with quadrilateral amputation after developing disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)...
September 15, 2016: Physical Therapy
Gordhan B Mahtani, Catherine R Kinnaird, Mark Connolly, Carey L Holleran, Patrick W Hennessy, Jane Woodward, Gabrielle Brazg, Elliot J Roth, T George Hornby
BACKGROUND: Common locomotor deficits observed in people poststroke include decreased speeds and abnormal kinematics, characterized by altered symmetry, reduced sagittal-plane joint excursions, and use of compensatory frontal-plane behaviors during the swing phase of gait. Conventional interventions utilized to mitigate these deficits often incorporate low-intensity, impairment-based or functional exercises focused on normalizing kinematics, although the efficacy of these strategies is unclear...
September 15, 2016: Physical Therapy
Susan E George, Diane F Borello-France
Functional constipation is a common bowel disorder leading to activity restrictions and reduced health-related quality of life. Typically, this condition is initially managed with prescription of laxatives or fiber supplementation, or both. However, these interventions are often ineffective and fail to address the underlying pathophysiology and impairments contributing to this condition. Physical therapists possess the knowledge and skills to diagnose and manage a wide range of musculoskeletal and motor coordination impairments that may contribute to functional constipation...
September 15, 2016: Physical Therapy
Amanda Hall, Bethan Copsey, Helen Richmond, Jacqueline Thompson, Manuela Ferreira, Jane Latimer, Chris G Maher
BACKGROUND: Tai chi is recommended for musculoskeletal conditions; however, the evidence for its clinical effectiveness is uncertain. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine whether tai chi is beneficial for clinical outcomes in people with musculoskeletal pain. DATA SOURCES: Seven databases were searched: Embase, PEDro, AMED, MEDLINE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. STUDY SELECTION: Randomized controlled trials of tai chi for people with a chronic musculoskeletal condition were included...
September 15, 2016: Physical Therapy
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Physical Therapy
Michael J Mueller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Physical Therapy
Alan M Jette
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Physical Therapy
Taryn M Jones, Blake F Dear, Julia M Hush, Nickolai Titov, Catherine M Dean
BACKGROUND: People living with acquired brain injury (ABI) are more likely to be physically inactive and highly sedentary and, therefore, to have increased risks of morbidity and mortality. However, many adults with ABI experience barriers to participation in effective physical activity interventions. Remotely delivered self-management programs focused on teaching patients how to improve and maintain their physical activity levels have the potential to improve the overall health of adults with ABI...
December 2016: Physical Therapy
Helen Harcombe, Ari Samaranayaka, Sarah Derrett
BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity is a risk factor for noncommunicable diseases. Incurring an injury has been identified as a barrier to physical activity. However, it is not known which factors, if any, are associated with reduced activity among general injury populations. OBJECTIVE: The 2 study objectives were: (1) to investigate changes in physical activity frequency from before an injury to 3 months after the injury and (2) to examine the association of preinjury, injury-related, and postinjury factors with reduced physical activity frequency in participants with a range of injury types...
December 2016: Physical Therapy
Cathy C Harro, Alicia Marquis, Natasha Piper, Chris Burdis
BACKGROUND: Complex movement and balance impairments in people with Parkinson disease (PD) contribute to high fall risk. Comprehensive balance assessment is warranted to identify intrinsic fall risk factors and direct interventions. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of 3 balance measures of a force platform (FP) system in people with PD. METHODS: Forty-two community-dwelling individuals with idiopathic PD completed the testing protocol...
December 2016: Physical Therapy
Janine T Hidding, Peter B Viehoff, Carien H G Beurskens, Hanneke W M van Laarhoven, Maria W G Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Philip J van der Wees
BACKGROUND: Lymphedema is a common complication of cancer treatment, resulting in swelling and subjective symptoms. Reliable and valid measurement of this side effect of medical treatment is important. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to provide best evidence regarding which measurement instruments are most appropriate in measuring lymphedema in its different stages. DATA SOURCES: The PubMed and Web of Science databases were used, and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed...
December 2016: Physical Therapy
Louise A Connell, Naoimh E McMahon, Sarah F Tyson, Caroline L Watkins, Janice J Eng
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Current approaches to upper limb rehabilitation are not sufficient to drive neural reorganization and maximize recovery after stroke. To address this evidence-practice gap, a knowledge translation intervention using the Behaviour Change Wheel was developed. The intervention involves collaboratively working with stroke therapy teams to change their practice and increase therapy intensity by therapists prescribing supplementary self-directed arm exercise. The purposes of this case series are: (1) to provide an illustrative example of how a research-informed process changed clinical practice and (2) to report on staff members' and patients' perceptions of the utility of the developed intervention...
December 2016: Physical Therapy
Kristan A Leech, Catherine R Kinnaird, Carey L Holleran, Jennifer Kahn, T George Hornby
BACKGROUND: High-intensity stepping practice may be a critical component to improve gait following motor incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI). However, such practice is discouraged by traditional theories of rehabilitation that suggest high-intensity locomotor exercise degrades gait performance. Accordingly, such training is thought to reinforce abnormal movement patterns, although evidence to support this notion is limited. OBJECTIVE: The purposes of this study were: (1) to evaluate the effects of short-term manipulations in locomotor intensity on gait performance in people with iSCI and (2) to evaluate potential detrimental effects of high-intensity locomotor training on walking performance...
December 2016: Physical Therapy
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