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Derek J Williams, Yuwei Zhu, Carlos G Grijalva, Wesley H Self, Frank E Harrell, Carrie Reed, Chris Stockmann, Sandra R Arnold, Krow K Ampofo, Evan J Anderson, Anna M Bramley, Richard G Wunderink, Jonathan A McCullers, Andrew T Pavia, Seema Jain, Kathryn M Edwards
BACKGROUND: Substantial morbidity and excessive care variation are seen with pediatric pneumonia. Accurate risk-stratification tools to guide clinical decision-making are needed. METHODS: We developed risk models to predict severe pneumonia outcomes in children (<18 years) by using data from the Etiology of Pneumonia in the Community Study, a prospective study of community-acquired pneumonia hospitalizations conducted in 3 US cities from January 2010 to June 2012...
September 29, 2016: Pediatrics
Christine Léaute-Labrèze, Olivia Boccara, Caroline Degrugillier-Chopinet, Juliette Mazereeuw-Hautier, Sorilla Prey, Geneviève Lebbé, Stéphanie Gautier, Valérie Ortis, Martine Lafon, Agnès Montagne, Alain Delarue, Jean-Jacques Voisard
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Given the widespread use of propranolol in infantile hemangioma (IH) it was considered essential to perform a systematic review of its safety. The objectives of this review were to evaluate the safety profile of oral propranolol in the treatment of IH. METHODS: We searched Embase and Medline databases (2007-July 2014) and unpublished data from the manufacturer of Hemangiol/Hemangeol (marketed pediatric formulation of oral propranolol; Pierre Fabre Dermatologie, Lavaur, France)...
September 29, 2016: Pediatrics
Francesca Filippi, Cristina Meazza, Alessio Paffoni, Francesco Raspagliesi, Monica Terenziani, Edgardo Somigliana
Fertility preservation in prepubertal and young adolescent girls scheduled for chemotherapy is a demanding situation. Despite the recent impressive improvements of ovarian cortex cryopreservation, significant limitations persist. The technique remains experimental, it exposes the girl to the risks of surgery and to an iatrogenic insult to the ovarian reserve, and there is no guarantee of use because not all girls will undergo re-implantation. Moreover, it is impossible to respect all the requested conditions for a valid informed consent...
September 29, 2016: Pediatrics
Vinay Vamadev Kulkarni, Sourabh Dutta, Venkataseshan Sundaram, Shiv Sajan Saini
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether preterm thrombocytopenia within 24 hours of birth is associated with delayed closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and higher proportion of hemodynamically significant PDA (Hs-PDA). METHODS: Neonates (gestation 26(0/7)-33(6/7) weeks, age <24 hours) with known platelet count and PDA on echocardiogram were prospectively enrolled. Asphyxia, congenital infections, structural heart disease, major malformations and clinical sepsis were exclusions...
September 28, 2016: Pediatrics
Nicole Kozloff, Carol E Adair, Luis I Palma Lazgare, Daniel Poremski, Amy H Cheung, Rebeca Sandu, Vicky Stergiopoulos
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: "Housing First" has been shown to improve housing stability in homeless individuals with mental illness, but had not been empirically tested in homeless youth. We aimed to evaluate the effect of "Housing First" on housing stability in homeless youth aged 18 to 24 years participating in At Home/Chez Soi, a 24-month randomized trial of "Housing First" in 5 Canadian cities. METHODS: Homeless individuals with mental illness were randomized to receive "Housing First" (combined with assertive community treatment or intensive case management depending on their level of need) or treatment as usual...
September 28, 2016: Pediatrics
Christine T Lauren, Donald V Belsito, Kimberly D Morel, Philip LaRussa
Routine childhood immunizations have resulted in great reductions in vaccine-preventable infectious diseases. Vaccine-related adverse events, albeit rare, can be of significant consequence. Although anaphylaxis, or type I hypersensitivity, is recognized as a potential reaction after vaccination, delayed type hypersensitivity or type IV reactions are less so. We present a case of persistent subcutaneous nodules and sterile abscesses in the setting of delayed type hypersensitivity to aluminum, confirmed by patch testing and recurrence on re-exposure...
September 27, 2016: Pediatrics
Joseph F Hagan, Tatiana Balachova, Jacquelyn Bertrand, Ira Chasnoff, Elizabeth Dang, Daniel Fernandez-Baca, Julie Kable, Barry Kosofsky, Yasmin N Senturias, Natasha Singh, Mark Sloane, Carol Weitzman, Jennifer Zubler
Children and adolescents affected by prenatal exposure to alcohol who have brain damage that is manifested in functional impairments of neurocognition, self-regulation, and adaptive functioning may most appropriately be diagnosed with neurobehavioral disorder associated with prenatal exposure. This Special Article outlines clinical implications and guidelines for pediatric medical home clinicians to identify, diagnose, and refer children regarding neurobehavioral disorder associated with prenatal exposure. Emphasis is given to reported or observable behaviors that can be identified as part of care in pediatric medical homes, differential diagnosis, and potential comorbidities...
September 27, 2016: Pediatrics
H Eugene Hoyme, Claire D Coles
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 27, 2016: Pediatrics
Mary C Smith Fawzi, Lauren Ng, Fredrick Kanyanganzi, Catherine Kirk, Justin Bizimana, Felix Cyamatare, Christina Mushashi, Taehoon Kim, Yvonne Kayiteshonga, Agnes Binagwaho, Theresa S Betancourt
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In Rwanda, significant progress has been made in advancing access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) among youth. As availability of ART increases, adherence is critical for preventing poor clinical outcomes and transmission of HIV. The goals of the study are to (1) describe ART adherence and mental health problems among youth living with HIV aged 10 to 17; and (2) examine the association between these factors among this population in rural Rwanda. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was conducted that examined the association of mental health status and ART adherence among youth (n = 193)...
September 27, 2016: Pediatrics
Kaigang Li, Denise Haynie, Leah Lipsky, Ronald J Iannotti, Charlotte Pratt, Bruce Simons-Morton
OBJECTIVES: Examined patterns and determinants of objectively measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) over 4 years in US emerging adults. METHODS: Waves 1 through 4 (W1 [10th grade] to W4 data of a national cohort starting in 2010 (N = 561; 16.19 ± 0.51 years) were used. MVPA was assessed annually from accelerometers; BMI calculated from measured height/weight; and surveys ascertained self-reported physical activity (PA) planning, peer PA , family support, W1 sociodemographics, W4 school status, W4 residence, and W4 employment...
September 26, 2016: Pediatrics
Yvonne W Wu, Michael W Kuzniewicz, Lisa Croen, Eileen M Walsh, Charles E McCulloch, Thomas B Newman
OBJECTIVE: Whether neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and/or phototherapy increase the risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is unclear. We sought to quantify the risk of ASD associated with elevated total serum bilirubin (TSB) levels and with phototherapy. METHODS: In a retrospective cohort study of 525 409 infants born at ≥35 weeks' gestation in 15 Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) hospitals, 1995-2011, we obtained all TSB levels and determined which infants received phototherapy...
September 26, 2016: Pediatrics
Laura K Bachrach, Catherine M Gordon
Concerns about bone health and potential fragility in children and adolescents have led to a high interest in bone densitometry. Pediatric patients with genetic and acquired chronic diseases, immobility, and inadequate nutrition may fail to achieve expected gains in bone size, mass, and strength, leaving them vulnerable to fracture. In older adults, bone densitometry has been shown to predict fracture risk and reflect response to therapy. The role of densitometry in the management of children at risk of bone fragility is less clear...
September 26, 2016: Pediatrics
Janine M Duke, Sean M Randall, Mark W Fear, James H Boyd, Suzanne Rea, Fiona M Wood
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The systemic responses triggered by burns and resuscitative measures may cause pulmonary damage and edema in the acute phase. These effects may occur in the absence of inhalation injury. Currently, there is a paucity of data on the recovery of the respiratory system postburn. This study aimed to examine 10-year hospital service use for respiratory morbidity in children with cutaneous burns and no smoke inhalation injury. METHODS: A population-based longitudinal study with 10-year follow-up using linked hospital and death from Western Australia for children <5 years when hospitalized for a first burn injury (n = 5290) between 1980 and 2012 and a frequency matched noninjury comparison cohort, randomly selected from Western Australia's birth registrations (n = 27 061)...
September 23, 2016: Pediatrics
Harvey W Kaufman, Zhen Chen
OBJECTIVES: We assessed the impact of rotavirus vaccination at national and state levels by evaluating the change in rotavirus antigen detection after vaccination licensure. We examined herd immunity in an unlikely vaccinated cohort and waning immunity with aging in a likely vaccinated cohort. We proposed a new approach to estimate the length of season by contrasting with what is recently reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. METHODS: We analyzed 11-year results of rotavirus testing (n = 276 342) conducted at Quest Diagnostics, a national clinical reference laboratory, spanning from September 2003 to August 2014...
September 23, 2016: Pediatrics
Janneke G J Hoeijmakers, Catharina G Faber, Carien J Miedema, Ingemar S J Merkies, Johan S H Vles
Small fiber neuropathy (SFN) is a debilitating condition that often leads to pain and autonomic dysfunction. In the last few decades, SFN has been gaining more attention, particularly in adults. However, literature about SFN in children remains limited. The present article reports the cases of 2 adolescent girls diagnosed with SFN. The first patient (14 years of age) complained about painful itch and tingling in her legs, as well as dysautonomia symptoms for years. She also reported a red/purple-type discoloration of her legs aggravated by warmth and standing, compatible with erythromelalgia...
September 22, 2016: Pediatrics
Kelly J Kelleher, William Gardner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 22, 2016: Pediatrics
Julia B Nath, Shaughnessy Costigan, Feng Lin, Eric Vittinghoff, Renee Y Hsia
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether increasing access to federally qualified health centers (FQHCs) in California was associated with decreased rates of emergency department (ED) use by children without insurance or insured by Medicaid. METHODS: We combined several data sets to longitudinally analyze 58 California counties between 2005 and 2013. We defined access to FQHCs by county using 2 measures: FQHC sites per 100 square miles between 2005 and 2012 and percentage of Medicaid-insured and uninsured children served by FQHCs from 2008 to 2013...
September 22, 2016: Pediatrics
Caroline A Crowther, Peter J Anderson, Christopher J D McKinlay, Jane E Harding, Pat J Ashwood, Ross R Haslam, Jeffery S Robinson, Lex W Doyle
OBJECTIVE: To assess if exposure to repeat dose(s) of antenatal corticosteroids has beneficial effects on neurodevelopment and general health in mid-childhood, at 6 to 8 years' corrected age. METHODS: Women at risk for very preterm birth, who had received a course of corticosteroids ≥7 days previously, were randomized to intramuscular betamethasone (11.4 mg Celestone Chronodose) or saline placebo, repeated weekly if risk of very preterm birth remained. Mid-childhood assessments included neurocognitive function, behavior, growth, lung function, blood pressure, health-related quality of life, and health service utilization...
September 20, 2016: Pediatrics
Hooi Ling Teoh, Alexander Solyom, Edward H Schuchman, David Mowat, Tony Roscioli, Michelle Farrar, Hugo Sampaio
Survival of motor neuron 1-------negative spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is heterogeneous and remains a diagnostic challenge. The clinical spectrum continues to expand and ∼33 genes have been identified to date. The present report describes a 9-year-old girl with novel clinical phenotype of a patient with polyarticular arthritis followed by symptoms of SMA due to acid ceramidase deficiency. Whole exome sequencing identified compound heterozygous pathogenic mutation in the N-acylsphingosine amidohydrolase 1 gene...
September 20, 2016: Pediatrics
Deirdre M Murray, Catherine M O'Connor, C Anthony Ryan, Irina Korotchikova, Geraldine B Boylan
OBJECTIVE: More than half of all infants with neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) are graded as mild and do not meet current criteria for therapeutic hypothermia. These infants are often not enrolled in follow-up, and hence our knowledge of their long-term outcome is sparse. We wished to compare 5-year outcomes in a group of infants with mild, moderate, and severe HIE, graded with both early EEG and clinical assessment, none of whom were treated with therapeutic hypothermia...
September 20, 2016: Pediatrics
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