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Shari L Wade, Eloise E Kaizar, Megan Narad, Huaiyu Zang, Brad G Kurowski, Keith Owen Yeates, H Gerry Taylor, Nanhua Zhang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To determine whether online family problem-solving treatment (OFPST) is more effective in improving behavioral outcomes after pediatric traumatic brain injury with increasing time since injury. METHODS: This was an individual participant data meta-analysis of outcome data from 5 randomized controlled trials of OFPST conducted between 2003 and 2016. We included 359 children ages 5 to 18 years who were hospitalized for moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury 1 to 24 months earlier...
November 9, 2018: Pediatrics
Erin F Hoehn, Kevin M Overmann, Nafeh Fananapazir, Kirsten Simonton, Kathi L Makoroff, Berkeley L Bennett, Elena M Duma, Eileen Murtagh Kurowski
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Evidence-based medical care of sexual abuse victims who present to the pediatric emergency department (PED) is necessary to facilitate forensic evidence collection and prevent pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Adherence to testing and treatment guidelines remains low in PEDs, despite recommendations from the American Academy of Pediatrics and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. We aimed to increase the proportion of patient encounters at a PED for reported sexual abuse that receive algorithm-adherent care from 57% to 90% within 12 months...
November 9, 2018: Pediatrics
Paul C Mann, Elliott Mark Weiss, Rebecca R Seltzer, Rachel A B Dodge, Renee D Boss, John D Lantos
Most critical care interventions for children occur in the framework of a supportive environment with loving parents that are present at the bedside to help to guide medical interventions through shared decision-making. What happens, however, if the parents are precluded from being at the bedside because of legal entanglements? How should clinical decisions progress in those cases? In this Ethics Rounds, we present the case of an infant with severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy at birth whose mother was incarcerated shortly after delivery...
November 8, 2018: Pediatrics
Melissa Wake, Jessica A Kerr, Pauline W Jansen
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Parents often do not accurately perceive overweight and/or obesity in their children. Changing this is widely considered an essential first step to reducing child overweight, but recent research suggests that, in fact, this could promote greater weight gain. We aimed to determine the directionality over time between higher child adiposity and parental perception of child overweight. METHODS: Participants were from 2 cohorts of the population-based Longitudinal Study of Australian Children followed biennially since 2004...
November 8, 2018: Pediatrics
Sarah M Bernstein, Holly C Lewis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 7, 2018: Pediatrics
Whitney B Eldridge, Cherie Foster, Lance Wyble
Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is increasing in incidence and most commonly associated with maternal opioid use during pregnancy. Nonopioid alternatives to treat opioid dependence are highly sought after in the country's current opioid epidemic. Whether Kratom, a legal, widely available herbal supplement, should be classified as an opioid is contentious. Although the US Food and Drug Administration has recently addressed this controversy, Kratom continues to be marketed as a nonopioid remedy for opioid withdrawal...
November 7, 2018: Pediatrics
Hilary K Brown, Lynne A Potvin, Yona Lunsky, Simone N Vigod
BACKGROUND: Approximately half of women with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs) lose custody of their children at some point in their child's development, but their rates of and risk factors for newborn discharge to child protective services from the birth hospitalization are relatively unknown. METHODS: We conducted a population-based study of newborns of 3845 women with IDDs and 379 834 women without IDDs in Ontario, Canada (2002-2012). We used modified Poisson regression to estimate adjusted relative risks (aRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for discharge to child protective services directly from the birth hospitalization (1) comparing newborns of women with and without IDDs and (2) among newborns of women with IDDs according to sociodemographic, health, service, and perinatal characteristics...
November 6, 2018: Pediatrics
Laura L Kimberly, Kelly McBride Folkers, Phoebe Friesen, Darren Sultan, Gwendolyn P Quinn, Alison Bateman-House, Brendan Parent, Craig Konnoth, Aron Janssen, Lesha D Shah, Rachel Bluebond-Langner, Caroline Salas-Humara
Transgender and gender-nonconforming (TGNC) youth who suffer from gender dysphoria are at a substantially elevated risk of numerous adverse physical and psychosocial outcomes compared with their cisgender peers. Innovative treatment options used to support and affirm an individual's preferred gender identity can help resolve gender dysphoria and avoid many negative sequelae of nontreatment. Yet, despite advances in these relatively novel treatment options, which appear to be highly effective in addressing gender dysphoria and mitigating associated adverse outcomes, ethical challenges abound in ensuring that young patients receive appropriate, safe, affordable treatment and that access to this treatment is fair and equitable...
November 6, 2018: Pediatrics
Ayesha Kadir, Sherry Shenoda, Jeffrey Goldhagen, Shelly Pitterman
More than 1 in 10 children worldwide are affected by armed conflict. The effects are both direct and indirect and are associated with immediate and long-term harm. The direct effects of conflict include death, physical and psychological trauma, and displacement. Indirect effects are related to a large number of factors, including inadequate and unsafe living conditions, environmental hazards, caregiver mental health, separation from family, displacement-related health risks, and the destruction of health, public health, education, and economic infrastructure...
November 5, 2018: Pediatrics
Maria A Parker, Andrea C Villanti, Amanda J Quisenberry, Cassandra A Stanton, Nathan J Doogan, Ryan Redner, Diann E Gaalema, Allison N Kurti, Tyler Nighbor, Megan E Roberts, Antonio Cepeda-Benito, Stephen T Higgins
: media-1vid110.1542/5839992833001PEDS-VA_2018-1505 Video Abstract BACKGROUND: Researchers in several studies have examined correlations between tobacco harm perceptions and tobacco use in youth, but none have prospectively addressed the association between harm perceptions and subsequent new use across multiple noncigarette products. METHODS: Product-specific absolute and relative harm perceptions for cigarettes, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), cigars, pipes, hookah, and smokeless tobacco were collected at wave 1 (W1) (2013-2014) among youth in the nationally representative US Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study (12-17 years of age; n = 10 081)...
November 5, 2018: Pediatrics
Sherry Shenoda, Ayesha Kadir, Shelly Pitterman, Jeffrey Goldhagen
Children are increasingly exposed to armed conflict and targeted by governmental and nongovernmental combatants. Armed conflict directly and indirectly affects children's physical, mental, and behavioral health. It can affect every organ system, and its impact can persist throughout the life course. In addition, children are disproportionately impacted by morbidity and mortality associated with armed conflict. A children's rights-based approach provides a framework for collaboration by the American Academy of Pediatrics, child health professionals, and national and international partners to respond in the domains of clinical care, systems development, and policy formulation...
November 5, 2018: Pediatrics
Jessica L Barrington-Trimis, Grace Kong, Adam M Leventhal, Feifei Liu, Margaret Mayer, Tess Boley Cruz, Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin, Rob McConnell
: media-1vid110.1542/5839992666001PEDS-VA_2018-0486 Video Abstract BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is associated with cigarette initiation among adolescents. However, it is unclear whether e-cigarette use is associated with more frequent cigarette use after initiation. Also, the extent to which cigarette or dual cigarette and e-cigarette users transition to exclusive e-cigarette use or to the nonuse of either product is not yet known. METHODS: Data were pooled from 3 prospective cohort studies in California and Connecticut (baseline: 2013-2014; follow-up: 2014-2016; N = 6258)...
November 5, 2018: Pediatrics
Robert D Sege, Benjamin S Siegel
Pediatricians are a source of advice for parents and guardians concerning the management of child behavior, including discipline strategies that are used to teach appropriate behavior and protect their children and others from the adverse effects of challenging behavior. Aversive disciplinary strategies, including all forms of corporal punishment and yelling at or shaming children, are minimally effective in the short-term and not effective in the long-term. With new evidence, researchers link corporal punishment to an increased risk of negative behavioral, cognitive, psychosocial, and emotional outcomes for children...
November 5, 2018: Pediatrics
Eric van Diessen, Herm J Lamberink, Willem M Otte, Nynke Doornebal, Oebele F Brouwer, Floor E Jansen, Kees P J Braun
OBJECTIVES: The clinical profile of children who had possible seizures is heterogeneous, and accuracy of diagnostic testing is limited. We aimed to develop and validate a prediction model that determines the risk of childhood epilepsy by combining available information at first consultation. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data of 451 children who visited our outpatient department for diagnostic workup related to 1 or more paroxysmal event(s). At least 1 year of follow-up was available for all children who were diagnosed with epilepsy or in whom diagnosis remained inconclusive...
November 2, 2018: Pediatrics
Mical Raz, Barbara R Beatty
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2, 2018: Pediatrics
Arpitha Chiruvolu, Kimberly K Miklis, Elena Chen, Barbara Petrey, Sujata Desai
: media-1vid110.1542/5839992674001PEDS-VA_2018-1485 Video Abstract BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Recently, the Neonatal Resuscitation Program (NRP) recommended against routine endotracheal suctioning of meconium-stained nonvigorous newborns but suggested resuscitation with positive pressure ventilation. Our purpose is to study the effects of this change in management. METHODS: In this multicenter cohort study, we compare 130 nonvigorous newborns born during the retrospective 1-year period before the implementation of new NRP guidelines (October 1, 2015, to September 30, 2016) to 101 infants born during the 1-year prospective period after implementation (October 1, 2016, to September 30, 2017)...
November 1, 2018: Pediatrics
Melissa Liddle, Kerri Birkett, Annette Bonjour, Kimberly Risma
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2018: Pediatrics
Thomas E Wiswell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2018: Pediatrics
Antti Saari, Ulla Sankilampi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 31, 2018: Pediatrics
Jason P Block, L Charles Bailey, Matthew W Gillman, Doug Lunsford, Matthew F Daley, Ihuoma Eneli, Jonathan Finkelstein, William Heerman, Casie E Horgan, Daniel S Hsia, Melanie Jay, Goutham Rao, Juliane S Reynolds, Sheryl L Rifas-Shiman, Jessica L Sturtevant, Sengwee Toh, Leonardo Trasande, Jessica Young, Christopher B Forrest
: media-1vid110.1542/5839981580001PEDS-VA_2018-0290 Video Abstract OBJECTIVES: To determine the association of antibiotic use with weight outcomes in a large cohort of children. METHODS: Health care data were available from 2009 to 2016 for 35 institutions participating in the National Patient-Centered Clinical Research Network. Participant inclusion required same-day height and weight measurements at 0 to <12, 12 to <30, and 48 to <72 months of age. We assessed the association between any antibiotic use at <24 months of age with BMI z score and overweight or obesity prevalence at 48 to <72 months (5 years) of age, with secondary assessments of antibiotic spectrum and age-period exposures...
October 31, 2018: Pediatrics
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