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Israel Agaku, Satomi Odani, Constantine Vardavas, Linda Neff
BACKGROUND: We investigated tobacco-related self-identity and risk perceptions among adolescent tobacco users. METHODS: Data were analyzed for 20 675 US sixth- to 12th-graders from the 2016 National Youth Tobacco Survey. Students who reported past-30-day use of a specific tobacco product or ≥2 products but denied having used "any tobacco product" in the past 30 days were classified as not self-identifying as tobacco users. Tobacco product harm perceptions were further assessed across products...
March 15, 2018: Pediatrics
James W Ochi, Linda Wheelbarger, Lawrence W Dautenhahn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2018: Pediatrics
Cynthia M Rand, Stanley J Schaffer, Nui Dhepyasuwan, Aaron Blumkin, Christina Albertin, Janet R Serwint, Paul M Darden, Sharon G Humiston, Keith J Mann, William Stratbucker, Peter G Szilagyi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination rates lag behind vaccination rates for other adolescent vaccines; a bundled intervention may improve HPV vaccination rates. Our objective is to evaluate the impact of quality improvement (QI) training plus a bundled practice-based intervention (provider prompts plus communication skills training plus performance feedback) on improving HPV vaccinations in pediatric resident continuity clinics. METHODS: Staff and providers in 8 resident clinics participated in a 12-month QI study...
March 14, 2018: Pediatrics
Rajeev Seth, Ibukunoluwa Akinboyo, Ankur Chhabra, Yawar Qaiyum, Anita Shet, Nikhil Gupte, Ajay K Jain, Sanjay K Jain
OBJECTIVES: Young children in resource-poor settings remain inadequately immunized. We evaluated the role of compliance-linked incentives versus mobile phone messaging to improve childhood immunizations. METHODS: Children aged ≤24 months from a rural community in India were randomly assigned to either a control group or 1 of 2 study groups. A cloud-based, biometric-linked software platform was used for positive identification, record keeping for all groups, and delivery of automated mobile phone reminders with or without compliance-linked incentives (Indian rupee Rs30 or US dollar $0...
March 14, 2018: Pediatrics
Anupam B Kharbanda, Gabriela Vazquez-Benitez, Dustin W Ballard, David R Vinson, Uli K Chettipally, Mamata V Kene, Steven P Dehmer, Richard G Bachur, Peter S Dayan, Nathan Kuppermann, Patrick J O'Connor, Elyse O Kharbanda
OBJECTIVES: We sought to develop and validate a clinical calculator that can be used to quantify risk for appendicitis on a continuous scale for patients with acute abdominal pain. METHODS: The pediatric appendicitis risk calculator (pARC) was developed and validated through secondary analyses of 3 distinct cohorts. The derivation sample included visits to 9 pediatric emergency departments between March 2009 and April 2010. The validation sample included visits to a single pediatric emergency department from 2003 to 2004 and 2013 to 2015...
March 13, 2018: Pediatrics
Johan Bester, Maya Sabatello, Clara D M van Karnebeek, John D Lantos
A 38-year-old woman is diagnosed with Li-Fraumeni syndrome, an autosomal dominant genetic condition that predisposes to a variety of cancers. The woman has an 11-year-old daughter. The geneticist recommends that the child be tested for the Li-Fraumeni genetic variant. The mother is concerned about the impact of testing and diagnosis on Karen's psychological well-being. She describes Karen as "highly strung" and as "a worrier." The child has been diagnosed with an anxiety disorder and is managed by a psychologist for counseling...
March 13, 2018: Pediatrics
Brittany M Charlton, Andrea L Roberts, Margaret Rosario, Sabra L Katz-Wise, Jerel P Calzo, Donna Spiegelman, S Bryn Austin
OBJECTIVES: Young women who are sexual minorities (eg, bisexual and lesbian) are approximately twice as likely as those who are heterosexual to have a teen pregnancy. Therefore, we hypothesized that risk factors for teen pregnancy would vary across sexual orientation groups and that other potential risk factors exist that are unique to sexual minorities. METHODS: We used multivariable log-binomial models gathered from 7120 young women in the longitudinal cohort known as the Growing Up Today Study to examine the following potential teen pregnancy risk factors: childhood maltreatment, bullying victimization and perpetration, and gender nonconformity...
March 12, 2018: Pediatrics
Idia B Thurston, Kathryn H Howell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 12, 2018: Pediatrics
Joseph R Cohen, Ryan C Shorey, Suvarna V Menon, Jeff R Temple
OBJECTIVES: With our study we aimed to (1) understand what factors uniquely conferred risk for physical and sexual forms of teen dating violence (TDV) perpetration and (2) create a screening algorithm to quantify perpetration risk on the basis of these factors. METHODS: A total of 1031 diverse public high school students living in Southeast Texas participated in our study (56% female; 29% African American, 28% white, and 31% Hispanic). Self-report measures concerning TDV and associated risk factors were completed annually for 6 years...
March 12, 2018: Pediatrics
Jessica L Markham, Matt Hall, James C Gay, Jessica L Bettenhausen, Jay G Berry
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Readmissions burden the health care system. Despite increasing attention to readmission rates, little is known about the duration and cost of readmissions. The objective of this study was to assess, nationally, the length of stay (LOS) and costs for 30-day readmissions in children. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 30-day readmissions by using the 2013 Nationwide Readmissions Database. We used generalized linear mixed effects models adjusted for important clinical and demographic factors to assess LOS and cost for index admissions, readmissions, and the episode of care (index admission plus readmission)...
March 9, 2018: Pediatrics
Paul T Rosenau, Brian K Alverson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 9, 2018: Pediatrics
Jonathan S Wald, Saira N Haque, Stephanie Rizk, Jennifer R Webb, Stephen Brown, Shellery Ebron, Christoph U Lehmann, Mark Frisse, Vanessa A Shorte, Edwin A Lomotan, Barbara A Dailey, Kevin B Johnson
Electronic health record (EHR) use throughout the United States has advanced considerably, but functionality to support the optimal care of children has been slower to develop and deploy. A previous team of experts systematically identified gaps in EHR functionality during collaborative work from 2010 to 2013 that produced the Children's EHR Format (Format), funded under the Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act of 2009, Public Law 111-3. After that, a team of practitioners, software developers, health policy leaders, and other stakeholders examined the Format's exhaustive list of 547 EHR functional requirements in 26 topic areas and found them to be valuable but in need of further refinement and prioritization...
March 8, 2018: Pediatrics
Leah T Stiemsma, Karin B Michels
Although the prominent role of the microbiome in human health has been established, the early-life microbiome is now being recognized as a major influence on long-term human health and development. Variations in the composition and functional potential of the early-life microbiome are the result of lifestyle factors, such as mode of birth, breastfeeding, diet, and antibiotic usage. In addition, variations in the composition of the early-life microbiome have been associated with specific disease outcomes, such as asthma, obesity, and neurodevelopmental disorders...
March 8, 2018: Pediatrics
Denise Chew, Jemma Anderson, Katrina Williams, Tamara May, Kenneth Pang
CONTEXT: Hormonal interventions are being increasingly used to treat young people with gender dysphoria, but their effects in this population have not been systematically reviewed before. OBJECTIVE: To review evidence for the physical, psychosocial, and cognitive effects of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs (GnRHa), gender-affirming hormones, antiandrogens, and progestins on transgender adolescents. DATA SOURCES: We searched Medline, Embase, and PubMed databases from January 1, 1946, to June 10, 2017...
March 7, 2018: Pediatrics
Michele C Walsh, Moira Crowley, Scott Wexelblatt, Susan Ford, Pierce Kuhnell, Heather C Kaplan, Richard McClead, Maurizio Macaluso, Carole Lannon
OBJECTIVES: Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) after an infant's in-utero exposure to opioids has increased dramatically in incidence. No treatment standards exist, leading to substantial variations in practice, degree of opioid exposure, and hospital length of stay. METHODS: The Ohio Perinatal Quality Collaborative conducted an extensive multi-modal quality improvement initiative with the goal to (1) standardize identification, nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic treatment in level-2 and 3 NICUs in Ohio, (2) reduce the use of and length of treatment with opioids, and (3) reduce hospital length of stay in pharmacologically treated newborns with NAS...
March 7, 2018: Pediatrics
Jerica M Berge, Megan R Winkler, Nicole Larson, Jonathan Miller, Ann F Haynos, Dianne Neumark-Sztainer
BACKGROUND: Although previous cross-sectional research has revealed potential harmful outcomes associated with parent encouragement to diet, it is unclear whether these effects are long lasting and whether they are transmitted to the next generation. The main aim of the current study was to examine longitudinal associations between exposure to parent encouragement to diet in adolescence and weight-related and emotional health outcomes in adulthood and to examine whether intergenerational transmission of encouragement to diet occurs...
March 6, 2018: Pediatrics
Katherine W Bauer, Julie C Lumeng, Kendrin R Sonneville
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 6, 2018: Pediatrics
Benjamin W Chaffee, Shannon Lea Watkins, Stanton A Glantz
BACKGROUND: It has been shown that never-smoking adolescents who try electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are at increased risk of subsequent conventional cigarette smoking. We evaluated associations between e-cigarette use and progression to established smoking among adolescents who had already tried cigarettes. METHODS: Among participants (age 12-17 years) in the nationally representative Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health survey who had smoked a cigarette (≥1 puff) but not yet smoked 100 cigarettes ( N = 1295), we examined 3 outcomes at 1-year follow-up as a function of baseline e-cigarette use: (1) having smoked ≥100 cigarettes (established smoking), (2) smoking during the past 30 days, and (3) both having smoked ≥100 cigarettes and past 30-day smoking (current established smoking)...
March 5, 2018: Pediatrics
Jason M Kane, Jeffrey D Colvin, Allison H Bartlett, Matt Hall
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There has been a rapid increase in the rate of pediatric opioid-related hospitalizations. It is unknown how this increase has impacted the use of pediatric critical care. Our objective in this study was to assess the trends in pediatric hospitalization for opioid ingestions in a cohort of US children's hospitals and, specifically, to evaluate the impact on pediatric critical care resource use. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of the Pediatric Health Information System was performed to identify hospitalizations for opioid ingestions from 2004 to 2015...
March 5, 2018: Pediatrics
Mark L Rubinstein, Kevin Delucchi, Neal L Benowitz, Danielle E Ramo
BACKGROUND: There is an urgent need to understand the safety of e-cigarettes with adolescents. We sought to identify the presence of chemical toxicants associated with e-cigarette use among adolescents. METHODS: Adolescent e-cigarette users (≥1 use within the past 30 days, ≥10 lifetime e-cigarette use episodes) were divided into e-cigarette-only users (no cigarettes in the past 30 days, urine 4-[methylnitrosamino]-1-[3-pyridyl]-1-butanol [NNAL] level <1 pg/mL of creatinine; n = 67), dual users (use of cigarettes in the past 30 days in addition to e-cigarettes, NNAL level >30 pg/mL; n = 16), and never-using controls ( N = 20)...
March 5, 2018: Pediatrics
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