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Pediatric Surgery International

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027581/unusual-case-of-coronal-complete-bladder-duplication-associated-with-rectoprostatic-fistula-to-duplicated-prostatic-urethra
#1
Jennifer Y Lam, Steven R Lopushinsky, Kyle C Kurek, Paul Beaudry
Anorectal malformations are a common congenital anomaly, while bladder duplication is rare. Bladder duplications are classified as complete or incomplete and sagittal or coronal. We present a rare case of coronal complete bladder duplication with rectoprostatic fistula to the blind ending prostatic urethra of the duplicated bladder.
October 13, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022107/preoperative-laryngotracheobronchoscopy-in-infants-with-esophageal-atresia-why-is-it-not-routine
#2
REVIEW
Kiarash Taghavi, Mark D Stringer
The value of laryngotracheobronchoscopy (LTB) immediately prior to repair of esophageal atresia with or without tracheo-esophageal fistula is contentious. Currently, there is a wide range of opinion on the utility of this investigation which is reflected by huge variation in clinical practice. This review is a critical analysis of the arguments for and against performing routine LTB prior to esophageal atresia repair. Reserving LTB for selected cases only is potentially disadvantageous since it limits the surgeon's and anesthetist's familiarity with the procedure, equipment, and range of potential findings...
October 11, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022095/laparoscopic-portoenterostomy-for-biliary-atresia-single-center-experience-and-review-of-literatures
#3
Joel Cazares, Hiroyuki Koga, Hiroshi Murakami, Hiroki Nakamura, Geoffrey Lane, Atsuyuki Yamataka
AIM: The aim of this report was to present the laparoscopic portoenterostomy (LapPE) procedure developed by the Department of Pediatric General and Urogenital Surgery, Juntendo University School of Medicine (JLapPE). We also attempted to obtain an understanding of the current status of laparoscopic portoenterostomy in the world as reported in the English literature to compare with our experience. METHODS: There were 22 BA patients who had JLapPE between 2009 and 2016...
October 11, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022092/unique-manifestations-of-biliary-atresia-provide-new-immunological-insight-into-its-etiopathogenesis
#4
REVIEW
Toshihiro Muraji, Haruo Ohtani, Satoshi Ieiri
Biliary atresia (BA) is a unique cholestatic disease of newborns with a background of exaggerated immune response in the liver of unknown mechanism. Three hypotheses have been proposed; autoimmune type of cholangiopathy triggered by virus infection, graft-versus-host disease type of immune-mediated disease associated with maternal microchimerism and ductal plate malformation theory. Researchers on virus infection theory have experimentally explored immune process causing cholangiopathy on murine models of this disease, while in maternal microchimerism hypothesis were detected maternal cells in the BA patients' liver, of which roles are yet to be determined...
October 11, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022081/surgical-management-and-outcomes-of-12-cases-of-wilms-tumour-with-intracardiac-extension-from-a-single-centre
#5
Sharon G Cox, A Davidson, J Thomas, A Brooks, J Hewitson, A Numanoglu, A J W Millar
PURPOSE: To review demographics, effect of preoperative chemotherapy on tumour thrombus, imaging, operative strategy, and outcomes of 12 patients presenting with intracardiac extension of Wilms tumour thrombus. METHODS: A retrospective audit was undertaken on patients with intracardiac extension of Wilms tumour. Patients were identified from the oncology database and information obtained on clinical presentation, stage, preoperative treatment, surgical procedures and complications, histology, and survival status...
October 11, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018962/the-fetal-lung-to-liver-signal-intensity-ratio-on-magnetic-resonance-imaging-as-a-predictor-of-outcomes-from-isolated-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia
#6
Masaya Yamoto, Teruo Iwazaki, Kasumi Takeuchi, Kyouhei Sano, Koji Fukumoto, Toshiaki Takahashi, Akiyoshi Nomura, Kei Ooyama, Akinori Sekioka, Yutaka Yamada, Naoto Urushihara
PURPOSE: We investigated the developmental changes in the unaffected contralateral lungs of patients with isolated left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) using signal intensity ratios on prenatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and determined whether these changes correlated with clinical outcomes. METHODS: We performed 47 fetal MRI screens on 30 patients with isolated left-sided CDH. A cohort of 88 fetuses was selected as the control. We calculated the lung-to-liver signal intensity ratio (LLSIR) using region of interest analysis and compared LLSIR between the groups and between those in the CDH group with good and poor prognoses...
October 10, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018960/influence-of-stress-factors-on-intestinal-epithelial-injury-and-regeneration
#7
Carol Lee, Adam Minich, Bo Li, Hiromu Miyake, Shogo Seo, Agostino Pierro
PURPOSE: Lgr5+ intestinal epithelial stem cells (ISCs) crucial for intestinal epithelial regeneration are impaired during necrotizing enterocolitis. This study aims to investigate the influence of different stressors on intestinal epithelial injury and regeneration in vitro. METHODS: Intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-18) were exposed to stressors such as lipopolysaccharide, hydrogen peroxide, and serum. Cell viability was assessed using MTT assay at 18 and 24 h...
October 10, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018959/invariant-natural-killer-t-infiltration-in-neuroblastoma-with-favorable-outcome
#8
Tomoro Hishiki, Naoko Mise, Kazuaki Harada, Fumie Ihara, Mariko Takami, Takeshi Saito, Keita Terui, Mitsuyuki Nakata, Shugo Komatsu, Hideo Yoshida, Shinichiro Motohashi
BACKGROUND: Tumor immunity has been suggested to play a key role in clinical and biological behavior of neuroblastomas. Given that CD1-restricted invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells enhance both innate and acquired tumor immunity, we investigated the expression of the iNKT-cell-specific T-cell receptor Vα24-Jα18 in neuroblastoma tissues and its correlation with clinical and biological characteristics. METHODS: Using real- time quantitative PCR, we quantified the expression of Vα24-Jα18 in untreated tumor samples from 107 neuroblastoma cases followed in our institution and analyzed the correlation between the presence of infiltrated iNKT cells and clinical characteristics or patients' outcome...
October 10, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018955/the-effect-of-laminin-1-on-enteric-neural-crest-derived-cell-migration-in-the-hirschsprung-s-disease-mouse-model
#9
Nana Nakazawa-Tanaka, N Fujiwara, K Miyahara, S Nakada, E Arikawa-Hirasawa, C Akazawa, M Urao, A Yamataka
BACKGROUND/AIM: Laminin-1 regulates neurite outgrowth in various neuronal cells. We have previously demonstrated that laminin-1 promotes enteric neural crest-derived cell (ENCC) migration by using Sox10-VENUS transgenic mice, in which ENCCs are labeled with a green fluorescent protein, Venus. Mice lacking the endothelin-B receptor gene, Ednrb (-/-) mice, are widely used as a model for Hirschsprung's disease (HD). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of laminin-1on ENCC migration in Sox10-VENUS(+)/Ednrb (-/-) mice, a newly created HD mice model...
October 10, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018953/frequency-and-proliferative-response-of-circulating-invariant-natural-killer-t-cells-in-pediatric-patients-with-malignant-solid-tumors
#10
Tomoro Hishiki, Naoko Mise, Kazuaki Harada, Fumie Ihara, Mariko Takami, Takeshi Saito, Keita Terui, Mitsuyuki Nakata, Shugo Komatsu, Hideo Yoshida, Shinichiro Motohashi
BACKGROUND: Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells play an important role in tumor immunity, enhancing both innate and acquired immunity. We have previously shown the enhancement of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity against neuroblastoma by activated iNKT cells. As a first step towards clinical application, we studied the frequency and proliferative response of circulating iNKT cells in children with and without cancer. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 10 patients with pediatric malignant solid tumors and 11 patients with non-neoplastic diseases (control)...
October 10, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018940/laparoscopy-or-laparotomy-for-adhesive-bowel-obstruction-in-children-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
Hiromu Miyake, Shogo Seo, Agostino Pierro
PURPOSE: Adhesive small bowel obstruction (ASBO) is one of the most important cause of postoperative morbidity in children who underwent abdominal surgery. Laparoscopic management for ASBO in pediatric patients has been reported. However, its safety and efficacy has not been evaluated in details. The aim of this study is to compare the outcomes of laparoscopy and laparotomy for the treatment of ASBO in children. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed following the Cochrane Handbook for systematic reviews of intervention and the preferred reporting item for systematic reviews and meta-analysis (PRISMA) and a protocol registered in PROSPERO (CRD42017067914)...
October 10, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983778/probiotics-for-the-prevention-of-hirschsprung-associated-enterocolitis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
H Nakamura, T Lim, P Puri
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Hirschsprung-associated enterocolitis (HAEC) is a life-threatening complication of Hirschsprung's disease. HAEC is reported to occur in 6-50% of patients preoperatively and in 2-35% postoperatively. The exact cause of HAEC is not fully understood, but disturbances of intestinal microbiota have recently been reported in patients with HAEC. In recent years, the administration of probiotics has been proposed to reduce the incidence of HAEC. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the effect of probiotics on postoperative HAEC...
October 5, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983729/increased-casr-and-trpc6-pulmonary-vascular-expression-in-the-nitrofen-induced-model-of-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia
#13
Hiroki Nakamura, Julia Zimmer, Tristan Lim, Prem Puri
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The high morbidity and mortality rates in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) are attributed primarily to severe lung hypoplasia and/or persistent pulmonary hypertension (PPH). PPH in CDH is characterized by abnormal vascular remodeling with thickening of medial and adventitial layers and extension of smooth muscle into previously nonmuscularized arteries. Excessive proliferation of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMC) is an important contributor to the concentric pulmonary arterial remodeling...
October 5, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983725/liver-transplantation-for-biliary-atresia-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Mureo Kasahara, Koji Umeshita, Seisuke Sakamoto, Akinari Fukuda, Hiroyuki Furukawa, Shinji Uemoto
Biliary atresia (BA) is an idiopathic neonatal cholangiopathy characterized by progressive inflammatory obliteration of the intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts. Although the Kasai operation has dramatically improved the outcomes in children with BA, most patients with BA eventually require liver transplantation (LT) even after undergoing a successful Kasai procedure. The Japanese LT Society (JLTS) was established in 1980 to characterize and follow trends in patient characteristics and the graft survival among all liver transplant patients in Japan...
October 5, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983709/late-complications-of-biliary-atresia-hepatopulmonary-syndrome-and-portopulmonary-hypertension
#15
Frederick M Karrer, Bradley J Wallace, Arturo E Estrada
Children with biliary atresia (BA) following Kasai portoenterostomy have a high risk for portal hypertension, however, while variceal and hemorrhagic complications have been more commonly studied, less frequent but no less possibly devastating complications of hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) and portopulmonary hypertension (PPH) remain less well understood. HPS and PPH both occur in a setting of portal hypertension, however, paradoxically patients with HPS develop pulmonic vasculature dilation leading to shunting and hypoxia, while those with PPH develop an opposite progression of pulmonary vasoconstriction eventually leading to cor pulmonale and decompensation...
October 5, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983697/screening-for-biliary-atresia
#16
REVIEW
Akira Matsui
Early diagnosis followed by proper KP is essential for the improvement of long-term prognosis for patients with BA. It is increasingly accepted that KP at ≤ 30 days of age significantly improves native liver survival rate. Published analyses in English and Japanese indicate that screening by SCC and DB/CB is potentially feasible. Screening with SCC has been implemented in Tochigi Prefecture, Japan, since 1994. The concept of SCC was introduced from Japan to Taiwan and resulted in nationwide screening with SCC for the first time in Taiwan in 2004, followed by Japan in 2012...
October 5, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983691/hirschsprung-s-disease-in-the-laparoscopic-transanal-pull-through-era-implications-of-age-at-surgery-and-technical-aspects
#17
Go Miyano, Masahiro Takeda, Hiroyuki Koga, Manabu Okawada, Nana Nakazawa-Tanaka, Junya Ishii, Takashi Doi, Geoffrey J Lane, Tadaharu Okazaki, Masahiko Urao, Atsuyuki Yamataka
AIM: Detailed implications of age at laparoscopic transanal pull-through (LTAPT) on postoperative bowel function (POBF) in Hirschsprung's disease (HD) are somewhat obscure because of a spectrum of factors. METHODS: Age at surgery was used to categorize 106 consecutive postoperative HD cases treated by our modified LTAPT (JLTPAT) between 1997 and 2015; group A: < 3 months old (n = 31); group B: 3-11 months old (n = 44); group C: 1-3 years old (n = 19); and group D: ≥ 4 years old (n = 12)...
October 5, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983688/inflammatory-bowel-disease-in-patients-with-hirschsprung-s-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
H Nakamura, T Lim, P Puri
AIM AND OBJECTIVES: Hirschsprung-associated enterocolitis (HAEC) continues to be an important cause of morbidity in patients with Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR). HAEC can occur at any time during the course of the disease. The reported incidence of HAEC before surgery ranges from 6 to 50%, and after surgery, it ranges from 2 to 35%. HAEC and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have similar clinical presentation including diarrhea, hematochezia, and abdominal pain. In recent years, isolated cases of IBD have been reported in patients who had surgical treatment for HSCR...
October 5, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983682/biliary-atresia-unity-in-diversity
#19
REVIEW
Claus Petersen
Biliary atresia (BA) is a rare disease of unknown origin and unsatisfying outcome. Single, multicenter and national evaluations of epidemiological and outcome data on BA have been periodically published over the course of decades. However, the diversity of the registered parameters and outcome measures impede comparability and cumulative analysis of these very worthwhile studies. Taking into account the fact that BA is a good example of translational research and transition of patients from pediatric surgery and hepatology to transplant surgery and hepatology in general, the interdisciplinary community should make every effort to develop a common platform upon which further activities are conducted...
October 5, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983681/altered-expression-of-laminin-alpha1-in-aganglionic-colon-of-endothelin-receptor-b-null-mouse-model-of-hirschsprung-s-disease
#20
Naho Fujiwara, Nana Nakazawa-Tanaka, Katsumi Miyahara, Eri Arikawa-Hirasawa, Chihiro Akazawa, Atsuyuki Yamataka
PURPOSE: Laminin, an extracellular matrix molecule, is essential for normal development of the nervous system. The alpha1 subunit of laminin-1 (LAMA1) has been reported to promote neurites and outgrowth and is expressed only during embryogenesis. Previously, we developed a Sox10 transgenic version of the Endothelin receptor-B (Ednrb) mouse to visualize Enteric neural crest-derived cell (ENCC)s with a green fluorescent protein, Venus. We designed this study to investigate the expression of LAMA1 using Sox10-VENUS mice gut...
October 5, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
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