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Pediatric Pulmonology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922566/streptococcus-pneumoniae-and-chronic-endobronchial-infections-in-childhood
#1
Kim M Hare, Amanda J Leach, Heidi C Smith-Vaughan, Anne B Chang, Keith Grimwood
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is the main cause of bacterial pneumonia worldwide and has been studied extensively in this context. However, its role in chronic endobronchial infections and accompanying lower airway neutrophilic infiltration has received little attention. Severe and recurrent pneumonia are risk factors for chronic suppurative lung disease (CSLD) and bronchiectasis; the latter causes considerable morbidity and, in some populations, premature death in children and adults. Protracted bacterial bronchitis (PBB) is another chronic endobronchial infection associated with substantial morbidity...
September 18, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910521/response-to-the-editor-carbon-dioxide-washout-time-hfnc-vs-ncpap-a-bench-study
#2
LETTER
Emidio Sivieri, Elizabeth E Foglia, Soraya Abbasi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 14, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910520/data-that-empower-the-success-and-promise-of-cf-patient-registries
#3
Aliza K Fink, Deena R Loeffler, Bruce C Marshall, Christopher H Goss, Wayne J Morgan
In this article, we describe existing CF registries with a focus on US registry data collected through the CF Foundation Patient Registry (CFFPR) and the Epidemiologic Study of CF (ESCF); highlight what registries have taught us regarding epidemiology of CF; showcase the impact of registries on research and clinical care; and discuss future directions. This manuscript complements the plenary address given by Dr Wayne Morgan at the 2016 North American CF Conference by summarizing the key points from the presentation and providing additional detail and information...
September 14, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910519/trans-nasal-flexible-bronchoscopy-in-wheezing-children-diagnostic-yield-impact-on-therapy-and-prevalence-of-laryngeal-cleft
#4
Richard P Boesch, Julie M Baughn, Shelagh A Cofer, Karthik Balakrishnan
AIM: Persistent or recurrent wheezing is a common indication for flexible bronchoscopy, as anatomic and infectious or inflammatory changes are highly prevalent. We sought to evaluate the prevalence of anatomic, infectious, and inflammatory disease in a cohort of children undergoing flexible bronchoscopy for wheezing or poorly controlled asthma. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all children <18 years old who underwent flexible bronchoscopy at our center from October 29, 2012-December 31, 2016 for the primary or secondary indication of wheezing (persistent, frequently recurring, or atypical) or poorly controlled asthma...
September 14, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910518/maybe-this-is-just-asthma
#5
LETTER
Brian A Kuzik
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 14, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910517/pediatric-flexible-and-rigid-bronchoscopy-in-european-centers-availability-and-current-practice
#6
Dirk Schramm, Yin Yu, Anna Wiemers, Christina Vossen, Deborah Snijders, Uros Krivec, Kostas Priftis, Eber Ernst, Petr Pohunek
AIM: Eighteen years have passed since the last European survey concerning practices in pediatric bronchoscopy was conducted. Therefore, members of the European Respiratory Society (ERS) Pediatric Bronchology Group 7.7, initiated the "European Pediatric Bronchoscopy Survey 2015," which aimed to assess the current state of this evolving diagnostic and therapeutic procedure in the field of pediatric respiratory medicine. METHOD: A questionnaire was sent to national representatives of 44 European countries with the request to distribute it to all centers performing pediatric bronchoscopies...
September 14, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910514/pharmacokinetics-of-single-dose-ceftaroline-fosamil-in-children-with-cystic-fibrosis
#7
Jennifer Le, John S Bradley, Sara Hingtgen, Shannon Skochko, Nanette Black, Ronald N Jones, Meerana Lim, Edmund V Capparelli
BACKGROUND: Single-dose pharmacokinetics (PK) and safety of ceftaroline fosamil with population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modeling for staphylococcal pneumonia was performed in children with CF. METHODS: Subjects between 6 and 18 years old were evaluated in this phase 1, open-label, single-dose, prospective study using 10 mg/kg (up to 600 mg). Non-compartmental analysis and population-based PK analyses with Monte Carlo simulation (for doses 8-20 mg/kg every 8 h, infused over 1-4 h) were conducted...
September 14, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910513/quality-of-life-outcomes-following-pediatric-lung-transplantation
#8
Tanya Lazor, Hartmut Grasemann, Melinda Solomon, Samantha J Anthony
PURPOSE: Compared to other solid organs, survival after lung transplantation (LTx) is still poor. Discussions on survival benefits following LTx in children, however, have largely concentrated on medical outcome data. Little research describes quality of life (QoL) of pediatric LTx recipients, which is partly due to the small number of pediatric LTxs performed. Only two centers worldwide performed >10 pediatric LTxs in 2013, making data on QoL in this population difficult to obtain...
September 14, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898549/filamin-a-flna-mutation-a-newcomer-to-the-childhood-interstitial-lung-disease-child-classification
#9
Susan C Shelmerdine, Thomas Semple, Colin Wallis, Paul Aurora, Shahin Moledina, Michael T Ashworth, Catherine M Owens
AIM: Interstitial lung disease (ILD) in infants represents a rare and heterogenous group of disorders, distinct from those occurring in adults. In recent years a new entity within this category is being recognized, namely filamin A (FLNA) mutation related lung disease. Our aims are to describe the clinical and radiological course of patients with this disease entity to aid clinicians in the prognostic counseling and management of similar patients they may encounter. METHOD: A retrospective case note review was conducted of all patients treated at our institution (a specialist tertiary referral childrens' center) for genetically confirmed FLNA mutation related lung disease...
September 12, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881106/quantitative-assessment-of-airway-dimensions-in-young-children-with-cystic-fibrosis-lung-disease-using-chest-computed-tomography
#10
Wieying Kuo, Thomas Soffers, Eleni-Rosalina Andrinopoulou, Tim Rosenow, Sarath Ranganathan, Lidija Turkovic, Stephen M Stick, Harm A W M Tiddens
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate lung disease progression using airway and artery (AA) dimensions on chest CT over 2-year interval in young CF patients longitudinally and compare to disease controls cross-sectionally. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of pressure controlled end-inspiratory CTs, 12 routine baseline (CT1 ) and follow up (CT2 ) from AREST CF cohort; 12 disease controls with normal CT. All visible AA-pairs were measured perpendicular to the airway axis. Inner and outer airway diameters and wall (outer-inner radius) thickness were divided by adjacent arteries to compute Ain A-, Aout A-, and AWT A-ratios, respectively...
September 7, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881101/nasal-high-frequency-oscillatory-ventilation-impairs-heated-humidification-a-neonatal-bench-study
#11
Tim L Ullrich, Christoph Czernik, Christoph Bührer, Gerd Schmalisch, Hendrik S Fischer
OBJECTIVE: Nasal high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (nHFOV) is a novel mode of non-invasive ventilation used in neonates. However, upper airway obstructions due to viscous secretions have been described as specific adverse effects. We hypothesized that high-frequency oscillations reduce air humidity in the oropharynx, resulting in upper airway desiccation. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effects of nHFOV ventilatory settings on oropharyngeal gas conditions. METHODS: NHFOV or nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) was applied, along with heated humidification, to a previously established neonatal bench model that simulates oropharyngeal gas conditions during spontaneous breathing through an open mouth...
September 7, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881097/toward-inclusive-therapy-with-cftr-modulators-progress-and-challenges
#12
Jennifer Guimbellot, Jyoti Sharma, Steven M Rowe
Cystic fibrosis is caused by gene mutations that result in an abnormal Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) protein on the surface of cells. CFTR modulators are a novel class of drugs that directly target the molecular defect. CFTR modulators include potentiators that result in improved activity of the channel; correctors that help the protein traffic to the cell surface properly; and readthrough agents that restore full-length CFTR by suppression of premature termination codons, among other novel classes more recently established...
September 7, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881094/nontuberculous-mycobacteria-in-cystic-fibrosis-updates-and-the-path-forward
#13
Stacey L Martiniano, Rebecca M Davidson, Jerry A Nick
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are troublesome pathogens that can cause significant pulmonary disease in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Diagnosis can be difficult in the setting of underlying CF and treatment regimens are burdensome on both patients and providers. Recent consensus guidelines for treatment of NTM in CF have provided a guide for the CF community, however research is lagging regarding accuracy of our diagnostic abilities and treatment efficacy. In this review, we provide new insights into the complexity of NTM from emerging whole genome sequencing data, a summary of current NTM diagnosis and treatment guidelines, highlight new treatment options, and discuss future research projects which aim to better define which patients to treat and timing and duration of treatment...
September 7, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881091/poor-recovery-from-cystic-fibrosis-pulmonary-exacerbations-is-associated-with-poor-long-term-outcomes
#14
Don B Sanders, Qianqian Zhao, Zhanhai Li, Philip M Farrell
RATIONALE: People with CF treated with IV antibiotics for a pulmonary exacerbation (PEx) frequently fail to recover to baseline FEV1 . The long-term impact of these events has not been studied. OBJECTIVES: To determine if a patient's spirometric recovery after a PEx is associated with time to next PEx within 1 year, the spirometric recovery after the next PEx, and/or the number of PEx episodes in the next 3 years. METHODS: We used data from the CF Foundation Patient Registry from 2004 to 2011...
September 7, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869363/retrospectoscope-are-the-peripheral-airways-in-infants-and-young-children-disproportionately-small-putting-them-at-risk-for-severe-respiratory-illnesses
#15
Heather Hoch, George B Mallory, Lynn Taussig
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 4, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869358/the-role-of-respiratory-tract-infections-and-the-microbiome-in-the-development-of-asthma-a-narrative-review
#16
REVIEW
Evelien R van Meel, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Klaus Bønnelykke, Johan C de Jongste, Liesbeth Duijts
Asthma is a common disease in childhood, and might predispose for chronic obstructive respiratory morbidity in adolescence and adulthood. Various early-life risk factors might influence the risk of wheezing, asthma, and lower lung function in childhood. Cohort studies demonstrated that lower respiratory tract infections in the first years of life are associated with an increased risk of wheezing and asthma, while the association with lung function is less clear. Additionally, the gut and airway microbiome might influence the risk of wheezing and asthma...
September 4, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869342/high-flow-nasal-cannula-reduces-carbon-dioxide-washout-time-what-can-we-pay-attention-to
#17
LETTER
Zehra Hatipoglu, Antonio M Esquinas, Dilek Ozcengiz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 4, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869334/percutaneous-thoracic-duct-intervention-to-treat-plastic-bronchitis-related-to-fontan-palliation
#18
Eric M DePopas, Livia A Veress, Farres Ahmed, Christopher M Rausch, Aparna Annam, Rajan Gupta
Plastic bronchitis is a life-threatening condition of airway obstructive cast formation. This pediatric case series from a high altitude center details the course of three patients after percutaneous thoracic duct interventions for refractory plastic bronchitis, with a follow-up interval of 3.5 years. In two patients, where cisterna chyli maceration (patients 2) or thoracic duct embolization (patient 3) was performed, a sustained clinical improvement is shown, with no subsequent cast recurrence. In patient 1, cisterna chyli maceration resulted in partial improvement...
September 4, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861941/early-follow-up-of-lung-disease-in-infants-with-cystic-fibrosis-using-the-raised-volume-rapid-thoracic-compression-technique-and-computed-tomography-during-quiet-breathing
#19
Rémi Gauthier, Yann Cabon, Marie Agnes Giroux-Metges, Cecile Du Boisbaudry, Phillipe Reix, Muriel Le Bourgeois, Raphael Chiron, Nicolas Molinari, Magali Saguintaah, Francis Amsallem, Stefan Matecki
BACKGROUND: Among the different techniques used to monitor lung disease progression in infants with CF diagnosed by Newborn screening (NBS), raised volume-rapid thoracic compression (RVRTC) remains a promising tool. However, the need of sedation and positive pressure ventilation considerably limits its clinical use. We recently described a semi-quantitative method to evaluate air trapping by chest tomography during quite breathing without sedation (CTqb score). This parameter is the radiological sign of airway obstruction and could be also used for lung disease follow-up in infants with CF...
September 1, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834426/detection-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-at-birth-in-a-newborn-with-respiratory-distress
#20
Sara Manti, Caterina Cuppari, Angela Lanzafame, Carmelo Salpietro, Pasqua Betta, Salvatore Leonardi, Miriam K Perez, Giovanni Piedimonte
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common respiratory pathogen in infants and young children. From the nasopharyngeal or conjunctival mucosa of infected individuals, RSV spreads to the lower respiratory tract causing acute bronchiolitis and pneumonia after an incubation period of 4-6 days. In addition to its well-documented tropism for the airway epithelium, it has been shown previously that RSV can also spread hematogenously and efficiently infect extrapulmonary tissues of human hosts. Furthermore, it has been shown in animal models that RSV can spread transplacentally from the respiratory tract of a pregnant mother to the lungs of the fetus...
August 18, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
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