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Pediatric Pulmonology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221737/feasibility-of-multiple-breath-washout-measurements-in-infants-with-bronchiolitis-a-pilot-study
#1
Patrick Stafler, Sigal Weinreb, Huda Mussaffi, Meir Mei-Zahav, Dario Prais, Guy Steuer, Ophir Bar-On, Moshe Hoshen, Hannah Blau
BACKGROUND: Lung clearance index (LCI) reflects ventilation inhomogeneity and is raised in obstructive airway disease. Feasibility of multiple breath washout (MBW) measurement during acute lung disease in infants is unknown. As a further measure of disease, exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) may paradoxically decrease in acute bronchiolitis. We hypothesized that MBW measurements were attainable in infants with bronchiolitis and that LCI was raised and eNO reduced, compared to normal controls...
February 21, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221721/esogastric-pressure-measurement-to-assist-noninvasive-ventilation-indication-and-settings-in-infants-with-hypercapnic-respiratory-failure-a-pilot-study
#2
Guillaume Mortamet, Sonia Khirani, Alessandro Amaddeo, Guillaume Emeriaud, Sylvain Renolleau, Brigitte Fauroux
OBJECTIVE: Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in usually set on clinical parameters. The aim of the study was to assess the value of esophageal (PES ) and gastric pressure (PGAS ) measurements for the indication and optimal settings of NIV in infants with hypercapnic respiratory failure in whom the efficacy of NIV was uncertain on clinical noninvasive parameters. DESIGN: A retrospective study. PATIENT-SUBJECT SELECTION: PES and PGAS measurements were performed in seven infants <2 years old admitted in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit for an acute or acute-on-chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure...
February 21, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221719/influence-of-bouncing-and-assisted-autogenic-drainage-on-acid-gastro-oesophageal-reflux-in-infants
#3
Filip Van Ginderdeuren, Yvan Vandenplas, Michel Deneyer, Sylvie Vanlaethem, Ronald Buyl, Eric Kerckhofs
OBJECTIVES: To determine the influence of modern airway clearance techniques using assisted autogenic drainage (AAD), whether or not combined with bouncing, on acid gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) in infants <1 year. METHODS: In this controlled trial with intra-subject design infants were studied using oesophageal pH monitoring over 24 h, during which they received one 15 min session of bouncing, AAD or bouncing combined with AAD (BAAD). The number of reflux episodes (RE) and the refluxindex (RI) were the outcome measures...
February 21, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221717/cerebral-and-lung-effects-of-a-new-generation-synthetic-surfactant-with-sp-b-and-sp-c-analogs-in-preterm-lambs
#4
Carmen Rey-Santano, Victoria E Mielgo, Xabier Murgia, Miguel Angel Gomez-Solaetxe, Fabrizio Salomone, Federico Bianco, Nicola Pelizzi, Begoña Loureiro, Jon López de Heredia Y Goya
BACKGROUND: Though natural surfactants (SF) are clinically superior to protein-free synthetic preparations, CHF-5633, a synthetic SF containing SP-B and SP-C analog peptides is a potential alternative to natural SF for treating neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Nevertheless, information is lacking regarding the safety of this new treatment for the neonatal brain. We sought to compare the cerebral and pulmonary effects of this new synthetic surfactant (CHF5633) with those of natural porcine surfactant (Cursosurf) in premature lambs with RDS...
February 21, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186703/cumulative-effects-of-neonatal-hyperoxia-on-murine-alveolar-structure-and-function
#5
Angela M Cox, Yong Gao, Anne-Karina T Perl, Robert S Tepper, Shawn K Ahlfeld
BACKGROUND: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) results from alveolar simplification and abnormal development of alveolar and capillary structure. Survivors of BPD display persistent deficits in airflow and membrane and vascular components of alveolar gas diffusion. Despite being the defining feature of BPD, various neonatal hyperoxia models of BPD have not routinely assessed pulmonary gas diffusion. METHODS: To simulate the most commonly-utilized neonatal hyperoxia models, we exposed neonatal mice to room air or ≥90% hyperoxia during key stages of distal lung development: through the first 4 (saccular), 7 (early alveolar), or 14 (bulk alveolar) postnatal days, followed by a period of recovery in room air until 8 weeks of age when alveolar septation is essentially complete...
February 10, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165678/rare-cause-for-hemoptysis-in-an-adolescent-bronchial-capillary-hemangioma
#6
Susanne Hämmerling, Sebastian Becker, Marcus A Mall
Hemoptysis is rare in children and adolescents. We describe an 11-year-old girl who presented with hemoptysis, cough, and exertional dyspnea. Radiologic and bronchoscopic assessment revealed a pedunculated mass in the right main stem bronchus with a ball valve effect. Carcinoid or hemangioma was suspected as cause of the mass. The tumor could be excised bronchoscopically, and histologic examination showed a capillary hemangioma. In the literature, bronchial hemangiomas are described in infants and adults. This case demonstrates that bronchial hemangioma should also be taken into consideration as a cause of hemoptysis in adolescents...
February 6, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165675/intratracheal-administration-of-budesonide-surfactant-in-prevention-of-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-in-very-low-birth-weight-infants-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
REVIEW
Rohini Venkataraman, Majeeda Kamaluddeen, Shabih U Hasan, Helen Lee Robertson, Abhay Lodha
Despite the near universal adaptation of gentle mechanical ventilation, surfactant use and non-invasive respiratory support, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) remains one of the most common respiratory morbidities in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Thus, the objective of this review was to evaluate the efficacy of intra-tracheal administration of budesonide-surfactant mixture in preventing bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PubMed were searched for randomized clinical trials in which intra-tracheal administration of budesonide-surfactant was used to prevent BPD in infants...
February 6, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165671/carbon-dioxide-washout-during-high-flow-nasal-cannula-versus-nasal-cpap-support-an-in-vitro-study
#8
Emidio M Sivieri, Elizabeth E Foglia, Soraya Abbasi
OBJECTIVE: To compare CO2 washout time at different levels of HFNC versus NCPAP in a premature infant lung model with simulated mouth-closed and mouth-open conditions using two sizes of nasal cannula and full- and half-prong HFNC insertion depths. DESIGN/METHODS: A piston-cylinder lung simulator, having a fixed volume of 30 ml and a 4.8 ml dead space, simulated spontaneous breathing (6.5 ml tidal volume, 50 br/min, Ti = 0.5 sec). Two Fisher & Paykel™ cannulas (Fisher & Paykel Healthcare Ltd...
February 6, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165669/non-invasive-ct-screening-for-pulmonary-arteriovenous-malformations-in-children-with-confirmed-hereditary-hemorrhagic-telangiectasia-results-from-two-pediatric-centers
#9
Nurcan Soysal, Mélanie Eyries, Suzanne Verlhac, Virginie Escabasse, Natascha Remus, Aline Tamalet, Jean-Yves Rioux, Stéphanie Franchi-Abella, Manuela Vasile, Sarah Robert, Céline Delestrain, Isabelle Hau, Hubert Ducou-Le Pointe, Florent Soubrier, Marie-France Carette, Ralph Epaud
BACKGROUND: Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder that is caused by mutations in mainly two genes, that is ENG, encoding endoglin (HHT1), or ACVRL1, encoding activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK-1/HHT2). HHT is characterized by recurrent epistaxis, mucocutaneous telangiectasia, and vascular visceral dysplasia responsible for visceral arteriovenous malformations (AVM). AIM: to report the experience of two university hospitals (Trousseau, Paris, and CHIC, Creteil) with screening children for HHT and pulmonary AVM (PAVM) using high resolution computed tomography (HRCT)...
February 6, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152283/the-effect-of-the-affordable-care-act-dependent-coverage-provision-on-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis
#10
Dmitry Tumin, Susan S Li, Benjamin T Kopp, Stephen E Kirkby, Joseph D Tobias, Wayne J Morgan, Don Hayes
BACKGROUND: The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), enacted in 2010, expanded private insurance coverage of young adults through the dependent coverage provision. This policy's implications for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) are unknown. METHODS: The CF Foundation Patient Registry was used to identify patients seen at CF centers, 3 years before and after ACA implementation. Patients were grouped according to eligibility for the dependent care provision (18-25 years old in 2010) or ineligibility (26-35 years old)...
February 2, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152282/human-fetal-lung-morphometry-at-autopsy-with-new-modeling-to-quantitate-structural-maturity
#11
Jill Lipsett
OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate a simplified morphometric procedure, including a new model for acinar structural maturity, applicable to autopsy fetal lung and present reference values for these parameters. STUDY DESIGN: Cases with autopsy consent for research were studied. To simplify analysis only critical morphometric parameters were measured to allow calculation of gas-exchange surface area. SUBJECT SELECTION: A total of 58 fetuses, 16-40 weeks were included...
February 2, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152281/glutathione-s-transferase-p1-may-predispose-children-to-a-decline-in-pulmonary-function-after-stem-cell-transplant
#12
Julie Stark, Jamie Renbarger, James Slaven, Zhangsheng Yu, Jenny Then, Jodi Skiles, Stephanie Davis
RATIONALE: Pulmonary complications after hematopoietic stem cell transplant (SCT) are associated with increased mortality. Genetic markers for those at risk for pulmonary impairment post-SCT have not been widely investigated. METHODS: Forty-nine patients were retrospectively selected from a single institution's biorepository with linked clinical data. All subjects performed pre-SCT PFTs. Genotyping was conducted using the Infinium Exome-24 BeadChip. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected (rs1800871, rs1695, rs1800629, rs12477314) and evaluated for association with PFT parameters as change over time from baseline...
February 2, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152280/surfactant-administration-via-a-thin-endotracheal-catheter-during-spontaneous-breathing-in-preterm-infants
#13
REVIEW
Wanliang Wu, Yan Shi, Fengxia Li, Zhuoyu Wen, Hongli Liu
To systematically review the clinical outcomes of surfactant administration via a thin endotracheal catheter during spontaneous breathing compared with conventional administration involving tracheal intubation, mechanical ventilation (MV), and tracheal extubation, in preterm infants. PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched to identify relevant clinical trials. Data were analyzed using the Cochrane Collaboration methods. Primary outcome measures included the incidence of MV and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD)...
February 2, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152279/pulmonary-vein-stenosis-of-ex-premature-infants-with-pulmonary-hypertension-and-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-epidemiology-and-survival-from-a-multicenter-cohort
#14
Linda Mahgoub, Tarek Kaddoura, A Rebecca Kameny, Paloma Lopez Ortego, Rachel D Vanderlaan, Ashok Kakadekar, Frank Dicke, Ivan Rebeyka, Christopher A Calderone, Andrew Redington, Maria Jesus Del Cerro, Jeff Fineman, Ian Adatia
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary vein stenosis is emerging as an important clinical problem in ex-premature infants. METHODS: We sought to describe the epidemiology of pulmonary vein stenosis affecting ex-premature infants by a multicenter retrospective cohort study of patients from seven children's hospitals diagnosed between 2000-2014. RESULTS: We identified 39 ex-premature patients (26 males, median gestational age 28 weeks range 22-36 weeks, birth weight 1...
February 2, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152278/oligohydramnios-compromises-lung-cells-size-and-interferes-with-epithelial-endothelial-development
#15
Tanbir Najrana, Lauren M Ramos, Rasha Abu Eid, Juan Sanchez-Esteban
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Severe oligohydramnios can induce pulmonary hypoplasia. However, the mechanisms by which leaking of fluids cause lung hypoplasia are not well defined. The objective of this study was to characterize a mouse model of pulmonary hypoplasia induced by oligohydramnios. METHODS: Amniotic sacs were punctured on E14.5 of gestation. Untouched fetuses were used as control. Pregnancy was allowed to continue until E18.5 in which lung tissue was collected and evaluated for morphometry, proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis...
February 2, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135046/reducing-practice-variation-through-clinical-pathways-is-it-enough
#16
EDITORIAL
Clement L Ren, Michael S Schechter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 30, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135044/a-comparison-of-hospitalized-children-with-enterovirus-d68-to-those-with-rhinovirus
#17
Charles B Foster, Ritika Coelho, Paul M Brown, Aman Wadhwa, Amena Dossul, Blanca E Gonzalez, Silvia Cardenas, Camille Sabella, Debbie Kohn, Sherilynn Vogel, Belinda Yen-Lieberman, Giovanni Piedimonte
BACKGROUND: During the Fall of 2014, numerous children were hospitalized with asthma or respiratory distress related to Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68). A large proportion initially tested positive for rhinovirus. During this period our laboratory noted a cross-reactivity between EV-D68 and the rhinovirus component of the GenMark multiplex respiratory viral panel. Many other laboratories used assays not designed to distinguish these Picornoviridae. METHODS: To compare the presentation and outcomes of patients with rhinovirus and EV-D68, 103 GenMark rhinovirus positive nasopharyngeal swabs from hospitalized children were retested for EV-D68...
January 30, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135043/household-proximity-to-water-and-nontuberculous-mycobacteria-in-children-with-cystic-fibrosis
#18
Jennifer M Bouso, James J Burns, Raid Amin, Floyd R Livingston, Okan Elidemir
BACKGROUND: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) have a particular affinity for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Recent studies suggest a possible relationship between acquiring NTM and the level of environmental water in a given area. We sought to determine if there is an association between household proximity to water and NTM in children with CF. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An IRB-approved retrospective chart review was completed on 150 children with CF in Florida...
January 30, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125159/longitudinal-impairment-of-lung-function-in-school-age-children-with-extremely-low-birth-weights
#19
Katsuya Hirata, Masahiro Nishihara, Takeshi Kimura, Jun Shiraishi, Shinya Hirano, Hiroyuki Kitajima, Masanori Fujimura
OBJECTIVES: To assess lung function and long-term respiratory outcomes in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) survivors. WORKING HYPOTHESIS: ELBW, especially with respiratory complications in the neonatal period, affects lung function at a later age. STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal retrospective study. PATIENT-SUBJECT SELECTION: Lung function was evaluated in 89 ELBW survivors (at ages 8 and 12) with or without a history of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) or a bubbly/cystic lung appearance in the neonatal period...
January 26, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125158/chest-physiotherapy-can-affect-the-lung-clearance-index-in-cystic-fibrosis-patients
#20
Joerg Grosse-Onnebrink, Uwe Mellies, Margarete Olivier, Claudius Werner, Florian Stehling
OBJECTIVES: The lung clearance index (LCI) is determined by multiple-breath washout lung function (MBW). It is increasingly used as an endpoint in clinical trials. Chest physiotherapy (CP) is part of routine cystic fibrosis (CF) care. Whether the LCI is useful in detecting short-term treatment effects of CP has not been sufficiently investigated. We assessed the short-term influence of CP with highly standardized high-frequency chest wall oscillation (HFCWO) on the LCI in CF patients...
January 26, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
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