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Pediatric Neurology

Rachel Byrne, Garey Noritz, Nathalie L Maitre
BACKGROUND: Cerebral palsy is the most common physical disability in childhood, and is mostly diagnosed after age 2 years. Delays in diagnosis can have negative long-term consequences for children and parents. New guidelines for early cerebral palsy diagnosis and intervention were recently published, after systematic review of the evidence by international multidisciplinary experts aiming to decrease age at diagnosis. The current study tested the feasibility of implementing these guidelines in an American clinical setting...
August 30, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
Karim El-Kersh, Rodrigo Cavallazzi, Alicia Fernandez, Karen Moeller, Egambaram Senthilvel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 30, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
Basanagoud Mudigoudar, Sunitha Nune, Stephen Fulton, Ehab Dayyat, James W Wheless
BACKGROUND: The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome affects multiple organ systems, and the neurological manifestations are an important aspect of this disorder. Many are aware of cardiac anomalies associated with this uncommon genetic disorder. However, the different types of seizures, electroencephalography (EEG), and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings seen in this condition are not appreciated. METHODS: Medical records of four patients with epilepsy due to 22q11...
August 26, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
Houman Rashidian, Y M Christiana Liu, Michael T Geraghty, Jeff Kobayashi, Elizabeth J Donner, Robert J Klaassen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 24, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
Jonathan Duffy, Simon J Hambidge, Lisa A Jackson, Elyse O Kharbanda, Nicola P Klein, Allison Naleway, Saad B Omer, Eric Weintraub
BACKGROUND: The risk of febrile seizure is temporarily increased for a few days after the administration of certain vaccines in children aged six to 23 months. Our objective was to determine the febrile seizure risk following vaccination in children aged one to five months, when six different vaccines are typically administered. METHODS: We identified emergency department visits and inpatient admissions with International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, febrile seizure codes among children enrolled in nine Vaccine Safety Datalink participating health care organizations from 2006 through 2011...
August 23, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
Amedeo A Azizi, Kirsten Heßler, Ulrike Leiss, Chryssa Grylli, Monika Chocholous, Andreas Peyrl, Johannes Gojo, Irene Slavc
BACKGROUND: Children with central nervous system (CNS) tumours may present with a multitude of symptoms, ranging from elevated intracranial pressure to focal neurological deficit. In everyday practice, some signs may be misleading, thereby causing prolonged prediagnostic symptomatic intervals. Prediagnostic symptomatic intervals are longer for pediatric brain tumors than for other childhood malignancies. This study evaluated prediagnostic symptomatic intervals and parental and diagnostic intervals for pediatric patients with CNS tumours in Austria...
August 18, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
Brittany A Charsar, Ethan M Goldberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 15, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
Jithangi Wanigasinghe, Carukshi Arambepola, Shalini Sri Ranganathan, Samanmali Sumanasena
OBJECTIVE: We earlier completed a single-blind, parallel-group, randomized clinical trial to test the null hypothesis that adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is not superior to high-dose prednisolone for short-term control of West syndrome. We now present long-term follow-up data for spasm control for individuals who completed this earlier trial. METHODS: Infants with untreated West syndrome were randomized to receive 14 days of prednisolone (40 to 60 mg/day) or intramuscular long-acting ACTH (40 to 60 IU every other day)...
August 14, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
Joseph Scheller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 9, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
Mark S Scher, Galen Breningstall, Donald L Gilbert, Lori Jordan, Yasmin Khakoo, Jean-Baptiste LePichon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 27, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
Harry Sutherland-Foggio
BACKGROUND: Throughout the Middle Ages, most representations of the brain amounted to highly schematized ventricles housed within abstract squiggles of neural tissue. The works by the pre-eminent Flemish anatomist Andreas Vesalius in his De Humani Corporis Fabrica (1543) added considerably more accuracy and detail; still, his drawings of cerebral hemispheres do not exhibit the gyral-sulcal pattern recognized today. Identifiable cortical landmarks would not be featured in print until Cerebri Anatome (1664) by the English physician Thomas Willis...
October 2017: Pediatric Neurology
Jamie K Capal, Paul S Horn, Donna S Murray, Anna Weber Byars, Nicole M Bing, Bridget Kent, Lindsey A Bucher, Marian E Williams, Sarah O'Kelley, Deborah A Pearson, Mustafa Sahin, Darcy A Krueger
BACKGROUND: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disorder with high prevalence of associated autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Our primary objectives were to determine early predictors of autism risk to identify children with TSC in most need of early interventions. The Autism Observation Scale for Infants (AOSI) was evaluated as a measure of ASD-associated behaviors in infants with TSC at age 12 months and its ability to predict ASD at 24 months. METHODS: Children ages 0 to 36 months with TSC were enrolled in the TSC Autism Center of Excellence Research Network (TACERN), a multicenter, prospective observational study to identify biomarkers of ASD...
October 2017: Pediatric Neurology
Ryan Cappa, Liana Theroux, J Nicholas Brenton
BACKGROUND: Pediatric multiple sclerosis is an increasingly recognized and studied disorder that accounts for 3% to 10% of all patients with multiple sclerosis. The risk for pediatric multiple sclerosis is thought to reflect a complex interplay between environmental and genetic risk factors. MAIN FINDINGS: Environmental exposures, including sunlight (ultraviolet radiation, vitamin D levels), infections (Epstein-Barr virus), passive smoking, and obesity, have been identified as potential risk factors in youth...
October 2017: Pediatric Neurology
Marisela E Dy, Jeff L Waugh, Nutan Sharma, Heather O'Leary, Kush Kapur, Alissa M D'Gama, Mustafa Sahin, David K Urion, Walter E Kaufmann
INTRODUCTION: Hand stereotypies (HS) are a primary diagnostic criterion for Rett syndrome (RTT) but are difficult to characterize and quantify systematically. METHODS: We collected video on 27 girls (2-12 years of age) with classic RTT who participated in a mecasermin trial. The present study focused exclusively on video analyses, by reviewing two five-minute windows per subject to identify the two most common HS. Three raters with expertise in movement disorders independently rated the five-minute windows using standardized terminology to determine the level of agreement...
October 2017: Pediatric Neurology
Yasuyuki Futagi
BACKGROUND: There have been several studies concerning rudimentary coordination of the eyes, hands, and mouth in the human newborn. The author attempted to clarify the ontogenetic significance of the coordination during the earliest period of human life through a systematic review. The neural mechanism underlying the coordination was also discussed based on the current knowledge of cognitive neuroscience. METHODS: Searches were conducted on PubMed and Google Scholar from their inception through March 2017...
October 2017: Pediatric Neurology
Matthew T Whitehead, Michael Wien, Bonmyong Lee, Nancy Bass, Andrea Gropman
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial encephalopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome is a mitochondrial disorder often causing progressive brain injury that is not confined to large arterial territories. Severe insults ultimately lead to gyral necrosis affecting the cortex and juxtacortical white matter; the neuroimaging correlate is partial gyral signal suppression on T2/FLAIR sequences that resemble black toenails. We aimed to characterize the imaging features and the natural history of MELAS-related gyral necrosis...
October 2017: Pediatric Neurology
Renée A Shellhaas, Anne T Berg, Zachary M Grinspan, Courtney J Wusthoff, John J Millichap, Tobias Loddenkemper, Jason Coryell, Russell P Saneto, Catherine J Chu, Sucheta M Joshi, Joseph E Sullivan, Kelly G Knupp, Eric H Kossoff, Cynthia Keator, Elaine C Wirrell, John R Mytinger, Ignacio Valencia, Shavonne Massey, William D Gaillard
OBJECTIVE: There are no evidence-based guidelines on the preferred approach to treating early-life epilepsy. We examined initial therapy selection in a contemporary US cohort of children with newly diagnosed, nonsyndromic, early-life epilepsy (onset before age three years). METHODS: Seventeen pediatric epilepsy centers participated in a prospective cohort study of children with newly diagnosed epilepsy with onset under 36 months of age. Details regarding demographics, seizure types, and initial medication selections were obtained from medical records...
October 2017: Pediatric Neurology
Meng Zhao, Dong Zhang, Shuo Wang, Yan Zhang, Rong Wang, Jizong Zhao
BACKGROUND: Despite being the most common presentation in children with moyamoya, transient ischemic attack (TIA) in children has rarely been described. The aim of this study is to describe the clinical characteristics of TIAs in children with moyamoya and explore the risk factors for stroke after TIA. METHODS: We reviewed 696 consecutive patients with moyamoya vasculopathy (155 pediatric patients and 541 adults) admitted to our hospital from 2009 to 2015 to identify pediatric patients with moyamoya with an initial presentation of TIA...
October 2017: Pediatric Neurology
Elizabeth A Offermann, Aditya Sreenivasan, M Robert DeJong, Doris D M Lin, Charles E McCulloch, Melissa G Chung, Anne M Comi
BACKGROUND: The reproducibility of transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasound measurements in Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) and TCD's ability to predict neurological progression is unknown. METHODS: In 14 individuals with SWS, TCD measured mean flow velocity, pulsatility index, peak systolic velocity, and end-diastolic velocity in the middle, posterior, and anterior cerebral arteries of the affected and unaffected hemisphere. TCD was performed either once (n = 5) or twice in one day (n = 9)...
September 2017: Pediatric Neurology
Christopher Gillberg, Sebastian Lundström, Elisabeth Fernell, Gill Nilsson, Brian Neville
BACKGROUND: There is a recently well-documented association between childhood epilepsy and earlysymptomaticsyndromeselicitingneurodevelopmentalclinicalexaminations (ESSENCE) including autism spectrum disorder, but the relationship between febrile seizures and ESSENCE is less clear. METHODS: The Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS) is an ongoing population-based study targeting twins born in Sweden since July 1, 1992. Parents of 27,092 twins were interviewed using a validated DSM-IV-based interview for ESSENCE, in connection with the twins' ninth or twelfth birthday...
September 2017: Pediatric Neurology
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