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Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal

Elaine Blignaut, Theresa M Rossouw, Piet J Becker, Diana S Mavuso, Ute D Feucht
BACKGROUND: Limited information is available on gingival recession or localised aggressive periodontitis among HIV-infected children and adolescents. This study reports on the prevalence of these conditions among children and adolescents receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). METHODS: A cross-sectional study on HIV-infected children and adolescents attending a Paediatric HIV clinic in Gauteng, South Africa, between January 2013 and June 2016. Patients received an oral examination and oral hygiene instructions, irrespective of oral- or dental-related complaints...
August 9, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Saad B Omer, Robert Bednarczyk, Momin Kazi, L Beryl Guterman, Fatima Aziz, Kristen E Allen, Inci Yildirim, S Asad Ali
Standardized case definitions are needed in decision-making regarding respiratory syncytial virus(RSV) control strategies, including vaccine evaluation. A syndromic case definition comprising of "wheeze or apnea or cyanosis" could be useful for community-based surveillance of moderate RSV infection among young infants particularly in resource-limited settings. However, this definition showed modest specificity (29.2-49.6%) indicating that community-based surveillance may need augmentation with other data...
August 2, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Ian W Hovis, Judith Namuyonga, Grace P Kisitu, Emma Ndagire, Emmy Okello, Chris T Longenecker, Amy Sanyahumbi, Craig A Sable, Daniel J Penny, Peter Lwabi, Adeodata R Kekitiinwa, Andrea Beaton
BACKGROUND: There is geographical overlap between areas endemic for rheumatic heart disease (RHD) and those endemic for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). A recent pilot study demonstrated that children living with HIV might be at less risk for RHD development however, the sample size was too small to make definitive conclusions. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of RHD among HIV positive children in Uganda. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, cross-sectional study of HIV+ children (aged 5-15) receiving care at the Baylor Uganda HIV clinic, Kampala, Uganda...
July 31, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Fernando Domingues Penteado, Thais Zenero Tubero, Noely Hein, Alfredo Elias Gilio
We retrospectively evaluated the frequency of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections in children at a general hospital in São Paulo, Brazil, from 2011 to 2015. Of 64 patients with confirmed S. aureus infection 11 (17.2%) had CA-MRSA. CA-MRSA infections in Brazil, and in particular those with a severe presentation, should not be overlooked.
July 31, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Athena P Kourtis, Jeffrey Wiener, Liming Wang, Bo Fan, John A Shepherd, Lili Chen, Wei Liu, Colin Shepard, Linhong Wang, Ailin Wang, Marc Bulterys
The effects of maternal tenofovir use on infant bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) were evaluated in a pilot study of HIV/Hepatitis B-coinfected pregnant women in China. BMD and BMC were assessed at age 6 months of life in 14 tenofovir-exposed and 13 unexposed infants. Trends toward lower BMC and BMD were observed in infants exposed to maternal tenofovir but were not statistically significant.
July 31, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Anne Christine Nordholm, Line Lindebo Holm, Erik Svensson, Peter H Andersen, Isik Somuncu Johansen
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major public health issue among children worldwide. Data on TB transmission in children living in low-incidence countries is limited. METHODS: We studied TB transmission in ethnic Danish children younger than 15 years of age between 2000-2013. Identification of children with TB disease and information on demographics and TB contacts were retrieved from the national TB surveillance register and the International Reference Laboratory of Mycobacteriology...
July 31, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Gabriela Patten, Michael Schomaker, Mary-Ann Davies, Helena Rabie, Gert van Zyl, Karl Technau, Brian Eley, Andrew Boulle, Russell B Van Dyke, Kunjal Patel, Nosisa Sipambo, Robin Wood, Frank Tanser, Janet Giddy, Mark Cotton, James Nuttall, Gadija Essack, Brad Karalius, George Seage, Shobna Sawry, Matthias Egger, Lee Fairlie
BACKGROUND: Managing virologic failure (VF) in HIV-infected children is especially difficult in resource-limited settings, given limited availability of alternative drugs, concerns around adherence and the development of HIV resistance mutations. We aimed to evaluate four management strategies for children following their first episode of VF by comparing their immunologic and virologic outcomes. METHODS: We included children (aged <16 years) with VF from 8 IeDEA-SA cohorts, initiating cART between 2004-2010, who followed one of four management strategies: continuing on their failing regimen; switching to a second-line regimen; switching to a holding regimen (either lamivudine monotherapy or other non-cART regimen); discontinuing all ART...
July 31, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Fiona P Havers, Alicia M Fry, Doli Goswami, Kamrun Nahar, Amina Tahia Sharmin, Mustafizur Rahman, W Abdullah Brooks
BACKGROUND: The contribution of respiratory viruses to childhood pneumonia in tropical low- and middle-income countries is poorly understood. We used population-based respiratory illness surveillance in children <5 years old in Dhaka, Bangladesh, to characterize these illnesses. METHODS: We conducted weekly home visits to children who were referred to clinic for fever or respiratory symptoms. Standardized clinical data were collected. Nasopharyngeal washes were collected for one fifth of children diagnosed with a febrile or respiratory syndrome, with virus isolation testing for influenza and RT-PCR testing for other viruses...
July 31, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Filipa Marujo, Luís Carlos Costa, Regina Duarte, Maria João Brito, Ana Cordeiro, Conceição Neves, João Farela Neves
Although bacterial meningitis is a rare presentation of a congenital immunodeficiency, invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) is classicaly associated with complement deficiencies. We report a patient from a consanguineous kindred presenting with an IMD caused by serogroup B meningococcus that revealed an underlying C5 deficiency caused by a novel mutation in the C5 gene.
July 31, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Aris Garro, Jonathan Bennett, Fran Balamuth, Michael N Levas, Desiree Neville, John C Branda, Alexandra B Maulden, Paul M Lantos, Lise E Nigrovic
Knowing the frequency of positive Lyme disease serology in children without signs of infection facilitates test interpretation. Of 315 asymptomatic children from Lyme disease endemic regions, 32 had positive or equivocal C6 enzyme linked immunoassays, but only 5 had positive IgG or IgM supplemental immunoblots (1.6%, 95% confidence interval 0.7-3.7%).
July 31, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Arne Simon, Susanne Gehrmann, Gudrun Wagenpfeil, Stefan Wagenpfeil
BACKGROUND: Following national recommendations, palivizumab is administered in Germany to high-risk infants to prevent hospitalizations related to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. Limited data are available to characterize those children who receive palivizumab in 2 consecutive RSV seasons. METHODS: This was a comparative analysis of data from a postmarketing observational study (German SYNAGIS™ Registry) detailing RSV-related risk factors and main indications for palivizumab in 920 children who received at ≥1 palivizumab injection in a second season between 2010-2016 (second season population; SSP)...
July 16, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Sally Black, Carina Bradley, Florence Y Lai, Savitha Shenoy, Srini Bandi, David J Allen, Julian W Tang
Comparison of children hospitalized with enterovirus (EV) or human parechovirus (HPeV) detected in their cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) revealed that HPeV infections presented with more persistent fever, irritability and feeding problems, more frequent leukopenia and lymphopenia, and higher admission rates to high dependency or intensive care units. Few HPeV cases were followed-up, further studies on long-term outcomes are needed.
July 11, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Kohei Hasegawa, Tuomas Jartti, Yury A Bochkov, James E Gern, Jonathan M Mansbach, Pedro A Piedra, Laura Toivonen, Carlos A Camargo
In this analysis of two prospective multi-center, multi-year cohorts of children hospitalized for bronchiolitis in the US and Finland, 306 rhinovirus infections were genotyped. Rhinovirus-A and -C species were predominant in the US study while rhinovirus-C species was predominant in the Finland study. In both cohorts, there were no significant between-species differences in clinical characteristics, including acute severity measures.
July 11, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Zachi Grossman, Adamos Hadjipanayis, Avi Degani, Eli Somekh
To monitor parental vaccine attitudes, a survey was conducted in 2008 and in 2016. In both years (90%-89%) reported full immunization of their children, and a stable majority (71%-66%) supported documentation of vaccination before entering kindergarten. However, a declining confidence in official recommendations from 87% to 72% (p<0.0001) in 2008 and 2016 respectively was documented, requiring effort to rebuild it.
July 11, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Gabriella S Lamb, Coralee Del Valle Mojica, Nivedita Srinivas, Jeffrey Starke
A 4-year-old former 24-week gestation male and an 18-month-old former 26-week gestation female, both with history of intraventricular hemorrhage resulting in hydrocephalus, presented with Mycobacterium abscessus ventricular shunt infections affecting both the shunt track and the ventricular fluid. Both children required prolonged combination antimycobacterial therapy; the 4 year old required more than two months of triple intravenous antibiotics and intraventricular amikacin to sterilize the cerebrospinal fluid...
July 11, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Rune Holt, Malene Lando Børresen, Thomas Hoffmann
Neonatal pyogenic liver abscess is rare and potentially lethal. We present a six-week-old infant with pseudoparalysis of the right arm.
July 5, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Ya Yang, Yu Yang, Robert W Scherpbier, Xu Zhu, Yue Chen, Yibiao Zhou, Qingwu Jiang
BACKGROUND: Use of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine is effective in reducing the disease burden but its coverage in China is unclear. The aim of this meta-analysis is to assess the coverage of Hib conjugate vaccines in children in Mainland China. METHODS: We systematically searched Pubmed, Web of Science, Medline, CNKI and Wanfang to identify studies assessing the the coverage of Hib vaccine in Chinese children. Random-effects models were used to obtain pooled estimates for Hib vaccine coverage and analyzed heterogeneity with meta-regression and subgroup analyses...
June 27, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Khadija Said, Jerry Hella, Mwajabu Ruzegea, Rajesh Solanki, Magreth Chiryamkubi, Francis Mhimbira, Nicole Ritz, Christian Schindler, Anna M Mandalakas, Karim Manji, Marcel Tanner, Jürg Utzinger, Lukas Fenner
BACKGROUND: Childhood tuberculosis (TB) is acquired following exposure to an infectious TB case, often within the household. We prospectively screened children 6-59 months of age, exposed and unexposed to an infectious TB case within the same household, for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. METHODS: We collected medical data and clinical specimens (to evaluate for helminths, TB and HIV coinfections) and performed physical examinations at enrollment and at 3-month and 6-months follow-up surveys...
June 27, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Romain Blaizot, Cécile Nabet, Denis Blanchet, Elise Martin, Aurélien Mercier, Marie-Laure Dardé, Narcisse Elenga, Magalie Demar
BACKGROUND: Amazonian toxoplasmosis is a recently described form of Toxoplasma gondii infection, characterized by severe clinical and biological features, and involvement of atypical genetic strains circulating through a forest-based cycle. Though mostly reported in French Guiana since 1998, this disease is probably under-diagnosed in other areas of South America. Few data are available on its specific features in children. METHODS: We retrospectively included all children seen in Cayenne between 2002 and 2017, diagnosed with acute toxoplasmosis due to an atypical strain...
June 27, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Assaf Rokney, Moti Baum, Shalom Ben-Shimol, Orli Sagi, Einav Anuka, Vered Agmon, David Greenberg, Lea Valinsky, Dana Danino
INTRODUCTION: Pediatric community associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections are emerging worldwide. High CA-MRSA carriage rates were previously described in healthy Bedouin children. We assessed demographic, clinical and molecular characteristics of pediatric MRSA infections in southern Israel. METHODS: The Soroka University Medical Center laboratory serves the entire population of southern Israel, divided into two ethnic groups, Bedouins and Jews...
June 15, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
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