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Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal

Akiko Sugahara-Tobinai, Masanori Inui, Takaya Metoki, Yohei Watanabe, Ryoichi Onuma, Toshiyuki Takai, Satoru Kumaki
BACKGROUND: Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute, systemic vasculitis syndrome that occurs in children. The clinical symptoms and epidemiological features of KD strongly suggest that KD is triggered by unidentified infectious agents in genetically predisposed patients. In addition, a number of studies have described the role of B cells in the development of KD. OBJECTIVE: To obtain a mechanistic insight into the humoral immune response of B-lineage cells in KD patients, we examined peripheral blood antibody secreting cells (ASCs) and inhibitory immunoreceptors, ILT/LILR, on each B cell subpopulation...
December 13, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Gyde Steffen, Michael Pietsch, Martin Kaase, Sören Gatermann, Guido Werner, Stephan Fuchs, Yvonne Pfeifer, Wolfgang Schmitt, Henning Adam, Tim Eckmanns, Sebastian Haller
BACKGROUND: In August 2015 seventeen neonates with Enterobacter (E.) cloacae colonisation were identified in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in Germany. Two developed severe brain abscesses. Despite temporary NICU closure in September another infant with E. cloacae colonisation was detected in October 2015. METHODS: We defined potential cases as inpatients treated in the NICU or any paediatric/maternity ward in 2015 with E. cloacae in any specimen before molecular typing...
December 13, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Susan E Purchase, Anthony J Garcia-Prats, Petra De Koker, Heather R Draper, Muhammad Osman, James A Seddon, H Simon Schaaf, Anneke C Hesseling
Levofloxacin is used for the treatment and prevention of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in children, but current adult formulations are poorly palatable. A questionnaire administered to caregivers of 27 children taking a novel 100 mg dispersible taste-masked levofloxacin tablet found the new formulation to be more palatable (69%) and easier to prepare (81%) than the adult formulation. This formulation may assist children to better adhere to anti-tuberculous therapy.
December 13, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Margaret N Kosek, Pablo Peñataro-Yori, Maribel Paredes-Olortegui, John Lefante, Cesar Ramal-Asayag, Marcelo Zamora-Babilonia, Graciela Meza-Sanchez, Richard A Oberhelman
Probiotics are increasingly used for diarrhea, but studies under FDA IND are few. We conducted a phase-one placebo-controlled study of Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 under IND in 60 children 2-5 years of age (41 L. reuteri, 19 placebo) in a resource constrained community in Peru. No differences in objective data on adverse events were noted, although some differences based on subjective parental reports for fever and diarrhea were seen.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4...
December 10, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Adilia Warris
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 10, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Sweta M Patel, Lisa Spees, Marek Smieja, Kathy Luinstra, Andrew P Steenhoff, Kristen A Feemster, Tonya Arscott-Mills, Sefelani Boiditswe, Mohamed Z Patel, Samir S Shah, Coleen K Cunningham, Matthew S Kelly
Among children one to 23 months of age with respiratory syncytial virus-associated acute lower respiratory infection in Botswana, young age (<6 months), household use of wood as a cooking fuel, moderate or severe malnutrition, and oxygen saturation <90% on room air were independent predictors of clinical non-response at 48 hours. Among HIV-uninfected infants less than six months of age, HIV exposure was associated with a higher risk of in-hospital mortality.
December 5, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Mariia Karppinen, Luis Bernardino, Elizabete Dos Anjos, Anu Pätäri-Sampo, Anne Pitkäranta, Heikki Peltola, Tuula Pelkonen
BACKGROUND: In resource-poor settings, otorrhea causes a significant burden of disease in children. Etiologic studies and structured data on otorrhea and chronic otitis media among African children remain scarce. METHODS: Here, we reviewed 678 bacteriologically analyzed otorrhea samples from Luanda Children's Hospital from children ≤15 years of age between 2008 and 2015. We then compared these to data from other studies among African children through a literature review of 20 papers published over two decades...
December 3, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Liam Shaw, Nigel Klein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 30, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Jamie L Miller, Peter N Johnson, Bryan P White, Stephen B Neely, Hala Chaaban, Netsanet Kassa, Robert C Welliver
BACKGROUND: Ceftazidime use in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) has increased following a cefotaxime shortage. The impact of this change is unknown. The purpose was to assess the effect of increased ceftazidime use on susceptibilities of Gram-negative organisms in the NICU. METHODS: Retrospective study of Gram-negative isolates identified in blood, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, tracheostomy, abdominal fluid, and pleural fluid cultures from a single-center NICU over a five-year period...
November 27, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Valtyr Thors, Hannah Christensen, Begonia Morales-Aza, Elizabeth Oliver, Paulina Sikora, Ian Vipond, Peter Muir, Adam Finn
BACKGROUND: This longitudinal study describes the associations between respiratory viral infections, rhinitis and the prevalence and density of the common nasopharyngeal bacterial colonisers, S. pneumoniae, M. catarrhalis, H. influenzae and S. aureus. METHODS: In an observational cohort study, 161 children attending day-care-centres in Bristol, UK were recruited. Monthly nasopharyngeal swabs were taken and stored frozen in STGG broth. qPCR was used for detection of respiratory viruses and four bacterial species...
November 27, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Jin Xu, Jon E Stek, Eddy Ziani, G Frank Liu, Andrew W Lee
BACKGROUND: DTaP5-HB-IPV-Hib is a fully-liquid, hexavalent vaccine containing a 5-antigen pertussis component; approved since 2016 in Europe (Vaxelis™) for primary and booster vaccination in infants and toddlers against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, poliomyelitis and invasive diseases caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). The comparator vaccine (control) was INFANRIX™ hexa (DTaP3-IPV-HepB/Hib) in European studies and PENTACEL™ (DTaP5-IPV/Hib) in US studies...
November 27, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Lukas Wisgrill, Sarah Lepuschitz, Marion Blaschitz, Judith Rittenschober-Böhm, Magda Diab-El Schahawi, Sören Schubert, Alexander Indra, Angelika Berger
BACKGROUND: The Gram-negative bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae is a frequent pathogen causing outbreaks in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Some Enterobacteriaceae can acquire the ability to sequester iron from infected tissue by secretion of iron-chelating compounds such as yersiniabactin. Here we describe an outbreak and clinical management of infections due to a highly virulent yersiniabactin-producing, non-multiresistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strain in a NICU. Outbreak investigation and effectiveness assessment of multidisciplinary infection control measurements to prevent patient-to-patient transmission of highly-pathogenic Klebsiella pneumoniae were undertaken...
November 27, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Kathleen M Powis, Amy L Slogrove, Ibeawuchi Okorafor, Lily Millen, Roberto Posada, Jocelyn Childs, Elaine J Abrams, Rhoda S Sperling, Jennifer Jao
More women with perinatally-acquired HIV are giving birth. We evaluated infectious cause hospitalizations (ICH) in HIV-uninfected infants of perinatally HIV-infected (HEU-P), non-perinatally HIV-infected (HEU-N), and HIV-uninfected women (HUU) through 12 months-of-life at an urban tertiary heath center. HEU-P infants experienced higher ICH risk compared to HEU-N and HUU infants. Identification of biological and structural drivers of differences are needed.
November 16, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Emily Chesshyre, A V Ramanan, M R Roderick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 16, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Katherine Cooper, Guy Makin, Emma Davies, Andrew Turner, Prashant Hiwarkar, Robert Wynn
We report an 8 year old boy with disseminated, life-threatening, drug treatment-resistant varicella zoster infection occurring during standard treatment for neuroblastoma in whom viral clearance and cure was effected by donor Lymphocyte infusion from his HLA-identical twin sibling.
November 16, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Ryohei Izumita, Yuta Aizawa, Kanako Watanabe, Akihiko Saitoh
This 3-year follow-up study evaluated neutralizing antibody titers (NATs) against parechovirus-A3 (PeV-A3) in neonates and young infants who developed PeV-A3 infection. All children had low NATs at disease onset and high NATs after infection during infancy. At age 3 years, all 16 patients tested had high NATs (≥ 1:512) against PeV-A3 indicating that specific PeV-A3 NATs persist into childhood.
November 13, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Ad C Fluit, Rob J Rentenaar, Miquel B Ekkelenkamp, Tim T Severs, Annelies M C Mavinkurve-Groothuis, Malbert R C Rogers, Marrie C A Bruin, Tom F W Wolfs
A 13-year old neutropenic boy succumbed to bacteremia and sepsis with a Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain that rapidly developed resistance to carbapenems during meropenem monotherapy. Whole genome sequencing of the susceptible and resistant blood culture isolates revealed the meropenem-resistant phenotype to be caused by truncation of the oprD gene, which added to a pre-existing inactivated mexR gene.
November 13, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Michael Staff, Adelaide Nyinawingeri, Kathy Denniss, Andrew Ingleton, Jane Jelfs, Paul Corben
BACKGROUND: Pertussis continues to be a significant public health problem despite high levels of vaccination. Although hospitalizations and deaths among children older than 12 months are much less frequent than among infants less than 6 months of age, only limited information is available for this age group on other measures of morbidity. METHODS: A cross sectional study with a 6 week follow-up component was conducted in New South Wales, Australia in 2017 to measure morbidity among children 12 to 59 months of age notified to health authorities...
November 9, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Christopher R Wilcox, Anna Calvert, Jane Metz, Eliz Kilich, Rachael MacLeod, Kirsten Beadon, Paul T Heath, Asma Khalil, Adam Finn, Matthew D Snape, Tushna Vandrevala, Tom Nadarzynski, Matthew A Coleman, Christine E Jones
INTRODUCTION: Uptake rates of antenatal vaccination remain suboptimal. Our aims were to determine: (1) the acceptability of routine vaccination among pregnant women, (2) the confidence of maternity healthcare professionals (HCPs) discussing vaccination and (3) HCP opinion regarding the optimum healthcare site for vaccine administration. METHODS: Separate questionnaires for pregnant women and HCPs were distributed within four NHS trusts in South England (July 2017-January 2018)...
November 9, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Emmanuel Roilides, Fabianne Carlesse, Heidi Leister-Tebbe, Umberto Conte, Jean L Yan, Ping Liu, Margaret Tawadrous, Jalal A Aram, Flavio Queiroz-Telles
BACKGROUND: Treatment with an echinocandin is recommended as first-line therapy for patients with invasive candidiasis including candidemia (ICC). Little is known about the efficacy and safety of anidulafungin in children with ICC. METHODS: Eligible patients with ICC aged 2-<18 years were enrolled into this prospective, open-label, non-comparative, international study (NCT00761267), and received anidulafungin for 10-35 days (3 mg/kg on Day 1, 1.5 mg/kg daily thereafter)...
November 9, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
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