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Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462107/the-tracheal-microbiota-in-patients-with-a-tracheostomy-before-during-and-after-an-acute-respiratory-infection
#1
Marcos Pérez-Losada, Robert J Graham, Madeline Coquillette, Amenah Jafarey, Eduardo Castro-Nallar, Manuel Aira, Claire Hoptay, Robert J Freishtat, Jonathan M Mansbach
Examining tracheal microbiota before, during, and after acute respiratory infection (ARI) in patients with a tracheostomy demonstrated large baseline intra-patient microbiota variability and a significant bloom of Haemophilus and Moraxella on day 1 of ARI symptoms. The tracheal microbiota community composition changed significantly from baseline to 1 month after ARI.
February 16, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462106/prevalence-of-occult-bacteremia-in-infants-with-very-high-fever-without-a-source
#2
Iker Gangoiti, Elva Rodriguez, Ane Zubizarreta, Javier Benito, Santiago Mintegi
We carried out a prospective registry-based cohort study at the emergency department of 363 previously healthy well-appearing infants aged 3-24 months old with fever without a source ≥ 40.5°C based on local protocol. Four were diagnosed with occult bacteremia (1.1%, 95% CI 0-2.2). Recommendations for non-testing for occult bacteremia screening in these children may have to be re-considered when fever ≥40.5°C. Larger studies are needed to confirm these results.
February 16, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462105/group-a-streptococcal-brain-abscess-in-the-pediatric-population-case-series-and-review-of-the-literature
#3
Tali Capua, Amir Klivitsky, Efraim Bilavsky, Liat Ashkenazi-Hoffnung, Jonathan Roth, Shlomi Constantini, Galia Grisaru-Soen
Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a rare cause of central nervous system infections. We describe 3 new cases of GAS brain abscess in previously healthy children treated by us between 2015-2016 and review the 5 cases reported in the literature since 1988. All 8 children received early empiric antibiotic therapy and surgical intervention, and 5 made a full recovery. GAS brain abscess is a rare infection; however its incidence may be rising. We suggest that if patients show symptoms such as fever, vomiting, and lethargy, with contiguous infection such as otitis media, mastoiditis, sinusitis, or meningitis, GAS brain abscess should be suspected...
February 16, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462104/high-incidence-of-tuberculosis-infection-in-hiv-exposed-children-exiting-an-isoniazid-preventive-therapy-trial
#4
Lisa M Cranmer, Heather R Draper, Anna M Mandalakas, Soyeon Kim, George McSherry, Emma Krezinski, Joan Coetzee, Charles Mitchell, Sharon Nachman, Mercia van der Linde, Mark F Cotton, Anneke C Hesseling
Young HIV-exposed children are at high risk for TB infection. We performed QuantiFERON®-TB Gold (QFT) among HIV-exposed children in South Africa at enrolment and one year follow-up. The incidence of TB infection was high for HIV+ (11 cases/100 child-years) and HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children (15 cases/100 child-years). QFT may identify HIV-exposed children at risk for TB disease progression.
February 16, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462103/hospital-maternal-and-birth-factors-associated-with-hepatitis-b-vaccination-at-birth-west-virginia-2015
#5
Joel Massey, Anil Nair, Stephanie Dietz, Deborah Snaman, Danae Bixler
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a bloodborne pathogen typically transmitted through sexual contact, injection drug use, or perinatally. A hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) is available; the first dose is recommended at birth. We sought to identify hospital policy, maternal characteristics, and birth factors associated with HepB receipt at birth in West Virginia (WV). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of WV live births in 2015 using vital records matched to immunization registry records to determine frequency of HepB birth dose receipt (<3 days postdelivery)...
February 16, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461450/utility-of-the-performance-of-lumbar-puncture-for-febrile-children-with-status-epilepticus-in-the-bacterial-conjugate-vaccine-era
#6
Haro Kaoru, Ryota Igarashi, Takayuki Hoshina, Masumi Kojiro, Koichi Kusuhara
BACKGROUND: The necessity of lumbar puncture for the differentiation of central nervous system (CNS) infection in children with febrile status epilepticus (FSE) remains controversial. The aim of the present study is to investigate the diagnostic necessity of lumbar puncture for children with FSE after the introduction of bacterial conjugate vaccines into the infant immunization program. METHODS: Our retrospective cohort study was performed in children aged 6 to 60 months who were admitted to the pediatric ward at Kitakyushu General Hospital from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2015 for seizures with fever...
February 15, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461449/optimizing-vancomycin-monitoring-in-pediatric-patients
#7
Abdullah Alsultan, Manal Abouelkheir, Saeed Alqahtani, Ahmad Aljabri, Ali M Somily, Sarah Alsubaie, Abdulkarim Alrabiaah, Elham Bukhari, Fahad Alzamil
INTRODUCTION: Several studies have reported that trough levels may not be optimal for monitoring vancomycin therapy, because of overexposure and nephrotoxicity risks. Therefore, we developed a population pharmacokinetic model to optimize vancomycin dosing and monitoring in pediatrics. METHODS: Data were retrospectively collected on 76 pediatric patients aged 1-12 years, admitted to general pediatric wards or ICUs at King Saud University Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia...
February 15, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461448/aerococcus-urinae-as-the-causative-agent-in-infective-endocarditis-of-the-aortic-valve-in-a-pediatric-patient
#8
Nadia K Qureshi, Ekta Patel
Aerococcus species were first described in 1953. They have been previously described as the causative agent of urinary tract infections in the elderly but rarely the causative agent for severe infections. However, there are very few cases reported in the pediatric population. To our knowledge, we report the first case of an adolescent with infective endocarditis caused by Aerococcus urinae.
February 15, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461447/infliximab-plus-intravenous-immunoglobulin-ivig-versus-ivig-alone-as-initial-therapy-in-children-with-kawasaki-disease-presenting-with-coronary-artery-lesions-is-dual-therapy-more-effective
#9
Pei-Ni Jone, Marsha S Anderson, Matthew J Mulvahill, Heather Heizer, Mary P Glodé, Samuel R Dominguez
BACKGROUND: We previously demonstrated that 80% of KD patients who develop coronary artery lesions (CALs) have them at diagnosis. We postulated that KD patients presenting with CALs represent a group that may benefit from more aggressive initial therapy. Infliximab has been shown to decrease inflammation in KD patients when added to standard therapy. We compared outcomes of KD patients with CALs initially treated with IVIG alone versus IVIG plus infliximab. METHODS: Medical records of KD patients from 1/2009 - 7/2016 were retrospectively reviewed...
February 15, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443825/maternal-influenza-immunization-and-prevention-of-severe-clinical-pneumonia-in-young-infants-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials-conducted-in-nepal-mali-and-south-africa
#10
Saad B Omer, Dayna R Clark, Anushka R Aqil, Milagritos D Tapia, Marta C Nunes, Naoko Kozuki, Mark C Steinhoff, Shabir A Madhi, Niteen Wairagkar
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the effect of antenatal influenza vaccination on all-cause severe infant pneumonia, we performed pooled analysis of three randomized-controlled trials conducted in Nepal, Mali, and South Africa. METHODS: The trials were coordinated from the planning phase. The follow-up period was 0-6 months post-partum in Nepal and Mali, and 0-24 weeks in South Africa. Pregnant women with gestational age 17-34 weeks in Nepal, ≥28 weeks in Mali, and 20-36 weeks in South Africa were enrolled...
February 13, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438132/successful-combination-therapy-of-liposomal-amphotericin-b-and-caspofungin-for-disseminated-fusariosis-in-a-pediatric-patient-with-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#11
Suguru Uemura, Akihiro Tamura, Nobuyuki Yamamoto, Atsuro Saito, Sayaka Nakamura, Takahiro Fujiwara, Teppei Tahara, Aiko Kozaki, Kenji Kishimoto, Toshiaki Ishida, Daiichiro Hasegawa, Yasunori Muraosa, Katsuhiko Kamei, Yoshiyuki Kosaka
Disseminated fusariosis is a fatal infection in immunocompromised hosts. However, the optimal antifungal treatment for disseminated fusariosis has not yet been established. We report a case of disseminated fusariosis after chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia, presenting with multiple skin, lung, and kidney lesions and cerebrospinal fluid invasion. The combination therapy of liposomal amphotericin B and caspofungin resolved disseminated fusariosis successfully.
February 12, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438131/improved-neurodevelopment-following-antiretroviral-therapy-in-hiv-infected-children
#12
Laurén A Gómez, Claudia S Crowell, Irene Njuguna, Lisa M Cranmer, Dalton Wamalwa, Daisy Chebet, Vincent Otieno, Elizabeth Maleche-Obimbo, Melissa Gladstone, Grace John-Stewart, Sarah Benki-Nugent
BACKGROUND: Late HIV diagnosis following severe co-morbidity remains common in resource limited settings. Neurodevelopmental recovery during antiretroviral therapy (ART) for late-diagnosed children is understudied. We determined 6-month neurodevelopmental trajectories in HIV-infected children initiating ART during hospitalization. METHODS: HIV-infected children initiated ART following HIV diagnosis during hospitalization in Kenya. The Malawi Developmental Assessment Tool (MDAT) was administered after clinical stabilization within 1-month and at 6-months post-ART initiation...
February 12, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438130/blood-culture-and-pleural-fluid-culture-yields-in-pediatric-empyema-patients-a-retrospective-review-1996-2016
#13
Christina T Stankey, Alicen B Spaulding, Angela Doucette, Karen E S Hamre, William Wheeler, William F Pomputius, Stephen Kurachek
Empyema is a complication of community-acquired pneumonia. We conducted a retrospective analysis of empyema patients discharged from 1996-2016, examining culture results according to timing of antibiotic administration. Blood culture decreased from 45% to 4% after antibiotics, and pleural fluid culture yield decreased from 67% to 30%. More than half of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus cases occurred from 2011-2016.
February 12, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432385/economic-evaluation-of-selective-neonatal-bcg-vaccination-of-high-risk-infants-in-ireland
#14
Conor Teljeur, Patrick S Moran, Patricia Harrington, Karina Butler, Brenda Corcoran, Joan O'Donnell, Cara Usher, Darina O'Flanagan, Kevin Connolly, Máirín Ryan
BACKGROUND: In Western Europe, currently only Ireland and Portugal continue to provide universal neonatal BCG vaccination programmes, despite not being considered as high TB incidence countries. Other European countries only vaccinate infants considered at high risk of contracting TB. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of selective BCG vaccination compared to strategies of universal and no vaccination. METHODS: An economic model was used to simulate a cohort from birth to life expectancy, taking the perspective of the publicly-funded healthcare system...
February 9, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432384/antibiotic-resistant-gram-negative-blood-stream-infections-in-children-with-cancer-a-review-of-epidemiology-risk-factors-and-outcome
#15
Ilana Levene, Elio Castagnola, Gabrielle M Haeusler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 9, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432383/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-seven-dosing-regimens-of-the-candidate-rts-s-as01e-malaria-vaccine-integrated-within-an-expanded-program-on-immunization-regimen-a-phase-ii-single-center-open-controlled-trial-in-infants-in-malawi
#16
Desiree Witte, Nigel A Cunliffe, Ann M Turner, Edward Ngulube, Opokua Ofori-Anyinam, Johan Vekemans, Philips Chimpeni, Marc Lievens, Trevor P Wilson, Jenala Njiramʼmadzi, Yolanda Guerra Mendoza, Amanda Leach
BACKGROUND: In a phase III trial, the RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine produced lower anti-circumsporozoite (CS) antibody titres when co-administered with Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI) vaccines (0,1,2-month schedule) at 6-12 weeks compared to 5-17 months at first vaccination. Alternative infant immunisation schedules within the EPI were investigated. METHODS: This phase II, open, single site (Blantyre, Malawi) trial was conducted in infants aged 1-7 days. Subjects were equally randomised across seven groups to receive three doses of RTS,S/AS01E at time points that included ≤7 days, 6, 10, 14, 26 weeks, and 9 months...
February 9, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424800/influenza-vaccination-coverage-in-children-with-neurologic-disorders-and-their-siblings-july-2006-june-2014
#17
Fiona P Havers, Alicia M Fry, Georgina Peacock, Jufu Chen, Carrie Reed
Children with neurologic disorders are at high risk for influenza-associated complications. We identified 184,460 children 1-17 years with neurologic disorders and 204,966 siblings in a commercial insurance claims database from July 2006-June 2014. Among children with neurologic disorders, coverage increased from 22.4% in 2006-07 to 42.3% in 2013-14, but remained suboptimal. A lower proportion of siblings were vaccinated.
February 7, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424799/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-the-hpv-16-18-as04-adjuvanted-vaccine-in-4-6-year-old-girls-results-to-month-12-from-a-randomized-trial
#18
Lan Lin, Mercedes Macias Parra, Victor Y Sierra, Albino Salas Cespedes, Maria Angelica Granados, Adriana Luque, Silvia Damaso, Maria Mercedes Castrejon Alba, Luis Romano-Mazzotti, Frank Struyf
BACKGROUND: The burden of cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) is high in Latin America. The suboptimal HPV vaccination coverage in adolescents could be improved by pediatric immunization. HPV vaccination has not yet been reported in girls aged <9 years. METHODS: This ongoing phase III, controlled, randomized, single-blind, multicenter study conducted in Colombia, Mexico and Panama (NCT01627561) evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of AS04-HPV-16/18 vaccine in 4-6-year-old girls...
February 7, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424798/group-b-streptococcal-cellulitis-and-necrotizing-fasciitis-in-infants-a-systematic-review
#19
Monika Wojtera, Horace Cheng, Kyle Fiorini, Kevin Coughlin, Michelle Barton, Julie Strychowsky
BACKGROUND: There is no consensus regarding approaches to infantile group B streptococcal (GBS) head and neck cellulitis and necrotizing fasciitis. We present a case of GBS necrotizing cellulitis and summarizes the literature regarding the presentation and management of infantile head and neck GBS cellulitis and necrotizing fasciitis. METHODS: The literature was searched using PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, and Medline (inception to April 2017) by two independent review authors...
February 7, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406469/a-general-lack-of-igg-against-pertussis-toxin-in-chinese-pregnant-women-and-newborns
#20
Qing-Hong Meng, Jie Luo, Fan Yang, Ying-Jie Shen, Li Li, Li-Jun Li, Wei Shi, Ya-Juan Wang, Kai-Hu Yao
BACKGROUND: To investigate the level of pertussis-related antibodies in pregnant women and newborns. METHODS: A total of 286 serum samples from healthy pregnant women and 221cord samples from newborns were collected in 2016 in Beijing. A routinely blood sample from pregnant women was obtained at 35 weeks of gestational age, and cord samples were collected in 20 min after delivery. The values from cord samples were used as the infant values. Anti-pertussis toxin (PT) IgG concentration was measured by ELISA (Euroimmun, Lübeck, Germany) using purified PT as a coating antigen...
February 5, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
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