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Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520611/treatment-outcomes-of-third-line-antiretroviral-regimens-in-hiv-infected-thai-adolescents
#1
Wasana Prasitsuebsai, Jiratchaya Sophonphan, Kulkanya Chokephaibulkit, Jurai Wongsawat, Suparat Kanjanavanit, Pope Kosalaraksa, Chaiwat Ngampiyakul, Pakarat Sangkla, Rawiwan Hansudewechakul, Stephen J Kerr, Thanyawee Puthanakit, Jintanat Ananworanich
BACKGROUND: Efficacy and safety data of third-line antiretroviral (ARV) regimens in adolescents are limited. METHODOLOGY: This study enrolled HIV-infected Thais who were treated with third-line regimens consisting of darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r), etravirine (ETR), tipranavir/ritonavir (TPV/r) or raltegravir (RAL). RESULTS: Fifty-four adolescents 2-17 years of age were enrolled from 8 sites and followed for 48 weeks. Reasons for switch were second-line failure (n=44) and toxicity to second-line regimens (n=10)...
May 16, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498305/aminoglycosides-monotherapy-as-first-line-treatment-for-febrile-urinary-tract-infection-in-children
#2
Nora Poey, Fouad Madhi, Sandra Biscardi, Stéphane Béchet, Robert Cohen
We report a retrospective monocentric descripitive study performed in CHI Creteil for 20 months to describe the management and outcome of amikacin monotherapy as an alternative to third-generation cephalosporins for empiric treatment of febrile urinary tract infection (FUTI) in children. Data were analyzed for 151 children, and 90 selected cases were classified as certain or highly probable FUTI. Escherichia coli infection was found in 89 cases. In all patients, fever was resolved within 72 hr after beginning amikacin treatment...
May 11, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498304/pharmaceutical-dosing-errors-at-a-pediatric-hiv-clinic-in-mwanza-tanzania
#3
Neel Mahesh Naik, Ruth Nicholas Mbwanji, Mwajuma Mgawe, Richard Ongoa, Anthony E Gesase, Gordon E Schutze, Mercy Minde, Lumumba Francis Mwita
The outpatient medication dosing error rate at a pediatric HIV clinic in Mwanza, Tanzania, was about 1 in every 34 prescriptions. Young children were at highest risk of a dosing error, likely due to dose changes with growth and also to the inconsistent supply of pediatric formulations. Majority of errors occurred at consecutive visits suggesting clinicians reordered medication without double checking dosing.
May 11, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498303/varicella-zoster-virus-associated-necrotizing-retinitis-after-chickenpox-in-a-10-year-old-female-a-case-report
#4
Yong Un Shin, Jihong Kim, Eun Hee Hong, Jieun Kim, Joo Hyun Sohn, Heeyoon Cho
A necrotizing retinitis in children is a rare but vision threatening ocular complication of chickenpox. We report a 10-year-old girl who developed chickenpox one month before presenting with panuveitis and necrotizing retinitis. After prompt antiviral treatment, her inflammatory signs were resolved. Early detection and treatment of varicellar zoster-associated necrotizing retinitis after chickenpox can achieve good visual outcome.
May 11, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498302/reaction-of-the-bcg-scar-in-the-acute-phase-of-kawasaki-disease-in-mexican-children
#5
Luis Martín Garrido-García, Ariel Castillo-Moguel, Mirell Vázquez-Rivera, Patricia Cravioto, Galván Fernando
BACKGROUND: Kawasaki disease is an acute self-limited systemic vasculitis that primarily affects children < 5 years old. There is no specific diagnostic test. A reaction at the Bacille Calmette-Guérin inoculation site has been reported as a common finding in patients with Kawasaki disease where BCG vaccination is mandatory. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency of reactivation of the BCG in Mexican children diagnosed with Kawasaki disease. METHODS: A retrospective study of all patients diagnosed with Kawasaki disease from August 1 1995 to August 31 2015 at our Institution was performed...
May 11, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498301/seroprevalence-of-hepatitis-a-12-years-following-the-implementation-of-toddlers-vaccination-a-population-based-study-in-israel
#6
Ravit Bassal, Merav Weil, Daniel Cohen, Danit Sofer, Ella Mendelson, Tamy Shohat
BACKGROUND: In 1999, Israel became the first country to introduce an inactivated hepatitis A vaccine into its national childhood vaccination program. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) antibodies in the Israeli population before and after the introduction of the program. METHODS: A cross-sectional serosurvey using the National Serum Bank was conducted on 1,883 and 2,027 serum samples collected before and after introduction of the vaccine, respectively...
May 11, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475554/sustained-viral-suppression-in-hiv-infected-children-on-once-daily-lopinavir-ritonavir-in-clinical-practice
#7
Ivar P E Gondrie, Diane E T Bastiaans, Pieter L A Fraaij, Gertjan J A Driessen, Linda C Van Der Knaap, Eline G Visser, Petronette Van Jaarsveld, Ronald de Groot, Nico G Hartwig, David M Burger, Annemarie M C Van Rossum
BACKGROUND: The use of lopinavir/ritonavir once-daily (LPV/r QD) has not been approved for children. Good short-term clinical, virological and immunological outcomes have been observed in children on LPV/r QD. METHODS: We evaluated the long-term effectiveness of a LPV/r QD containing regimen in HIV-1 infected children in clinical practice. Selected children (aged 0-18 years) with an undetectable HIV-1 RNA viral load (<50 copies/mL) for at least 6 months on a twice-daily (BID) LPV/r-containing regimen switched to LPV/r QD...
May 4, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471867/daptomycin-use-in-children-experience-with-various-types-of-infection-and-age-groups
#8
George A Syrogiannopoulos, Aspasia N Michoula, Efthimia Petinaki, Ioanna N Grivea
BACKGROUND: In Greece, there are high rates of methicillin (40-60%) and clindamycin (15-25%) resistance among community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus isolates. Therefore, we sought to identify other antimicrobial treatment options such as daptomycin. METHODS: We studied retrospectively all pediatric infections treated with daptomycin at the University General Hospital of Larissa, Greece from January 1, 2007 to June 16, 2016. RESULTS: Of a total of 128 patients (median age 2...
May 3, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471866/newborn-congenital-cytomegalovirus-screening-based-on-clinical-manifestations-and-evaluation-of-dna-based-assays-for-in-vitro-diagnostics
#9
Tomoyuki Fujii, Akira Oka, Ichiro Morioka, Hiroyuki Moriuchi, Shin Koyano, Hideto Yamada, Shigeru Saito, Hiroshi Sameshima, Takeshi Nagamatsu, Shinya Tsuchida, Naoki Inoue
OBJECTIVES: To establish a strategy for congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) screening and to establish confirmatory assays approved as In Vitro diagnostics (IVD) by the regulatory authorities, we evaluated the clinical risks and performance of diagnostic assays developed by commercial companies, since cCMV infection has significant clinical consequences. STUDY DESIGN: Newborns with clinical manifestations considered to be consequences of cCMV infection (n=575) were screened for the presence of CMV DNA in urine specimens collected onto filter paper placed in their diapers using the PCR-based assay reported previously...
May 3, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471865/correction-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-protein-in-infants-with-traumatic-lumbar-punctures
#10
Todd W Lyons, Andrea T Cruz, Stephen B Freedman, Joseph L Arms, Paul L Aronson, Alesia H Fleming, Dina M Kulik, Prashant Mahajan, Rakesh D Mistry, Christopher M Pruitt, Amy D Thompson, Lise Nigrovic
In our multi-center cohort of infants ≤ 60 days of age, we identified 2,646 infants with a traumatic lumbar puncture of which 31 (1.2%) had bacterial meningitis. For every 1,000 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) red blood cells per mm, cerebrospinal (CSF) protein increased 1.1 mg/dL [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0-1.2 mg/dL].
May 3, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471864/mycoplasma-pneumoniae-a-cross-sectional-population-based-comparison-of-disease-severity-in-pre-school-and-school-age-children
#11
Christopher Stephen Inchley, Are Stuwitz Berg, Afsaneh Vahdani Benam, Anne Katrine Kvissel, Truls Michael Leegaard, Britt Nakstad
BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) causes epidemics of upper respiratory disease and pneumonia. It is thought that MP usually causes milder upper respiratory disease in pre-school children, with a greater chance of pneumonia in school-age children. In this population-based cross-sectional study, we present evidence that severe MP infection is more common in pre-school children than previously thought. METHODS: During an MP epidemic in our area widespread health service and public awareness lead to extensive testing for MP...
May 3, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471863/serious-bacterial-infections-in-hospitalized-febrile-infants-in-the-first-and-second-months-of-life
#12
Lior Carmon, Aviv Goldbart, David Greenberg, Shalom Ben-Shimol
OBJECTIVE: Most protocols evaluating serious bacterial infection (SBI) risk in febrile infants, classify neonates <30 days as high-risk (HR), while other protocols do not distinguish between infants <30 and 30-60 days. We compared SBI rates in febrile infants at the first and the second months of life. METHODS: This was a retrospective, population-based, cohort study. All febrile infants ≤60 days hospitalized in southern-Israel, January 2013 through May 2014, were included...
May 3, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471862/t-cell-responses-to-hsv-1-in-persons-who-have-survived-childhood-herpes-simplex-encephalitis
#13
Mariliis Ott, Lichen Jing, Lazaro Lorenzo, Jean-Laurent Casanova, Shen-Ying Zhang, David M Koelle
BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) after primary HSV-1 infection can occur in children due to inborn errors of cell-intrinsic immunity in the central nervous system (CNS). Paradoxically, symptomatic mucocutaneous HSV-1 recurrences are rare survivors of childhood HSE. T-cell acquired immunity is thought to be involved in control of recurrent mucocutaneous HSV infection. We thus tested HSV-1-specific immunity in HSE survivors. METHODS: We obtained serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) a median of 13...
May 3, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472007/epidemiology-of-nasopharyngeal-carriage-by-haemophilus-influenzae-in-healthy-children-a-study-in-the-mediterranean-coast-region
#14
María Del Mar Ortiz-Romero, María Pilar Espejo-García, Santiago Alfayate-Miguelez, Francisco José Ruiz-López, David Zapata-Hernandez, Ana Josefa Gonzalez-Pacanowska
BACKGROUND-: Haemophilus influenzae (Hi), a colonizer of the nasopharynx in children causes mainly otitis and sinusitis. The primary objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of pharyngeal colonization by Hi, and the secondary objectives were to identify risk factors associated with Hi colonization and its antibiotic susceptibility. METHODS-: A prospective multi-center study of nasopharyngeal carriers of Hi was conducted in the pediatric consulting-rooms of 10 primary health care centers in Murcia (Spain)...
May 2, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472006/concomitant-bacterial-meningitis-in-infants-with-urinary-tract-infection
#15
Joanna Thomson, Andrea T Cruz, Lise E Nigrovic, Stephen B Freedman, Aris C Garro, Paul T Ishimine, Dina M Kulik, Neil G Uspal, Kendra L Grether-Jones, Aaron S Miller, David Schnadower, Samir S Shah
To determine age-stratified prevalence of concomitant bacterial meningitis in infants ≤ 60 days with a urinary tract infection (UTI), we performed a 23-center retrospective study of 1,737 infants with UTI. Concomitant bacterial meningitis was rare, but more common in infants 0-28 days (0.9%, 95% CI: 0.4-1.9%) compared with infants 29-60 days (0.2%, 95% CI: 0-0.8%).
May 2, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445250/enteric-fever-in-children-in-western-sydney-australia-2003-2015
#16
Ameneh Khatami, Fouzia Khan, Kristine K Macartney
BACKGROUND: Enteric fever is a vaccine-preventable disease with cases in Australia predominantly acquired overseas. The aim of this study was to define the burden of enteric fever in children presenting to a pediatric hospital in Western Sydney between 2003 and 2015. METHODS: Cases between January 2003 and December 2013 were ascertained through medical records using ICD-coded discharge diagnoses, cross-referenced with microbiology laboratory data for all isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S...
April 25, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441266/safety-of-the-inactivated-japanese-encephalitis-virus-vaccine-ixiaro%C3%A2-in-children-an-open-label-randomized-active-controlled-phase-3-study
#17
Katrin L Dubischar, Vera Kadlecek, Benjamin Sablan, Charissa Fay Borja-Tabora, Salvacion Gatchalian, Susanne Eder-Lingelbach, Zsuzsanna Mueller, Kerstin Westritschnig
BACKGROUND: Japanese encephalitis (JE) remains a serious health concern in Asian countries and has sporadically affected pediatric travelers. In the present study we monitored the safety profile of the JE virus (JEV) vaccine IXIARO in a pediatric population. METHODS: We randomized 1869 children between the age of 2 months and 17 years in an age-stratified manner to vaccination with IXIARO or one of the control vaccines, Prevnar and HAVRIX 720. Adverse events (AEs) (unsolicited and solicited local and systemic adverse events), serious AEs and medically-attended AEs were assessed up to Day 56 and Month 7 after the first dose...
April 24, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441265/novel-risk-assessment-tool-for-immunoglobulin-resistance-in-kawasaki-disease-application-using-a-random-forest-classifier
#18
Masato Takeuchi, Ryo Inuzuka, Taiyu Hayashi, Takahiro Shindo, Yoichiro Hirata, Nobutaka Shimizu, Jun Inatomi, Yoshiki Yokoyama, Yoshiyuki Namai, Yoichiro Oda, Masaru Takamizawa, Jiro Kagawa, Yutaka Harita, Akira Oka
BACKGROUND: Resistance to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy is a risk factor for coronary lesions in patients with Kawasaki disease (KD). Risk-adjusted initial therapy may improve coronary outcome in KD, but identification of high risk patients remains a challenge. This study aimed to develop a new risk assessment tool for IVIG-resistance using advanced statistical techniques. METHODS: Data were retrospectively collected from KD patients receiving IVIG therapy, including demographic characteristics, signs and symptoms of KD, and laboratory results...
April 24, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430753/impact-of-chlorhexidine-cord-cleansing-on-mortality-omphalitis-and-cord-separation-time-among-facility-born-babies-in-nepal-and-bangladesh
#19
Luke C Mullany, Shams El Arifeen, Subarna K Khatry, Joanne Katz, Rashed Shah, Abdullah H Baqui, James M Tielsch
Guidance is needed regarding potential extension of the WHO recommendation for cord cleansing with chlorhexidine to babies born in facilities. Among 3,223 facility-born babies from Nepal and Bangladesh, mortality was approximately halved among those allocated to the intervention clusters (10.5/1000 vs. 19.4/1000, RR=0.54; 95% CI: 0.30 - 0.97). In high-mortality settings, a single policy for home and facility births is warranted.
April 19, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430752/in-reply-respiratory-viral-infections-and-coinfections-caused-by-human-metapneumovirus-in-children-with-cancer
#20
Juan Pablo Torres, Verónica De la Maza, María Elena Santolaya
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 19, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
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