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Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal

Nahed Abdel-Haq, Orlando Cortes, Basim I Asmar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 5, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Li Jun Thean, Daniel Engelman, John Kaldor, Andrew C Steer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 5, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Wing Ho Man, Thijs M A van Dongen, Roderick P Venekamp, Vincent G Pluimakers, Mei Ling J N Chu, Marlies A van Houten, Elisabeth A M Sanders, Anne G M Schilder, Debby Bogaert
BACKGROUND: Acute otitis media (AOM) is one of the most common childhood infections, generally thought to be caused by ascension of bacteria from the nasopharynx (NP) to the middle ear. Using 16S rRNA-based sequencing, we evaluated the relationship between the NP and middle ear fluid (MEF) microbiota in children with acute otitis media with tympanostomy tubes (AOMT) as a proxy for AOM, and explored whether microbiota profiling predicts natural disease course. METHODS: Microbiota profiles of paired NP and MEF samples of 94 children aged below five years with uncomplicated AOMT were determined...
October 5, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Erla S Björnsdóttir, Elisabete R Martins, Helga Erlendsdóttir, Gunnsteinn Haraldsson, José Melo-Cristino, Mário Ramirez, Karl G Kristinsson
BACKGROUND: Despite a risk-based peripartum chemoprophylaxis approach in Iceland since 1996, Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) remains an important cause of early-onset (<7 days, EOD) and late-onset disease (7 days to 3 months, LOD). METHODS: We studied GBS invasive disease in children <1 year in Iceland in 1976-2015. Bacteria (n=98) were characterized by susceptibility to a panel of antimicrobials, capsular serotyping, resistance genes, surface protein and pilus-locus profiling, and multilocus sequence typing...
October 5, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Adam W Bartlett, Thahira Jamal Mohamed, Tavitiya Sudjaritruk, Nia Kurniati, Revathy Nallusamy, Rawiwan Hansudewechakul, Penh Sun Ly, Khanh Huu Truong, Pagakrong Lumbiganon, Thanyawee Puthanakit, Kulkanya Chokephaibulkit, Lam Van Nguyen, Viet Chau Do, Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy, Khairulddin Nik Nik Yusoff, Moy Siew Fong, Dewi Kumara Wati, Annette H Sohn, Azar Kariminia
BACKGROUND: Perinatally HIV-infected adolescents (PHIVA) are exposed to a chronic systemic infection and long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART), leaving them susceptible to morbidities associated with inflammation, immunodeficiency, and drug toxicity. METHODS: Data collected 2001-2016 from PHIVA aged 10-19 years within a regional Asian cohort were analysed using competing risk time-to-event and Poisson regression analyses to describe the nature and incidence of morbidity events and hospitalisations, and identify factors associated with disease-related, treatment-related, and overall morbidity...
September 29, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Latania K Logan, Rachel L Medernach, Jared R Rispens, Steven H Marshall, Andrea M Hujer, T Nicholas Domitrovic, Susan D Rudin, Xiaotian Zheng, Nadia K Qureshi, Sreenivas Konda, Mary K Hayden, Robert A Weinstein, Robert A Bonomo
BACKGROUND: Fluoroquinolones (FQs) are uncommonly prescribed in children, yet pediatric multidrug-resistant (MDR)-Enterobacteriaceae (Ent) infections often reveal FQ resistance (FQR). We sought to define the molecular epidemiology of FQR and MDR-Ent in children. METHODS: A case-control analysis of children with MDR-Ent infections at 3 Chicago hospitals was performed. Cases were children with third-generation-cephalosporin-resistant (3GCR) and/or carbapenem-resistant (CR)-Ent infections...
September 29, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Sherman J Alter, Chrstine M Sanfilippo, Penny A Asbell, Heleen H DeCory
BACKGROUND: The Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring in Ocular Microorganisms (ARMOR) study is a nationwide longitudinal antibiotic resistance surveillance program specific to bacterial pathogens commonly encountered in ocular infections. We evaluated resistance rates and trends among isolates obtained from pediatric patients (≤17 years of age). METHODS: Clinical centers across the US were invited to submit ocular isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa to a central laboratory...
September 29, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Karen Rokkedal Lausch, Kia Hee Schultz Dungu, Michael Thude Callesen, Henrik Schrøder, Steen Rosthøj, Anja Poulsen, Lars Østergaard, Klaus Leth Mortensen, Merete Storgaard, Henrik C Schønheyder, Mette Søgaard, Maiken C Arendrup
INTRODUCTION: Candidemia is the most frequent pediatric fungal infection, but incompletely elucidated in population-based settings. We performed a nationwide cohort study including all pediatric patients with candidemia in Denmark from 2004-2014 to determine age, incidence, species distribution, underlying diseases, patient management and outcomes. METHODS: All candidemia episodes were identified through the active nationwide fungemia surveillance program. Susceptibility testing followed the EUCAST E...
September 29, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Micaela Gal, Nina Gobat, Nicholas A Francis, Kerenza Hood, Christopher C Butler, Julia Bielicki, Pieter L Fraaij, Mike Sharland, Jessica Jarvis, Annemarie M C van Rossum, Terho Heikkinen, Federico Martinon-Torres, Jethro Herberg, Angela Watkins, Steve A R Webb, Ronnie Moore, Prasanth Sukumar, Alistair Nichol
BACKGROUND: Infectious disease pandemics (IDP) pose a considerable global threat and can disproportionately affect vulnerable populations including children. Pediatric clinical research in pandemics is essential to improve children's healthcare and minimize risks of harm by interventions that lack an adequate evidence base for this population. The unique features of IDPs require consideration of special processes to facilitate clinical research. We aimed to obtain consensus on pediatric clinician-researchers' perceptions of the priorities to feasibly conduct clinical pediatric pandemic research in Europe...
September 25, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Kumutha Jayaraman, Bethou Adhisivam, Saravanan Nallasivan, R Gokul Krishnan, Chinnathambi Kamalarathnam, Mangala Bharathi, Brent McSharry, Siva P Namachivayam, Frank Shann, Sasireka I Boopalan, Ponrani David, B Vishnu Bhat
BACKGROUND: In randomised trials in Guinea-Bissau, BCG-Denmark reduces neonatal mortality, primarily by reducing deaths from pneumonia and sepsis. Because WHO-prequalified BCG-Denmark was not available in India, we conducted two randomised trials to test whether BCG-Russia alone or with oral polio vaccine (OPV) has similar effects to BCG-Denmark. METHODS: We randomised neonates weighing <2000 g to a control group that was not vaccinated before 28 days of age, or to receive either BCG-Russia alone (first trial) or BCG-Russia with OPV (second trial) soon after birth...
September 25, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Susan Jack, Nicole J Moreland, Jess Meagher, Marea Fittock, Yvonne Galloway, Anna P Ralph
BACKGROUND: Globally, there is wide variation in streptococcal titer upper limits of normal (ULN) for antistreptolysin O (ASO) and anti-deoxyribonuclease B (ADB) used as evidence of recent group A streptococcal (GAS) infection to diagnose acute rheumatic fever (ARF). METHODS: We audited ASO and ADB titers among individuals with ARF in New Zealand (NZ), and in Australia's Northern Territory (NT). We summarized streptococcal titers by different ARF clinical manifestations, assessed application of locally-recommended serology guidelines where NZ uses high ULN cut-offs, and calculated the proportion of cases fulfilling alternative serologic diagnostic criteria...
September 25, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Tamar Wainstock, Asnat Walfisch, Ilana Shoham-Vardi, Idit Segal, Ruslan Sergienko, Daniella Landau, Eyal Sheiner
BACKGROUND: Studies have found associations between delivery mode and offspring long-term health. We aimed to study the possible association between delivery mode and the risk for long-term infectious diseases of the offspring, during a follow- up period of up of 18 years. METHODS: A population based cohort analysis was performed comparing different subtypes of infectious morbidity leading to hospitalization among children, based on delivery mode (vaginal vs. elective cesarean)...
September 25, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Tehreem Mohiyuddin, James A Seddon, H Lucy Thomas, Maeve K Lalor
INTRODUCTION: The epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) is changing in the United Kingdom (UK) and globally. Childhood TB is a key indicator of recent transmission and provides a marker of wider TB control. We describe the recent epidemiology of childhood TB in the UK, how this compares to TB in adults, and document changes with time. METHODS: TB cases notified in the UK between 2000 and 2015 were categorized as children (<15 years) or adults (≥15 years). Descriptive analyses were carried out on demographic, clinical and microbiological data...
September 25, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Oren Gordon, Matan J Cohen, Itai Gross, Sharon Amit, Dina Averbuch, Dan Engelhard, Aaron M Milstone, Allon E Moses
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus (SA) is a major cause of bacteremia in children. Methicillin-resistant SA (MRSA) is considered a public health threat; however, the differences in the prognosis of children with methicillin-susceptible SA (MSSA) vs. MRSA bacteremia are not well defined. METHODS: Data from all SA bacteremia events in children (0-16 years) from 2002 to 2016 in a single Israeli tertiary center were collected. Positive cultures within 48 hours of hospitalization were considered community associated (CA)...
September 19, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Negar Aliabadi, Huong Pham, Aaron T Curns, Brian Rha, Jacqueline E Tate, Umesh D Parashar
Diarrheal disease morbidity decreased after the 2006 US introduction of rotavirus vaccine. We calculated diarrheal death rates for children who were <5 years of age during 2005-2016. Death rates declined from 2.3/100,000 (2005-2006) to 1.7/100,000 (2014-2016). Declines were seen among 1-23 month olds, white and black children. Further exploration of the role of rotavirus vaccine in decreasing deaths among children is warranted.
September 19, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Sunsanee Chatpornvorarux, Alan Maleesatharn, Supattra Rungmaitree, Orasri Wittawatmongkol, Wanatpreeya Phongsamart, Keswadee Lapphra, Nantaka Kongstan, Benjawan Khumcha, Kulkanya Chokephaibulkit
BACKGROUND: Recent studies report delayed anti-HIV antibody clearance (seroreversion) among HIV-exposed uninfected infants that may affect diagnostic practices. We evaluated the age-specific seroreversion rates in Thailand. METHODS: The medical records of HIV-exposed uninfected infants born in January 2000-December 2014 were reviewed. Anti-HIV seroreversion rates at 12, 18 and 24 months were analyzed in three periods according to the Thai National Guidelines of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV; zidovudine with or without single dose nevirapine to all women (2000-2006), adding lamivudine plus nevirapine to zidovudine in women with CD4 count <200 cells/mm (2007-2009), zidovudine plus lamivudine plus boosted lopinavir to all women (2010-2014)...
September 19, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Marjolein Knoester, Jelte Helfferich, Randy Poelman, Coretta Van Leer-Buter, Oebele F Brouwer, Hubert G M Niesters
BACKGROUND: Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is a respiratory virus within the genus Enterovirus and the family of Picornaviridae. Genetically, it is closely related to rhinovirus that replicates in the respiratory tract and causes respiratory disease. Since 2014, EV-D68 has been associated with the neurologic syndrome of acute flaccid myelitis (AFM). METHODS: In October 2016, questionnaires were sent out to a European network including 66 virologists and clinicians, to develop an inventory of EV-D68 associated AFM cases in Europe...
September 18, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Stanzi M le Roux, Kirsten A Donald, Max Kroon, Tamsin K Phillips, Maia Lesosky, Liza Esterhuyse, Allison Zerbe, Kirsty Brittain, Elaine J Abrams, Landon Myer
BACKGROUND: Elevated HIV viral load (HIV-VL) in pregnancy has been linked to increased risk of mortality, immunological abnormalities, infectious morbidity and restricted growth among HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children, but little is known about effects on child development. METHODS: HIV-infected women initiating lifelong ART (tenofovir+emtricitabine+efavirenz) antenatally were followed from first antenatal visit through delivery and with their breastfed infants postpartum...
September 18, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Hanan Fouad, Amal Mohamed, Magda Sabry, Hossam Abdel Aziz, Basem Eysa, Mohamed Rabea
BACKGROUND: Licensure of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in adolescents, was based upon clinical trials on patients mainly with genotype-1. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and short-term safety of this newly approved antiviral in adolescents with HCV genotype-4. METHOD: This was a study of 51 HCV-infected adolescents, who received the adult dose of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir, once daily for 12 weeks, and were followed-up for 12 weeks post-treatment...
September 18, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Fajri Gafar, Helmi Arifin, Yusri D Jurnalis, Finny F Yani, Najmiatul Fitria, Jan-Willem C Alffenaar, D Bob Wilffert
BACKGROUND: As one of the most frequent and serious adverse reactions during tuberculosis treatment, antituberculosis drug-induced liver injury (ATLI) in children has been studied insufficiently compared with adults. We aimed to determine the incidence and risk factors of ATLI in children during the first two months of TB-therapy. METHODS: A total of 41 children with tuberculosis and treated with first-line antituberculosis drugs were prospectively followed-up for the development of ATLI...
September 18, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
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