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Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099228/transitioning-to-second-line-antiretroviral-therapy-among-adolescents-in-copperbelt-province-zambia-predictors-of-treatment-switching-and-adherence-to-second-line-regimens
#1
Randy M Stalter, Patrick Katayamoyo, Catherine Packer, Harry Banda, Pai-Lien Chen, Jonathan K Mwansa, Donna R McCarraher, Julie A Denison
BACKGROUND: Adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV) experience less favorable antiretroviral therapy (ART) outcomes than other age groups. First-line treatment failure complicates ART management as second-line regimens can be costlier and have greater pill burdens. Understanding predictors of switching ART regimens and adherence among adolescents on second-line ART may help to prevent poor treatment outcomes. METHODS: A quantitative survey was administered to 309 ALHIV attending three ART clinics in the Copperbelt Province, Zambia...
January 16, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099227/breast-milk-is-a-potential-vehicle-for-hpv-transmission-to-oral-mucosa-of-the-spouse
#2
Karolina Louvanto, Marja Sarkola, Marjut Rintala, Kari Syrjänen, Seija Grenman, Stina Syrjänen
BACKGROUND: HPV DNA has been detected in breast milk but its origin has remained obscure. The aim of the study was to analyze the prevalence and persistence of HPV in breast milk in the Finnish Family HPV cohort study. The association of breast milk HPV positivity with the family members' oral HPV status was evaluated. METHODS: We included 308 families to the study where the mother was breast feeding her offspring. Mothers collected the milk samples manually at day 3, and at months 2, 6 and 12...
January 16, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067719/insulin-resistance-and-markers-of-inflammation-in-hiv-infected-ugandan-children-in-the-chapas-3-trial
#3
Sahera Dirajlal-Fargo, Victor Musiime, Adrian Cook, Grace Mirembe, Julia Kenny, Ying Jiang, Sara Debanne, Nigel Klein, Grace A Mccomsey
BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated metabolic complications in HIV-infected African children and their relation with inflammation. METHODS: We compared baseline and changes in insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and in markers of inflammation over 48 weeks, in a subset of antiretroviral therapy (ART) naïve Ugandan children from the CHAPAS-3 trial randomized to zidovudine (AZT), stavudine (D4T) or abacavir (ABC) based regimens. Non-parametric methods were used to explore between and within group differences and multivariable analyses to assess associations of HOMA-IR...
January 6, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067718/immunogenicity-and-safety-of-a-booster-injection-of-dtap-ipv-hib-pentaxim%C3%A2-administered-concomitantly-with-tetravalent-dengue-vaccine-in-healthy-toddlers-aged-15-to-18-months-in-mexico-a-randomized-trial
#4
Flor Irene Rodriguez Melo, José Juan Renteria Morales, Abiel Homero Mascareñas De Los Santos, Enrique Rivas, Claire Vigne, Fernando Noriega
BACKGROUND: The live, attenuated, tetravalent dengue vaccine (CYD-TDV) is licensed in a number of dengue endemic countries for individuals ≥9 years old. Before integration of any vaccine into childhood vaccination schedules, a lack of immune interference and acceptable safety when co-administered with other recommended vaccines should be demonstrated. METHODS: This randomized, multi-center, Phase III trial was conducted in Mexico. Healthy toddlers (n=732) received a booster dose of a licensed pentavalent combination vaccine (diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, inactivated polio vaccine, and Haemophilus influenzae type b [DTaP-IPV//Hib]) either concomitantly or sequentially with the second dose of CYD-TDV administered as a 3-dose schedule...
January 6, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067717/risk-of-pertussis-in-relation-to-degree-of-prematurity-in-children-2-years-of-age
#5
Øystein Rolandsen Riise, Ida Laake, Didrik Vestrheim, Elmira Flem, Dag Moster, Marianne Adeleide Riise Bergsaker, Jann Storsæter
BACKGROUND: A few previous studies reported increased risk of pertussis in children with birth weight < 2500g. The risk of pertussis by degree of prematurity has not been determined in a cohort study. The vaccine effectiveness (VE) against reported pertussis in preterm infants is unknown. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway (1998-2010) and linked to other national registries. In total, 713,166 children were included in our study and followed until 2 years of age...
January 6, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060049/ritonavir-and-topical-ocular-corticosteroid-induced-cushing-s-syndrome-in-an-adolescent-with-hiv-1-infection
#6
Paul G Rainsbury, Jessica Sharp, Alison Tappin, Martin Hussey, Alexandra Lenko, Caroline Foster
Cushing's syndrome following topical ocular corticosteroid use is extremely rare. We describe a case of symptomatic Cushing's syndrome in an adolescent male with sight-threatening vernal keratoconjunctivitis on antiretroviral therapy for HIV-1 infection that included ritonavir, a potent cytochrome p450 CYP3A4 inhibitor. CYP3A4 inhibition reduces the metabolism of exogenous corticosteroids leading to suppression of endogenous steroid production and Cushing's syndrome.
January 3, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060048/a-randomized-controlled-trial-to-evaluate-a-potential-hepatitis-b-booster-vaccination-strategy-using-combined-hepatitis-a-and-b-vaccine
#7
Fangjun Li, Yuansheng Hu, Youming Zhou, Lixin Chen, Wei Xia, Yufei Song, Zhengliang Tan, Lidong Gao, Zhong Yang, Gang Zeng, Xing Han
BACKGROUND: Booster doses could play a major role in those no responders or low responders to primary hepatitis B vaccine. Planed time point for hepatitis A vaccination in China provides a good opportunity to carry out hepatitis B booster dose by using combined hepatitis A and B vaccine. METHOD: A randomized, double blinded clinical trial was conducted to compare the immunogenicity and safety of toddlers 18-24 months of age receiving three different vaccination regimens: either two doses of inactivated hepatitis A vaccine (group 1), or one dose inactivated hepatitis A vaccine plus one dose combined hepatitis A and B vaccine (group 2), or two doses of combined hepatitis A and B vaccine (group 3) respectively...
January 3, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060047/genotype-characterization-of-group-b-streptococcus-isolated-from-infants-with-invasive-diseases-in-south-korea
#8
Hyun Mi Kang, Hoan Jong Lee, Hyunju Lee, Dae Sun Jo, Hye Soo Lee, Taek Soo Kim, Jeong Hwan Shin, Ki Wook Yun, Bongjin Lee, Eun Hwa Choi
BACKGROUND: Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is one of the leading causes of invasive infections in infants. This study aimed to investigate the genotypic diversity of GBS causing invasive infections in infants and to observe the prevalence of the highly virulent clone in South Korea. METHODS: Invasive strains of GBS were collected prospectively from infants admitted at four hospitals during 1995 to 2015. Serotype and multilocus sequence typing was determined. All isolates underwent PCR amplification to detect the presence of the hypervirulent surface adhesin (hvgA) gene...
January 3, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060046/serious-adverse-reactions-from-anti-tuberculosis-drugs-among-599-children-hospitalized-for-tuberculosis
#9
Yiyuan Li, Yu Zhu, Qin Zhong, Xiaojun Zhang, Min Shu, Chaomin Wan
BACKGROUNDS: The purpose of the study was to summarize the clinical characteristics of serious adverse reactions (ARs) related to anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs in children hospitalized for TB. A comprehensive understanding of these drug-related ARs may serve to improve patient prognosis. METHOD: Inpatients diagnosed with TB from 2008 to 2013 were enrolled retrospectively. The patients' demographics, diagnosis and ARs were recorded and analyzed for comprehensive evaluation...
January 3, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060045/dalbavancin-pharmacokinetics-and-safety-in-children-3-months-to-11-years-of-age
#10
Daniel Gonzalez, John S Bradley, Jeffrey Blumer, Ram Yogev, Kevin M Watt, Laura P James, Debra L Palazzi, Varsha Bhatt-Mehta, Janice E Sullivan, Li Zhang, Jennifer Murphy, Xilla T Ussery, Sailaja Puttagunta, Michael W Dunne, Michael Cohen-Wolkowiez
BACKGROUND: Dalbavancin is a novel lipoglycopeptide antibiotic that has potent in vitro activity against Gram-positive microorganisms. METHODS: We performed a phase 1, open-label, multi-center study to investigate the pharmacokinetics (PK) and safety of a single-dose of intravenous dalbavancin in hospitalized pediatric subjects 3 months to 11 years of age. We combined these data with previously collected adolescent PK data and performed a population PK analysis...
January 3, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060044/early-antiretroviral-therapy-initiation-and-mortality-among-infants-diagnosed-with-hiv-in-the-first-12-weeks-of-life-experiences-from-kinshasa-dr-congo-and-blantyre-malawi
#11
Anna Sheahan, Lydia Feinstein, Queen Dube, Andrew Edmonds, Chawanangwa Mahebere Chirambo, Emily Smith, Frieda Behets, Robert Heyderman, Annelies Van Rie
BACKGROUND: Based on clinical trial results, the WHO recommends infant HIV testing at age 4-6 weeks and immediate antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in all HIV-infected infants. Little is known about the outcomes of HIV infected infants diagnosed with HIV in the first weeks of life in resource-limited settings. We assessed ART initiation and mortality in the first year of life among infants diagnosed with HIV by 12 weeks of age. METHODS: Cohort of HIV-infected infants in Kinshasa and Blantyre diagnosed before 12 weeks to estimate 12-month cumulative incidences of ART initiation and mortality, accounting for competing risks...
January 3, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060043/chikungunya-infection-in-hospitalized-febrile-infants-younger-than-3-months-of-age
#12
Narcisse Elenga, Marion Folin, Yves-Marie Vandamme, Emma Cuadro-Alvarez, Laurence Long, Falucar Njuieyon, Elise Martin, Rémi Kom-Tchameni, Antoine Defo, Sitraka Herinantenaina Razafindrakoto, Yajaira Mrsic, Pierre Couppie, Mathieu Nacher, Julie Dufour
BACKGROUND: Fever in infants younger than 3 months is generally a cause for concern because of the risk for a serious bacterial infection. The aim of this study was to describe clinical and biological features of Chikungunya infection in infants < 3 months of age hospitalized in Cayenne Hospital during the 2014-2015 outbreak. METHODS: We performed a preliminary retrospective study followed by a prospective study from March 2014 to February 2015. All infants younger than 3 months presenting with fever and hospitalized in Cayenne Hospital were included...
January 3, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060042/hiv-infected-children-in-malawi-have-decreased-performance-on-the-6-minute-walk-test-with-preserved-cardiac-mechanics-regardless-of-antiretroviral-treatment-status
#13
Amy Sims Sanyahumbi, Mina Hosseinipour, Danielle Guffey, Irving Hoffman, Peter N Kazembe, Madeline McCrary, Charles G Minard, Charles Van der Horst, Craig A Sable
INTRODUCTION: We aimed to (1) determine if cardiac disease can be detected in HIV-infected children by strain imaging, and (2) to evaluate differences in exercise performance between HIVinfected on and not yet on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and in HIV-uninfected children by 6- minute walk tests (6MWT) METHODS:: This cross-sectional study evaluated cardiac function by echocardiogram and exercise performance by 6MWT in HIV-infected and uninfected children ages 4 to 18 years in Lilongwe, Malawi...
January 3, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060041/estimating-pertussis-susceptibility-among-0-23-month-old-children-in-the-united-states-using-national-immunization-survey-nis-2013
#14
Lana Childs, Robert A Bednarczyk
BACKGROUND: Despite high pertussis-containing vaccine coverage in the United States (US), children who are unvaccinated or not fully vaccinated remain susceptible to pertussis. Over multiple birth cohorts of incomplete vaccination, the number of children not immune to pertussis will accumulate due to factors such as age-specific vaccination status and dose-specific vaccine effectiveness. The total number of pertussis-susceptible children 0-23 months of age in the US is unknown. METHODS: Using data on age-specific pertussis-containing vaccine receipt among children evaluated in the 2013 National Immunization Survey (born between February 2011 and June 2012), and accounting for vaccine effectiveness, and maternal transfer of anti-pertussis antibodies, we estimated the cumulative number of pertussis-susceptible children 0-23 months of age...
January 3, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060040/long-term-clinical-and-radiologic-outcome-of-500-children-with-parenchymal-neurocysticercosis
#15
Pratibha Singhi, Renu Suthar, Brijendra Deo, Prabhjot Malhi, N K Khandelwal
BACKGROUND: Our aim was to study long-term clinical and radiologic outcome of children with parenchymal neurocysticercosis (NCC) and its predictors. METHOD: 500 children with NCC registered in the pediatric NCC Clinic between January 1996 and December 2002 and followed to December 2009 were enrolled. Demographic details, clinical presentations and therapy received were recorded. Outcome was evaluated in terms of seizure recurrence and resolution of lesions on neuroimaging...
January 3, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060039/epidemiology-and-molecular-characteristics-of-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-during-an-outbreak-of-m-pneumoniae-associated-stevens-johnson-syndrome
#16
Louise K Francois Watkins, Daniel Olson, Maureen H Diaz, Xia Lin, Alicia Demirjian, Alvaro J Benitez, Jonas M Winchell, Christine C Robinson, Kirk A Bol, Mary P Glodé, Samuel R Dominguez, Lisa A Miller, Preeta K Kutty
BACKGROUND: An increase in Mycoplasma pneumoniae-associated Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) cases at a Colorado pediatric hospital led to an outbreak investigation. We describe the epidemiologic and molecular characteristics of M. pneumoniae among SJS case-patients and surrounding community members during the outbreak. METHODS: M. pneumoniae PCR-positive respiratory specimens from 5 Colorado hospitals and 4 referral laboratories underwent confirmatory PCR testing; positive specimens then underwent multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) and macrolide resistance testing...
January 3, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033242/brachial-plexus-palsy-in-young-infants-harboring-osteomyelitis-of-the-humerus-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#17
Petra Zimmermann, Nigel Curtis
We present an infant with brachial plexus palsy who had osteomyelitis of the humerus, and summarize previously reported cases. Although Staphylococcus aureus is the most common pathogen in osteomyelitis in infants, group B streptococcus is responsible for 40% of humeral osteomyelitis. Early diagnosis is critical to prevent long-term sequalae, but is hampered by infants frequently being well and afebrile at presentation.
December 28, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033241/financial-resource-utilization-and-mortality-impacts-of-teaching-hospital-status-on-pediatric-patients-admitted-for-sepsis
#18
Benson S Hsu, Benjamin D Meyer, Saquib A Lakhani
BACKGROUND: With the changing healthcare landscape in the United States, teaching hospitals face increasing pressure to provide medical education as well as cost effective care. Our study investigated the financial, resource utilization, and mortality impact of teaching hospital status on pediatric patients admitted with sepsis. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, weighted statistical analysis of hospitalized children with the diagnosis of sepsis. The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) 2009 Kids' Inpatient Database (KID) provided the data for analysis...
December 28, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033240/risk-factors-associated-with-bordetella-pertussis-among-infants-aged-%C3%A2-4-months-in-the-pre-tdap-era-united-states-2002-2005
#19
C Robinette Curtis, Andrew L Baughman, Chas DeBolt, Susan Goodykoontz, Cynthia Kenyon, Barbara Watson, Pamela K Cassiday, Claudia Miller, Lucia C Pawloski, Maria-Lucia C Tondella, Kristine M Bisgard
BACKGROUND: In the United States, infants have the highest reported pertussis incidence and death rates. Improved understanding of infant risk factors is needed to optimize prevention strategies. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled infants ≤4 months of age with incident-confirmed pertussis from 4 sites during 2002-2005 (preceding pertussis-antigen-containing vaccination recommendations for adolescents/adults); each case-patient was age- and site-matched with 2 control subjects...
December 28, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033239/seroprevalence-of-hepatitis-e-virus-antibodies-in-portuguese-children
#20
Ricardo Oliveira, João Rodrigo Mesquita, Sara Pereira, Joana Abreu-Silva, Joana Teixeira, Maria São José Nascimento
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) has become a growing Public Health concern in industrialized countries. Most of the HEV seroprevalence studies have focused on adult populations and reports regarding HEV seroepidemiology among children are scarce in these countries. The aims of the present work were to perform a nationwide seroprevalence study on HEV infection in Portuguese children and to compare the HEV seropositivity in this 2015 children cohort with results in sera performed 20 years earlier...
December 28, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
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