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Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal

Assaf Rokney, Moti Baum, Shalom Ben-Shimol, Orli Sagi, Einav Anuka, Vered Agmon, David Greenberg, Lea Valinsky, Dana Danino
INTRODUCTION: Pediatric community associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections are emerging worldwide. High CA-MRSA carriage rates were previously described in healthy Bedouin children. We assessed demographic, clinical and molecular characteristics of pediatric MRSA infections in southern Israel. METHODS: The Soroka University Medical Center laboratory serves the entire population of southern Israel, divided into two ethnic groups, Bedouins and Jews...
June 15, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Archana Koirala, Brendan McMullan, Orli Wargon, Kylie Yates, Hazel Goldberg, Pamela Palasanthiran
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 15, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Vera Kadlecek, Charissa Fay Borja-Tabora, Susanne Eder-Lingelbach, Salvacion Gatchalian, Sigrid Kiermayr, Benjamin Sablan, Michael Kundi, Christian Taucher, Katrin L Dubischar
BACKGROUND: An inactivated Vero cell culture derived Japanese encephalitis virus vaccine (IXIARO) requires a booster dose 1 year after primary schedule for long-term antibody persistence in adults. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate immunogenicity and safety of a booster dose in children aged 2 months to <18 years. METHODS: A randomized, controlled open-label study in the Philippines. Three hundred children vaccinated with IXIARO in a previous trial were randomized 1:1 to receive either no booster or a booster 12 months after initiation of the primary series...
June 15, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Young Joo Sohn, Jung Ha Yun, Ki Wook Yun, Hyoung Jin Kang, Eun Hwa Choi, Hee Young Shin, Hoan Jong Lee
We report the case of a 12-year-old immunocompromised boy with spondylodiscitis of the thoracolumbar spine caused by Aspergillus terreus. Microbiologic diagnosis was confirmed by inoculation of aspiration fluid into blood culture bottles. Due to non-compliance, the patient was treated with extended voriconazole therapy (23 months) with regular serum drug concentration monitoring and intermittent direct observation therapy in an outpatient clinic.
June 15, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Katie M Moynihan, Andrew Barlow, Clare Nourse, Claire Heney, Sanmarié Schlebusch, Luregn J Schlapbach
Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia and may cause life-threatening disease in children. We identified 30 (0.3%) confirmed M. pneumoniae cases by clinical and laboratory criteria in 11,526 PICU admissions. Outcomes were comparable to patients admitted with other infections (n=3,005, p>0.1). Our findings indicate that empiric antimicrobial coverage for M. pneumoniae infection in PICU is rarely needed.
June 15, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Mahyar Etminan, Michael Guo, Bruce Carleton
BACKGROUND: Fluoroquinolone (FQ) prescription rates have increased over the last 10 years despite recent warnings of serious adverse effects such as peripheral neuropathy and tendinopathy. Currently, there are no published data on the extent or appropriateness of FQ prescribing in children METHODS:: Drug prescription data from the PharMetrics Plus™ health claims database (United States) were analyzed to examine dispensing of ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, ofloxacin, or gemifloxacin to children from 2006 to 2015...
May 24, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Esther Wicker, Fabian Lander, Felix Weidemann, Markus Hufnagel, Reinhard Berner, Gérard Krause
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in newborns worldwide. From 2000-2008, national guidelines in Germany recommended intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis for pregnant women displaying risk factors (e.g. perinatal anogenital GBS colonization, rupture of the membranes ≥ 18 hours before birth), for the vertical transmission of GBS to their children.In 2008, these guidelines were revised in order to advocate universal, culture-based screening for GBS colonization among all pregnant women between 35 and 37 weeks of gestation...
May 24, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Sabin Nsanzimana, Flannery McArdle, Eric Remera, Augustin Mulindabigwi, Muhayimpundu Ribakare, Patrick Ndimubanzi, Eugenie Kayirangwa, Cyprien Baribwira, David J Riedel, Joseph Ntaganira
Rwanda has made significant progress in expanding pediatric antiretroviral treatment(ART) coverage. This was a nationwide, cross-sectional study of pediatric HIV suppression rates. Of 292 children on ART ≥12 months, 68.8% achieved viral suppression <40 copies/ml, respectively. Rwanda achieved good pediatric viral suppression rates, comparable to those from other resource-limited settings(RLS), yet more efforts are needed to achieve the UNAIDS 90-90-90 target.
May 21, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Kengo Inagaki, Chad Blackshear, Charlotte V Hobbs
BACKGROUND: Although the epidemiology of immunocompromising condition in children has evolved over time, updated epidemiology of pediatric pneumocystis infection in the US is not available. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis using the Kids' Inpatient Database, a nationally representative sample of US pediatric hospital discharges collected in 1997, 2000, 2003, 2006, 2009, and 2012. pneumocystis cases were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code 136...
May 21, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Abdullah Alsultan, Manal Abouelkheir, Yasmine Elsharawy, Aljawharah Alkoraishi, Reem Osman, Michael N Neely, Wael Mansy, Saeed Algahtani
Gentamicin is known to have concentration-dependent bactericidal activity and its nephrotoxic effect is well described. We developed a population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model to optimize gentamicin dosing in pediatrics. Data were retrospectively collected for pediatric patients aged 1 month-12 years, admitted to general pediatric wards or ICUs and received gentamicin for suspected or proven gram-negative infections. at King Saud University Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 306 gentamicin peak and trough concentrations sets from 107 patients were analyzed with mean (± SD) patient age and weight of 4...
May 21, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
W Chris Buck, Nádia Manjate, Joyce Ventura, Cristina Nhassengo, Ajunta Navaia, Piedade João, Beatriz Elias
The presentation of congenital tuberculosis (TB) is varied, with frequent extrapulmonary disease, but congenital spinal TB has been rarely reported. We present two cases of spinal TB (one confirmed, one clinical diagnosis) in HIV-exposed infants with likely congenital transmission. Increased vigilance for congenital TB, including uncommon presentations, is needed, particularly in countries with high HIV and TB prevalence.
May 14, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Mekam T Okoye, Kolawole Sofowora, Amar Singh, Jaime Fergie
Compared with a similar 2005 study, this 2016 study showed a significant decrease from 22% to 3% in the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) nasal colonization in children admitted to our facility. Of the sampled 360 children, 21% were colonized with Staphylococcus aureus and 14% of those isolates were MRSA, whereas 61% of the isolates in 2005 were MRSA.
May 14, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Jake R Morgan, Kathleen M Carey, Tamar F Barlam, Cindy L Christiansen, Mari-Lynn Drainoni
BACKGROUND: To examine whether inappropriate antibiotic treatment for an initial bout of acute bronchitis in childhood affects patterns of future healthcare utilization and antibiotic prescribing. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of children with at least one acute bronchitis episode, defined as the 14-day period following an acute bronchitis visit, born in 2008 and followed through 2015 in a nationally representative commercial claims database. We predicted the likelihood of returning for a subsequent acute bronchitis episode, and being prescribed an antibiotic as part of that episode, as a function of whether or not the child was prescribed an antibiotic as part of the first acute bronchitis episode controlling for patient, provider, and practice characteristics...
May 14, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Saujanya Vadoothker, Laura Andrews, Bennie H Jeng, Moran Roni Levin
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) keratitis is a highly prevalent and visually-disabling disease in both the pediatric and adult population. While many studies have investigated the treatment of HSV keratitis in adult patients, few have focused on managing this condition in children. Children are at particularly high risk for visual morbidity due to unique challenges in diagnosis and treatment, and the often more aggressive disease course that results in corneal scarring, and subsequently amblyopia. This review presents the pathogenesis and most current recommendations for the medical and surgical management of HSV keratitis in the pediatric population...
May 14, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Minke H W Huibers, Peter Moons, Nelson Maseko, Monfort B Gushu, Oluwadamilola H Iwajomo, Robert S Heyderman, Michael Boele van Hensbroek, Eric A Brienen, Lisette van Lieshout, Job C J Calis
BACKGROUND: Intestinal protozoa are common opportunistic infections in HIV patients. Longitudinal studies on either the clinical relevance, or the effect of immune reconstitution by anti-retroviral therapy on intestinal protozoan infections are children is lacking however. This study investigates prevalence and clinical relevance of intestinal protozoa in HIV-infected Malawian children prior to and during their first year of ART. METHODS: Stool samples collected at enrolment and during follow-up were tested for non-opportunistic (Giardia lamblia, Dientamoeba fragilis, Entamoeba histolytica) and opportunistic protozoa (Entroctytoon bieneusi, Encephalitozoon spp...
May 14, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Nora El-Tantawy, Ahmad Darwish, Eman Eissa
BACKGROUND: Children with β-thalassemia major who regularly receive blood transfusion are at risk of developing transfusion-transmitted infection. Toxoplasmosis is a common and a serious parasitic disease with high prevalence and could be transmitted through blood transfusion from healthy asymptomatic donors. However, screening Toxoplasma gondii before blood donation has not been considered. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of T. gondii antibodies among thalassemia children undergoing blood transfusion...
May 14, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Roman Prymula, Dorothee Kieninger, Emmanuel Feroldi, Emilia Jordanov, Siham B'Chir, Xavier DaCosta
BACKGROUND: To support a fully liquid, diphtheria (D)-tetanus (T)-acellular pertussis (aP)-inactivated poliovirus (IPV)-hepatitis B (HB)-Haemophilus influenzae b (PRP-T) vaccine in Europe using a 2, 3, 4 month primary series and a booster at 11 to 15 months of age. METHODS: Phase III, randomized, observer-blind studies in Germany and the Czech Republic. Participants who had not received HB vaccine were randomized to a 2, 3, 4 month primary series of DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T (Group 1; N=266) or a reconstituted DTaPHB-IPV//PRP-T comparator (Group 2; N=263) and a booster of the same vaccine...
May 14, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Pablo Yagupsky, Ron Dagan
For the first two decades following Kingella kingae's initial characterization, this fastidious organism was considered an unusual cause of human infection until a study published in 1992 reported that inoculation of synovial fluid aspirates into blood culture vials improved the recovery of the bacterium. The authors of the original publication report herein the history of the discovery and review the progress made in the research of the organism.
May 14, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Jeff Aldinger, Mark D Hicar, Oscar G Gomez-Duarte, Vincent Callanan, Drew Pierce
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 14, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Daniel Glikman, Ron Dagan, Galia Barkai, Diana Averbuch, Alex Guri, Noga Givon-Lavi, Shalom Ben-Shimol
BACKGROUND: The introduction of the pneumococcal conjugated vaccines (PCVs) resulted in a substantial reduction of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) rates. However, impact on non-severe IPD (mostly occult bacteremia) has not yet been fully elucidated.We assessed severe and non-severe IPD (SIPD and NSIPD, respectively) rate dynamics in children <5 years in Israel before and after PCV7/PCV13 implementation. METHODS: A prospective, population-based, nationwide surveillance...
May 10, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
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