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Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902653/meningococcal-disease-in-children-in-argentina-a-three-year-active-sentinel-hospital-surveillance-study
#1
Ángela Gentile, Julia Bakir, María Rosa Agosti, Gabriela Ensinck, Hector Abate, Andrea Gajo Gane, Alejandro Santillán Iturres, Adriana Efron, Mabel Regueira, Ricardo Rüttimann
BACKGROUND: Meningococcal disease (MD) is a medical emergency and a serious public health problem. As new meningococcal vaccines become available, MD surveillance is crucial to provide baseline epidemiologic data before implementing preventive measures. We estimated MD incidence and epidemiology in Argentina using hospital-based surveillance. METHODS: 3-year prospective active surveillance in patients ≤15 years of age conducted at 6 pediatric hospital sentinel units (March 2012-February 2015)...
November 28, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902652/circulating-antibody-1-and-2-years-after-vaccination-with-the-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-in-preterm-compared-with-term-infants
#2
Federico Martinón-Torres, Jacek Wysocki, Kimberly J Center, Hanna Czajka, Ewa Majda-Stanislawska, Felix Omeñaca, Ana Concheiro-Guisan, Francisco Gimenez-Sanchez, Leszek Szenborn, Daniel Blázquez-Gamero, Laura Moreno-Galarraga, Peter C Giardina, Gang Sun, William C Gruber, Daniel A Scott, Alejandra Gurtman
BACKGROUND: Premature infants have lower short-term immune responses to vaccination than term infants, but patterns of antibody persistence in preterm infants over longer periods are not well established. This study assessed the persistence of antibody response to the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in formerly preterm versus term infants. METHODS: In total, 100 preterm and 100 term infants received PCV13 with routine vaccines at ages 2, 3, 4, and 12 months...
November 28, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902651/influenza-vaccine-effectiveness-in-preventing-influenza-illness-among-children-during-school-based-outbreaks-in-the-2014-2015-season-in-beijing-china
#3
Li Zhang, Peng Yang, Mark G Thompson, Yang Pan, Chunna Ma, Shuangsheng Wu, Ying Sun, Man Zhang, Wei Duan, Quanyi Wang
BACKGROUND: Little is known about VE against non-medically attended A(H3N2) influenza illness during 2014-2015 when the vaccine component appeared to be a poor match with circulating strains. METHODS: Forty-three eligible school influenza outbreaks in Beijing, China from November 1 to December 31, 2014 were included in this study. The VE of 2014-2015 trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3) was assessed in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza among school-age children through a case-control design, using asymptomatic controls...
November 28, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902650/survival-estimates-and-mortality-risk-factors-in-a-cohort-of-hiv-vertically-infected-individuals-in-salvador-brazil
#4
Cynthia R S Lorenzo, Eduardo M Netto, Fátima R L Patrício, Carlos Brites
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 28, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902649/increasing-incidence-of-life-threatening-pertussis-a-retrospective-cohort-study-in-new-zealand
#5
Emma Macdonald-Laurs, Anusha Ganeshalingham, Jonathan Lillie, Brent McSharry, Elizabeth R Segedin, Emma Best, Avinesh Pillai, Anthony Harnden, Catherine A Gilchrist, Cameron C Grant
BACKGROUND: Pertussis immunization programs aim to prevent severe infant disease. We investigated temporal trends in infant pertussis deaths and pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admissions and associations of changes in disease detection and vaccines used with death and PICU admission rates. METHODS: Using national data from New Zealand (NZ) we described infant pertussis deaths and PICU admissions from 1991-2013, over which time national immunization coverage at age 2 years increased from <80% to 92%...
November 28, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902648/incidence-and-burden-of-pertussis-among-infants-less-than-1-year-of-age
#6
Cristina Masseria, Carolyn K Martin, Girishanthy Krishnarajah, Laura K Becker, Ami Buikema, Tina Q Tan
BACKGROUND: Infant-specific pertussis data, especially among neonates, are limited and variable. This study (NCT01890850) provides overall and age-specific pertussis incidence and associated healthcare utilization and costs among commercially insured infants in the United States. METHODS: Nearly 1.2 million infants born from 2005-2010 with commercial health plan coverage were followed during their first 12 months of life. Pertussis cases were identified from medical claims (ICD-9-CM 033...
November 28, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902647/extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-associated-bloodstream-infections-in-children
#7
David F Butler, Brian Lee, Erica Molitor-Kirsch, Jason G Newland
This was a case-control study of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) cases spanning five years. Bloodstream infection (BSI) occurred in 12/207 subjects, with Candida sp.-4, Pseudomonas sp.-2, and Staphylococcal sp.-2 being predominant. No risk factors for BSI were identified. Exposure to broad spectrum antibiotics was common in both BSI and control patients. Prophylactic antimicrobials did not decrease risk for BSI.
November 28, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902646/macrolide-and-clindamycin-resistance-in-group-a-streptococci-isolated-from-children-with-pharyngitis
#8
Gregory P DeMuri, Alana K Sterkel, Phillip A Kubica, Megan N Duster, Kurt D Reed, Ellen R Wald
Group A streptococcus (GAS) is responsible for 15-30% of cases of acute pharyngitis in children. Macrolides such as azithromycin have become popular for treating GAS pharyngitis. We report macrolide resistance rates in a primary care setting in our geographic area over the past 5 years and discuss the implications of resistance in making treatment decisions. Throat swabs were collected from children with pharyngitis from May 2011 to May 2015 in a primary care setting in Madison, WI. Susceptibility testing was performed for erythromycin and clindamycin using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method...
November 28, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879558/impact-of-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccines-on-selected-head-and-neck-infections-in-hospitalized-israeli-children
#9
Tal Marom, Shiran Bookstein Peretz, Orna Schwartz, Abraham Goldfarb, Yahav Oron, Sharon Ovnat Tamir
INTRODUCTION: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major pathogen of pediatric head and neck infections (HNIs), e.g. acute otitis media (AOM), acute mastoiditis (AM), acute bacterial sinusitis (ABS) and meningitis. The aim of the study was to characterize the epidemiology of pneumococcal HNIs (pHNIs) before, during, and after the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs). METHODS: Children 0-16 years who were hospitalized with HNIs in the Pediatrics Department in a general hospital between 1/1/2007-12/31/2014 were retrospectively identified...
November 22, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879557/chryseobacterium-indologenes-associated-pneumonia-in-two-neonates
#10
Shruti Radera, Shalini Tripathi, Jyotsna Agarwal, Mala Kumar
Chryseobacterium species are widely distributed in nature and can rarely cause human infection. Few cases reported in hospitalized patients are in immunocompromised hosts with indwelling devices and associated co-morbidities. Chryseobacterium species are usually multi-drug resistant. We describe two cases of C. indologenes associated-pneumonia in neonates and review the published infant cases.
November 22, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879556/who-gets-severe-gynecomastia-among-hiv-infected-children-in-the-uk-and-ireland
#11
Julia Kenny, Katja Doerholt, Di M Gibb, Ali Judd
There are few data on gynecomastia in HIV-infected children. Within the UK/Ireland's national cohort, 56/1,873 (3%) HIV-infected children had gynecomastia, of which 10 (0.5%) were severe. All 10 had received antiretroviral therapy for a median of 27.5 [21,42] months; 4/10 had received efavirenz, 7/10 and 6/10 stavudine and/or didanosine respectively. Five were non-reversible, despite changing ART, and required breast reduction surgery.
November 22, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879555/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-dtap5-ipv-compared-with-dtap5-plus-ipv-as-the-fifth-dose-in-children-4-to-6-years-of-age
#12
Michael J Smith, Emilia Jordanov, Xiaohua Sheng, Peter H Tsang
BACKGROUND: Immunogenicity and safety of stand-alone diphtheria, tetanus toxoid, 5-component acellular pertussis vaccine adsorbed, inactivated poliovirus (IPV) combination vaccine (DTaP5-IPV) was compared with separate DTaP5 plus IPV vaccines as fifth dose in children 4-6 years of age. METHODS: In this phase III, controlled, multicenter, randomized, open-label study participants were randomized to DTaP5-IPV plus measles/mumps/rubella (MMR) and varicella virus (VZV) vaccines (Group 1; N=324), DTaP5+IPV with MMR and VZV (Group 2; N=327), DTaP5-IPV with/without MMR/VZV (Group 3; N=2419), or DTaP5+IPV with/without MMR/VZV (Group 4; N=302)...
November 22, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879554/measles-and-rubella-seroprevalence-among-hiv-infected-and-uninfected-zambian-youth
#13
Catherine G Sutcliffe, Kelly Searle, Hellen K Matakala, Dip Biomed, Michelle Greenman, Kaitlin Rainwater-Lovett, Philip E Thuma, William J Moss
BACKGROUND: Measles and congenital rubella syndrome remain significant causes of morbidity and mortality despite available vaccines. HIV-infected youth may be at increased risk of measles because of greater waning immunity following vaccination. At a population level, they constitute a potentially large pool of susceptibles to measles and rubella. More data among HIV-infected youth in sub-Saharan Africa are needed to guide vaccination policy and control strategies. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was nested within two ongoing studies of malaria and HIV in Zambia...
November 22, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870815/the-cape-town-clinical-decision-rule-for-streptococcal-pharyngitis-in-children
#14
Mark Emmanuel Engel, Karen Cohen, Ronald Gounden, Andre P Kengne, Dylan Dominic Barth, Andrew C Whitelaw, Veronica Francis, Motasim Badri, Annemie Stewart, James B Dale, Bongani M Mayosi, Gary Maartens
BACKGROUND: Existing clinical decision rules (CDR) to diagnose group A streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis have not been validated in sub-Saharan Africa. We developed a locally applicable CDR while evaluating existing CDRs for diagnosing GAS pharyngitis in South African children. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study and enrolled 997 children aged 3-15 years presenting to primary care clinics with a complaint of sore throat, and whose parents provided consent...
November 18, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870814/the-contemporary-microbiology-and-rates-of-concomitant-osteomyelitis-in-acute-septic-arthritis
#15
Jessica Branson, Jesus G Vallejo, Anthony R Flores, Kristina G Hulten, Edward O Mason, Sheldon L Kaplan, J Chase McNeil
BACKGROUND: Septic arthritis (SA) and acute osteomyelitis (AO) are among the most common serious bacterial infections of childhood. Knowledge of the microbiology of SA is critical to treatment. Awareness of the presence of attendant AO is also important to guide clinical management. We sought to describe the current microbiology of SA in children as well as describe clinical features associated with coexisting AO. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with SA were identified from the infectious diseases consult service records from 2010-2014...
November 18, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870813/acute-otitis-media-during-infancy-parent-reported-incidence-and-modifiable-risk-factors
#16
Annemarijn C Prins-van Ginkel, Patricia C J Bruijning-Verhagen, Cuno S P M Uiterwaal, Cornelis K van der Ent, Henriette A Smit, Marieke L A de Hoog
BACKGROUND: Age at exposure to acute otitis media (AOM) risk factors such as daycare attendance, lack of breastfeeding and tobacco smoke is little studied but important for targeting AOM prevention strategies. Moreover, studies are typically restricted to clinically diagnosed AOM, while a significant subset can occur outside the healthcare system, depending on the country-setting. This study aims to determine risk factor exposure and effect of its timing within the first year of life on parent-reported AOM symptom episodes...
November 18, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870812/does-breastfeeding-protect-young-infants-from-pertussis-case-control-study-and-immunologic-evaluation
#17
Elisabetta Pandolfi, Francesco Gesualdo, Emanuela Carloni, Alberto Villani, Fabio Midulla, Rita Carsetti, Paola Stefanelli, Giorgio Fedele, Alberto Eugenio Tozzi
BACKGROUND: Pertussis infection can be severe in unvaccinated infants. A case control study was conducted to investigate the potential role of breastfeeding in protecting young, unvaccinated infants from pertussis. METHODS: Hospitalized infants < 6 months with positive RT-PCR for pertussis on nasopharyngeal aspirate were enrolled as cases; healthy controls were enrolled among patients admitted for ultrasound screening. Vaccinated infants were excluded. Sociodemographic, clinical and feeding information were collected...
November 18, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870811/abdominal-actinomycosis-in-children-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#18
Noppadol Wacharachaisurapol, Jeffrey M Bender, Larry Wang, David Bliss, Skorn Ponrartana, Pia S Pannaraj
Abdominal actinomycosis is an uncommon pediatric infection that often manifests with a tumor-like lesion. We describe a previously healthy 11-year-old girl who presented with right lower quadrant abdominal pain and drainage. Computed tomography scan showed an abdominal wall mass. Surgical debridement cultures grew Actinomyces meyeri. Literature review identified 18 additional pediatric cases since 1964 that we have summarized.
November 18, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870810/neonatal-group-b-streptococcus-infections-prevention-strategies-clinical-and-microbiologic-characteristics-in-7-years-of-surveillance
#19
Roberta Creti, Monica Imperi, Alberto Berardi, Marco Pataracchia, Simona Recchia, Giovanna Alfarone, Lucilla Baldassarri
BACKGROUND: The characteristics of group B streptococcus (GBS) neonatal disease in a period of 7 years are reported. METHODS: The estimation of the neonatal GBS disease risk and prevention strategies adopted at delivery in absence of national guidelines were evaluated by the analysis of 3501 questionnaires. Notification of 194 neonatal GBS infections was recorded. In addition, 115 strains from neonatal early and late onset disease (EOD and LOD, respectively) plus 320 strains from pregnant women were analyzed by molecular typing methods and for antibiotic resistance...
November 18, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870809/rise-in-haemophilus-influenzae-with-reduced-quinolone-susceptibility-and-development-of-a-simple-screening-method
#20
Shoji Seyama, Takeaki Wajima, Yuki Yanagisawa, Hidemasa Nakaminami, Masanobu Ushio, Takeshi Fujii, Norihisa Noguchi
BACKGROUND: β-Lactamase-non-producing ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) Haemophilus influenzae are prevalent in Japan. Resistance has increased as a consequence of the expanded use of antimicrobial agents, raising concerns about the rise of multidrug (macrolide and fluoroquinolone)-resistant H. influenzae. METHODS: In this study, we investigated susceptibility to fluoroquinolones in H. influenzae clinical isolates from 2013 to 2014, and identified the amino acid substitutions in quinolone resistance-determining regions of gyrA and parC...
November 18, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
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