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Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal

Liron Ziv, Joanne Yacobovich, Joseph Pardo, Havatzelet Yarden-Bilavsky, Jacob Amir, Micky Osovsky, Efraim Bilavsky
BACKGROUND: Valganciclovir (2/d) therapy for 6 months in neonates with symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus infection improves hearing and neurodevelopmental outcome. The only reported adverse event was neutropenia. Since 2009, our protocol for symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus infection was a 1-year treatment of 2/d for the first 3 months followed by 9 months of 1/d. METHODS: A retrospective study. Infants with congenital cytomegalovirus treated with valganciclovir for 1 year were recruited...
April 19, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Nicolene van der Sandt, Natalie Schellack, Lindi A Mabope, Mothahadini Pb Mawela, Danie Kruger, Brian Godman
BACKGROUND: Appropriate use of surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis (SAP) is a concern in view of its impact on morbidity, mortality and costs. Little is currently known about SAP in South Africa. OBJECTIVE: Assess compliance to SAP guidelines for pediatric patients undergoing surgery in one of four surgical sub-specialties among hospitals in South Africa. METHODS: Eight month retrospective chart review in both a teaching hospital and a private hospital between February and August 2015...
April 19, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Sophia Tsakiri, Chiamaka Aneji, Christine Domonoske, Lynnette Mazur, Daniel K Benjamin, Susan H Wootton
We report voriconazole levels in an infant with disseminated Candida glabrata infection who received combination antifungal therapy and rescue voriconazole treatment. Serum and CSF voriconazole levels were higher than anticipated and above target. Dose reduction did not lead to a reduction in the blood or CSF levels. The patient did not exhibit identifiable drug toxicity.
April 19, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Hakka Naziat, Senjuti Saha, Maksuda Islam, Shampa Saha, Mohammad J Uddin, Manzoor Hussain, Stephen P Luby, Gary L Darmstadt, Cynthia G Whitney, Bradford D Gessner, Samir K Saha
BACKGROUND: Otitis media (OM) poses a high disease burden on Bangladeshi children but little is known about its etiologies. We conducted a surveillance study in the largest pediatric hospital to characterize pathogens responsible for OM. METHODS: In the out-patient ear-nose-throat department of Dhaka Shishu Hospital, which serves 0 -18 years old children, we collected ear swabs from OM children with otorrhea from April 2014 through March 2015. We cultured all specimens for bacterial pathogens and assessed serotype and antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) and Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) isolates...
April 9, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Gadi Howard, Raouf Nassar, Eli Hershkovitz, David Greenberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 9, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Lilian Martins Oliveira Diniz, Roberta Maia Castro Romanelli, Andréa Lucchesi de Carvalho, Daniela Caldas Teixeira, Luis Fernando Andrade de Carvalho, Verônica Ferreira Cury, Marcelo Pereira Lima Filho, Graciele Perígolo, Tiago Pires Heringer
An outbreak of yellow fever in Brazil made it possible to assess different presentations of disease such as perinatal transmission. A pregnant woman was admitted to hospital with yellow fever symptoms. She was submitted to cesarean section and died due to fulminant hepatitis. On the 6th day the newborn developed liver failure and died 13 days later. Yellow fever PCR was positive for both.
April 9, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
George T Mandy, Sushrut Arora, Eumenia C Castro, Pamela S Gordon, Joseph L Hagan, Amy L Zodin, Leonard E Weisman
BACKGROUND: Ureaplasma spp are a known risk factor for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in premature infants. Emerging research suggests treatment with azithromycin or clarithromycin in the first days of life reduces BPD in Ureaplasma spp positive infants. Side effects of these antibiotics make it imperative to optimize reliable non-invasive screening procedures to identify infants who would benefit from treatment. METHODS: The aim of this study was to determine the best site and time to screen for Ureaplasma spp in 24-34-week premature infants...
April 9, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Barry T Scanlan, Laila F Ibrahim, Sandy M Hopper, Franz E Babl, Andrew Davidson, Penelope A Bryant
BACKGROUND: Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) offers the option of treating children requiring intravenous antibiotics for acute urinary tract infection(UTI)/pyelonephritis at home. We aimed to determine the outcomes of treating patients with UTI/pyelonephritis using OPAT directly from the Emergency Department (ED) without admission to hospital. METHODS: This was a retrospective study (Aug 2012-Jul 2016) of children with UTI/pyelonephritis treated with parenteral antibiotics via a peripheral cannula directly from ED to home under a hospital-in-the home (HITH) program...
April 9, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Itay Tokatly Latzer, Gideon Paret, Marina Rubinstein, Nathan Keller, Galia Barkai, Itai M Pessach
BACKGROUND: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (S. maltophilia) is a life-threatening nosocomial pathogen with profound multidrug resistant attributes. It is associated with high mortality, particularly in immunocompromised patients. Data on therapy for S. maltophilia infections are scarce, especially in children hospitalized in intensive care settings (PICU). METHODS: A retrospective chart review of pediatric patients with isolates of S. maltophilia hospitalized over a five year period in 2 PICUs...
April 9, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Céline Thibault, Nastya Kassir, Isabelle Goyer, Yves Théorêt, Catherine Litalien, Ahmed Moussa, Philippe Ovetchkine, Julie Autmizguine
BACKGROUND: The emergence of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) with reduced vancomycin-susceptibility in some neonatal intensive care units (NICU) has resulted in an increase of linezolid use. Linezolid pharmacokinetics (PK) and safety in premature infants still need to be better established. METHODS: This was a retrospective PK study. All infants who received intravenous (IV) linezolid and had linezolid plasma concentrations per standard of care were included...
April 9, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Benno Kohlmaier, Andreas Trobisch, Klaus Pfurtscheller, Igor Knez, Walter Klepetko, Alexander Pilhatsch, Sabrina Schweintzger, Werner Zenz
We describe herein the management of a 16-year-old girl with cystic echinococcosis (CE) of the right ventricle and massive obstruction of the pulmonary vessel system by parasitic metastatic dissemination. After resection of the cardiac cyst, pulmonary thromboendarterectomy was performed to remove parts of the obstructive parasitic material. The treatment reduced the elevated pulmonary arterial pressure, improving the patient's overall condition.
April 9, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Lauren A Lee, Gail L Sondermeyer Cooksey, Janice J Kim, Amandeep Kahal, Debra Gilliss, Fouzia Naeem, James M McCarty, Duc J Vugia
BACKGROUND: Coccidioidomycosis is not as well described in the pediatric population as it is in the adult population. We describe clinical findings, diagnosis, and management of coccidioidomycosis in 108 pediatric patients seen in an outpatient clinic in the California Central Valley, an area endemic for coccidioidomycosis. METHODS: We reviewed medical records of a convenience sample of pediatric patients (≤17 years of age) diagnosed with coccidioidomycosis who visited an infectious diseases clinic in Madera, CA during January 1-October 1, 2012...
April 9, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Kun Liu, Yongjin Zhou, Shihan Cui, Jiawen Song, Peipei Ye, Wei Xiang, Xiaoyan Huang, Yiping Chen, Zhihan Yan, Xinjian Ye
BACKGROUND: Brainstem encephalitis is the most common neurologic complication after enterovirus 71 infection. The involvement of brainstem, especially the dorsal medulla oblongata, can cause severe sequelae or death in children with enterovirus 71 infection. We aimed to determine the prevalence of dorsal medulla oblongata involvement in children with enterovirus 71-related brainstem encephalitis (EBE) by using conventional MRI and to evaluate the value of dorsal medulla oblongata involvement in outcome prediction...
April 5, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Maria S Rueda, Renzo Calderon-Anyosa, Jorge Gonzales, Christie G Turin, Alonso Zea-Vera, Jaime Zegarra, Sicilia Bellomo, Luis Cam, Anne Castaneda, Theresa J Ochoa
BACKGROUND: Neonatal sepsis is a leading cause of child morbidity and mortality, especially in premature and low-birth-weight (LBW) infants. Prompt antibiotic therapy is warranted, but its inappropriate use leads to bacterial resistance and adverse outcomes. Our objective is to describe the antibiotic use for late onset sepsis (LOS) in Peruvian premature infants. METHODS: Prospective study as a secondary analysis of a clinical trial in three Neonatal Care Units in Peru...
April 2, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Ana Mendez-Echevarria, Gonzalez-Granado Luis Ignacio, Luis M Allende, De Felipe Beatriz, Del Rosal Teresa, Calvo Cristina, Perez-Martinez Antonio, Ruiz Garcia Raquel, Neth Olaf
Newborn screening (NBS) for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) using T-cell receptor-excision circles (TRECs) allows prompt diagnosis and initiation of supportive and curative therapy thereby reducing morbidity and mortality. However, profound combined immunodeficiencies with normal numbers of non-functional T cells will go undetected. We present a patient with ORAI1 deficiency and normal TREC numbers observed after diagnosis at the age of 14 months who suffered from disseminated fatal cytomegalovirus and Pneumocystis jirovecii infection, demonstrating a potential pitfall of the current NBS program...
April 2, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Hiie Soeorg, Hanna Kadri Metsvaht, Evamaria Elisabet Keränen, Imbi Eelmäe, Mirjam Merila, Mari-Liis Ilmoja, Tuuli Metsvaht, Irja Lutsar
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus haemolyticus is a common colonizer and cause of late-onset sepsis (LOS) in preterm neonates. By describing genetic relatedness, we aimed to determine whether mother's breast milk (BM) is a source of S. haemolyticus colonizing neonatal gut and skin and/or causing LOS. METHODS: S. haemolyticus was isolated from stool and skin swabs of 49 BM-fed preterm neonates admitted to neonatal intensive care unit, 20 healthy BM-fed term neonates and BM of mothers once a week and typed by multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST)...
April 2, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Mari Asakura, Toshiyuki Tanaka, Kensuke Shoji, Shuhei Karakawa, Akira Ishiguro, Isao Miyairi
BACKGROUND: Suppurative cervical lymphadenitis is rare in children with limited information about the frequency of neutropenia in any series. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of pediatric patients in whom suppurative cervical lymphadenitis was diagnosed between April 2011 and March 2016 at a tertiary children's hospital in Tokyo, Japan. Microbiologically confirmed cases of cervical lymphadenitis with abscess formation were included in the analysis. RESULTS: Twenty-five patients (median age: 1 year old, 64% female) with abscess formation due to Staphylococcus aureus were identified...
April 2, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Sanjay Patel, Valentina Burzio, Helen Green, Sara Rees, Marc Tebruegge, Christine Jones, Saul N Faust
BACKGROUND: Recent advances in outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy (OPAT) have largely focused on adult practice, and there are few published data on the safety and effectiveness of pediatric OPAT (p-OPAT). METHODS: During a 3-year-period (2012 to 2015), data were prospectively collected on patients managed within the p-OPAT service at Southampton Children's Hospital, a tertiary pediatric hospital in the South of England. RESULTS: A total of 130 p-OPAT episodes were managed during this period...
April 2, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Santtu Heinonen, Liina Süvari, Mika Gissler, Olli Pitkänen, Sture Andersson, Otto Helve
BACKGROUND: Transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN) is a self-limiting respiratory disorder, resulting from a failure to clear the lungs of perinatal fluid. As similar pathophysiological features are present in children with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis, we hypothesized that these two conditions may be connected. METHODS: This was a population-based cohort study that included all children born in term (≥37 weeks of gestation) without congenital malformations in Finland between 1996 and 2015...
April 2, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Prachi Singh, Brian P Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
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