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Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227467/evidence-for-rise-in-meningococcal-serogroup-c-bactericidal-antibody-titers-in-the-absence-of-booster-vaccination-in-previously-vaccinated-children
#1
Al-Mamoon Badahdah, Ameneh Khatami, Mohamed Tashani, Harunor Rashid, Robert Booy
BACKGROUND: The introduction of meningococcal serogroup C (MenC) conjugate (MCC) vaccines in the UK and Australia led to an impressive decline in the incidence of invasive disease. This study examined bactericidal antibody titres over time in UK and Australian children who received a MCC vaccine in early childhood to test the hypothesis that ongoing boosting of immunity in the absence of further doses of vaccine in some children may contribute to ongoing protection from disease. METHODS: Serum bactericidal assay using rabbit complement (rSBA) titres at each follow-up visit were compared to all preceding visits to identify any ≥4-fold rise in titres...
December 8, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227466/morbidity-and-mortality-of-a-cohort-of-peruvian-hiv-infected-children-2003-2012
#2
Amira N Baker, Angela M Bayer, Rolando M Viani, Lenka Kolevic, Myung-Shin Sim, Jaime G Deville
BACKGROUND: Data on pediatric HIV in Peru is limited. The National Institute of Child Health (Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño: INSN) cares for the most HIV-infected children under age 18 in the country. We describe the outcomes of children seen at INSN's HIV clinic over the 10 years when antiretroviral therapy (ART) and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) interventions became available in 2004. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of INSN HIV clinic patients between 2003-2012...
December 8, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227465/acute-pharyngitis-associated-with-streptococcus-dysgalactiae-subspecies-equisimilis-in-children
#3
Fujio Kakuya, Takahiro Kinebuchi, Hitoshi Okubo, Kumihiro Matsuo, Mami Kuroda, Hiroaki Fujiyasu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The importance of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) in causing sporadic pharyngitis in children remains controversial. The aims of this study were; (1) to report the incidence and, (2) to compare the epidemiologic and clinical features of patients with SDSE to those with Streptococcus pyogenes (SP). METHODS: A prospective study was conducted on acute pharyngitis associated with SDSE in children over a 2-year period. SDSE was identified using a phenotypic method, M protein gene (emm) analysis, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry...
December 8, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227464/antibiotic-resistance-of-potential-otopathogens-isolated-from-nasopharyngeal-flora-of-children-with-acute-otitis-media-before-during-and-after-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccines-implementation
#4
Alexis Rybak, Corinne Levy, Stéphane Bonacorsi, Stéphane Béchet, François Vié le Sage, Annie Elbez, Emmanuelle Varon, Robert Cohen
BACKGROUNDL: To re-evaluate antibiotic strategies for acute otitis media (AOM) in young children, we analyzed the trends of nasopharyngeal carriage and antibiotic resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp), Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) and Moraxella catarrhalis (Mc) isolated from young children with AOM during a 16-year period. METHODS: This cross-sectional study analyzed from 2001 to 2016, the nasopharyngeal carriage of Sp, Hi and Mc of young children with AOM...
December 8, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227463/the-conquest-of-hib-the-importance-of-protecting-high-risk-children
#5
Mathuram Santosham
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 8, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227462/psychiatric-disorders-antiretroviral-medication-adherence-and-viremia-in-a-cohort-of-perinatally-hiv-infected-adolescents-and-young-adults
#6
Amelia Bucek, Cheng-Shiun Leu, Stephanie Benson, Patricia Warne, Elaine J Abrams, Katherine S Elkington, Curtis Dolezal, Andrew Wiznia, Claude Ann Mellins
BACKGROUND: Perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV+) adolescents and young adults (AYA) are at risk for sub-optimal antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, and mental health and substance use problems that, in HIV-infected adults, predict non-adherence. Studies on the relationship between psychiatric and substance use disorders (SUD) and adherence among PHIV+ AYA are limited, but may be important to informing evidence-based interventions to promote adherence. METHODS: Data were analyzed from three annual follow-up interviews (FU2-4, N=179) in a longitudinal study of PHIV+ AYA...
December 8, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227461/population-pharmacokinetics-of-lopinavir-in-severely-malnourished-hiv-infected-children-and-the-effect-on-treatment-outcomes
#7
Moherndran Archary, Helen Mcllleron, Raziya Bobat, Phillip La Russa, Thobekile Sibaya, Lubbe Wiesner, Stefanie Hennig
BACKGROUND: In developing countries, malnutrition remains a common clinical syndrome at antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiation. Physiological changes due to malnutrition and during nutritional recovery could affect the pharmacokinetics of antiretroviral drugs. METHODS: HIV-infected children admitted with severe acute malnutrition were randomised to early or delayed initiation of lopinavir/ritonavir, abacavir and lamivudine using WHO weight-band dosage charts...
December 8, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206750/ceftazidime-avibactam-antimicrobial-activity-and-spectrum-when-tested-against-gram-negative-organisms-from-pediatric-patients-results-from-the-inform-surveillance-program-united-states-2011-2015
#8
Helio S Sader, Michael D Huband, Leonard R Duncan, Robert K Flamm
BACKGROUND: Ceftazidime-avibactam was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in 2015 to treat complicated intra-abdominal and urinary tract infections in adults, and is under clinical development for treating pediatric patients. METHODS: Among 53,381 gram-negative organisms (1 per patient) collected in 2011-2015, 8,461 (15.9%) were from pediatric (≤17 years-old [yo]) patients. The isolates were collected from 82 US medical centers and susceptibility tested against ceftazidime-avibactam (avibactam at fixed 4 µg/mL) and comparators by reference broth microdilution methods...
December 4, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206749/an-infant-from-rural-california-with-insidious-left-wrist-swelling
#9
Michael Abdelmisseh, Fouzia Naeem, Angela Veesenmeyer, Aleli Siongco, Chokechai Rongkavilit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 4, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206748/pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-atazanavir-in-hiv-1-infected-children-treated-with-atazanavir-powder-and-ritonavir-combined-analysis-of-the-prince-1-and-2-studies
#10
Heather Sevinsky, Luna Zaru, Reena Wang, Xiaohui Xu, Cheryl Pikora, Todd A Correll, Timothy Eley
BACKGROUND: Two clinical studies (PRINCE-1 and -2) in HIV-1-infected children assessed the safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of dual nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) background therapy plus once-daily atazanavir powder formulation boosted with ritonavir (ATV+RTV). Here, we present a combined analysis of ATV pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics across these studies. METHODS: Intensive 24-hour pharmacokinetic profiles at steady state compared ATV exposures (area under the concentration-time curve in one dosing interval [AUCτ]) in 5 ATV+RTV baseline weight-band dosing categories with historic data in adults receiving ATV+RTV 300/100-mg capsules...
December 4, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206747/safety-and-efficacy-of-atazanavir-powder-and-ritonavir-in-hiv-1-infected-infants-and-children-aged-from-3-months-to-11-years-the-prince-2-study
#11
Mark F Cotton, Afaaf Liberty, Indiana Torres-Escobar, Maria Isabel Gonzalez-Tome, Jurgen Lissens, Luna Zaru, Isabelle Klauck, Daniela Cambilargiu, Cheryl Pikora, Todd A Correll
BACKGROUND: Novel antiretroviral formulations that are palatable, safe, and effective are needed for infants and children. METHODS: PRINCE-2 is an ongoing clinical trial assessing safety, efficacy, and palatability of once-daily atazanavir powder formulation boosted with ritonavir (ATV+RTV) plus optimized dual NRTI therapy in ARV-naïve/experienced children with screening HIV-1 RNA ≥1000 copies/mL. Children aged 3 months to <11 years received ATV+RTV by 5 baseline weight bands: 5 to <10kg=150/80mg; 5 to <10kg=200/80mg; 10 to <15kg=200/80mg; 15 to <25kg=250/80mg; and 25 to <35kg=300/100mg...
December 4, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200185/early-vaccine-type-pneumococcal-acute-otitis-media-does-not-predispose-to-subsequent-otitis-when-compared-to-early-acute-otitis-media-due-to-other-bacterial-etiology
#12
Arto A Palmu, Mika Lahdenkari
BACKGROUND: Prevention of acute otitis media (AOM), and especially recurrence and biofilm formation, by pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) has been hypothesized to be due to prevention of early episodes triggering the vicious cycle. We tested the specific role of vaccine-type pneumococcal AOM in this hypothesis. METHODS: In the phase III randomized, double-blind FinOM Vaccine Trial conducted in 1995-99 children received PCV7 or hepatitis B vaccine as control at 2/4/6/12 months of age and were followed for AOM...
December 1, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200184/structural-neuroimaging-and-neuropsychologic-signatures-of-vertically-acquired-hiv
#13
Robert Paul, Wasana Prasitsuebsai, Neda Jahanashad, Thanyawee Puthanakit, Paul Thompson, Linda Aurpibul, Rawiwan Hansudewechakul, Pope Kosalaraksa, Suparat Kanjanavanit, Chaiwat Ngampiyaskul, Wicharn Luesomboon, Sukalaya Lerdlum, Mantana Pothisri, Pannee Visrutaratna, Victor Valcour, Talia M Nir, Arvin Saremi, Stephen Kerr, Jintanat Ananworanich
BACKGROUND: Children with vertically acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) exhibit persistent cognitive impairments, yet the corresponding neuroimaging signature of vertical infection remains unclear. METHODS: Fifty healthy control children and 51 vertically infected children were included in the study. The HIV-infected group consisted of survivors who had not received antiretroviral therapy (ART) at birth. The HIV-infected group averaged 11.4 (2.5) years of age, with a median CD4 count of 683 cells/mm...
December 1, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200183/beyond-prevention-of-vertical-hiv-transmission-improving-outcomes-of-hiv-uninfected-infants-born-to-mothers-with-hiv-infection
#14
George K Siberry
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200182/invasive-haemophilus-influenzae-type-b-hib-infections-in-children-with-cancer-in-the-era-of-infant-hib-immunization-programs-1991-2014-a-report-from-the-canadian-immunization-monitoring-program-active
#15
Joanne McNair, Alyssa Smith, Julie A Bettinger, Wendy Vaudry, Ben Tan, Shalini Desai, Scott A Halperin, Karina A Top
We studied the epidemiology of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) infections among children with cancer admitted to Canadian pediatric hospitals. From 1991-2014, 13 cases among children with cancer were identified through active surveillance. Average age was 6.7 years. Six of 7 cases eligible for infant immunization were age-appropriately immunized (vaccine failures). Children with cancer may benefit from booster Hib immunization.
December 1, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194165/clinical-characteristics-and-risk-factors-of-long-term-central-venous-catheter-associated-bloodstream-infections-in-children
#16
Hye Min Moon, Suji Kim, Ki Wook Yun, Hyun-Young Kim, Sung Eun Jung, Eun Hwa Choi, Hoan Jong Lee
BACKGROUND: Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) account for significant morbidity and mortality in patients with long-term central venous catheters (CVCs). This study was performed to identify the characteristics and risk factors of CLABSIs among children with long-term CVCs. METHODS: A retrospective review of children who had a long-term CVC in Seoul National University Children's Hospital between 2011 and 2015 was performed. Data on patient demographics, the isolated pathogens, and the status of CVC placement were collected...
November 30, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189659/high-prevalence-of-lipid-abnormalities-and-insulin-resistance-among-antiretroviral-na%C3%A3-ve-hiv-infected-children-in-india
#17
Chandrasekaran Padmapriyadarsini, Anita Shet, Ramalingam Srinivasan, Geetha Ramachandran, G N Sanjeeva, Poornaganga Devi, Karunainathan Ramesh, Perumal Kannabiran Bhavani, Devaraj Reddy, Elumalai Suresh, Chockalingam Chandrasekhar, Christine Wanke, Soumya Swaminathan
BACKGROUND: As large numbers of children are accessing antiretroviral therapy (ART) in India, we evaluated the dietary intake, growth pattern and risk of metabolic complications like dyslipidemia and insulin resistance among ART-naïve HIV infected children (CLHIV). METHODS: CLHIV aged 2-12 years, at the time of initiating ART in Chennai and Bangalore, were assessed for their dietary intake, anthropometry, blood CD4 cell count, HIV-1 viral load, fasting serum lipids, glucose and insulin...
November 20, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189658/discharge-criteria-for-bronchiolitis-an-unmet-need
#18
Cristina Garcia-Mauriño, Melissa Moore-Clingenpeel, Rebecca Wallihan, Katalin Koranyi, Bavani Rajah, Tiffany Shirk, Maria Vegh, Octavio Ramilo, Asuncion Mejias
BACKGROUND: Admission criteria and standardized management strategies for bronchiolitis are addressed in several guidelines and have shown to be beneficial; however, guidance regarding discharge criteria is limited and widely variable. We assessed the impact on clinical outcomes of a discharge protocol for children < 2 years of age hospitalized with bronchiolitis in a tertiary care pediatric hospital. METHODS: In October 2013, a protocol to standardize the discharge of children with bronchiolitis was implemented in the infectious diseases (ID) ward, but not in other pediatric units caring for these children (non-ID)...
November 20, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189657/perinatal-tuberculosis-is-it-a-forgotten-disease
#19
Laura Ferreras-Antolin, Pilar Caro-Aguilera, Estela Perez-Ruiz, David Moreno-Perez, Francisco Javier Perez-Frias
Perinatal tuberculosis is an uncommon condition but with a high mortality and a challenging diagnosis. We present four cases of perinatal tuberculosis managed between 1991-2014 in a Spanish Tertiary Hospital. The infection should be considered in patients with progressive respiratory symptoms and with a poor response to conventional antibiotic therapy, especially in those with positive epidemiologic risk. Bronchoscopy can be a useful tool for diagnosis.
November 20, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189677/defining-study-outcomes-that-better-reflect-individual-response-to-treatment
#20
Konstantia Nadia Angelidou, Paul Palumbo, Jane Lindsey, Avy Violary, Moherndran Archary, Linda Barlow, Brian Claggett, Michael Hughes, Lee-Jen Wei
BACKGROUND: Most clinical trials comparing treatments evaluate the separate effects on each of several efficacy and toxicity outcomes. However, population-averaged summary measures of treatment differences may not accurately reflect individual responses to treatment, and drawing conclusions about which treatment is "best" is straightforward if one treatment is superior across all outcomes, but challenging when this is not the case. METHODS: We created a study outcome based on expert opinion, which captures the risk/benefit profile of response to a treatment...
November 17, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
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