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Pediatric Diabetes

Toni Rush, Megan McGeary, Nicholas Sicignano, Melissa A Buryk
OBJECTIVES: To describe the incidence and prevalence of type 1 diabetes among pediatric dependents of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD). METHODS: The Military Health System (MHS) Data Repository was used to identify pediatric patients (≤ 17 years of age) with type 1 diabetes from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2012. Annual incidence, annual prevalence and adjusted incidence were calculated and stratified by sex, age group and region of residence. RESULTS: Within a 6-year study period from 2007-2012, 5,616 pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes were identified; 57% male, mean (SD) age of 10...
February 15, 2018: Pediatric Diabetes
Thomas Danne, Anke Schwandt, Torben Biester, Bettina Heidtmann, Birgit Rami-Merhar, Holger Haberland, Silvia Müther, Semik Khodaverdi, Thomas Haak, Reinhard W Holl
OBJECTIVE: To examine glycemic control in youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D) who switched from multiple daily injections (MDI) to a tubeless insulin pump (Omnipod ® Insulin Management System, Insulet Corp., Billerica, MA) compared to patients who continued MDI therapy over a 3-year time period. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This retrospective analysis of the German/Austrian Diabetes Patienten Verlaufsdokumentation (DPV) registry included data from 263 centers and 2529 patients <20 years (n=660 tubeless insulin pump; n=1869 MDI) who initiated treatment on a tubeless insulin pump as of January 1, 2013 and had 1 year of data pre-switch from MDI and 3 years of data post-switch to a tubeless pump...
February 15, 2018: Pediatric Diabetes
Jon D Oden, Brian Franklin, Ernesto Fernandez, Soumya Adhikari, Perrin C White
BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI) and fat mass may be higher in children with diabetes compared to healthy peers. It is not certain how diabetic children respond to exercise and diet interventions. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of summer camp on BMI and body composition in children with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Five hundred eighty-six children (5-19 years, 518 with type 1 diabetes, 68 without diabetes) were followed while attending camp...
February 13, 2018: Pediatric Diabetes
Rebecka Enander, Peter Adolfsson, Torun Bergdahl, Gun Forsander, Johnny Ludvigsson, Ragnar Hanas
BACKGROUND: Our aim was to see if IV insulin therapy at diagnosis preserves beta-cell function better than multiple subcutaneous injections (SC). METHODS: 54 children 9.9±3.5 years (range 2.8-14.9) without ketoacidosis were included in a 2 year, randomized multicenter study with insulin SC or 48-72 hours IV initially. 33 (61%) were boys, 22 (41%) were pubertal. 48 subjects completed 12 months follow-up and 43 completed 24 months. At 1, 6, 12 and 24 months, HbA1c, C-peptide and insulin/kg/24h were measured...
February 8, 2018: Pediatric Diabetes
S R Johnson, P J Leo, A M McInerney-Leo, L K Anderson, M Marshall, I McGown, F Newell, M A Brown, L S Conwell, M Harris, E L Duncan
BACKGROUND: To assess the utility of whole-exome sequencing (WES) for mutation detection in maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) and congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI). MODY and CHI are the two commonest monogenic disorders of glucose-regulated insulin secretion in childhood, with 13 causative genes known for MODY and 10 causative genes identified for CHI. The large number of potential genes makes comprehensive screening using traditional methods expensive and time-consuming. METHODS: Ten subjects with MODY and five with CHI with known mutations underwent WES using two different exome capture kits (Nimblegen SeqCap EZ Human v3...
February 8, 2018: Pediatric Diabetes
Barbara Bohn, Kirsten Mönkemöller, Dörte Hilgard, Axel Dost, Karl Otfried Schwab, Eggert Lilienthal, Elke Hammer, Kathrin Hake, Maria Fritsch, Bettina Gohlke, Carine de Beaufort, Reinhard W Holl
OBJECTIVE: To investigate differences in cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic control in girls with type 1 diabetes with or without use of oral contraceptives (OC) from the multicentre "diabetes prospective follow-up" registry (DPV). METHODS: 24,011 adolescent girls (13-<18 years of age) from Germany, Austria or Luxembourg with type 1 diabetes from the DPV registry were included in this cross-sectional study. Multivariable regression models were applied to compare clinical characteristics (HbA1C , blood pressure, serum lipids, BMI) and lifestyle factors (smoking, physical inactivity, alcohol consumption) between girls with or without OC use...
February 7, 2018: Pediatric Diabetes
Claire M Nightingale, Alicja R Rudnicka, Sarah R Kerry-Barnard, Angela S Donin, Soren Brage, Kate L Westgate, Ulf Ekelund, Derek G Cook, Christopher G Owen, Peter H Whincup
BACKGROUND: The relationship between physical fitness and risk markers for type 2 diabetes (T2D) in children and the contribution to ethnic differences in these risk markers have been little studied. We examined associations between physical fitness and early risk markers for T2D and cardiovascular disease in 9- to 10-year-old UK children. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 1445 9- to 10-year-old UK children of South Asian, black African-Caribbean and white European origin...
February 7, 2018: Pediatric Diabetes
Stefania Innaurato, Gemma V Brierley, Valeria Grasso, Arianna Massimi, Rossella Gaudino, Sara Sileno, Sergio Bernardini, Robert Semple, Fabrizio Barbetti
AIM: Hypoglycemia in childhood is very rare and can be caused by genetic mutations or insulin-secreting neoplasms. Postprandial hypoglycemia has previously been associated with insulin receptor (INSR) gene mutations. We aimed to identify the cause of postprandial hypoglycemia in a 10-year-old boy. SUBJECTS: We studied the symptomatic proband and his apparently asymptomatic mother and elder brother. All of them were lean. METHODS: Metabolic screening of the proband included a 5-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), angio-magnetic resonance imaging, and 18 F-dihydroxyphenylalanine positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging of the pancreas...
February 7, 2018: Pediatric Diabetes
Wei-Ting Lin, Pei-Chen Lin, Chun-Ying Lee, Yi-Ling Chen, Te-Fu Chan, Sharon Tsai, Hsiao-Ling Huang, Pei-Wen Wu, Yu-Ting Chin, Hui-Yi Lin, Chien-Hung Lee
OBJECTIVES: Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) and insulin resistance (IR) are clinical parameters associated with cardiometabolic diseases. The mediating and modifying roles of IR on children's susceptibility to cardiometabolic disorders are undetermined. This study investigated the mediating and modifying effects of the homeostatic model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) on the relationship between the serum RBP4 level and clustering of pediatric cardiometabolic risk factors. METHODS: We assessed the diet, physical activity, cardiometabolic risk factors, and clinical parameters of 272 randomly selected adolescents from a large-scale cross-sectional study (n = 2727)...
January 31, 2018: Pediatric Diabetes
Yoon H Cho, Maria E Craig, Tracey Jopling, Albert Chan, Kim C Donaghue
BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity in adults with diabetes. OBJECTIVE: To examine the predictive role of body mass index (BMI) and adiposity on cardiac autonomic function in childhood onset type 1 diabetes. SUBJECTS: Two hundred and fifty-three participants with type 1 diabetes (aged 8-30 years) were assessed for diabetes complications at a tertiary hospital, and followed over 7 years (total 922 visits)...
January 31, 2018: Pediatric Diabetes
Yi-Ching Tung, Cathy S-J Fann, Chien-Ching Chang, Chen-Chung Chu, Wei-Shiung Yang, Wuh-Liang Hwu, Pei-Lung Chen, Wen-Yu Tsai
BACKGROUND: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) mellitus is an autoimmune disorder involving both complex genetic and environmental factors. The incidence rates are low in Asian countries, and the specific, explanatory genetic factors underlying this have been investigated. The aim of this study was to elucidate the association of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles/haplotypes with T1D in Taiwan. METHODS: We performed direct comprehensive genotyping of 6 classical HLA loci (HLA-A, -B, -C, -DPB1, -DQB1, and -DRB1) to 4-digit resolution in 104 unrelated T1D patients and 504 controls...
January 31, 2018: Pediatric Diabetes
Virginia Hagger, Christel Hendrieckx, Fergus Cameron, Frans Pouwer, Timothy C Skinner, Jane Speight
BACKGROUND: Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is higher during adolescence than at any other life stage. Some research among adolescents indicates that depressive symptoms are associated with suboptimal HbA1c. However, research among adults suggests diabetes distress is a stronger predictor of HbA1c than depressive symptoms. OBJECTIVE: To determine the relative contributions of depressive symptoms and diabetes distress to explain the variance in HbA1c among adolescents with type 1 diabetes...
January 31, 2018: Pediatric Diabetes
Aveni Haynes, Max K Bulsara, Timothy W Jones, Elizabeth A Davis
OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) in Western Australia from 2011 to 2016, and to examine the temporal trends between 1985 and 2016. METHODS: An observational cohort study was undertaken of all children newly diagnosed with T1D aged 0 to 14 years in Western Australia from 1985 to 2016. Cases were identified from the Western Australian Children's Diabetes Database, a population-based diabetes register previously estimated to be >99% complete...
January 4, 2018: Pediatric Diabetes
Mamta Jaiswal, Jasmin Divers, Elaine M Urbina, Dana Dabelea, Ronny A Bell, David J Pettitt, Giuseppina Imperatore, Catherine Pihoker, Lawrence M Dolan, Angela D Liese, Santica Marcovina, Barbara Linder, Eva L Feldman, Rodica Pop-Busui
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of and risk factors for cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) in adolescents and young adults with type 1 and type 2 diabetes enrolled in the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study. METHODS: The study included 1646 subjects with type 1 diabetes (age 18 ± 4 years, diabetes duration 8 ± 2 years, HbA1c 9.1 ± 1.9%, 76% non-Hispanic Whites) and 252 with type 2 diabetes (age 22 ± 4 years, diabetes duration 8 ± 2 years, HbA1c 9...
January 2, 2018: Pediatric Diabetes
Stephanie K Tanamas, Sanil P Reddy, Melissa A Chambers, Elena J Clark, Diana L Dunnigan, Robert L Hanson, Robert G Nelson, William C Knowler, Madhumita Sinha
OBJECTIVES: The risk of early-onset type 2 diabetes associated with the severity of obesity in youth is not well understood. This study aims to determine metabolic alterations and type 2 diabetes risk among American Indian children who are obese or severely obese. METHODS: Incidence rates of diabetes before 20 years (youth-onset) and 45 years were computed in 2728 children who were from 5 to <10 years and 4317 adolescents who were from 10 to <18 years without diabetes examined between 1965 and 2007...
December 28, 2017: Pediatric Diabetes
Shazhan Amed, Nazrul Islam, Jenny Sutherland, Kim Reimer
OBJECTIVE: Youth-onset type 2 diabetes is an emerging disease. We estimated incidence and prevalence trends of youth-onset type 2 diabetes between 2002 and 2013 in the Canadian province of British Columbia. METHODS: This population-based cohort study used a validated diabetes case-finding definition and algorithm to differentiate type 2 from type 1 diabetes to identify youth <20 years with type 2 diabetes within linked population-based administrative data. Age-standardized incidence and prevalence were calculated...
December 27, 2017: Pediatric Diabetes
Rasha Odeh, Abeer Alassaf, Kamel Ajlouni
OBJECTIVE: Data regarding type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) in Jordan are extremely scarce. We aim to evaluate the clinical and laboratory characteristics at diagnosis of T1D in a group of children from Jordan. METHODS: The records of 437 (boys/girls: 224/213) children with type 1 diabetes followed in the years 2012 to 2016 were evaluated retrospectively. The data were assessed by sex and age subgroups (<5, 6-10, and 11-18 years). RESULTS: Mean age of children at diagnosis was 7...
December 27, 2017: Pediatric Diabetes
William V Tamborlane, David Polidori, Domenick Argenti, Nicholas A Di Prospero
OBJECTIVE: Canagliflozin, a sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor approved for the treatment of adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D), increases urinary glucose excretion (UGE) and lowers plasma glucose (PG) levels by reducing the renal threshold for glucose (RTG ). This study assessed the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of canagliflozin in pediatric T2D patients. METHODS: Patients, aged 10 to 17 years with mean weight 107.2 kg and body mass index 38...
December 22, 2017: Pediatric Diabetes
Jill H Simmons, Nicole C Foster, Tonya D Riddlesworth, Stephanie N DuBose, Maria J Redondo, Edwin Liu, Michael Freemark
BACKGROUND: Celiac disease (CD) is common in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and effects of CD on growth in children with T1D remain unclear. METHODS: We analyzed heights, weights, and body mass index (BMI) in 215 matched pediatric CD/control pairs in the T1D Exchange Clinic Registry. CD was defined by a clinic-reported diagnosis and positive celiac serology (n = 80) and/or positive small bowel biopsy (n = 135). Cases and controls were matched by age (mean: 14 years), diabetes duration (median: 7 years), sex (57% female), and clinic site...
December 22, 2017: Pediatric Diabetes
Sakiko Yoshizawa Morikawa, Kazuya Fujihara, Mariko Hatta, Taeko Osawa, Masahiro Ishizawa, Masahiko Yamamoto, Kazuo Furukawa, Hajime Ishiguro, Satoshi Matsunaga, Yohei Ogawa, Hitoshi Shimano, Hirohito Sone
OBJECTIVE: To examine the independent and combined associations of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and muscular fitness (MF) with cardiometabolic risk factors in Japanese adolescents. METHODS: A cross-sectional study including 993 Japanese adolescents (aged 13-14 years) was undertaken. Height, body mass, blood pressure, lipid profile (non-fasting), and HbA1c were measured. The physical fitness (PF) test included measurements of CRF (20 m multistage shuttle run test), upper limb strength (hand grip strength), lower limb strength (standing long jump), and muscular endurance (sit-ups)...
December 19, 2017: Pediatric Diabetes
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