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Pediatric Allergy and Immunology

Chiara Sacco, Serena Perna, Donatella Vicari, Marco Alfò, Carl-Peter Bauer, Ute Hoffman, Johannes Forster, Fred Zepp, Antje Schuster, Ulrich Wahn, Thomas Keil, Susanne Lau, Paolo Maria Matricardi
BACKGROUND: Previous studies of serum total IgE (t-IgE) were not able to discriminate well enough atopic from non-atopic subjects, i.e. with or without serum-specific IgE antibodies to allergens. OBJECTIVES: To model growth curves of the total IgE levels in children without atopic sensitization (hereafter defined as "normal" t-IgE levels) and to test their usefulness in predicting atopic sensitization. METHODS: The German Multicentre Allergy Study (MAS), a birth cohort with 1314 recruited newborns, began in 1990 and examined the participants until age 20y...
May 25, 2017: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Satomi Mori, Shuntaro Tsumagari, Kazuyuki Kurihara
Fermented soybean (natto) is a traditional food in Japan. Because natto is rich in vitamin K2, it affects both thrombolysis and bone metabolism and has been widely marketed throughout the world as a health food. Most people with a soybean allergy can safely consume fermented soybean products such as miso (soybean paste), soy sauce, and natto because the fermentation process weakens the immunoreactivity of the soybean protein.(1) Nevertheless, there had been several reports of natto-induced late-onset anaphylaxis in adults...
May 22, 2017: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Francesca Occasi, Marzia Duse, Marcella Nebbioso, Giovanna De Castro, Marco Di Fraia, Giulia Capata, Valeria Lollobrigida, Anna Maria Zicari
We report the cases of 4 children affected by Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) treated with Omalizumab with resolution of ocular signs and symptoms. Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) is a chronic conjunctivitis, not responding to topical antihistamines and frequently misdiagnosed and mistreated. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
May 22, 2017: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Lorenzo Lodi, Silvia Ricci, Francesca Romano, Federica Ghiori, Clementina Canessa, Francesca Lippi, Leila Bianchi, Chiara Azzari
Tuscany is the first region in Italy to have implemented a neonatal screening for congenital immunodeficiencies using both tandem mass spectrometry for early and late-onset adenosine deaminase and purine-nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency (1) and multiplex Real-Time PCR for TREC and KREC quantification on Dried Blood Spots (DBS) (2). The screening program with TREC and KREC started on December 2013 and, basing on the last data update of March 2017, it has screened a total of 18981 newborns in these first 3 years...
May 18, 2017: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Daniel Tegtmeyer, Maximilian Seidl, Patrick Gerner, Ulrich Baumann, Christian Klemann
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) including Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) have a multifactorial pathogenesis with complex interactions between polygenetic predispositions and environmental factors. However, IBD can also be caused by monogenic diseases, such as primary immunodeficiencies (PID). Recently, an increasing number of these altogether rare diseases has been described to present often primarily, or solely as IBD. Early recognition of these conditions enables adaption of therapies and thus directly benefits the course of IBDs...
May 17, 2017: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Gholamreza Azizi, Hassan Abolhassani, Seyed Alireza Mahdaviani, Zahra Chavoshzadeh, Peyman Eshghi, Reza Yazdani, Fatemeh Kiaee, Mohammadreza Shaghaghi, Javad Mohammadi, Nima Rezaei, Lennart Hammarström, Asghar Aghamohammadi
BACKGROUND: LPS-responsive beige-like anchor protein (LRBA) deficiency is a combined immunodeficiency caused by mutation in LRBA gene. The patients have a variety of clinical symptoms including hypogammaglobulinemia, recurrent infections, autoimmunity and enteropathy. METHODS: A total of 17 LRBA-deficient patients were enrolled in this longitudinal study. For all patients, demographic information, clinical records, laboratory and molecular data were collected. RESULTS: Hypogammaglobulinemia were reported in 14 (82...
May 17, 2017: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Laura Polloni, Sami Schiff, Emilia Ferruzza, Francesca Lazzarotto, Roberta Bonaguro, Alice Toniolo, Nicolò Celegato, Muraro Antonella
BACKGROUND: Food allergy is a common immunological disease that includes potentially fatal reactions. It impacts considerably on patients' social life including close interpersonal relationships. Attachment theory provides a theoretical framework to evaluate the quality of close interpersonal relationships in chronic disorders. Attachment insecurity, mainly characterized by attachment avoidance, has been found in a variety of health conditions, but still needs to be investigated in food allergy...
May 8, 2017: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Carolina Sanchez Aranda, Kelly Pereira, Helena Velasco, Marcia Mallozi, Roseani Andrade, Wellington Rodrigues, João Bosco Pesquero, Ana Maria Martins, Dirceu Solé
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is one of the most common inflammatory skin diseases, especially during childhood, with an estimated prevalence of 11% in Latin America (1). The complexity of AD clinical phenotypes occurs due to the existence of different physiopathological pathways for the illness, including changes in innate and adaptive immune responses, skin barrier dysfunction and allergic sensitization (2). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
May 5, 2017: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Evelyn Xiu Ling Loo, Jordan Zheng Ting Sim, Jia Ying Toh, Anne Goh, Oon Hoe Teoh, Yiong Huak Chan, Seang Mei Saw, Kenneth Kwek, Kok Hian Tan, Peter D Gluckman, Keith M Godfrey, Hugo Van Bever, Bee Wah Lee, Yap Seng Chong, Mary Foong-Fong Chong, Lynette Pei-Chi Shek
Allergic disorders result from the complex interplay between genetic predisposition and environmental influences. According to the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease hypothesis, environmental pressures at critical or early periods of development can evoke persisting changes in gene regulation and expression (1), affecting disease development. Infant nutrition is a major environmental influence in early life as the immature gut is exposed to a variety of food proteins. However, results from studies examining the early introduction of allergenic food and allergic outcomes have been conflicting...
April 27, 2017: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Mariana Couto, Corália Barbosa, Diana Silva, Alisa Rudnitskaya, Luís Delgado, André Moreira, Sílvia M Rocha
We hypothesize that oxidative stress induced by trichloramine exposure during swimming could be related to etiopathogenesis of asthma among elite swimmers. AIM: To investigate the effect of a swimming training session on oxidative stress markers of asthmatic compared to non-asthmatic elite swimmers using exhaled breath (EB) metabolomics. METHODS: Elite swimmers annually screened in our department (n=27) were invited and those who agreed to participate (n=20, of which 9 with asthma) had EB collected (Tedlar(®) bags) before and after a swimming training session...
April 27, 2017: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Şeyhan Kutluğ, Mehtap Kılıç, Birşen Bilgici, Şule Paksu, Alişan Yıldıran, Recep Sancak
BACKGROUND: Serum vitamin D levels have not been studied in children with seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR). The aim of this study was to evaluate the vitamin D levels of children with SAR and to compare them to levels in healthy children during pollen season. METHODS: This study was conducted in 100 children with SAR and 100 healthy controls. Clinical and laboratory evaluations and vitamin D analyses of all the participants were performed between the months of April and July...
April 27, 2017: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Meritxell Valls-Mateus, Franklin Marino-Sanchez, Karen Ruiz-Echevarría, Paulina Cardenas-Escalante, Rosa Jiménez-Feijoo, Jaime Blasco-Lozano, María Teresa Giner-Muñoz, Oliver Haag, Isam Alobid, Ana María Plaza Martin, Joaquim Mullol
BACKGROUND: We previously reported a higher prevalence of nasal obstructive disorders (NOD) in pediatric patients with persistent allergic rhinitis (PER) not responding to medical treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of NOD on quality of life (QoL) in this population. METHODS: Real-life prospective study including 142 patients (41 children, 6-11 yo and 101 adolescents, 12-17 yo) with moderate and severe PER. After two months of medical treatment (intranasal steroids and antihistamines) patients were asked if their symptoms had improved (yes/no) and classified accordingly in R, responders and NR, non-responders...
April 19, 2017: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Johanna P M van der Valk, Yvonne Vergouwe, Roy Gerth van Wijk, Ewout W Steyerberg, Marit Reitsma, Harry J Wichers, Huub F J Savelkoul, Berber Vlieg-Boerstra, Hans de Groot, Anthony E J Dubois, Nicolette W de Jong
As an alternative to the costly, time-consuming and possibly stressful double-blind, placebo-controlled challenge (DBPCFC) test, a model to predict the risk of cashew nut allergy was studied incorporating patient characteristics, standard diagnostic parameters (specific IgE (sIgE) and Skin Prick Test (SPT)) as well as component resolved diagnosis (CRD This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
April 19, 2017: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Fariba Ahmadizar, Susanne J H Vijverberg, Hubertus G M Arets, Anthonius de Boer, Steve Turner, Graham Devereux, Ali Arabkhazaeli, Patricia Soares, Somnath Mukhopadhyay, Johan Garssen, Colin N A Palmer, Johan C de Jongste, Vincent Wv Jaddoe, Liesbeth Duijts, Evelien R van Meel, Aletta D Kraneveld, Anke H Maitland-van der Zee
BACKGROUND: The use of antibiotic therapy early in life might influence the risk of developing asthma. Studies assessing the influence of early life antibiotic use on the risk of asthma exacerbations are limited, and the results are inconsistent. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the association between use of antibiotic during the first three years of life and the risk of developing childhood asthma and the occurrence of asthma exacerbations. METHODS: Data from four large childhood cohorts were used; two population-based cohorts to study the risk of developing asthma: Generation R (n=7,393, the Netherlands) and SEATON (n=891, Scotland, UK), and two asthma cohorts to assess the risk of asthma exacerbations: PACMAN (n=668, the Netherlands) and BREATHE (n=806, Scotland, UK)...
April 19, 2017: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Zhi-Gang Gong, Jin Liu, Guo-Chang Yin, Yong-Jiang Xu
Asthma is a reversible obstructive lung disease, caused by increased reaction of the airways as various stimuli, and is diagnosed by the medical measurement of the airflow in and out of the lungs. However, children who are pre-school age or younger may be unable to complete the airflow test which requires blowing very hard into a tube (1). Therefore, it is vital to develop a simple and fast method for the determination of pediatric asthma (2). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
April 5, 2017: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Valentina Pecora, Giusi Prencipe, Rocco Valluzzi, Lamia Dahdah, Antonella Insalaco, Antonella Cianferoni, Fabrizio De Benedetti, Alessandro Fiocchi
BACKGROUND: An increasing number of infants are diagnosed with food protein induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES), a non-IgE-mediated food allergy. Until now, T-cell, food-specific mechanisms have been hypothesized. METHODS: 16 children (11M, 5F), affected by FPIES from cow's milk, wheat, fruit, rice and others, experienced 25 acute episodes managed at our Emergency Department (ED) and eight FPIES reactions during oral food challenges (OFC). We compared the laboratory data in resting conditions, in absence of infectious diseases, with data collected during the 25 acute ED episodes (blood samples drawn at 2 to 12 hours) and the eight positive OFCs (three samples at 2, 6 and 12 hours)...
April 4, 2017: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Giovanni A Rossi, Andrew A Colin
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common agent of severe airway disease in infants and young children. Large epidemiologic studies have demonstrated a clear relationship between RSV infection and subsequent recurrent wheezing and asthma into childhood, thought to be predominantly related to long-term changes in neuroimmune control of airway tone rather than to allergic sensitization. These changes appear to be governed by the severity of the first RSV infection in infancy which in term depends on viral characteristics and load, but perhaps as importantly, on the genetic susceptibility and on the constitutional characteristic of the host...
March 24, 2017: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Roberto Bernardini, Patrizia Bonadonna, Piera Catania, Giovanni Passalacqua
Midazolam is a short-acting benzodiazepine with a central nervous system depressing action. The pharmacologic properties of midazolam and its metabolites (similar to those of other benzodiazepines), include sedative, anxiolytic, amnesic and hypnotic activities. The favorable clinical aspects of the use of benzodiazepines are the result of a reversible allosteric interaction with the (gamma)-amino butyric acid (GABA) receptor A, that accounts for the major inhibitory neurotransmitter pathway within the central nervous system (1)...
March 24, 2017: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Dan Atkins, Glenn T Furuta, Chris A Liacouras, Jonathan M Spergel
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is one of the most common causes of reflux-like symptoms and feeding problems in children and food impaction and dysphagia in adults with a prevalence of 1:2500. Therapeutic options include diet, use of swallowed corticosteroids, or dilation. In the last several years, recent clinical and translational researches have identified some common and distinctive features, for example, the varying response to diet and medications. As EoE shares some characteristics with both asthma and inflammatory bowel disease, the advances in these fields suggest that various phenotypes may also exist in patients with EoE...
March 24, 2017: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Maureen Egan, Tricia Lee, Jade Andrade, Galina Grishina, Michelle Mishoe, Gustavo Gimenez, Hugh A Sampson, Supinda Bunyavanich
Cow's milk allergy (CMA) is one of the most common food allergies in young children, affecting 2-3% of the pediatric population (1). Hypoallergenic formula is recommended for infants with CMA who are not breastfeeding (2). Extensively hydrolyzed or amino acid-based formulas are tolerated in over 90% of infants with CMA(2). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
March 24, 2017: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
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