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Pediatric Allergy and Immunology

Niraj C Patel
Primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDD) are a group of genetic conditions that are generally considered to be underdiagnosed, and gaps may exist in the knowledge of treatment options. This review focuses on the diagnosis of pediatric patients with primary antibody deficiency and considerations for treatment with immunoglobulin (IgG) to optimize multiple dosing variables and minimize adverse events. The possibility of individualizing IgG therapy in clinical practice represents, in this field, the next pivotal step with the goal of improving the quality of life of pediatric patients with PIDD...
May 9, 2018: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Arthur H Owora, Allan B Becker, Moira Chan-Yeung, Edmond S Chan, Rishma Chooniedass, Clare Ramsey, Wade Ta Watson, Meghan B Azad
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to identify developmental trajectories of wheezing using data-driven methodology and examine whether trajectory membership differentially impacts the effectiveness of primary preventive efforts that target modifiable asthma risk factors. METHODS: Secondary analysis of the Canadian Asthma Primary Prevention Study, a multifaceted prenatal intervention among children at high risk for asthma, followed from birth to 15 years...
May 5, 2018: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Giorgio Fedele, Ilaria Schiavoni, Raffaella Nenna, Alessandra Pierangeli, Antonella Frassanito, Pasqualina Leone, Laura Petrarca, Carolina Scagnolari, Fabio Midulla
Severe bronchiolitis is often associated with the development of wheezing and asthma during childhood but the mechanisms behind the development of respiratory disorders after bronchiolitis remain controversial (1). The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and the human rhinovirus (HRV) are the most important etiologies of bronchiolitis (2, 3). Compared to RSV, HRV-infected infants display peculiar clinical characteristics and a correlation of HRV-bronchiolitis with asthma has been suggested (4-7). We report here the results of a preliminary investigation aimed at the evaluation of the ongoing T-cell responses in infants with bronchiolitis of different etiology...
April 30, 2018: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Rosan Meyer, Manus P Carey, Paul Turner, Andrew A Meharg
Hypoallergenic formulas are recommended for use in young children with cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA), where breastmilk is not available,1 with the choice between both extensively hydrolysed casein/whey or amino acid-based products. More recently, hydrolysed rice protein-based formulas (HRF) have become available and are now commonly used in Europe for CMPA This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
April 27, 2018: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Anna Sargsyan, Jayanta Gupta, Debajyoti Ghosh
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic relapsing skin disease which affects 15-20% of children worldwide.(1) It is also considered as a major risk factor for developing other atopic diseases including food allergy, asthma and allergic rhinitis later in life - a phenomenon known as the "atopic march". Multiple factors, including season of birth and associated perinatal environmental conditions, have been known to play important roles in the manifestation of AD.(2) Moreover, about 20% of patients with AD have moderate-to-severe disease, which is associated with significantly lower quality of life, imposing considerable burden on the nation's health-care resources...
April 26, 2018: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Limin Yang, Masami Narita, Kiwako Yamamoto-Hanada, Naoko Sakamoto, Hirohisa Saito, Yukihiro Ohya
BACKGROUND: Exploring patterns of childhood wheeze may help to clarify the etiology and prognosis of respiratory diseases. The purpose of this study was to classify phenotypes of wheezing in children up to 9 years of age in Japan and to evaluate the individual and environmental risk factors for these phenotypes. METHODS: Wheeze was evaluated at approximately 1-year intervals based on the mothers' recollection of their child's wheezing or whistling in the chest during the preceding 12 months...
April 26, 2018: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Liat Nachshon, Michael R Goldberg, Yitzhak Katz, Michael B Levy, Arnon Elizur
BACKGROUND: Oral immunotherapy (OIT) is currently recommended as a treatment option for peanut allergic patients. Data regarding its long-term compliance and efficacy in real-life is required. METHODS: Peanut allergic patients aged ≥4 years were enrolled in a single-center clinical OIT program. Build-up to 3000 mg peanut protein was performed. Patients reaching this dose before or after 12/2014 were instructed to consume 3000 mg or 1200 mg daily, respectively...
April 26, 2018: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
M Valverde-Monge, C Pastor-Vargas, P Rodríguez Del Rio, C Escudero, S Sánchez-García, P Mendez Brea, M D Ibáñez
Fish allergy affects up to 7% of the worldwide population, with variations between countries mostly stemming from consumption rates and methods of allergy diagnosis. In Spain, where fish consumption is high, fish allergy affects 11% of food-allergic children under 14 years of age, who consult for the first time for food allergy.
April 26, 2018: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Mona Kidon, Natalia Blanca-Lopez, Eva Gomez, Ingrid Terreehorst, Luciana Tanno, Claude Ponvert, Wen Chin Chiang, Jean Christoph Caubet, Ozge Soyer, Francesca Mori, Miguel Blanca, Marina Atanaskovic
Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly used in the paediatric population as antipyretics/analgesics and anti-inflammatory medications. Hypersensitivity (HS) reactions to NSAID in this age group, while similar to adults have unique diagnostic and management issues. Although slowly accumulating, published data in this age group is still relatively rare and lacking a unifying consensus. This work is a summary of current knowledge and consensus recommendations utilizing both published data and expert opinion from the European Network of Drug Allergy (ENDA) and the Drug Hypersensitivity interest group in the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI)...
April 24, 2018: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Mariam Zaidi, Sara Zaidi
It was a pleasure reading the article: "Eating fish and farm life reduce allergic rhinitis at the age of twelve" by Goksor et al (2018) in your journal. I particularly found the conclusion of lower incidence of allergic rhinitis in children who ate fish at the age of 12 months. This is in corroboration with other similar literature published on the incidence of food allergies in children in the developed world where there is a higher rate comparably than developing countries. One of the main reasons for this is the exposure to various allergens and particles in the environment in developing countries that reflect in earlier maturity of the immune system...
April 21, 2018: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Maria-Magdalena Balp, Karsten Weller, Veruska Carboni, Alexandra Chirilov, Charis Papavassilis, Thomas Severin, Haijun Tian, Torsten Zuberbier, Marcus Maurer
BACKGROUND: Data on the prevalence and disease management of chronic urticaria (CU) and chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) in the pediatric population are scarce. The present study assessed the prevalence of CU and CSU, and disease management among pediatric patients (0-17 years). METHODS: A physician-based online survey was conducted in 5 European countries (United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, France, and Spain) assessing the annual diagnosed prevalence, disease characteristics and treatment patterns in the target population...
April 21, 2018: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
B Melo, L Rezende, P Machado, N Gouveia, R Levy
BACKGROUND: Although both consumption of ultra-processed products and asthma are common during adolescence, the epidemiological evidence in regarding their association is unclear. We investigated the associations of ultra-processed products consumption with asthma and wheezing in a representative sample of Brazilian adolescents. METHODS: We used data from a representative sample of 109,104 Brazilian adolescents enrolled in the National Survey of School Health, 2012...
April 21, 2018: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Chih-Yung Chiu, Gigin Lin, Mei-Ling Cheng, Meng-Han Chiang, Ming-Han Tsai, Kuan-Wen Su, Man-Chin Hua, Sui-Ling Liao, Shen-Hao Lai, Tsung-Chieh Yao, Kuo-Wei Yeh, Jing-Long Huang
BACKGROUND: Several metabolites and altered metabolic pathways have been reported to be associated with asthma. However, longitudinal analysis of the dynamics of metabolites contributing to the development of asthma has not yet been fully clarified. METHODS: We sought to identify the metabolic mechanisms underlying asthma development in early childhood. Thirty children with asthma and paired healthy controls from a prospective birth cohort were enrolled. Time-series analysis of urinary metabolites collected at ages 1, 2, 3, and 4 years were assessed using 1 H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy coupled with partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA)...
April 21, 2018: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
S Megan Motosue, M Fernanda Bellolio, K Holly Van Houten, D Nilay Shah, L Ronna Campbell
BACKGROUND: Food is the leading cause of anaphylaxis in children seen in emergency departments in the United States, yet data on emergency department visits and hospitalizations related to food-induced anaphylaxis are limited. The objective of our study was to examine national time trends of pediatric food-induced anaphylaxis-related emergency department visits and hospitalizations. METHODS: We conducted an observational study using a national administrative claims database from 2005 through 2014...
April 17, 2018: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Lisa M Fahey, Ryan Guzek, Melanie A Ruffner, Kathleen E Sullivan, Jonathan Spergel, Antonella Cianferoni
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a clinicopathologic disease characterized by an increased number of eosinophils (greater than or equal to 15 eosinophils per high powered field) in the esophageal mucosa, likely due to an immune or antigenic response (1). Specifically, there is an increased production of esophageal epithelial derived pro-inflammatory mediators such as Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin (TSLP), Eotaxin 3 (CCL26), RANTES (CCL5), Calpain 14 (CAPN14), and interleukin (IL)-33 (2), which ultimately results in eosinophilic infiltration of the esophageal epithelium...
April 16, 2018: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Chun Shen, Yan Hu, Fei Li
We have read Shadmani et al.'s comments with appreciation for their interest in our study[1]. They pointed out three methodological issues. The first one is the inherent limitation of cross-sectional studies. We absolutely agree with them that it is not possible to establish a true cause and effect relationship in cross-sectional studies. That's why we stated "a cross-sectional study" in the title, never used confusing terms such as "predictor", "risk factor" in the paper and have discussed this limitation in the Discussion...
April 16, 2018: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Hannah M Kansen, Thuy-My Le, Yolanda Meijer, Bertine M J Flokstra-de Blok, Paco M J Welsing, Cornelis K van der Ent, André C Knulst, Francine C van Erp
BACKGROUND: Food allergy significantly impairs health-related quality of life (HRQL). Currently, it is still unknown whether diagnostic interventions for food allergy improve HRQL. We aim to assess the impact of diagnostic interventions for food allergy on HRQL. METHODS: A systematic search was performed in MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library and CINAHL focused on patients with a (suspected) food allergy who underwent diagnostic interventions (i.e. skin prick test, specific IgE or oral food challenges (OFC)), and in whom HRQL was assessed...
April 16, 2018: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Matthias Wjst
the GINI study group published numerous reports of a clinical trial showing the beneficial effect of hydrolysed formulas on the prevention of allergic diseases. Children with a positive family history of allergic diseases were randomized to four formulas after weaning (formula feeding, FF). Effects were measured against the group that continued with breast feeding (BF). While this sounds obvious at first appearance, a more recent article in this journal (1) now raises doubts of this analysis strategy. This article is protected by copyright...
April 10, 2018: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Atoosa Kourosh, Ruth Ann Luna, Miriam Balderas, Christina Nance, Aikaterini Anagnostou, Sridevi Devaraj, Carla M Davis
BACKGROUND: Intestinal microbes have been shown to influence predisposition to atopic disease, including food allergy. The intestinal microbiome of food allergic children may differ in significant ways from genetically similar non-allergic children and age matched controls. The aim was to characterize fecal microbiomes to identify taxa that may influence the expression of food allergy. METHODS: Stool samples were collected from children with IgE mediated food allergies, siblings without food allergy, and non-allergic controls...
April 6, 2018: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Anke Hüls, Claudia Klümper, Elaina A MacIntyre, Michael Brauer, Erik Melén, Mario Bauer, Dietrich Berdel, Anna Bergström, Bert Brunekreef, Moira Chan-Yeung, Elaine Fuertes, Ulrike Gehring, Anna Gref, Joachim Heinrich, Marie Standl, Irina Lehmann, Marjan Kerkhof, Gerard H Koppelman, Anita L Kozyrskyj, Göran Pershagen, Christopher Carlsten, Ursula Krämer, Tamara Schikowski
BACKGROUND: Associations between traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) and childhood atopic dermatitis (AD) remain inconsistent, possibly due to unexplored gene-environment interactions. The aim of this study was to examine whether a potential effect of TRAP on AD prevalence in children is modified by selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to oxidative stress and inflammation. METHODS: Doctor-diagnosed AD up to age 2 years and at 7-8 years, as well as AD symptoms up to age 2 years, were assessed using parental-reported questionnaires in six birth cohorts (N=5,685)...
April 6, 2018: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
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