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Pediatric Allergy and Immunology

Thomas Westergren, Sveinung Berntsen, Karin C Lødrup Carlsen, Petter Mowinckel, Geir Håland, Liv Fegran, Kai-Håkon Carlsen
BACKGROUND: Children with asthma may be less physically active than their healthy peers. We aimed to investigate if perceived exercise limitation (EL) was associated with lung function or bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR), socio-economic factors, prenatal smoking, overweight, allergic disease, asthma severity or physical activity (PA). METHODS: The 302 children with asthma from the 10-year examination of the Environment and Childhood Asthma birth cohort study underwent a clinical examination including perceived EL (structured interview of child and parent(s)), measure of overweight (body mass index by sex and age passing through 25kg/m(2) or above at18 years), exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 ) pre- and post-exercise), methacholine bronchial challenge (severe BHR; provocative dose causing ≥20% decrease in FEV1≤1μmol) and asthma severity score (dose of controller medication and exacerbations last 12 months)...
October 13, 2016: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Ilaria Baiardini, Salvatore Fasola, Laura Montalbano, Giovanna Cilluffo, Velia Malizia, Giuliana Ferrante, Fulvio Braido, Stefania La Grutta
Recent research has focused on measuring the Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) impact (physical, psychological, and social) on children suffering from respiratory allergy. The burden of the disease has been evaluated by mean of different questionnaires specifically validated for asthma or allergic rhinitis. Several studies demonstrated that these two conditions often coexist, being seen in half to three quarter of children (1). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
October 12, 2016: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Mehtap Haktanir Abul, Selim Dereci, Sadan Hacisalihoglu, Fazil Orhan
BACKGROUND: Although kiwifruit is known as a common cause of food allergy, population based studies concerning the prevalence of kiwifruit allergy does not exist. We aimed to determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of IgE-mediated kiwifruit allergy in 6-18 year old urban schoolchildren in a region where kiwifruit is widely cultivated METHODS: This cross-sectional study recruited 20,800 of the randomly selected 6-18-year-old urban schoolchildren from the Rize city in the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey during 2013...
October 12, 2016: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Anna James, Katarina Stenberg Hammar, Lovisa Reinius, Jon R Konradsen, Sven-Erik Dahlén, Cilla Söderhäll, Gunilla Hedlin
BACKGROUND: The chitinase-like protein YKL-40 (CHI3L1) is elevated in the circulation of adults and schoolchildren with chronic severe asthma. It is unknown whether YKL-40 is altered in younger, preschool children with wheeze, acute or chronic. We therefore examined YKL-40 in preschool children during an acute episode of wheeze and during remission, in comparison to healthy controls. METHODS: Blood was obtained from 128 children (aged 6 to 44 months) at the emergency department during an acute episode of wheeze, and at two follow-up visits (approximately 3 months and 1 year later), as well as from 100 age-matched healthy controls on one occasion...
October 12, 2016: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Susanne Mueller-Rompa, Tobias Janke, Karin Schwaiger, Melanie Mayer, Johann Bauer, Jon Genuneit, Charlotte Braun-Fahrlaender, Elisabeth Horak, Andrzej Boznanski, Erika von Mutius, Markus Johannes Ege
BACKGROUND: Exposure to moulds has been related to asthma risk both positively and negatively, depending on the environmental setting. The pertinent results are based on generic markers or culturing methods though the majority of present fungi cannot be cultured under laboratory conditions. The aim of the present analysis was to assess environmental dust samples for asthma-protective fungal candidates with a comprehensive molecular technique covering also non-cultivable and non-viable fungi...
October 6, 2016: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Louis Jacob, Thomas Keil, Karel Kostev
BACKGROUND: Using routine healthcare data, the goal of this study was to examine the association between asthma and comorbid disorders in children in Germany. METHODS: Patients with a diagnosis of asthma documented by a German pediatrician in 2015 were identified. Demographic data included age and gender. Patients younger than 6 and older than 17 and individuals followed for less than a year before index date were excluded. Each patient was matched for age, sex, and physician with an asthma-free control...
October 5, 2016: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Giampaolo Ricci, Francesca Cipriani
In the last decades, international guidelines proposed different strategies of complementary foods introduction during weaning to prevent allergy. Avoidance measures, such as late introduction of allergenic foods, failed to show a significant preventive effect towards allergy. Recently, prospective randomized controlled studies suggested that the early introduction of solid foods - rather than the late introduction - could be a strategy to prevent allergic sensitization and food allergy. However, at today clear evidence of effectiveness and safety of early introduction are not yet available to recommend a radical change in the current clinical practice...
October 5, 2016: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Elisabeth Soegaard Christiansen, Henrik Fomsgaard Kjaer, Esben Eller, Carsten Bindslev-Jensen, Arne Høst, Charlotte Gotthard Mortz, Susanne Halken
BACKGROUND: Atopic diseases are among the most common chronic diseases in adolescents, and it is uncertain whether the prevalence of atopic diseases has reached a plateau or is still increasing. The use of the ISAAC (International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood) questionnaire has provided comparable prevalence rates from many countries, whereas studies including clinical examinations and strict diagnostic criteria are scarce. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of atopic diseases, the pattern of sensitization, and comorbidities at 14 years in a prospective birth cohort...
October 5, 2016: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Maribel Casas, Herman T den Dekker, Claudia J Kruithof, Irwin K Reiss, Martine Vrijheid, Johan C de Jongste, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Liesbeth Duijts
BACKGROUND: Greater infant weight gain is associated with lower lung function and increased risk of childhood asthma. The role of early childhood peak growth patterns is unclear. We assessed the associations of individually derived early childhood peak growth patterns with respiratory resistance, fractional exhaled nitric oxide, wheezing patterns, and asthma until school-age. METHODS: We performed a population-based prospective cohort study among 5364 children. Repeated growth measurements between 0 and 3 years of age were used to derive standard deviation scores (s...
October 5, 2016: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Eleanor Minshall, Harsita Patel, Nicholas Francis, Trevor Hansel, John O Warner, Robert J Boyle, John Fell, Jenny Epstein
We describe a novel method of sampling the esophageal lining fluid in children and show that levels of eotaxin-1 and MCP-4 differentiate those children with a histological diagnosis of EoE from those without. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
September 29, 2016: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Carmen D'Amelio, Gabrie Gastaminza, Olga Vega, Amalia Bernad, Roselle Madamba, Rubén Martínez-Aranguren, Marta Ferrer, María José Goikoetxea
Food allergy is a health concern causing an important impact in patient's quality of life (1) and on that of their families, due to the continuous monitoring required in order to avoid the allergen and the risk of potentially fatal reactions resulting from the accidental ingestion of the allergenic food. Fish is one of the main causes of food allergies in children (2), and, unlike other infant food allergies such as allergies to cow milk or eggs, fish allergy tends to persist over time (3). Even the inhalation of steam generated while cooking the allergenic food can also trigger allergic reactions, hence affecting the quality of life of these patients (4)...
September 26, 2016: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Maria Kristiansen, Sangeeta Dhami, Gopal Netuveli, Susanne Halken, Muraro Antonella, Graham Roberts, Desiree Larenas-Linnemann, Moises A Calderón, Martin Penagos, George Du Toit, Ignacio J Ansotegui, Jörg Kleine-Tebbe, Susanne Lau, Paolo Maria Matricardi, Giovanni Pajno, Nikolaos G Papadopoulos, Oliver Pfaar, Dermot Ryan, Alexandra F Santos, Frans Timmermanns, Ulrich Wahn, A Sheikh
BACKGROUND: There is a need to establish the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety of allergen immunotherapy (AIT) for the prevention of allergic disease. METHODS: Two reviewers independently screened nine international biomedical databases. Studies were quantitatively synthesized using random-effects meta-analyses. RESULTS: 32 studies satisfied the inclusion criteria. Overall, meta-analysis found no conclusive evidence that AIT reduced the risk of developing a first allergic disease over the short-term (RR=0...
September 21, 2016: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Pablo Rodríguez Del Río, Carmen Vidal, Jocelyne Just, Ana I Tabar, Inmaculada Sanchez-Machin, Peter Eberle, Jesus Borja, Petra Bubel, Oliver Pfaar, Pascal Demoly, Moises A Calderón
BACKGROUND: Safety data on "real-life" allergen immunotherapy (AIT) in children and adolescents is usually extrapolated from studies in adults. METHODS: Patients aged 18 or under initiating aeroallergen AIT were evaluated in a prospective European survey. Patient profiles and systemic reactions (SRs) were recorded. Descriptive, univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify risk factors for SRs. RESULTS: A total of 1,563 patients (mean±SD age: 11...
September 17, 2016: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Jean-Christoph Caubet, Hania Szajewska, Raanan Shamir, Anna Nowak-Węgrzyn
Non-IgE-mediated gastrointestinal food allergic disorders (non-IgE-GI-FA) including food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES), food protein-induced enteropathy (FPE) and food protein-induced allergic proctocolitis (FPIAP) are relatively uncommon in infants and young children, but are likely under-diagnosed. Non-IgE-GI-FA have a favorable prognosis, with majority resolving by age 3-5 years. Diagnosis relies on the recognition of symptoms pattern in FPIAP and FPIES and biopsy in FPE. Further studies are needed for a better understanding of the pathomechanism, which will lead eventually to the development of diagnostic tests and treatments...
September 17, 2016: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Emma Kristin Johansson, Natalia Ballardini, Inger Kull, Anna Bergström, Carl-Fredrik Wahlgren
BACKGROUND: Several studies show an association between eczema and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in childhood, but the mechanisms and time sequence remain unclear. Information on the association between eczema and other disorders involving the central nervous system (CNS) is limited. The aim was to explore if preschool eczema was associated with ADHD or other CNS-associated disorders requiring pharmacotherapy at school age, and to analyze if eczema at other ages of childhood was associated with medication for ADHD...
September 17, 2016: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Eija Bergroth, Marjut Roponen, Anne M Karvonen, Leea Keski-Nisula, Sami Remes, Josef Riedler, Caroline Roduit, Jean-Charles Dalphin, Vincent Kaulek, Georg J Loss, Roger Lauener, Maija-Riitta Hirvonen, Jon Genuneit, Elisabeth Schmaußer-Hechfellner, Harald Renz, Petra I Pfefferle, Susanne Krauss-Etschmann, Bianca Schaub, Erika von Mutius, Juha Pekkanen
BACKGROUND: Respiratory tract infectious symptoms and illnesses are frequent during early childhood, but their risk factors, including the effect of early immune regulation, are less known. Aim of the study was to analyse whether stimulated cord blood cytokine production is associated with the frequency of respiratory tract infectious symptoms or infections during the first year of life. METHODS: The study population consisted of children of mothers from farm or non-farm rural environment from Austria, Finland, Germany and Switzerland who participated in a prospective birth cohort study (PASTURE: Protection against Allergy - study in Rural Environments) (N=550)...
September 16, 2016: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
A F Wert, D Posa, O Tsilochristou, N Schwerk
For any kind of therapeutic intervention in allergic diseases such as environmental control, pharmacological or immunomodulating treatment including educational programs, children are addressed separately from adults. Health authorities like the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the United States of America or the European Medicine Agency (EMA) in Europe request a specific "Pediatric investigational Plan" (PIP) with studies addressing dose-response relationship, safety and efficacy for infants, children, and adolescents...
September 10, 2016: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Cristóbal Langdon, José María Guilemany, Meritxell Valls, Isam Alobid, Joan Bartra, Ignacio Dávila, Alfonso Del Cuvillo, Marta Ferrer, Ignacio Jáuregui, Javier Montoro, Joaquín Sastre, Antonio Valero, Joaquim Mullol
BACKGROUND: The objective of the OLFAPEDRIAL study was to assess the olfactory dysfunction in allergic paediatric population, which has been scarcely studied. METHODS: Observational, cross-sectional and multicentre study evaluated the sense of smell in untreated allergic rhinitis (AR) paediatric patients aged 6-12 years. RESULTS: Forty-four per cent (551 of 1260) of children with AR reported smell dysfunction, with both loss of smell frequency (52...
September 9, 2016: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Lorenza Lisa Serena Lanini, Seraina Prader, Ulrich Siler, Janine Reichenbach
Phagocytic neutrophil granulocytes are among the first immune cells active at sites of infection, forming an important first-line defense against invading microorganisms. Congenital immune defects concerning these phagocytes may be due to reduced neutrophil numbers or function. Management of affected patients depends on the type and severity of disease. Here, we provide an overview of causes and treatment of diseases associated with congenital neutropenia, as well as defects of the phagocytic respiratory burst...
September 9, 2016: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Shatha A Alduraywish, Marie Standl, Caroline J Lodge, Michael J Abramson, Katrina J Allen, Bircan Erbas, Andrea von Berg, Joachim Heinrich, Adrian J Lowe, Shyamali C Dharmage
BACKGROUND: The march from early aeroallergen sensitization to subsequent respiratory allergy is well established, but it is unclear whether early life food sensitization precedes and further increases risk of allergic airway disease. OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between food sensitization in the first 2 years of life and subsequent asthma and allergic rhinitis by age 10-12 years. METHODS: We used data from two independent cohorts: the high-risk Melbourne Atopic Cohort Study (MACS) (n = 620) and the population-based LISAplus (n = 3094)...
September 3, 2016: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
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