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Pathogens and Global Health

Maryam Ramezany, Iraj Sharifi, Zahra Babaei, Pooya Ghasemi Nejad Almani, Amireh Heshmatkhah, Alireza Keyhani, Mohammad Reza Aflatoonian, Mohammad Ali Mohammadi, Fatemeh Sharifi, Mehdi Bamorovat
This study aimed to explore geographic distribution and molecular characterization of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) species by amplifying two popular markers in kinetoplast DNA and internal transcribed spacer 1 loci by nested-PCR, and characterized by sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Findings demonstrated that two species co-existed in the province: L. tropica (88.5%) and L. major (11.5%). All gender and age groups were equally infected, although males, 21-30 years old, exhibited a significantly higher infection...
March 14, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Kazi Ada, Candy Chuah, Abu Bakar Abdul Majeed, Chiuan Herng Leow, Boon Huat Lim, Chiuan Yee Leow
Immunoinformatics plays a pivotal role in vaccine design, immunodiagnostic development, and antibody production. In the past, antibody design and vaccine development depended exclusively on immunological experiments which are relatively expensive and time-consuming. However, recent advances in the field of immunological bioinformatics have provided feasible tools which can be used to lessen the time and cost required for vaccine and antibody development. This approach allows the selection of immunogenic regions from the pathogen genomes...
March 12, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Usha Yadav, Mohd Ashraf Khan
The GPI (Glycosylphosphatidylinositol) biosynthetic pathway is a multistep conserved pathway in eukaryotes that culminates in the generation of GPI glycolipid which in turn anchors many proteins (GPI-APs) to the cell surface. In spite of the overall conservation of the pathway, there still exist subtle differences in the GPI pathway of mammals and other eukaryotes which holds a great promise so far as the development of drugs/inhibitors against specific targets in the GPI pathway of pathogens is concerned. Many of the GPI structures and their anchored proteins in pathogenic protozoans and fungi act as pathogenicity factors...
February 27, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Amanda Gabriela de Carvalho, João Gabriel Guimarães Luz, Luane Dantas Rodrigues, João Victor Leite Dias, Cor Jesus Fernandes Fontes
The Brazilian municipality of Rondonópolis is an emerging urban focus of intense transmission of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), where few investigations have addressed canine reservoirs. This study assessed the seroprevalence and spatial distribution of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in the urban area of Rondonópolis. A CVL serosurvey was conducted between October 2016 and February 2017 using an immunochromatographic rapid test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Domestic dogs were sampled from 25 heterogeneous regions previously defined by the Spatial 'K'luster Analysis by Tree Edge Removal algorithm, which considered the socioeconomic and environmental features from the last demographic census...
February 20, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Perumal Vivekanandhan, Sengodan Karthi, Muthugounder S Shivakumar, Giovanni Benelli
Mosquito control using chemical insecticides is facing a major challenge due to development of insecticide resistance. Improving the efficiency of existing insecticides using synergistic secondary metabolites of biological origin is increasingly being researched. Herein, we evaluated the toxicity of Fusarium oxysporum extract alone and in binary combinations with temephos, on larvae and pupae of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefaciatus. F. oxysporum extract was characterized using TLC, FT-IR and GC-MS...
February 19, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Andrew M Hammond, Roberto Galizi
Self-propagating gene drive technologies have a number of desirable characteristics that warrant their development for the control of insect pest and vector populations, such as the malaria-transmitting mosquitoes. Theoretically easy to deploy and self-sustaining, these tools may be used to generate cost-effective interventions that benefit society without obvious bias related to wealth, age or education. Their species-specific design offers the potential to reduce environmental risks and aim to be compatible and complementary with other control strategies, potentially expediting the elimination and eradication of malaria...
February 19, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Stephanie L Richards, Nwanne Agada, Jo Anne G Balanay, Avian V White
Minimizing arthropod exposure (e.g. mosquito and tick bites) is vital to protect health of outdoor workers. Personal protective measures can help protect against exposure. Here, the quantity of permethrin was evaluated for different fabric types after washing. Cone and petri dish exposure assays were used to investigate the knockdown/mortality of permethrin-susceptible and permethrin-resistant populations of mosquitoes. Permethrin-treated clothing was effective against the tested mosquito population that was susceptible to permethrin but not a permethrin-resistant population...
February 16, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Luana Nepomueceno Costa Lima, Cristiane Cunha Frota, Phillip Noel Suffys, Amanda Nogueira Brum Fontes, Rosa Maria Salani Mota, Rosa Livia Freitas Almeida, Maria Araci de Andrade Pontes, Heitor de Sá Gonçalves, Carl Kendall, Ligia Regina Sansigolo Kerr
This study analyzed the genetic diversity by MIRU-VNTR of Mycobacterium leprae isolates from nasal cavities and related to epidemiological and clinical data. The sample consisted of 48 newly diagnosed leprosy cases that tested positive for M. leprae PCR in nasal secretion (NS) attending to the National Reference Center of Dermatology Dona Libania (CDERM), Fortaleza, Brazil. Total DNA was extracted from NS of each patient and used for amplification of four M. leprae VNTR loci. Four clusters of M. leprae isolates were formed with identical genotypes...
February 6, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Ibrahim M Mosleh, Gabrielle Schönian, Khalil Kanani, Bassam Shadfan
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is endemic in many foci of Jordan and the Jordanian Mid Jordan Valley (JMJV) is the most affected and the incidence is quite high. The situation in the northern part of the Jordanian side of the Jordan Valley (NJJV) was different; before 2008, CL has rarely been reported from this area. From April 2008 to May 2009, passive detection followed by active detection was used to trace cases of CL from the NJJV. DNA was extracted from seven clinical isolates of Leishmania promastigotes and lesion scrapings spotted on filter papers obtained from 51 suspected CL patients living in the NJJV...
February 2, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Rebeca Carballar-Lejarazú, Anthony A James
Vector control strategies based on population modification of Anopheline mosquitoes may have a significant role in the malaria eradication agenda. They could consolidate elimination gains by providing barriers to the reintroduction of parasites and competent vectors, and allow resources to be allocated to new control sites while maintaining treated areas free of malaria. Synthetic biological approaches are being used to generate transgenic mosquitoes for population modification. Proofs-of-principle exist for mosquito transgenesis, the construction of anti-parasite effector genes and gene-drive systems for rapidly introgressing beneficial genes into wild populations...
February 1, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Stephanie Tannous, Esther Ghanem
Malaria infection caused by Plasmodium parasites remains a major health burden worldwide especially in the tropics and subtropics. Plasmodium exhibits a complex life cycle whereby it undergoes a series of developmental stages in the Anopheles mosquito vector and the vertebrate human host. Malaria severity is mainly attributed to the genetic complexity of the parasite which is reflected in the sophisticated mechanisms of invasion and evasion that allow it to overcome the immune responses of both its invertebrate and vertebrate hosts...
January 29, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Zach N Adelman, David Pledger, Kevin M Myles
The biosafety landscape for studies involving gene drive in arthropods is at a critical juncture. Numerous arthropod species represent potential targets for gene-drive-based population suppression or replacement, due to the large number of arthropods that transmit diseases, damage crops, or act as deleterious invasive species. Containment measures for gene drive research in arthropods have been discussed in the literature, but the importance of developing safe and effective standard operating procedures (SOPs) for these types of experiments has not been adequately addressed...
January 19, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Solomon Ngutor Karshima
Contamination of edible fruits and vegetables is now a global public health issue despite their health benefits as non-pharmacological prophylaxis against chronic diseases. Studies that will harness the extent of parasitic contaminations will ensure public health protection. Here, the prevalence and distribution of parasites of importance for human health on fruits and vegetables in Nigeria were determined through a systematic review and meta-analysis of published data. The random-effects model was used to determine pooled prevalence estimate (PPE)...
January 16, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Olusola Ojurongbe, Christian N Nguetse, Samuel A Fayemiwo, Catherine O Falade, Taiwo A Ojurongbe, Bolaji N Thomas, Christian G Meyer, Thirumalaisamy P Velavan
This study assesses the prevalence of asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia positivity and P. falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (pfdhfr) mutations in parasite isolates among pregnant women in Southwest Nigeria. Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia was confirmed by microscopy and nested PCR in 200 pregnant women attending antenatal care. The prevalence of pfdhfr polymorphisms was determined by direct sequencing of the gene fragments containing the C50R, N51I, C59R, S108N, and I164L mutations. Information on the use of antimalarial drugs and methods applied to prevent malaria were obtained by a questionnaire...
January 10, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Lívia Érika Carlos Marques, Cristiane Cunha Frota, Josiane da Silva Quetz, Alexandre Havt Bindá, Rosa Maria Salane Mota, Maria Araci de Andrade Pontes, Heitor de Sá Gonçalves, Carl Kendall, Ligia Regina Franco Sansigolo Kerr
Mycobacterium leprae bacilli are mainly transmitted by the dissemination of nasal aerosols from multibacillary (MB) patients to susceptible individuals through inhalation. The upper respiratory tract represents the main entry and exit routes of M. leprae. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in detecting M. leprae in nasal secretion (NS) and skin biopsy (SB) samples from MB and paucibacillary (PB) cases. Fifty-four NS samples were obtained from leprosy patients at the Dona Libânia National Reference Centre for Sanitary Dermatology in Ceará, Brazil...
December 26, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
Jing Cui, Peng Jiang, Yan Yan Song, Xi Zhang, Zhong Quan Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 18, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
Eleonora Cella, Elisabetta Riva, Marco Salemi, Silvia Spoto, Serena Vita, Marta Fogolari, Silvia Angeletti, Massimo Ciccozzi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 28, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
Marielle Karine Bouyou Akotet, Jeanne Vanessa Koumba Lengongo, Magloire Ondounda, Eric Kendjo, Arnaud Mongo Delis, Magalie Essomeyo Mebale, Jacques Mari Ndong Ngomo, Noé Patrick M Bondoukwe, Denise Patricia Mawili-Mboumba, Madeleine Okome Nkoumou
 Objective : This study determined the prevalence of asymptomatic Plasmodium (P.) falciparum infection and anemia in adults living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) and compared malaria prevalence between 858 HIV-infected (PLHIV) and 272 uninfected individuals in Gabon where such information are lacking. Factors influencing malaria and anemia were also investigated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Participants were screened for malaria. Available hemoglobin level, socio-demographic and use of prevention or treatment data were compared between both groups...
November 21, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
Martin Ward, Giovanni Benelli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 20, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 17, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
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