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Pathogens and Global Health

Navaneethan Palanisamy, Dario Akaberi, Johan Lennerstrand, Åke Lundkvist
Alkhumra hemorrhagic fever virus (AHFV), a relatively new member of the Flaviviruses, was discovered in Saudi Arabia 23 years ago. AHFV is classified in the tick-borne encephalitis virus serocomplex, along with the Kyasanur forest disease virus (KFDV) and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). Currently, very little is known about the pathologies of AHFV. In this study, using the available genome information of AHFV, KFDV and TBEV, we have predicted and compared the following aspects of these viruses: evolution, nucleotide and protein compositions, recombination, codon frequency, substitution rate, N- and O-glycosylation sites, signal peptide and cleavage site, transmembrane region, secondary structure of 5' and 3' UTRs and RNA-RNA interactions...
May 10, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Fateh Karimian, Hassan Vatandoost, Yavar Rassi, Naseh Maleki-Ravasan, Nayyereh Choubdar, Mona Koosha, Kourosh Arzamani, Eslam Moradi-Asl, Arshad Veysi, Hamzeh Alipour, Manouchehr Shirani, Mohammad Ali Oshaghi
Sand flies of Phlebotomus papatasi and P. sergenti are the main vectors of cutaneous leishmanisis (CL) in the old world. We aimed to screen Iranian P. papatasi and P. sergenti for their natural infections with Wolbachia and to determine their phylogenetic association with other species. Wolbachia surface protein (wsp) gene was PCR amplified from DNA extracted from Phlebotomus species, sequenced, and were analysed in combination with wsp sequences related to Phelebtominae and other insects. All Wolbachia-infecting Iranian sand flies of P...
May 10, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Silvia Ciocchetta, Natalie A Prow, Jonathan M Darbro, Francesca D Frentiu, Sandro Savino, Fabrizio Montarsi, Gioia Capelli, John G Aaskov, Gregor J Devine
Arthropod-borne disease outbreaks, facilitated by the introduction of exotic mosquitoes, pose a significant public health threat. Recent chikungunya virus (CHIKV) epidemics in Europe highlight the importance of understanding the vector potential of invading mosquitoes. In this paper we explore the potential of Aedes koreicus, a mosquito new to Europe, to transmit CHIKV. Mosquitoes were challenged with CHIKV and maintained at two temperatures: 23 °C and a fluctuating temperature. Total CHIKV infection rates at 3, 10 and 14 days post-feeding were low for both temperature treatments (13...
May 8, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Anastasia I Lev, Eugeny I Astashkin, Angelina A Kislichkina, Ekaterina V Solovieva, Tatiana I Kombarova, Olga V Korobova, Olga N Ershova, Irina A Alexandrova, Vladimir E Malikov, Alexander G Bogun, Alexander I Borzilov, Nikolay V Volozhantsev, Edward A Svetoch, Nadezhda K Fursova
The antibacterial resistance and virulence genotypes and phenotypes of 148 non-duplicate Klebsiella pneumoniae strains collected from 112 patients in Moscow hospitals in 2012-2016 including isolates from the respiratory system (57%), urine (30%), wounds (5%), cerebrospinal fluid (4%), blood (3%), and rectal swab (1%) were determined. The majority (98%) were multidrug resistant (MDR) strains carrying blaSHV (91%), blaCTX-M (74%), blaTEM (51%), blaOXA (38%), and blaNDM (1%) beta-lactamase genes, class 1 integrons (38%), and the porin protein gene ompK36 (96%)...
April 30, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 27, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
E K Oladipo, E H Awoyelu, J K Oloke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 23, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 9, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Devora A Najjar, Avery M Normandin, Elizabeth A Strait, Kevin M Esvelt
The prospect of using genetic methods to target vector, parasite, and reservoir species offers tremendous potential benefits to public health, but the use of genome editing to alter the shared environment will require special attention to public perception and community governance in order to benefit the world. Public skepticism combined with the media scrutiny of gene drive systems could easily derail unpopular projects entirely, especially given the potential for trade barriers to be raised against countries that employ self-propagating gene drives...
April 9, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Tony Nolan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 28, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Shivanand Hegde, Grant L Hughes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 24, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Robyn Raban, Omar S Akbari
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 23, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Austin Burt, Andrea Crisanti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
Maryam Ramezany, Iraj Sharifi, Zahra Babaei, Pooya Ghasemi Nejad Almani, Amireh Heshmatkhah, Alireza Keyhani, Mohammad Reza Aflatoonian, Mohammad Ali Mohammadi, Fatemeh Sharifi, Mehdi Bamorovat
This study aimed to explore geographic distribution and molecular characterization of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) species by amplifying two popular markers in kinetoplast DNA and internal transcribed spacer 1 loci by nested-PCR, and characterized by sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Findings demonstrated that two species co-existed in the province: L. tropica (88.5%) and L. major (11.5%). All gender and age groups were equally infected, although males, 21-30 years old, exhibited a significantly higher infection...
March 14, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Ada Kazi, Candy Chuah, Abu Bakar Abdul Majeed, Chiuan Herng Leow, Boon Huat Lim, Chiuan Yee Leow
Immunoinformatics plays a pivotal role in vaccine design, immunodiagnostic development, and antibody production. In the past, antibody design and vaccine development depended exclusively on immunological experiments which are relatively expensive and time-consuming. However, recent advances in the field of immunological bioinformatics have provided feasible tools which can be used to lessen the time and cost required for vaccine and antibody development. This approach allows the selection of immunogenic regions from the pathogen genomes...
March 12, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Usha Yadav, Mohd Ashraf Khan
The GPI (Glycosylphosphatidylinositol) biosynthetic pathway is a multistep conserved pathway in eukaryotes that culminates in the generation of GPI glycolipid which in turn anchors many proteins (GPI-APs) to the cell surface. In spite of the overall conservation of the pathway, there still exist subtle differences in the GPI pathway of mammals and other eukaryotes which holds a great promise so far as the development of drugs/inhibitors against specific targets in the GPI pathway of pathogens is concerned. Many of the GPI structures and their anchored proteins in pathogenic protozoans and fungi act as pathogenicity factors...
February 27, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Stephanie L Richards, Nwanne Agada, Jo Anne G Balanay, Avian V White
Minimizing arthropod exposure (e.g. mosquito and tick bites) is vital to protect health of outdoor workers. Personal protective measures can help protect against exposure. Here, the quantity of permethrin was evaluated for different fabric types after washing. Cone and petri dish exposure assays were used to investigate the knockdown/mortality of permethrin-susceptible and permethrin-resistant populations of mosquitoes. Permethrin-treated clothing was effective against the tested mosquito population that was susceptible to permethrin but not a permethrin-resistant population...
February 16, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Luana Nepomueceno Costa Lima, Cristiane Cunha Frota, Phillip Noel Suffys, Amanda Nogueira Brum Fontes, Rosa Maria Salani Mota, Rosa Livia Freitas Almeida, Maria Araci de Andrade Pontes, Heitor de Sá Gonçalves, Carl Kendall, Ligia Regina Sansigolo Kerr
This study analyzed the genetic diversity by MIRU-VNTR of Mycobacterium leprae isolates from nasal cavities and related to epidemiological and clinical data. The sample consisted of 48 newly diagnosed leprosy cases that tested positive for M. leprae PCR in nasal secretion (NS) attending to the National Reference Center of Dermatology Dona Libania (CDERM), Fortaleza, Brazil. Total DNA was extracted from NS of each patient and used for amplification of four M. leprae VNTR loci. Four clusters of M. leprae isolates were formed with identical genotypes...
February 6, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Ibrahim M Mosleh, Gabrielle Schönian, Khalil Kanani, Bassam Shadfan
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is endemic in many foci of Jordan and the Jordanian Mid Jordan Valley (JMJV) is the most affected and the incidence is quite high. The situation in the northern part of the Jordanian side of the Jordan Valley (NJJV) was different; before 2008, CL has rarely been reported from this area. From April 2008 to May 2009, passive detection followed by active detection was used to trace cases of CL from the NJJV. DNA was extracted from seven clinical isolates of Leishmania promastigotes and lesion scrapings spotted on filter papers obtained from 51 suspected CL patients living in the NJJV...
February 2, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Amanda Gabriela de Carvalho, João Gabriel Guimarães Luz, Luane Dantas Rodrigues, João Victor Leite Dias, Cor Jesus Fernandes Fontes
The Brazilian municipality of Rondonópolis is an emerging urban focus of intense transmission of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), where few investigations have addressed canine reservoirs. This study assessed the seroprevalence and spatial distribution of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in the urban area of Rondonópolis. A CVL serosurvey was conducted between October 2016 and February 2017 using an immunochromatographic rapid test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Domestic dogs were sampled from 25 heterogeneous regions previously defined by the Spatial 'K'luster Analysis by Tree Edge Removal algorithm, which considered the socioeconomic and environmental features from the last demographic census...
February 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Perumal Vivekanandhan, Sengodan Karthi, Muthugounder S Shivakumar, Giovanni Benelli
Mosquito control using chemical insecticides is facing a major challenge due to development of insecticide resistance. Improving the efficiency of existing insecticides using synergistic secondary metabolites of biological origin is increasingly being researched. Herein, we evaluated the toxicity of Fusarium oxysporum extract alone and in binary combinations with temephos, on larvae and pupae of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefaciatus. F. oxysporum extract was characterized using TLC, FT-IR and GC-MS...
February 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
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