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Pathogens and Global Health

Ye Mun Low, Chun Wie Chong, Ivan Kok Seng Yap, Lay Ching Chai, Stuart C Clarke, Sasheela Ponnampalavanar, Kartini Abdul Jabar, Mohd Yasim Md Yusof, Cindy Shuan Ju Teh
The increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistant pathogens poses a serious threat to global health. However, less emphasis has been placed to co-relate the gene expression and metabolism of antibiotic resistant pathogens. This study aims to elucidate gene expression and variations in metabolism of multidrug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae after exposure to antibiotics. Phenotypic responses of three genotypically distinct carbapenem resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) strains untreated and treated with sub-lethal concentrations of imipenem were investigated via phenotype microarrays (PM)...
October 31, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
W M K T De A W Gunasekera, R G Premaratne, O V D S J Weerasena, W S Premawansa, S M Handunnetti, S D Fernando
The utility of CareStartTM Malaria Pf/PAN (HRP2/pLDH) Ag Combo Test, in detecting non-endemic clinical malaria cases was evaluated in Sri Lanka, a country in prevention of re-establishment of malaria following elimination. RDT, microscopy and nested PCR were performed for 350 suspected malaria patients recruited prospectively. There were 173 PCR confirmed malaria patients and 177 PCR negative subjects. Plasmodium falciparum amounted to 48% of infections with 44% P. vivax, 6% P. ovale and 2% P. malariae. Performance characteristics of RDTs and microscopy were compared with nested PCR...
October 24, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Adel Mirza Alizadeh, Sahar Jazaeri, Bahar Shemshadi, Fataneh Hashempour-Baltork, Zahra Sarlak, Zahra Pilevar, Hedayat Hosseini
Toxoplasmosis is an infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii, a widespread zoonotic protozoan which poses a great threat to human health and economic well-being worldwide. It is usually acquired by ingestion of water contaminated with oocysts from the feces of infected cats or by the ingestion of raw or undercooked foodstuff containing tissue cysts. The oocyst can contaminate irrigation water and fresh edible produce. It is estimated that approximately one-third of the human population worldwide harbor this parasite...
October 22, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Min Han Lew, Rahmah Noordin, Mohammed Monsur Alam Khan, Gee Jun Tye
Toxoplasmosis, a parasitic disease in human and animals, is caused by Toxoplasma gondii. Our previous study has led to the discovery of a novel RAP domain binding protein antigen (TgRA15), an apparent in-vivo induced antigen recognised by antibodies in acutely infected individuals. This study is aimed to evaluate the humoral response and cytokine release elicited by recombinant TgRA15 protein in C57BL/6 mice, demonstrating its potential as a candidate vaccine for Toxoplasma gondii infection. In this study, the recombinant TgRA15 protein was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and refolded into soluble form...
October 17, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Shahira A Ahmed, Milena Guerrero Flórez, Panagiotis Karanis
Waterborne protozoa (WBP) are important cause of several outbreaks all over the world. The report system of WBP in Africa is weak. More than one third of African countries (21/54) reported WBP with absent reports in the remaining countries (33/54). The top reported WBP were Cryptosporidium, Giardia, FLA and Entamoeba contaminating different African water resources. Other protozoa were less documented even though it is abundant and robust. More than one protozoa were detected in contaminated African water including drinking sources, a prediction index to popular epidemics and real presence of undocumented WBP outbreaks...
October 17, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Gary Kim Kuan Low, Seng-Chiew Gan, Norsafina Zainal, Komala Devi Naidu, Syafinaz Amin-Nordin, Ching-Soong Khoo, Mohd Isa Ridzuan, Rosaida Mohd Said, Melor Mohd Mansor, Mohd Hanif Zailani, Hui-Yee Chee, Sheng Jye Lim, Jeyanthi Suppiah, Santhi Appu, Izani Ismail, Thaw Zin, Kian Keong Te, Nadia Mohd Hatta
This study aimed to evaluate vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and pentraxin 3 (PTX-3) as predictive and diagnostic markers in differentiating severe dengue from non-severe dengue. The study was conducted in Ampang Health Clinic, Ampang Hospital and Serdang Hospital. The plasma levels of VEGF and PTX-3 were compared between severe dengue and non-severe dengue by ELISA from the day of presentation until discharged. Multiple logistic regression was used to develop predictive and diagnostic models by incorporating other clinical parameters...
September 22, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Sandra Bos, Gilles Gadea, Philippe Despres
Dengue disease is the most prevalent mosquito-borne viral infection in humans. At least one half of the global population is estimated at risk of infection and an estimated 390 million people are infected each year. Over the past few years, dengue burden continued to increase, mainly impacting developing countries. Alarming changes in dengue epidemiology were observed highlighting a spread from tropical to subtropical regions as well as urban to rural areas. An increase in the co-infections with the four serotypes has also been noticed, involving a shift in the targeted population from pediatric to adult...
September 14, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Kaustubh Bora, Dulmoni Das, Bhupen Barman, Probodh Borah
BACKGROUND: Internet-videos, though popular sources of public health information, are often unverified and anecdotal. We critically evaluated YouTube videos about Zika virus available during the recent Zika pandemic. METHODS: Hundred-and-one videos were retrieved from YouTube (search term: zika virus). Based upon content, they were classified as: informative, misleading or personal experience videos. Quality and reliability of these videos were evaluated using standardized tools...
August 29, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Mohammad Sadeghi, Roya Ahmadrajabi, Tania Dehesh, Fereshteh Saffari
Neisseria meningitidis is an important causative agent of bacterial meningitis. The nasopharynx is the only known reservoir of this organism. Although the relationship between carriage and invasive disease is not completely understood, asymptomatic meningococcal carriers are considered as the most important sources for causing strains of disease. Living in closed and overcrowded places such as university dormitories can increase the carriage rate and meningococcal disease. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of N...
August 29, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Jennifer S F da Silva, Cynthia Braga, Felipe M Duarte, Paula Oliveira, Carlos Feitosa Luna, Márcia Marcondes, Josué Araújo, Maria Rosangela Grilis, Paula Fernanda A de Souza Melo, Eduardo Brandão, Abraham Rocha
The Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis has achieved extraordinary success in reducing transmission and preventing morbidity through mass drug administration (MDA) to the population at-risk. Brazil is the only currently using diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC) alone for MDA, so an assessment of its effectiveness is needed. We report the trends of filarial markers in a cohort of 175 individuals infected with Wuchereria bancrofti in areas that underwent MDA in the city of Olinda, Northeastern Brazil...
July 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Stefano Di Bella, Niccolò Riccardi, Daniele Roberto Giacobbe, Roberto Luzzati
Schistosomiasis is a parasitic infection that has evolved together with the humankind. Evidence in ancient Egyptian medical papyri or Assyrian medical texts reported signs and symptoms that could resemble schistosomiasis; similarly, some biblical passages describe an epidemic (depicted as a 'curse') that has been hypothesized to be associated with schistosomiasis' spread in Mesopotamia. In the modern era, Theodor Maximilian Bilharz and Patrick Manson (the 'father of tropical medicine') gave an impetus to the knowledge about the parasite and its spread until the present time, when immunoassays and molecular biology on mummies allowed retracing important milestones regarding schistosomiasis' evolution...
July 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Sebastián Napp, Dusan Petrić, Núria Busquets
Eastern Europe (EE) has been severely affected by mosquito-borne viruses (moboviruses). In this review, we summarize the epidemiology of moboviruses, with particular attention to West Nile virus (WNV). The study of WNV human cases in EE between 2010 and 2016, revealed that the epidemiology of WNV in EE is complex with the combination of introduction of different WNV strains from lineages 1 and 2, and the establishment of endemic cycles. We found a positive correlation between the risk of WNV re-emergence in an area and the number of human cases reported in the previous year...
July 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Marta Serrano-Moliner, María Morales-Suarez-Varela, M Adela Valero
BACKGROUND: Foodborne nematodiasis are caused by the ingestion of food contaminated by helminths. In Europe, these diseases are present in all countries. OBJECTIVES: To review the available data on epidemiology and management of foodborne nematodiasis in the European Union, detect any trends and determine the possible causes of the observed changes. METHODS: A review of available literature published between 2000 and 2016 was conducted. RESULTS: Out of 1523 cases described in the literature, 1493 cases were autochthonous and 30 cases were imported...
July 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Saujanya Vruddhula
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Vanina Varni, Yosena Chiani, Ariel Nagel, Paula Ruybal, Norma Bibiana Vanasco, Karina Caimi
Leptospirosis is a globally distributed zoonosis. Epidemiological data are scarce and present major challenge because of the varied clinical presentations. Multilocus Sequence Typing has already proven to be a robust molecular typing method providing accurate results for strain characterization. We have adapted our MLST scheme by reducing the set of loci to facilitate Leptospira typing directly from human clinical samples. The application of this 3-locus scheme provides Leptospira species and allelic profiles of the samples retaining the power of discrimination of the whole scheme...
June 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Larisa Rudenko, Megan J Palmer, Kenneth Oye
Governance is a broader and more flexible concept than statute-driven regulations as it incorporates components outside the latter's remit. Considerations of governance are critical in the development of emerging biotechnologies such as gene drive organisms. These have been proposed or are being developed to address public and environmental health issues not addressed easily by conventional means. Here, we consider how the concept of governance differs from statute-driven regulation with reference to the role each may play in the development of gene drive organisms...
June 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Matthew R Just, Stephen W Carden, Sheng Li, Kelly K Baker, Manoj Gambhir, Isaac Chun-Hai Fung
Epidemiological studies have identified an increased risk of diarrheal diseases associated with using shared sanitation facilities. We hypothesized that this might be related to differences in transmission routes of pathogens. We proposed a mathematical model of two fictitious pathogens, one transmitted with an environmental reservoir and one without. We assumed that individuals susceptible to one pathogen are not susceptible to the other, and therefore, decoupled the two models. We initialized the model with 99% individuals being susceptible...
June 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Raíza Nara Cunha Moizéis, Thales Allyrio Araújo de Medeiros Fernandes, Paulo Marcos da Matta Guedes, Hannaly Wana Bezerra Pereira, Daniel Carlos Ferreira Lanza, Judson Welber Veríssimo de Azevedo, Josélio Maria de Araújo Galvão, José Veríssimo Fernandes
Chikungunya fever is an emerging arbovirus infection, representing a serious public health problem. Its etiological agent is the Chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Transmission of this virus is mainly vector by mosquitoes of the genus Aedes, although transmission by blood transfusions and vertical transmission has also been reported. The disease presents high morbidity caused mainly by the arthralgia and arthritis generated. Cardiovascular and neurological manifestations have also been reported. The severity of the infection seems to be directly associated with the action of the virus, but also with the decompensation of preexisting comorbidities...
June 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Navaneethan Palanisamy, Dario Akaberi, Johan Lennerstrand, Åke Lundkvist
Alkhumra hemorrhagic fever virus (AHFV), a relatively new member of the Flaviviruses, was discovered in Saudi Arabia 23 years ago. AHFV is classified in the tick-borne encephalitis virus serocomplex, along with the Kyasanur forest disease virus (KFDV) and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). Currently, very little is known about the pathologies of AHFV. In this study, using the available genome information of AHFV, KFDV and TBEV, we have predicted and compared the following aspects of these viruses: evolution, nucleotide and protein compositions, recombination, codon frequency, substitution rate, N- and O-glycosylation sites, signal peptide and cleavage site, transmembrane region, secondary structure of 5' and 3' UTRs and RNA-RNA interactions...
June 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
E K Oladipo, E H Awoyelu, J K Oloke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
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