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Pathogens and Global Health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350584/developing-standard-operating-procedures-for-gene-drive-research-in-disease-vector-mosquitoes
#1
Zach N Adelman, David Pledger, Kevin M Myles
The biosafety landscape for studies involving gene drive in arthropods is at a critical juncture. Numerous arthropod species represent potential targets for gene-drive-based population suppression or replacement, due to the large number of arthropods that transmit diseases, damage crops, or act as deleterious invasive species. Containment measures for gene drive research in arthropods have been discussed in the literature, but the importance of developing safe and effective standard operating procedures (SOPs) for these types of experiments has not been adequately addressed...
January 19, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336229/parasites-of-importance-for-human-health-on-edible-fruits-and-vegetables-in-nigeria-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-published-data
#2
Solomon Ngutor Karshima
Contamination of edible fruits and vegetables is now a global public health issue despite their health benefits as non-pharmacological prophylaxis against chronic diseases. Studies that will harness the extent of parasitic contaminations will ensure public health protection. Here, the prevalence and distribution of parasites of importance for human health on fruits and vegetables in Nigeria were determined through a systematic review and meta-analysis of published data. The random-effects model was used to determine pooled prevalence estimate (PPE)...
January 16, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318942/high-prevalence-of-dihydrofolate-reductase-gene-mutations-in-plasmodium-falciparum-parasites-among-pregnant-women-in-nigeria-after-reported-use-of-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine
#3
Olusola Ojurongbe, Christian N Nguetse, Samuel A Fayemiwo, Catherine O Falade, Taiwo A Ojurongbe, Bolaji N Thomas, Christian G Meyer, Thirumalaisamy P Velavan
This study assesses the prevalence of asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia positivity and P. falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (pfdhfr) mutations in parasite isolates among pregnant women in Southwest Nigeria. Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia was confirmed by microscopy and nested PCR in 200 pregnant women attending antenatal care. The prevalence of pfdhfr polymorphisms was determined by direct sequencing of the gene fragments containing the C50R, N51I, C59R, S108N, and I164L mutations. Information on the use of antimalarial drugs and methods applied to prevent malaria were obtained by a questionnaire...
January 10, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279044/evaluation-of-16s-rrna-qpcr-for-detection-of-mycobacterium-leprae-dna-in-nasal-secretion-and-skin-biopsy-samples-from-multibacillary-and-paucibacillary-leprosy-cases
#4
Lívia Érika Carlos Marques, Cristiane Cunha Frota, Josiane da Silva Quetz, Alexandre Havt Bindá, Rosa Maria Salane Mota, Maria Araci de Andrade Pontes, Heitor de Sá Gonçalves, Carl Kendall, Ligia Regina Franco Sansigolo Kerr
Mycobacterium leprae bacilli are mainly transmitted by the dissemination of nasal aerosols from multibacillary (MB) patients to susceptible individuals through inhalation. The upper respiratory tract represents the main entry and exit routes of M. leprae. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in detecting M. leprae in nasal secretion (NS) and skin biopsy (SB) samples from MB and paucibacillary (PB) cases. Fifty-four NS samples were obtained from leprosy patients at the Dona Libânia National Reference Centre for Sanitary Dermatology in Ceará, Brazil...
December 26, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29252108/imported-african-schistosomiasis-and-the-potential-risk-of-transmission-in-china
#5
Jing Cui, Peng Jiang, Yan Yan Song, Xi Zhang, Zhong Quan Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 18, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182057/the-new-chikungunya-virus-outbreak-in-italy-possibly-originated-from-a-single-introduction-from-asia
#6
Eleonora Cella, Elisabetta Riva, Marco Salemi, Silvia Spoto, Serena Vita, Marta Fogolari, Silvia Angeletti, Massimo Ciccozzi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 28, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161993/burden-of-asymptomatic-malaria-anemia-and-relationship-with-cotrimoxazole-use-and-cd4-cell-count-among-hiv1-infected-adults-living-in-gabon-central-africa
#7
Marielle Karine Bouyou Akotet, Jeanne Vanessa Koumba Lengongo, Magloire Ondounda, Eric Kendjo, Arnaud Mongo Delis, Magalie Essomeyo Mebale, Jacques Mari Ndong Ngomo, Noé Patrick M Bondoukwe, Denise Patricia Mawili-Mboumba, Madeleine Okome Nkoumou
 Objective : This study determined the prevalence of asymptomatic Plasmodium (P.) falciparum infection and anemia in adults living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) and compared malaria prevalence between 858 HIV-infected (PLHIV) and 272 uninfected individuals in Gabon where such information are lacking. Factors influencing malaria and anemia were also investigated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Participants were screened for malaria. Available hemoglobin level, socio-demographic and use of prevention or treatment data were compared between both groups...
November 21, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157173/culiseta-annulata-just-a-biting-nuisance-or-a-deadly-foe
#8
Martin Ward, Giovanni Benelli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 20, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148300/corrigendum
#9
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 17, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125042/molecular-surveillance-of-chloroquine-drug-resistance-markers-pfcrt-and-pfmdr1-among-imported-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-in-qatar
#10
Anushree Acharya, Devendra Bansal, Praveen K Bharti, Fahmi Y Khan, Salem Abusalah, Ashraf Elmalik, Mohammed ElKhalifa, Pradyumna K Mohapatra, Jagadish Mahanta, Rakesh Sehgal, Neeru Singh, Ali A Sultan
Imported malaria has been a great challenge for public health in Qatar due to influx of large number of migrant workers. Antimalarial drug resistance has emerged as one of the greatest challenges facing malaria control today. Monitoring parasite haplotypes that predict susceptibility to major antimalarial can guide treatment policies. This study aimed to determine molecular drug resistance pattern in imported malaria cases in Qatar. Blood samples from the uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria patients were collected at Hamad General Hospital, HMC, Doha, Qatar...
November 10, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072532/antibacterial-efficacy-of-silver-nanoparticles-and-ethyl-acetate-s-metabolites-of-the-potent-halophilic-marine-bacterium-bacillus-cereus-a30-on-multidrug-resistant-bacteria
#11
Dhayalan Arul, Govindasamy Balasubramani, Velramar Balasubramanian, Thillainathan Natarajan, Pachiappan Perumal
Bacteria are generally responsible for the prevalence of several diseases and pathogenic bacteria are showing increasing resistance to different antibacterials. During the present study an extremophilic bacterium-A30 isolated from the marine waters was characterized and evaluated against four multi-drug resistant (MDR) pathogens, viz; Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The sensitivity pattern of the selected pathogens was tested with 31 antibiotics...
October 26, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065795/antifilarial-activity-of-caffeic-acid-phenethyl-ester-on-brugia-pahangi-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#12
Nazeh M Al-Abd, Zurainee Mohamed Nor, Quazim O Junaid, Marzida Mansor, M S Hasan, Mustafa Kassim
Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a vector borne disease caused by parasitic worms such as Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and B. timori, which are transmitted by mosquitoes. Current therapeutics to treat LF are mainly microfilarcidal, and lack activity against adult worms. This set back, poses a challenge for the control and elimination of filariasis. Thus, in this study the activities of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) against the filarial worm B. pahangi and its bacterial endosymbiont, Wolbachia were evaluated...
October 25, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053059/the-sensitivity-and-specificity-of-a-urine-based-rapid-diagnostic-test-for-the-diagnosis-of-plasmodium-falciparum-in-a-malaria-endemic-area-in-odisha-india
#13
Ajit Gopal Samal, Prativa Kumari Behera, Akshay Kumar Mohanty, Sanghamitra Satpathi, Abhishek Kumar, Rabi Ratna Panda, Aruna Mukti Minz, Sanjib Mohanty, Abhijit Samal, Rob W Van Der Pluijm
BACKGROUND: Rapid and accurate diagnosis is crucial in the treatment of malaria. Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs) using blood have been recommended by the WHO as an acceptable method for the diagnosis of malaria. RDTs provide results quickly, is simple to use and easy to interpret. However, its use requires collection of blood by skin puncture. Hence the aim of the pilot study is to explore the sensitivity and specificity of RDTs using urine (collected non-invasively) for diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria and to assess the relation between parasite density in blood with HRP-2 Ag detection in urine...
October 20, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971738/status-of-insecticide-resistance-in-an-culicifacies-in-gadchiroli-maharashtra-india
#14
Gyan Chand, Priyamadhaba Behera, Bang Abhay, Neeru Singh
An. culicifacies is the major vector of malaria in tribal community and tribal dominated areas in India. Development of resistance to insecticides is the major challenge to curb the transmission. Gadchiroli (Maharashtra) is a tribal district in central India where incidence of malaria increased from 2012 to 2015 despite indoor space spray with synthetic pyrethroids. To determine the susceptibility status of An. culicifacies against commonly used insecticides in public health program in Gadchiroli. standard WHO method and test kit were used...
October 3, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139340/erratum
#15
Gyan Chand, Priyamadhaba Behera, Abhay Bang, Neeru Singh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139339/high-prevalence-of-hypertension-and-its-selected-risk-factors-among-adult-tribal-population-in-central-india
#16
Tapas Chakma, Arvind Kavishwar, Ravendra K Sharma, P Vinay Rao
A community based cross-sectional study was carried out to assess the prevalence of hypertension and associated risk factors like salt intake, 24-h urinary sodium excretion and body mass index (BMI) among tribal population of Mandla District, Central India. A total of 3090 individuals, from 1258 house hold drawn from 33 sampled villages and 12 urban wards were studied for blood pressure measurements and clinical examination, while 414 urine samples were collected for estimation of 24-h sodium excretion. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to assess the associations of BMI, urinary sodium output and other risk factors with hypertension...
October 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948867/prevalence-and-genetic-characterisation-of-respiratory-syncytial-viruses-circulating-in-bulgaria-during-the-2014-15-and-2015-16-winter-seasons
#17
Neli Korsun, Svetla Angelova, Iren Tzotcheva, Irina Georgieva, Snezhina Lazova, Snezhana Parina, Ivaylo Alexiev, Penka Perenovska
The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of acute respiratory illnesses (ARI) in infants and young children. The objectives of this study were to investigate the RSV circulation among children aged <5 years in Bulgaria, to identify the RSV-A and RSV-B genotypes and to perform an amino acid sequence analysis of second hypervariable region (HVR2) of the G gene. During the 2014/15 and 2015/16 winter seasons, nasopharyngeal specimens of 610 children aged <5 years with ARI were tested using Real Time RT-PCR for influenza viruses, RSV, metapneumovirus, parainfluenza viruses, rhinoviruses and adenoviruses...
September 26, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948861/prophylaxis-of-human-toxoplasmosis-a-systematic-review
#18
Senaka Rajapakse, Praveen Weeratunga, Chaturaka Rodrigo, Nipun Lakshitha de Silva, Sumadhya Deepika Fernando
Toxoplasmosis is an infection caused by the intracellular protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, and is associated with clinically significant infection in immunocompromised individuals. Vertical transmission during pregnancy can manifest as congenital toxoplasmosis in the neonate, and can have serious consequences. This review aims to describe the modalities for prophylaxis of toxoplasmosis in susceptible populations, and focuses on the following: (1) prophylaxis of congenital toxoplasmosis; (2) prophylaxis of toxoplasmosis in patients with HIV/AIDS; and (3) prophylaxis of toxoplasmosis in transplant recipients...
September 26, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052492/systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-secondary-prophylaxis-for-prevention-of-hiv-related-toxoplasmic-encephalitis-relapse-using-trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole
#19
Mark P Connolly, Gertruud Haitsma, Adrián V Hernández, José E Vidal
A recent systematic literature and meta-analysis reported relative efficacy of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) for the treatment of toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE) in HIV-infected adults. Here, we estimated relapse rates during secondary prophylaxis with TMP-SMX, and further explored differences in relapse rates prior to introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and the widespread adoption of HAART. A systematic search of PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials yielded 707 studies whereby 663 were excluded after abstract screening, and 38 were excluded after full review leaving 6 studies for extraction...
September 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875769/understanding-the-cryptic-nature-of-lassa-fever-in-west-africa
#20
Rory Gibb, Lina M Moses, David W Redding, Kate E Jones
Lassa fever (LF) is increasingly recognized by global health institutions as an important rodent-borne disease with severe impacts on some of West Africa's poorest communities. However, our knowledge of LF ecology, epidemiology and distribution is limited, which presents barriers to both short-term disease forecasting and prediction of long-term impacts of environmental change on Lassa virus (LASV) zoonotic transmission dynamics. Here, we synthesize current knowledge to show that extrapolations from past research have produced an incomplete picture of the incidence and distribution of LF, with negative consequences for policy planning, medical treatment and management interventions...
September 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
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