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Pathogens and Global Health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875769/understanding-the-cryptic-nature-of-lassa-fever-in-west-africa
#1
Rory Gibb, Lina M Moses, David W Redding, Kate E Jones
Lassa fever (LF) is increasingly recognized by global health institutions as an important rodent-borne disease with severe impacts on some of West Africa's poorest communities. However, our knowledge of LF ecology, epidemiology and distribution is limited, which presents barriers to both short-term disease forecasting and prediction of long-term impacts of environmental change on Lassa virus (LASV) zoonotic transmission dynamics. Here, we synthesize current knowledge to show that extrapolations from past research have produced an incomplete picture of the incidence and distribution of LF, with negative consequences for policy planning, medical treatment and management interventions...
September 6, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829253/o-nyong-nyong-fever-a-neglected-mosquito-borne-viral-disease
#2
Giovanni Rezza, Rubing Chen, Scott C Weaver
O'nyong nyong virus (ONNV), a mosquito-borne Alphavirus, is primarily transmitted through the bite of Anopheles funestus and Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes, which are also malaria parasite vectors in Africa. The virus, first isolated in Uganda in 1959, is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa and has caused several major outbreaks both in West and East Africa. ONNV fever, characterized by severe arthralgia, is similar to chikungunya fever, with the exception of cervical lymphadenitis, which is peculiar to the former...
August 22, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829235/taking-innovative-vector-control-interventions-in-urban-latin-america-to-scale-lessons-learnt-from-multi-country-implementation-research
#3
Juliana Quintero, Tatiana García-Betancourt, Andrea Caprara, Cesar Basso, Elsa Garcia da Rosa, Pablo Manrique-Saide, Giovanini Coelho, Gustavo Sánchez-Tejeda, Felipe Dzul-Manzanilla, Diego Alejandro García, Gabriel Carrasquilla, Eduardo Alfonso-Sierra, Cyntia Monteiro Vasconcelos Motta, Johannes Sommerfeld, Axel Kroeger
Prior to the current public health emergency following the emergence of chikungunya and Zika Virus Disease in the Americas during 2014 and 2015, multi-country research investigated between 2011 and 2013 the efficacy of novel Aedes aegypti intervention packages through cluster randomised controlled trials in four Latin-American cities: Fortaleza (Brazil); Girardot (Colombia), Acapulco (Mexico) and Salto (Uruguay). Results from the trials led to a scaling up effort of the interventions at city levels. Scaling up refers to deliberate efforts to increase the impact of successfully tested health interventions to benefit more people and foster policy and program development in a sustainable way...
August 22, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820339/emergence-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-sri-lanka-a-newly-established-health-threat
#4
H V Y D Siriwardana, P Karunanayake, L Goonerathne, N D Karunaweera
BACKGROUND: Sri Lanka is a new focus of human cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by a genetic variant of usually visceralizing parasite Leishmania donovani. Over 3000 cases have been reported to our institution alone, during the past two decades. Recent emergence of visceral leishmaniasis is of concern. METHODS: Patients suspected of having visceral leishmaniasis (n = 120) fulfilling at least two of six criteria (fever > 2 weeks, weight loss, tiredness affecting daily functions, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly and anemia) were studied using clinic-epidemiological, immunological and haematological parameters...
August 18, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777043/diagnostic-potential-of-monoclonal-antibodies-developed-against-c-terminal-polypeptide-of-p-falciparum-histidine-rich-protein2-pfhrp2-in-malaria-infected-patients-from-india
#5
Reena Verma, Sara Chandy, N S Jayaprakash, Anand Manoharan, M A Vijayalakshmi, Krishnan Venkataraman
Malaria, caused by Plasmodium falciparum has become a major health burden in most tropical and developing countries. P. falciparum Histidine Rich Protein2 (PfHRP2), which exhibits polymorphism, is being widely used as a diagnostic marker. Recently, we reported the development of monoclonal antibodies against conserved C-terminal 105 amino acids of PfHRP2 for malaria diagnosis. Now, in this study, the diagnostic performance of two anti-C-terminal PfHRP2 mAbs (b10c1 and Aa3c10) were evaluated with 100 blood samples from clinically identified malaria patients from seven different geographical centers in India...
August 4, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745553/the-role-of-midgut-symbiotic-bacteria-in-resistance-of-anopheles-stephensi-diptera-culicidae-to-organophosphate-insecticides
#6
Aboozar Soltani, Hassan Vatandoost, Mohammad Ali Oshaghi, Ahmad Ali Enayati, Ali Reza Chavshin
In the current study, the effects of the presence of symbiotic bacteria on the activity of the enzymes involved in An. stephensi resistance to temephos are evaluated for the first time. Four different strains (I. susceptible strain, II. resistant strain, III. resistant strain + antibiotic, and IV. resistant strain + bacteria) were considered in order to determine the possible effects of the symbiotic bacteria on their hosts' resistance to temephos. The median values of all enzymes of susceptible strain were compared with those of other resistant strains...
July 26, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720037/emergency-department-visits-of-syrian-refugees-and-the-cost-of-their-healthcare
#7
Umut Gulacti, Ugur Lok, Haci Polat
The aim of this study was to evaluate the demographic and clinical characteristics of Emergency Department (ED) visits made by Syrian refugees and to assess the cost of their healthcare. This retrospective study was conducted in adult Syrians who visited the ED of Adiyaman University Training and Research Hospital, Adiyaman Province, Turkey, between 01 January and 31 December 2015. We evaluated 10,529 Syrian refugees who visited the ED, of whom 9,842 were included in the study. The number of ED visits significantly increased in 2015 compared with 2010; the increase in the proportion of total ED visits was 8% (n = 11,275, dif: 8%, CI 95%: 7...
July 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715935/new-findings-of-toll-like-receptors-involved-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#8
Majid Faridgohar, Hassan Nikoueinejad
Tuberculosis (TB), an important issue in the present age, affects millions of people each year. The infectious agent of TB, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), interacts with the immune system which prevents the development of this bacterium as much as possible. In fact, the receptors on the surface of immune cells identify the bacteria, one of which is Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Different TLRs including 2, 4, 9 and 8 play critical roles in tuberculosis infection. In this paper, we focused on the role of TLRs which interact with different components of Mtb and, consequently, prevent the entrance and influence of bacteria on the body...
July 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689480/prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-brucellosis-among-veterinary-health-care-professionals
#9
Rajeswari Shome, Triveni Kalleshamurthy, Padmashree B Shankaranarayana, Prashanth Giribattanvar, Nagarathna Chandrashekar, Nagalingam Mohandoss, Bibek Ranjan Shome, Ashok Kumar, Sukhadeo B Barbuddhe, Habibur Rahman
The study describes prevalence, clinical symptoms and risk factors for brucellosis in personnel engaged in veterinary health care in Karnataka, India. A total of 1050 sera samples were collected from animal handlers, veterinarians, veterinary students, para-veterinarians and persons engaged in artificial insemination of animals. The sera samples were tested for brucellosis by Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT), serum agglutination test (SAT), IgG and IgM indirect ELISA and PCR. Age, sex, clinical symptoms and risk factors were recorded in structured questionnaire...
July 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683669/development-of-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-with-plasmodium-falciparum-unique-genes-for-molecular-diagnosis-of-human-malaria
#10
Yijing Zhang, Yi Yao, Weixing Du, Kai Wu, Wenyue Xu, Min Lin, Huabing Tan, Jian Li
In order to achieve better outcomes for treatment and in the prophylaxis of malaria, it is imperative to develop a sensitive, specific, and accurate assay for early diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum infection, which is the major cause of malaria. In this study, we aimed to develop a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay with P. falciparum unique genes for sensitive, specific, and accurate detection of P. falciparum infection. The unique genes of P. falciparum were randomly selected from PlasmoDB...
July 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673120/infravec2-expanding-researcher-access-to-insect-vector-tools-and-resources
#11
EDITORIAL
Kenneth D Vernick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670975/carbapenem-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolated-from-bloodstream-infection-indian-experience
#12
Balaji Veeraraghavan, Chaitra Shankar, Susmitha Karunasree, Shantha Kumari, Raji Ravi, Ravikar Ralph
Increased incidence of multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram negative infection has resulted in high rates of morbidity and mortality. Klebsiella pneumoniae is one of the commonest MDR pathogens causing bacteraemia with limited therapeutic options such as colistin and tigecycline. Present study focused on molecular characterisation of MDR K. pneumoniae from bloodstream infection and their clinical outcome. A total of 115 K. pneumoniae from January 2015 to September 2016 were included in the study which comprised of phenotypically identified ESBL and carbapenem resistant (CR) isolates...
July 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645237/homologous-microscopic-agglutinating-antibodies-after-natural-infection-with-leptospires-results-from-a-long-term-follow-up-of-a-cohort-living-in-an-endemic-area
#13
R Vimal Raj, K Vinod Kumar, A P Sugunan, K Natarajaseenivasan, P Vijayachari
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605993/in-vitro-sensitivity-to-antimalarial-drugs-and-polymorphisms-in-pfg377-gene-in-plasmodium-falciparum-field-isolates-from-mewat-india
#14
Vineeta Singh, Amit Kumar, Purva Gupta
The malaria infection is the interplay of several complex factors, among which drug resistance and gametocyte biology are the crucial ones. Measurements of the drug sensitivity assays and prevalence of gametocyte genes play a major role in malaria eradication programmes. The purpose of this study was to assess the current drug sensitivity profile in the field isolates and type the Pfg377 gene. In vitro drug sensitivity assay was used to assess the susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates collected from Mewat (Haryana), located in Northern region of India to four anti-malarial drugs...
July 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549390/clinical-and-molecular-monitoring-of-plasmodium-falciparum-resistance-to-antimalarial-drug-artesunate-sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine-in-two-highly-malarious-district-of-madhya-pradesh-central-india-from-2012-2014
#15
Sweta Mishra, Praveen K Bharti, Man M Shukla, Nazia A Ali, Sher S Kashyotia, Avdhesh Kumar, Akshay C Dhariwal, Neeru Singh
The spread of P. falciparum resistant strain has led to a significant resurgence of malaria morbidity and mortality. The current cornerstone in malaria treatment in India is Artemisinin based Combination (Artesunate + Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine) Therapy (ACT) for treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria since 2010. In the present study we assessed the therapeutic efficacy of ACT and molecular monitoring of antimalarial resistance. Therapeutic efficacy was determined by in vivo method using 28 days follow-up...
June 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502227/malaria-and-severe-anemia-over-eight-years-at-gambo-rural-hospital-southern-ethiopia
#16
Pablo Barreiro, Gebre Tiziano, Haji Fano, Tafesse Yohannes, Ashenafi Gosa, Francisco Reyes, Abraham Tesfamariam, Miguel Górgolas, José M Ramos
Evolution of incident malaria and frequency of anemia were analyzed over eight years in a rural hospital in southern Ethiopia. Capillary blood samples were tested for hemoglobin concentration, and in some instances for malaria parasites, at Gambo Rural General Hospital between January 2007 and September 2014, and the results recorded. Main demographic data were also recorded in subjects with Plasmodium sp. infections. Of a total of 54,493 blood samples taken from 45,096 different patients, 21,723 (39.9%) samples from 19,173 (42...
June 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486849/vaccination-refusal-autonomy-and-permitted-coercion
#17
Andrzej Grzybowski, Rafał K Patryn, Jarosław Sak, Anna Zagaja
The article presents vaccination obligation in relation to the existing or newly enacted legislation. Mass vaccinations and a wave of criticism they cause, forces us to reflect on the limits of medical intervention in the human body and the boundaries granted to individual's freedom and autonomy. This problem is universal and exists mainly in countries without mandatory vaccinations. Analyzing recent years, it must be underlined that a process in some legislatures has been introduced to enforce various forms of vaccination coercion...
June 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403683/whole-genome-sequencing-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-mdr-strain-isolated-in-a-syrian-refugee
#18
Silvia Angeletti, Eleonora Cella, Alessia Lai, Alessandra Lo Presti, Francesca Antonelli, Alessia Conti, Maurizio Lopalco, Silvia Spoto, Gianguglielmo Zehender, Massimo Ciccozzi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395597/genome-sequencing-and-comparative-analysis-of-an-ndm-1-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-st15-isolated-from-a-refugee-patient
#19
Tamara Salloum, Harout Arabaghian, Sahar Alousi, Edmond Abboud, Sima Tokajian
The escalating problem of antibiotic resistance, specifically cabarpenemase and extended-spectrum β-lacatamase (ESBL) producing K. pneumoniae strains, is directly correlated with increased patient morbidity and mortality and prolonged hospitalization and costs. In this study, a comprehensive genomic analysis encompassing the resistomics, virulence repertoire and mobile genetic elements of an NDM-1 positive ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae EA-MEH ST15 isolated from a urine sample collected from a Syrian refugee was conducted...
June 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385129/in-vitro-antileishmanial-activity-of-fisetin-flavonoid-via-inhibition-of-glutathione-biosynthesis-and-arginase-activity-in-leishmania-infantum
#20
Keivan Adinehbeigi, Mohammad Hossein Razi Jalali, Ali Shahriari, Somayeh Bahrami
With the increasing emergence of drug resistant Leishmania sp. in recent years, combination therapy has been considered as a useful way to treat and control of Leishmaniasis. The present study was designed to evaluate the antileishmanial effects of the fisetin alone and combination of fisetin plus Meglumine antimoniate (Fi-MA) against Leishmania infantum. The IC50 values for fisetin were obtained 0.283 and 0.102 μM against promastigotes and amastigote forms, respectively. Meglumine antimoniate (MA, Glucantime) as control drug also revealed IC50 values of 0...
June 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
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