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Pathogens and Global Health

Stefano Di Bella, Niccolò Riccardi, Daniele Roberto Giacobbe, Roberto Luzzati
Schistosomiasis is a parasitic infection that has evolved together with the humankind. Evidence in ancient Egyptian medical papyri or Assyrian medical texts reported signs and symptoms that could resemble schistosomiasis; similarly, some biblical passages describe an epidemic (depicted as a 'curse') that has been hypothesized to be associated with schistosomiasis' spread in Mesopotamia. In the modern era, Theodor Maximilian Bilharz and Patrick Manson (the 'father of tropical medicine') gave an impetus to the knowledge about the parasite and its spread until the present time, when immunoassays and molecular biology on mummies allowed retracing important milestones regarding schistosomiasis' evolution...
July 17, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Sebastián Napp, Dusan Petrić, Núria Busquets
Eastern Europe (EE) has been severely affected by mosquito-borne viruses (moboviruses). In this review, we summarize the epidemiology of moboviruses, with particular attention to West Nile virus (WNV). The study of WNV human cases in EE between 2010 and 2016, revealed that the epidemiology of WNV in EE is complex with the combination of introduction of different WNV strains from lineages 1 and 2, and the establishment of endemic cycles. We found a positive correlation between the risk of WNV re-emergence in an area and the number of human cases reported in the previous year...
July 6, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Larisa Rudenko, Megan J Palmer, Kenneth Oye
Governance is a broader and more flexible concept than statute-driven regulations as it incorporates components outside the latter's remit. Considerations of governance are critical in the development of emerging biotechnologies such as gene drive organisms. These have been proposed or are being developed to address public and environmental health issues not addressed easily by conventional means. Here, we consider how the concept of governance differs from statute-driven regulation with reference to the role each may play in the development of gene drive organisms...
July 5, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Marta Serrano-Moliner, María Morales-Suarez-Varela, M Adela Valero
BACKGROUND: Foodborne nematodiasis are caused by the ingestion of food contaminated by helminths. In Europe, these diseases are present in all countries. OBJECTIVES: To review the available data on epidemiology and management of foodborne nematodiasis in the European Union, detect any trends and determine the possible causes of the observed changes. METHODS: A review of available literature published between 2000 and 2016 was conducted. RESULTS: Out of 1523 cases described in the literature, 1493 cases were autochthonous and 30 cases were imported...
June 29, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Matthew R Just, Stephen W Carden, Sheng Li, Kelly K Baker, Manoj Gambhir, Isaac Chun-Hai Fung
Epidemiological studies have identified an increased risk of diarrheal diseases associated with using shared sanitation facilities. We hypothesized that this might be related to differences in transmission routes of pathogens. We proposed a mathematical model of two fictitious pathogens, one transmitted with an environmental reservoir and one without. We assumed that individuals susceptible to one pathogen are not susceptible to the other, and therefore, decoupled the two models. We initialized the model with 99% individuals being susceptible...
June 6, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Raíza Nara Cunha Moizéis, Thales Allyrio Araújo de Medeiros Fernandes, Paulo Marcos da Matta Guedes, Hannaly Wana Bezerra Pereira, Daniel Carlos Ferreira Lanza, Judson Welber Veríssimo de Azevedo, Josélio Maria de Araújo Galvão, José Veríssimo Fernandes
Chikungunya fever is an emerging arbovirus infection, representing a serious public health problem. Its etiological agent is the Chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Transmission of this virus is mainly vector by mosquitoes of the genus Aedes, although transmission by blood transfusions and vertical transmission has also been reported. The disease presents high morbidity caused mainly by the arthralgia and arthritis generated. Cardiovascular and neurological manifestations have also been reported. The severity of the infection seems to be directly associated with the action of the virus, but also with the decompensation of preexisting comorbidities...
May 28, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Navaneethan Palanisamy, Dario Akaberi, Johan Lennerstrand, Åke Lundkvist
Alkhumra hemorrhagic fever virus (AHFV), a relatively new member of the Flaviviruses, was discovered in Saudi Arabia 23 years ago. AHFV is classified in the tick-borne encephalitis virus serocomplex, along with the Kyasanur forest disease virus (KFDV) and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). Currently, very little is known about the pathologies of AHFV. In this study, using the available genome information of AHFV, KFDV and TBEV, we have predicted and compared the following aspects of these viruses: evolution, nucleotide and protein compositions, recombination, codon frequency, substitution rate, N- and O-glycosylation sites, signal peptide and cleavage site, transmembrane region, secondary structure of 5' and 3' UTRs and RNA-RNA interactions...
May 10, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 27, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Fateh Karimian, Hassan Vatandoost, Yavar Rassi, Naseh Maleki-Ravasan, Nayyereh Choubdar, Mona Koosha, Kourosh Arzamani, Eslam Moradi-Asl, Arshad Veysi, Hamzeh Alipour, Manouchehr Shirani, Mohammad Ali Oshaghi
Sand flies of Phlebotomus papatasi and P. sergenti are the main vectors of cutaneous leishmanisis (CL) in the old world. We aimed to screen Iranian P. papatasi and P. sergenti for their natural infections with Wolbachia and to determine their phylogenetic association with other species. Wolbachia surface protein (wsp) gene was PCR amplified from DNA extracted from Phlebotomus species, sequenced, and were analysed in combination with wsp sequences related to Phelebtominae and other insects. All Wolbachia-infecting Iranian sand flies of P...
May 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Silvia Ciocchetta, Natalie A Prow, Jonathan M Darbro, Francesca D Frentiu, Sandro Savino, Fabrizio Montarsi, Gioia Capelli, John G Aaskov, Gregor J Devine
Arthropod-borne disease outbreaks, facilitated by the introduction of exotic mosquitoes, pose a significant public health threat. Recent chikungunya virus (CHIKV) epidemics in Europe highlight the importance of understanding the vector potential of invading mosquitoes. In this paper we explore the potential of Aedes koreicus, a mosquito new to Europe, to transmit CHIKV. Mosquitoes were challenged with CHIKV and maintained at two temperatures: 23 °C and a fluctuating temperature. Total CHIKV infection rates at 3, 10 and 14 days post-feeding were low for both temperature treatments (13...
May 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Anastasia I Lev, Eugeny I Astashkin, Angelina A Kislichkina, Ekaterina V Solovieva, Tatiana I Kombarova, Olga V Korobova, Olga N Ershova, Irina A Alexandrova, Vladimir E Malikov, Alexander G Bogun, Alexander I Borzilov, Nikolay V Volozhantsev, Edward A Svetoch, Nadezhda K Fursova
The antibacterial resistance and virulence genotypes and phenotypes of 148 non-duplicate Klebsiella pneumoniae strains collected from 112 patients in Moscow hospitals in 2012-2016 including isolates from the respiratory system (57%), urine (30%), wounds (5%), cerebrospinal fluid (4%), blood (3%), and rectal swab (1%) were determined. The majority (98%) were multidrug resistant (MDR) strains carrying blaSHV (91%), blaCTX-M (74%), blaTEM (51%), blaOXA (38%), and blaNDM (1%) beta-lactamase genes, class 1 integrons (38%), and the porin protein gene ompK36 (96%)...
May 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Maryam Ramezany, Iraj Sharifi, Zahra Babaei, Pooya Ghasemi Nejad Almani, Amireh Heshmatkhah, Alireza Keyhani, Mohammad Reza Aflatoonian, Mohammad Ali Mohammadi, Fatemeh Sharifi, Mehdi Bamorovat
This study aimed to explore geographic distribution and molecular characterization of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) species by amplifying two popular markers in kinetoplast DNA and internal transcribed spacer 1 loci by nested-PCR, and characterized by sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Findings demonstrated that two species co-existed in the province: L. tropica (88.5%) and L. major (11.5%). All gender and age groups were equally infected, although males, 21-30 years old, exhibited a significantly higher infection...
May 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Ada Kazi, Candy Chuah, Abu Bakar Abdul Majeed, Chiuan Herng Leow, Boon Huat Lim, Chiuan Yee Leow
Immunoinformatics plays a pivotal role in vaccine design, immunodiagnostic development, and antibody production. In the past, antibody design and vaccine development depended exclusively on immunological experiments which are relatively expensive and time-consuming. However, recent advances in the field of immunological bioinformatics have provided feasible tools which can be used to lessen the time and cost required for vaccine and antibody development. This approach allows the selection of immunogenic regions from the pathogen genomes...
May 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Usha Yadav, Mohd Ashraf Khan
The GPI (Glycosylphosphatidylinositol) biosynthetic pathway is a multistep conserved pathway in eukaryotes that culminates in the generation of GPI glycolipid which in turn anchors many proteins (GPI-APs) to the cell surface. In spite of the overall conservation of the pathway, there still exist subtle differences in the GPI pathway of mammals and other eukaryotes which holds a great promise so far as the development of drugs/inhibitors against specific targets in the GPI pathway of pathogens is concerned. Many of the GPI structures and their anchored proteins in pathogenic protozoans and fungi act as pathogenicity factors...
May 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
E K Oladipo, E H Awoyelu, J K Oloke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 23, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Luana Nepomueceno Costa Lima, Cristiane Cunha Frota, Phillip Noel Suffys, Amanda Nogueira Brum Fontes, Rosa Maria Salani Mota, Rosa Livia Freitas Almeida, Maria Araci de Andrade Pontes, Heitor de Sá Gonçalves, Carl Kendall, Ligia Regina Sansigolo Kerr
This study analyzed the genetic diversity by MIRU-VNTR of Mycobacterium leprae isolates from nasal cavities and related to epidemiological and clinical data. The sample consisted of 48 newly diagnosed leprosy cases that tested positive for M. leprae PCR in nasal secretion (NS) attending to the National Reference Center of Dermatology Dona Libania (CDERM), Fortaleza, Brazil. Total DNA was extracted from NS of each patient and used for amplification of four M. leprae VNTR loci. Four clusters of M. leprae isolates were formed with identical genotypes...
March 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Olusola Ojurongbe, Christian N Nguetse, Samuel A Fayemiwo, Catherine O Falade, Taiwo A Ojurongbe, Bolaji N Thomas, Christian G Meyer, Thirumalaisamy P Velavan
This study assesses the prevalence of asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia positivity and P. falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (pfdhfr) mutations in parasite isolates among pregnant women in Southwest Nigeria. Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia was confirmed by microscopy and nested PCR in 200 pregnant women attending antenatal care. The prevalence of pfdhfr polymorphisms was determined by direct sequencing of the gene fragments containing the C50R, N51I, C59R, S108N, and I164L mutations. Information on the use of antimalarial drugs and methods applied to prevent malaria were obtained by a questionnaire...
March 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Lívia Érika Carlos Marques, Cristiane Cunha Frota, Josiane da Silva Quetz, Alexandre Havt Bindá, Rosa Maria Salane Mota, Maria Araci de Andrade Pontes, Heitor de Sá Gonçalves, Carl Kendall, Ligia Regina Franco Sansigolo Kerr
Mycobacterium leprae bacilli are mainly transmitted by the dissemination of nasal aerosols from multibacillary (MB) patients to susceptible individuals through inhalation. The upper respiratory tract represents the main entry and exit routes of M. leprae. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in detecting M. leprae in nasal secretion (NS) and skin biopsy (SB) samples from MB and paucibacillary (PB) cases. Fifty-four NS samples were obtained from leprosy patients at the Dona Libânia National Reference Centre for Sanitary Dermatology in Ceará, Brazil...
March 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Jing Cui, Peng Jiang, Yan Yan Song, Xi Zhang, Zhong Quan Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Eleonora Cella, Elisabetta Riva, Marco Salemi, Silvia Spoto, Serena Vita, Marta Fogolari, Silvia Angeletti, Massimo Ciccozzi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
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