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Pathogens and Global Health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165878/vaccinations-in-migrants-and-refugees-a-challenge-for-european-health-systems-a-systematic-review-of-current-scientific-evidence
#1
Daniele Mipatrini, Paola Stefanelli, Santino Severoni, Giovanni Rezza
The decline of immunization rates in countries of origin of migrants and refugees, along with risky conditions during the journey to Europe, may threaten migrants' health. We performed a systematic review of the scientific literature in order to assess the frequency of vaccine preventable diseases, and vaccination coverage among migrants and refugees in Europe. To this end, Medline and Cochrane databases were considered. After the screening and the selection process, 58 papers were included in the review. We focused on the following vaccine-preventable diseases: hepatitis B, measles, rubella, mumps, tetanus, poliomyelitis, pertussis, diphtheria, meningitis, and varicella...
February 6, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081672/immunogenicity-of-modified-vaccinia-virus-ankara-expressing-the-hemagglutinin-stalk-domain-of-pandemic-h1n1-2009-influenza-virus
#2
Giuseppina Di Mario, Elisa Soprana, Francesco Gubinelli, Maddalena Panigada, Marzia Facchini, Concetta Fabiani, Bruno Garulli, Michela Basileo, Antonio Cassone, Antonio Siccardi, Isabella Donatelli, Maria R Castrucci
BACKGROUND: Vaccination offers protection against influenza, although current vaccines need to be reformulated each year. The development of a broadly protective influenza vaccine would guarantee the induction of heterosubtypic immunity also against emerging influenza viruses of a novel subtype. Vaccine candidates based on the stalk region of the hemagglutinin (HA) have the potential to induce broad and persistent protection against diverse influenza A viruses. METHODS: Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) expressing a headless HA (hlHA) of A/California/4/09 (CA/09) virus was used as a vaccine to immunize C57BL/6 mice...
January 12, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079473/protective-immunity-against-influenza-in-hla-a2-transgenic-mice-by-modified-vaccinia-virus-ankara-vectored-vaccines-containing-internal-influenza-proteins
#3
Giuseppina Di Mario, Ester Sciaraffia, Marzia Facchini, Francesco Gubinelli, Elisa Soprana, Maddalena Panigada, Valentina Bernasconi, Bruno Garulli, Antonio Siccardi, Isabella Donatelli, Maria R Castrucci
BACKGROUND: The emergence of novel strains of influenza A viruses with hemagglutinins (HAs) that are antigenically distinct from those circulating in humans, and thus have pandemic potential, pose concerns and call for the development of more broadly protective influenza vaccines. In the present study, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) encoding internal influenza antigens were evaluated for their immunogenicity and ability to protect HLA-A2.1 transgenic (AAD) mice from infection with influenza viruses...
January 12, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093045/exploring-urban-health-in-cape-town-south-africa-an-interdisciplinary-analysis-of-secondary-data
#4
Rebekka Mumm, Sonia Diaz-Monsalve, Eva Hänselmann, Johanna Freund, Michael Wirsching, Jan Gärtner, Richard Gminski, Katrin Vögtlin, Mirjam Körner, Lena Zirn, Ursula Wittwer-Backofen, Tolu Oni, Axel Kroeger
BACKGROUND: With modern information technology, an overwhelming amount of data is available on different aspects of societies. Our research investigated the feasibility of using secondary data sources to get an overview of determinants of health and health outcomes in different population strata of Cape Town, a large city of South Africa. METHODS: The methodological approach of secondary-data analysis was similar in the different disciplines: Biological Anthropology, Public Health, Environmental Health, Mental Health, Palliative Care, Medical Psychology and Sociology at the University of Freiburg and Public Health at the University of Cape Town...
February 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090819/toxoplasmic-encephalitis-relapse-rates-with-pyrimethamine-based-therapy-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
Mark P Connolly, Elizabeth Goodwin, Carina Schey, Jacqueline Zummo
Toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE) is caused by Toxoplasma gondii infection and can be a life-threatening disease in immunocompromised patients. This study evaluated the rate of relapse associated with pyrimethamine-based maintenance therapy (i.e. secondary prophylaxis) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or AIDs treated prior to and after the common use (i.e. 1996) of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) (pre-HAART and post-HAART, respectively). PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane databases were searched to 6 June 2016 using search terms: pyrimethamine, Daraprim, Fansidar, Metakelfin, Fansimef, 5-(4-chlorophenyl)-6-ethyl-2,4-pyrimidinediamine, encephalitis, cerebral, toxoplasmosis, toxoplasmic, and gondii...
February 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081689/origin-and-evolutionary-dynamics-of-hepatitis-b-virus-hbv-genotype-e-in-madagascar
#6
Alessandra Lo Presti, Soa Fy Andriamandimby, Alessia Lai, Silvia Angeletti, Eleonora Cella, Giovanni Mottini, Michele Pier Luca Guarino, Claudia Balotta, Massimo Galli, Jean-Michel Heraud, Gianguglielmo Zehender, Massimo Ciccozzi
Africa is one of the endemic regions of HBV infection. In particular, genotype E is highly endemic in most of sub-Saharan Africa such as West African countries where it represents more than 90% of total infections. Madagascar, which is classified as a high endemic area for HBV and where the most prevalent genotype is E, might play a relevant role in the dispersion of this genotype due to its crucial position in the Indian Ocean. The aim of this study was to investigate the origin, population dynamics, and circulation of HBV-E genotype in Madagascar through high-resolution phylogenetic and phylodynamic approaches...
February 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081671/emergence-and-control-of-epidemic-meningococcal-meningitis-in-sub-saharan-africa
#7
Idris Mohammed, Garba Iliyasu, Abdulrazaq Garba Habib
For more than a century, meningitis epidemics have regularly recurred across sub-Saharan Africa, involving 19 contiguous countries that constitute a 'meningitis belt' where historically the causative agent has been serogroup A meningococcus. Attempts to control epidemic meningococcal meningitis in Africa by vaccination with meningococcal polysaccharide (PS) vaccines have not been successful. This is largely because PS vaccines are poorly immunogenic in young children, do not induce immunological memory, and have little or no effect on the pharyngeal carriage...
February 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078947/monitoring-of-plasmodium-infection-in-humans-and-potential-vectors-of-malaria-in-a-newly-emerged-focus-in-southern-iran
#8
Mohsen Kalantari, Zahra Soltani, Mostafa Ebrahimi, Masoud Yousefi, Masoumeh Amin, Ayda Shafiei, Kourosh Azizi
Despite control programs, which aim to eliminate malaria from Iran by 2025, transmission of malaria has not been removed from the country. This study aimed to monitor malaria from asymptomatic parasitaemia and clinical cases from about one year of active case surveillance and potential vectors of malaria in the newly emerged focus of Mamasani and Rostam, southern Iran during 2014-2015. Samples were collected and their DNAs were extracted for Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assay using specific primers for detection of Plasmodium species...
February 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908227/improved-infant-hemoglobin-hb-and-blood-glucose-concentrations-the-beneficial-effect-of-maternal-vitamin-a-supplementation-of-malaria-infected-mothers-in-ebonyi-state-nigeria
#9
Michael O Elom, Joseph E Eyo, Fabian C Okafor, Amos Nworie, Victor U Usanga, Gerald N Attamah, Chibueze C Igwe
One hundred and fifty-two malaria-infected pregnant women whose pregnancies had advanced to the 6th month were randomised into two study groups - supplemented and placebo groups, after obtaining their approved consents. Ten thousand international units of vitamin A soft gels were administered to the supplemented group three times per week. Vitamin A soft gels devoid of their active ingredients were administered thrice weekly to the placebo group. Two hundred thousand international units of vitamin A was administered to the supplemented groups within 8 weeks postpartum...
February 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958189/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-chlamydia-trachomatis-screening-in-dutch-pregnant-women
#10
G I J G Rours, Tamar Anne Smith-Norowitz, Jared Ditkowsky, Margaret R Hammerschlag, R P Verkooyen, R de Groot, H A Verbrugh, M J Postma
Chlamydia trachomatis infections during pregnancy may have serious consequences for women and their offspring. Chlamydial infections are largely asymptomatic. Hence, prevention is based on screening. The objective of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of C. trachomatis screening during pregnancy. We used a health-economic decision analysis model, which included potential health outcomes of C. trachomatis infection for women, partners and infants, and premature delivery. We estimated the cost-effectiveness from a societal perspective using recent prevalence data from a population-based prospective cohort study among pregnant women in the Netherlands...
October 2016: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905267/zika-concerns-and-reality
#11
Antonio Cassone
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903130/risk-factors-and-mortality-in-the-carbapenem-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-infection-case-control-study
#12
Fethiye Akgul, Ilkay Bozkurt, Mustafa Sunbul, Saban Esen, Hakan Leblebicioglu
Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) has been known as a nosocomial pathogen, both for the last 10 years in Turkey and for 20 years worldwide. Due to limited treatment options and high mortality rates, despite improvements in the field of medicine at the present time, CRKP is still a big threat for public health. This study was carried out between the dates of January 2010 and September 2014. Patients ≥18 who were hospitalized for at least 72 h and who also had CRKP growth were included in the study as a case group...
October 2016: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892799/antiviral-treatment-of-hbv-positive-pregnant-women-an-additional-tool-to-reduce-perinatal-transmission
#13
Roberto Bruni, Gloria Taliani, Anna Rita Ciccaglione
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871210/para-kala-azar-dermal-leishmaniasis-cases-in-indian-subcontinent-a-case-series
#14
Rakesh Kumar, Vidya Nand Rabi Das, Roshan Kamal Topno, Biplab Pal, Adnan Imam, Kanhaiya Agrawal, Anima Singh, Krishna Murti, Chandra Shekhar Lal, Neena Verma, Pradeep Das, Krishna Pandey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854189/molecular-detection-of-leishmania-parasites-and-host-blood-meal-identification-in-wild-sand-flies-from-a-new-endemic-rural-region-south-of-iran
#15
Kourosh Azizi, Mohammad Bagher Askari, Mohsen Kalantari, Mohammad Djaefar Moemenbellah-Fard
Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniosis (ZCL) remains the most crucial vector-borne public health disease particularly in endemic rural parts of Iran. The main aim of this study is to identify wild sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae), determine their infection rate, and differentiate their host blood meal sources using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. Sand fly populations were caught with sticky paper traps from 10 different villages in the county of Darab, Fars province, southern Iran...
October 2016: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852150/frequency-diagnostic-performance-of-coproantigen-detection-and-genotyping-of-the-giardia-among-patients-referred-to-a-multi-level-teaching-hospital-in-northern-india
#16
Ujjala Ghoshal, Ratnakar Shukla, Priyannk Pant, Uday C Ghoshal
Giardiasis, a common gastrointestinal parasitic infection in tropics, is diagnosed on stool microscopy (gold standard); however, its sensitivity is low due to intermittent fecal shedding. Coproantigen detection (ELISA) is useful but requires further evaluation. We aimed to study: (a) detection of Giardia by stool microscopy and/or coproantigen, (b) diagnostic performance of fecal antigen detection and microscopy, and c) genotypic characterization of G. lamblia using PCR specific for triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) gene...
October 2016: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830997/impact-of-hiv-infection-in-patients-infected-with-chronic-hcv-genotypes-1a-and-3a-virological-and-clinical-changes
#17
Daryoush Behzadpour, Abbas Ahmadi Vasmehjani, Seyed Dawood Mousavi Nasab, Nayeb Ali Ahmadi, Rasoul Baharlou
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection has become a serious public health problem. The influence of HIV/HCV coinfection on plasma HCV RNA loads and clinical criteria which are usually regarded as a predictor of the progress of liver disease have not been reliably evaluated. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the impact of HIV infection on HCV RNA load and clinical indexes in Yazd and Tehran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: HCV/HIV-coinfected patients and HCV-monoinfected controls were examined and compared for plasma HCV RNA and related risk factors such as HCV genotypes, liver enzymes, and transmission routes...
October 2016: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788631/detection-of-occult-hepatitis-b-and-window-period-infection-among-blood-donors-by-individual-donation-nucleic-acid-testing-in-a-tertiary-care-center-in-south-india
#18
Cinzia S Keechilot, Veena Shenoy, Anil Kumar, Lalitha Biswas, Sukhithasri Vijayrajratnam, Kavitha Dinesh, Prem Nair
With the introduction of highly sensitive hepatitis B surface antigen immunoassay, transfusion associated HBV infection have reduced drastically but they still tend to occur due to blood donors with occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) and window period (WP) infection. Sera from, 24338 healthy voluntary blood donors were screened for HBsAg, HIV and HCV antibody using Vitros Enhanced Chemiluminescent Immunoassay. The median age of the donor population was 30 (range 18-54) with male preponderance (98%). All serologically negative samples were screened by nucleic acid testing (NAT) for viral DNA and RNA...
October 2016: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697019/identification-production-and-assessment-of-two-toxoplasma-gondii-recombinant-proteins-for-use-in-a-toxoplasma-igg-avidity-assay
#19
Ai Ying Teh, Atefeh Amerizadeh, Sabariah Osman, Muhammad Hafiznur Yunus, Rahmah Noordin
The IgG avidity assay is an important tool in the management of suspected toxoplasmosis in pregnant women. This study aimed to produce new Toxoplasma gondii recombinant proteins and to assess their usefulness in an IgG avidity assay. Toxoplasma positive and negative serum samples were used, the former were categorized into low (LGA) and high (HGA) IgG avidity samples. Immunoblots were performed on 30 T. gondii cDNA clones to determine the reactivity and IgG avidity to the expressed proteins. Two of the clones were found to have diagnostic potential and were analyzed further; AG12b encoded T...
October 2016: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690200/zika-virus-infection-and-pregnancy-what-we-do-and-do-not-know
#20
Carlo Ticconi, Adalgisa Pietropolli, Giovanni Rezza
Recent data strongly suggest an association between the current outbreak of ZIKA virus (ZIKV) in many countries of Central and South America and a sharp increase in the detection of microcephaly and fetal malformations. The link with brain defect, which has been detected mainly in some areas of Brazil, is supported by the following evidence: (1) ZIKV transmission from infected pregnant women to their fetuses; (2) the potential of ZIKV to determine a specific congenital fetal syndrome characterized by abnormalities involving primarily the developing brain and eye...
October 2016: Pathogens and Global Health
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