Read by QxMD icon Read

Pathogens and Global Health

Ai Ying Teh, Atefeh Amerizadeh, Sabariah Osman, Muhammad Hafiznur Yunus, Rahmah Noordin
The IgG avidity assay is an important tool in the management of suspected toxoplasmosis in pregnant women. This study aimed to produce new Toxoplasma gondii recombinant proteins and to assess their usefulness in an IgG avidity assay. Toxoplasma positive and negative serum samples were used, the former were categorized into low (LGA) and high (HGA) IgG avidity samples. Immunoblots were performed on 30 T. gondii cDNA clones to determine the reactivity and IgG avidity to the expressed proteins. Two of the clones were found to have diagnostic potential and were analyzed further; AG12b encoded T...
October 4, 2016: Pathogens and Global Health
Carlo Ticconi, Adalgisa Pietropolli, Giovanni Rezza
Recent data strongly suggest an association between the current outbreak of ZIKA virus (ZIKV) in many countries of Central and South America and a sharp increase in the detection of microcephaly and fetal malformations. The link with brain defect, which has been detected mainly in some areas of Brazil, is supported by the following evidence: (1) ZIKV transmission from infected pregnant women to their fetuses; (2) the potential of ZIKV to determine a specific congenital fetal syndrome characterized by abnormalities involving primarily the developing brain and eye...
September 30, 2016: Pathogens and Global Health
Silvia Angeletti, Alessandra Lo Presti, Marta Giovanetti, Alba Grifoni, Massimo Amicosante, Marco Ciotti, Luiz-Carlos J Alcantara, Eleonora Cella, Massimo Ciccozzi
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging Flavivirus that have recently caused an outbreak in Brazil and rapid spread in several countries. In this study, the consequences of ZIKV evolution on protein recognition by the host immune system have been analyzed. Evolutionary analysis was combined with homology modeling and T-B cells epitope predictions. Two separate clades, the African one with the Uganda sequence, as the most probable ancestor, and the second one containing all the most recent sequences from the equatorial belt were identified...
September 27, 2016: Pathogens and Global Health
Shible Sahbani, Maysa Al-Khateeb, Ruba Hikmat
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Pathogens and Global Health
Mariane Barroso Pereira, Angélica Martins Batista, Camila Aguiar, Glaucia Elisete Barbosa Marcon, Luiz Cláudio Martins, Maria Elena Guariento, Sandra Cecília Botelho Costa, Eros Antonio de Almeida
Chagas disease, which is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, is transmitted primarily by triatomine bugs, although the incidence of new cases has decreased as a result of vector control. In Brazil, most of those affected have the chronic form of the disease and are generally elderly individuals who require appropriate clinical follow-up. In this work, we undertook a descriptive study in which 85 patients were interviewed and blood samples were collected for molecular analyses based on the amplification of parasite satellite DNA...
September 2016: Pathogens and Global Health
Nahid Maspi, Amir Abdoli, Fathemeh Ghaffarifar
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is caused by different species of the genus Leishmania. Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines play different roles in resistance/susceptibility and the immunopathogenesis of Leishmania infection. The balance and dynamic changes in cytokines may control or predict clinical outcome. T helper 1 (Th1) inflammatory cytokines (especially interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-12) are the crucial factors in the initiation of protective immunity against L. major infection, whereas T helper 2 cytokines including IL-5, IL-4, and IL-13 facilitate the persistence of parasites by downregulating the Th1 immune response...
September 2016: Pathogens and Global Health
Polly Soo Xi Yap, Azanna Ahmad Kamar, Chun Wie Chong, Ivan Kok Seng Yap, Kwai Lin Thong, Yao Mun Choo, Mohd Yasim Md Yusof, Cindy Shuan Ju Teh
The prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of intestinal carriage of Gram-negative bacteria among preterm infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in a tertiary teaching hospital in Malaysia were determined. A total of 34 stool specimens were obtained from preterm infants upon admission and once weekly up to two weeks during hospitalization. The presumptive colonies of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were selected for identification, antibiotic susceptibility testing, and subtyping by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)...
September 2016: Pathogens and Global Health
Shufa Zheng, Hongyan Ye, Juying Yan, Guoliang Xie, Dawei Cui, Fei Yu, Yiyin Wang, Xianzhi Yang, Fangman Zhou, Yanjun Zhang, Xueli Tian, Yu Chen
Echovirus 30 (E30) is a major pathogen associated with aseptic meningitis. In the summer of 2014, a family clustering aseptic meningitis outbreak occurred in urban-rural fringe of Ningbo city in Zhejiang Province in China. To identify the etiologic agent, specimens were tested by cell culture and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Pathogenic examination confirmed that the outbreak is caused by E30. The first case is a 6-year-old child, who studied in kindergarten in local, suffered from headache and fever...
September 2016: Pathogens and Global Health
Hasan Hamze, Rhianna Charchuk, Makelele Katsuva Jean Paul, Kasereka Masumbuko Claude, Mashukano Léon, Michael T Hawkes
BACKGROUND: Malaria contributes to elevated morbidity and mortality in populations displaced by conflict in tropical zones. In an attempt to reduce malaria transmission in an internally displaced persons (IDP) camp in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), we tested a strategy of active case detection of household contacts of malaria cases. METHODS: Prospective community-based survey. RESULTS: From a convenience sample of 100 febrile patients under 5 years of age from the IDP camp presenting to a nearby clinic for management of a fever episode, 19 cases of uncomplicated malaria and 81 controls with non-malarial febrile illness (NFMI) were diagnosed...
September 2016: Pathogens and Global Health
Christos Louis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 27, 2016: Pathogens and Global Health
Esra Tanyel, Mustafa Sunbul, Tom E Fletcher, Hakan Leblebicioglu
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a potentially fatal tick-borne viral infection that is widely distributed worldwide. The diagnosis is frequently missed due to the non-specific initial symptoms and the differential diagnosis included many infectious and non-infectious causes. This retrospective study describes the clinical features and final diagnoses of 116 suspect CCHF cases that were admitted to a tertiary CCHF center in Turkey, and were CCHF IgM and PCR negative.
June 2016: Pathogens and Global Health
Alain Kohl, Emilie Pondeville, Esther Schnettler, Andrea Crisanti, Clelia Supparo, George K Christophides, Paul J Kersey, Gareth L Maslen, Willem Takken, Constantianus J M Koenraadt, Clelia F Oliva, Núria Busquets, F Xavier Abad, Anna-Bella Failloux, Elena A Levashina, Anthony J Wilson, Eva Veronesi, Maëlle Pichard, Sarah Arnaud Marsh, Frédéric Simard, Kenneth D Vernick
Vector-borne pathogens impact public health, animal production, and animal welfare. Research on arthropod vectors such as mosquitoes, ticks, sandflies, and midges which transmit pathogens to humans and economically important animals is crucial for development of new control measures that target transmission by the vector. While insecticides are an important part of this arsenal, appearance of resistance mechanisms is increasingly common. Novel tools for genetic manipulation of vectors, use of Wolbachia endosymbiotic bacteria, and other biological control mechanisms to prevent pathogen transmission have led to promising new intervention strategies, adding to strong interest in vector biology and genetics as well as vector-pathogen interactions...
June 2016: Pathogens and Global Health
Neeru Singh, Praveen K Bharti, N S Kumre
Balaghat district in Central India is characterized by perennial malaria transmission. In this study, we have estimated malaria parasite rates by microscopic examination of blood smears by conducting active (ACD) and passive surveillance (PCD) in the villages of Baihar community health center (CHC) during January 2012-December 2012. Comparison of the results of two methods revealed that ACD (active case detection) in villages provides relatively large numbers of malaria positive cases (1408/3601) as compared to PCD (passive case detection) at CHC (139/2743) (OR 12...
June 2016: Pathogens and Global Health
Somayeh Bahrami, Shahram Khademvatan, Mohammad Hossein Razi Jalali, Sepide Pourbaram
Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease that is an important problem of public health worldwide. The aim of this study was to assess the cytotoxic effects of amiodarone (AMD) on Leishmania tropica (MHOM/AF/88/KK27) and L. major (MRHO/IR/75/ER) promastigotes and to observe the programmed cell death features. The colorimetric MTT assay was used to find L. tropica and L. major viability and the obtained results were expressed as 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50). Annexin-V FLUOS staining was performed to study the cell death properties of AMD using fluorescence-activated cell-sorting analysis...
June 2016: Pathogens and Global Health
Karikalacholan Sivasankari, Santhanam Shanmughapriya, Kalimuthusamy Natarajaseenivasan
Humans are known to excrete leptospires in their urine after recovery from illness and there are reports showing development of asymptomatic leptospiruria in settings of high disease transmission. In this regard, we sought to evaluate the asymptomatic renal carriage status of humans in the highly endemic region of Tiruchirapalli district, Tamilnadu, India. A total of 245 asymptomatic participants were included. Urine and blood samples were collected and the extent of leptospiral infection was characterized by MAT, qPCR, 16S rRNA, and dot blot assay...
June 2016: Pathogens and Global Health
Anju Kochar, Paavan Kalra, Vijeth Sb, Vinayak Ukirade, Anita Chahar, Dhanpat Kumar Kochar, Sanjay Kumar Kochar
Malarial retinopathy is a set of retinal signs in severe malaria due to falciparum malaria. With increased recognition of severe manifestations of vivax malaria, a systematic study to evaluate retinal changes in vivax malaria could elaborate our knowledge about this neglected entity. This observational study included retinal examination of 104 adult patients (>14 years) with varying severity of vivax malaria admitted to a tertiary care center during peak seasons of 2012 and 2013. Thirty-eight percent of severe cases had a retinal sign as compared to 6% of non-severe cases (p < 0...
June 2016: Pathogens and Global Health
Marilyn M Ninan, Mahasampath Gowri, D J Christopher, Priscilla Rupali, Joy S Michael
Owing to the burden of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, molecular techniques have been approved by the WHO for the rapid diagnosis of the same. The objectives of this prospective, diagnostic study, conducted at Christian Medical College, a tertiary care center in South India, were to compare the performance of line probe assay (GenoTypeMTBDRplus) with culture, as well as the Xpert MTB/Rif assay on sputum samples. Ninety-one consecutive suspects of multidrug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis patients from January 2013 to June 2013 were enrolled in this study and the results of line probe assay compared to culture and Xpert MTB/Rif...
June 2016: Pathogens and Global Health
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Pathogens and Global Health
Gyan Chand, Laxman Singh Kaushal, Narendra Kumar Choudhari, Neeru Singh
OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of filarial infection in the districts of Madhya Pradesh, which were classified as non-endemic by the national program for control of filariasis. These districts showed evidence of clinical symptoms related to filariasis. To confirm the presence of filariasis, night blood surveys and entomological surveys were carried out to detect microfilaria in humans and filarial infection in vectors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For microfilaria surveys, thick blood smears were prepared by taking 60 μL of blood between 8...
June 2016: Pathogens and Global Health
Olugbenga Adekunle Olowe, Victor Olatunji Mabayoje, Olusola Akanbi, Olusolabomi Jose Adefioye, Rita Ayanbolade Olowe, Emmanuel Kehinde Fadeni, Adeolu Sunday Oluremi, Oluyinka Oladele Opaleye
BACKGROUND: Efforts to curb the spread of HIV transmission through transfusion of blood and its products is still a problem because of challenge in countries using antibody-based rapid methods to detect infection during window period. Transmission of HIV through infected blood and its products accounts for approximately 10% in African region. METHODS: This study analyzed true negativity of HIV infection in blood donors screened by ELISA test based on p24 core antigen detection...
June 2016: Pathogens and Global Health
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"