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Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology

Emily W Harville, Fernando A Althabe, Gérard Bréart, Pierre Buekens
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 20, 2016: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Sven Cnattingius, Anna-Karin Wikström, Olof Stephansson, Kari Johansson
BACKGROUND: Results from uterine artery Doppler investigations suggest that the aetiology of late preeclampsia with fetal growth restriction may be more similar to the aetiology of early preeclampsia than with late preeclampsia without fetal growth restriction. We hypothesised that a small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth in a late preeclamptic pregnancy may be associated with increased subsequent risk of early preeclampsia. We also studied effects of maternal factors on risks of preeclampsia recurrence...
October 17, 2016: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Jane B Ford, Kathrin Schemann, Jillian A Patterson, Jonathan Morris, Robert D Herbert, Christine L Roberts
BACKGROUND: Risk factors for preeclampsia are well established, whereas, the triggers associated with timing of preeclampsia onset are not. The aim of this study was to establish whether recent infection or other triggers were associated with timing of preeclampsia onset. METHODS: We used a case-crossover design with preeclampsia cases serving as their own controls. Women with singleton pregnancies of ≥20 weeks gestation presenting at three hospitals were eligible for inclusion...
September 26, 2016: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Bin Zhang, Shaoping Yang, Rong Yang, Jing Wang, Shengwen Liang, Ronghua Hu, Hong Xian, Ke Hu, Yimin Zhang, Nancy L Weaver, Hongming Wei, Michael G Vaughn, Hui Peng, Brian B Boutwell, Zhen Huang, Zhengmin Qian
BACKGROUND: Both high and low prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) has been associated with small for gestational age births (SGA; birthweight below the population specific 10th centile for the gestational age), but results remain inconsistent. We examined the association between maternal BMI and SGA, and evaluated if the associations were modified by preterm birth (being born prior to 37 weeks) status. METHODS: A population-based cohort study was conducted in Wuhan, China from June 2011, to June 2013...
September 1, 2016: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Fabienne Marquant, Stéphanie Goujon, Laure Faure, Sandra Guissou, Laurent Orsi, Denis Hémon, Brigitte Lacour, Jacqueline Clavel
BACKGROUND: Socio-economic status is related to many life style and environmental factors, some of which have been suggested to influence the risk of childhood cancer. Studies requiring subject participation are usually hampered by selection of more educated parents. To prevent such bias, we used unselected nationwide Geographical Information System (GIS)-based registry data, to investigate the influence of socio-economic disparities on the risk of childhood cancer. METHODS: The Geocap study included all French residents diagnosed with cancer aged up to 15 years over the period 2002-2010 (15 111 cases) and 45 000 contemporaneous controls representative of the childhood population...
August 24, 2016: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Nils-Halvdan Morken, Rolv Skjaerven, Jennifer L Richards, Michael R Kramer, Sven Cnattingius, Stefan Johansson, Mika Gissler, Siobhan M Dolan, Jennifer Zeitlin, Michael S Kramer
BACKGROUND: Gestational age estimation by last menstrual period (LMP) vs. ultrasound (or best obstetric estimate in the US) may result in discrepant classification of preterm vs. term birth. We investigated whether such discrepancies are associated with adverse infant outcomes. METHODS: We studied singleton livebirths in the Medical Birth Registries of Norway, Sweden and Finland and US live birth certificates from 1999 to the most recent year available. Risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) by discordant and concordant gestational age estimation for infant, neonatal and post-neonatal mortality, Apgar score <4 and <7 at 5 min, and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission were estimated using generalised linear models, adjusting for maternal age, education, parity, year of birth, and infant sex...
August 23, 2016: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Teumzghi F Mebrahtu, Richard G Feltbower, Roger C Parslow
BACKGROUND: Bradford city has high infant mortality and there is a major health concern in the community due to environmental pollution. The aim of the study was to investigate the incidence and burden of wheezing disorders, eczema, and rhinitis in children aged 3-7 years . METHODS: It is a prospective cohort study; the participants were 13 734 children from the Born in Bradford cohort. RESULTS: There were a total of 22.1% (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 21...
August 8, 2016: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Chris M Laugen, Nazrul Islam, Patricia A Janssen
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommendation for exclusive breast feeding for 6 months has been endorsed by Health Canada, the Canadian Pediatric Society, Dietitians of Canada, and the Breastfeeding Committee for Canada as of 2012. This study examines whether social support is associated with exclusive breast feeding up to 6 months among Canadian mothers. METHODS: We utilised data from the Canadian Community Health Survey and limited our sample to mothers who gave birth in the 5 years prior to the 2009-2010 survey (n = 2133)...
September 2016: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Siddika Songül Yalçin, Anselm S Berde, Suzan Yalçin
BACKGROUND: The study aimed to provide an overall picture of the general pattern of exclusive breast feeding (EBF) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) by examining maternal sociodemographic, antenatal and postnatal factors associated with EBF in the region, as well as explore countries variations in EBF rates. METHODS: We utilised cross-sectional data from the Demographic Health Surveys in 27 SSA countries. Our study sample included 25 084 infants under 6 months of age...
September 2016: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Naho Morisaki, Ichiro Kawachi, Emily Oken, Takeo Fujiwara
BACKGROUND: Whether birthweight differences observed between races are due to modifiable factors remains controversial. In the United States, Asian infants weigh less than white infants and Japanese infants weigh the least. METHODS: Using US Natality data, we evaluated 4 132 319 singleton term livebirths to parents of non-Hispanic white or Japanese race/ethnicity from 2009 to 2012. Infants were categorised by parental race/ethnicity (both white, n = 4 116 637; Japanese father/white mother, n = 2377; white father/Japanese mother, n = 7478; both Japanese, n = 5827)...
September 2016: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Kelly D Getz, Marlene T Anderka, Martha M Werler, Susan S Jick
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have attributed high maternal weight gain during pregnancy and pre-pregnancy obesity to a higher risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Maternal underweight was not previously explored with respect to ASD risk. METHODS: We evaluated the association between maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and ASD occurrence among singletons born into the General Practice Research Database from 1993 to 2008. Case subjects were children with a diagnosis of ASD from birth to 2010...
September 2016: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Laura O Kettner, Cecilia H Ramlau-Hansen, Ulrik S Kesmodel, Bjørn Bay, Niels B Matthiesen, Tine B Henriksen
BACKGROUND: A few studies have indicated an increased risk of epilepsy in children conceived by fertility treatment possibly due to characteristics of the infertile couple rather than the treatment. We therefore aimed to investigate the association between parental infertility, fertility treatment, and epilepsy in the offspring, including the subtypes of epilepsy; idiopathic generalised epilepsy and focal epilepsy. METHODS: This cohort included all pregnancies resulting in liveborn singletons from the Aarhus Birth Cohort, Denmark (1995-2013)...
September 2016: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Susana Santos, Romy Gaillard, Andreia Oliveira, Henrique Barros, Marieke Abrahamse-Berkeveld, Eline M van der Beek, Albert Hofman, Vincent W V Jaddoe
BACKGROUND: Skinfold thickness enables the measurement of overall and regional subcutaneous fatness in infancy and may be associated with total and abdominal body fat in later childhood. We examined the associations of subcutaneous fat in infancy with total and abdominal fat at school-age. METHODS: In a population-based prospective cohort study among 821 children, we calculated total subcutaneous fat (sum of biceps, triceps, suprailiacal, and subscapular skinfold thicknesses) and central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio (sum of suprailiacal and subscapular skinfold thicknesses/total subcutaneous fat) at 1...
September 2016: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Anna A Usynina, Vitaly A Postoev, Andrej M Grjibovski, Alexandra Krettek, Evert Nieboer, Jon Øyvind Odland, Erik Eik Anda
BACKGROUND: Globally, about 11% of all liveborn infants are preterm. To date, data on prevalence and risk factors of preterm birth (PTB) in Russia are limited. The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of PTB in Murmansk County, Northwestern Russia and to investigate associations between PTB and selected maternal factors using the Murmansk County Birth Registry. METHODS: We conducted a registry-based study of 52 806 births (2006-2011). In total, 51 156 births were included in the prevalence analysis, of which 3546 were PTBs...
September 2016: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Christine Dunkel Schetter, Andrea N Niles, Christine M Guardino, Mona Khaled, Michael S Kramer
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy anxiety is associated with risk of preterm birth and an array of other birth, infant, and childhood outcomes. However, previous research has not helped identify those pregnant women at greatest risk of experiencing this specific, contextually-based affective condition. METHODS: We examined associations between demographic, medical, and psychosocial factors and pregnancy anxiety at 24-26 weeks of gestation in a prospective, multicentre cohort study of 5271 pregnant women in Montreal, Canada...
September 2016: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Maureen S Durkin, Ruth E Benedict, Deborah Christensen, Lindsay A Dubois, Robert T Fitzgerald, Russell S Kirby, Matthew J Maenner, Kim Van Naarden Braun, Martha S Wingate, Marshalyn Yeargin-Allsopp
BACKGROUND: The public health objective for cerebral palsy (CP) in the United States is to reduce the percentage of children with CP who were born low birthweight (LBW, <2500 g) by 10% between 2006 and 2020. This study reports the prevalence of CP in a constant surveillance area for the years 2006, 2008, and 2010 and describes initial progress towards the CP public health objective. METHODS: Data on children with CP at age 8 years were ascertained by the Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network, a population-based surveillance system that monitored CP in four areas of the United States...
September 2016: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Lisa J Martin, Gunnar Sjörs, Brian Reichman, Brian A Darlow, Naho Morisaki, Neena Modi, Dirk Bassler, Lucia Mirea, Mark Adams, Satoshi Kusuda, Kei Lui, Laura San Feliciano, Stellan Håkansson, Tetsuya Isayama, Rintaro Mori, Max Vento, Shoo K Lee, Prakesh S Shah
BACKGROUND: Controversy exists as to whether birthweight-for-gestational age references used to classify infants as small for gestational age (SGA) should be country specific or based on an international (common) standard. We examined whether different birthweight-for-gestational age references affected the association of SGA with adverse outcomes among very preterm neonates. METHODS: Singleton infants (n = 23 788) of 24(0) -28(6) weeks' gestational age in nine high-resource countries were classified as SGA (<10th centile) using common and country-specific references based on birthweight and estimated fetal weight (EFW)...
September 2016: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Gretchen Bandoli, Kristin Palmsten, Katrina F Flores, Christina D Chambers
BACKGROUND: Covariate selection to reduce bias in observational data analysis has primarily relied upon statistical criteria to guide researchers. This approach may lead researchers to condition on variables that ultimately increase bias in the effect estimates. The use of directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) aids researchers in constructing thoughtful models based on hypothesised biologic mechanisms to produce the least biased effect estimates possible. METHODS: After providing an overview of different relations in DAGs and the prevailing mechanisms by which conditioning on variables increases or reduces bias in a model, we illustrate examples of DAGs for maternal antidepressants in pregnancy and four separate perinatal outcomes...
September 2016: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Nienke E Bergen, Sarah Schalekamp-Timmermans, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Albert Hofman, Jan Lindemans, Henk Russcher, Henning Tiemeier, Régine P M Steegers-Theunissen, Eric A P Steegers
BACKGROUND: Suboptimal dietary intake during pregnancy may have long-term health implications in children. These effects may be mediated by fetal growth. We investigated the associations of early pregnancy and umbilical cord total homocysteine (tHcy), folate, and total and active vitamin B12 concentrations with fetal growth parameters repeatedly measured in pregnancy and at birth. METHODS: This study was performed in 5890 pregnant women, participating in a population-based prospective cohort study...
July 2016: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Cande V Ananth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
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