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Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology

Kelly K Ferguson, Youfei Yu, David E Cantonwine, Thomas F McElrath, John D Meeker, Bhramar Mukherjee
BACKGROUND: Ultrasound measures are valuable for epidemiologic studies of risk factors for growth restriction. Longitudinal measurements enable investigation of rates of change and identification of windows where growth is impacted more acutely. However, missing data can be problematic in these studies, limiting sample size, ability to characterise windows of vulnerability, and in some instances creating bias. We sought to compare a parametric linear mixed model (LMM) approach to multiple imputation in this setting with multiple imputation by chained equation (MICE) methodology...
July 17, 2018: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Nicole M Talge
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 17, 2018: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Michelle Pearl, Jennifer Ahern, Alan Hubbard, Barbara Laraia, Bina Patel Shrimali, Victor Poon, Martin Kharrazi
BACKGROUND: Neighbourhood opportunity, measured by poverty, income and deprivation, has been associated with preterm birth, however little is known about the contribution of early-life and life-course neighbourhood opportunity to preterm birth risk and racial-ethnic disparities. We examined maternal early-life and adult neighbourhood opportunity in relation to risk of preterm birth and racial-ethnic disparities in a population-based cohort of women under age 30. METHODS: We linked census tract poverty data to 2 generations of California births from 1982-2011 for 403 315 white, black, or Latina mothers-infant pairs...
July 16, 2018: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Jennifer A Hutcheon, Lisa M Bodnar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 5, 2018: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Kamala Adhikari, Deborah A McNeil, Sheila McDonald, Alka B Patel, Amy Metcalfe
BACKGROUND: The existing inconsistent association between the caesarean rate and maternal socio-economic status (SES) may be the result of a failure to examine the association across indications for caesarean. This study examined the variation in caesarean rates by maternal SES across diverse obstetric-indications. METHODS: Data on demographics, education, insurance status, medical-conditions, and obstetric characteristics needed to classify deliveries according to Robson's 10 obstetric-groups were extracted from the 2015 US birth certificate data (n = 3 988 733)...
July 5, 2018: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Amélie Boutin, K S Joseph
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 5, 2018: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Akhgar Ghassabian, Rajeshwari Sundaram, Nikhita Chahal, Alexander C McLain, Erin M Bell, David A Lawrence, Stephen E Gilman, Edwina H Yeung
BACKGROUND: Evidence shows cytokine dysregulation in children with developmental disabilities. The association between immune activity during the perinatal period and child development is less clear. METHODS: We examined the relationship between newborn concentrations of immune markers and child development. Within Upstate KIDS, a population-based birth cohort (2008-2010, upstate New York), we assayed immune markers, which are postulated to have neuro-modulatory effects, in newborn dried blood spots (NDBS, n = 3038)...
July 4, 2018: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Mark A Klebanoff
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 4, 2018: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Charitha Gowda, Samuel Kennedy, Catherine Glover, Mona R Prasad, Ling Wang, Jonathan R Honegger
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is under-recognized among US adults and children. Prenatal HCV screening may help close the diagnosis gap among women while also identifying at-risk infants. Current surveillance efforts for maternal HCV rely primarily on birth certificate data. We sought a more accurate assessment of HCV prevalence among pregnant women in Ohio by combining existing public health surveillance data. METHODS: Vital Statistics (VS) birth certificate data and Ohio Disease Reporting System (ODRS) HCV case data, both available through the Ohio Department of Health, were linked to determine rates of past or present HCV infection among women giving birth from 2012 to 2015 in Ohio, overall and by county...
July 4, 2018: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Kelly R Evenson, Anna K Porter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 8, 2018: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Kristina Aagaard, Cathrine Carlsen Bach, Tine Brink Henriksen, René Tidemand Larsen, Niels Bjerregård Matthiesen
BACKGROUND: Early markers of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) may improve the understanding and early recognition of these disorders. We aimed to estimate the association between head circumference at birth, a measure of cerebral size at birth, and the risk of ADHD and ASD. METHODS: We present a register-based cohort study of all Danish singletons born alive between 1997 and 2013. Cox proportional hazards regression was used for the statistical analyses...
June 8, 2018: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Rhodi E Bulloch, Amy L Lovell, Vanessa M B Jordan, Lesley M E McCowan, John M D Thompson, Clare R Wall
BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia is a significant contributor to maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Folic acid supplementation is recommended periconceptionally for the prevention of neural tube defects. Epidemiological evidence suggests that maternal folic acid supplementation may play a role in preventing other adverse birth outcomes. This systematic review aimed to investigate the effect of maternal folic acid supplementation during pregnancy on risk of preeclampsia and gestational hypertension...
June 8, 2018: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Taylor Z Mann, Lisa B Haddad, Tonya R Williams, Susan L Hills, Jennifer S Read, Deborah L Dee, Eric J Dziuban, Janice Pérez-Padilla, Denise J Jamieson, Margaret A Honein, Carrie K Shapiro-Mendoza
BACKGROUND: Since the Zika virus epidemic in the Americas began in 2015, Zika virus transmission has occurred throughout the Americas. However, limited information exists regarding possible risks of transmission of Zika virus and other flaviviruses through breast feeding and human milk. We conducted a systematic review of the evidence regarding flaviviruses detection in and transmission through milk, specifically regarding Zika virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, Powassan virus, West Nile virus, dengue virus, and yellow fever virus...
June 8, 2018: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Calistus Wilunda, Satomi Yoshida, Shiro Tanaka, Yuji Kanazawa, Takeshi Kimura, Koji Kawakami
BACKGROUND: Previous studies of the association between tobacco smoke and hearing loss in children are limited, involve small samples and are cross-sectional. We investigated the association of maternal smoking during pregnancy and exposure to tobacco smoke at age 4 months with hearing impairment at age 3 years in children. METHODS: This population-based retrospective cohort study included 50 734 children born between 2004 and 2010 in Kobe City, Japan. Smoking during pregnancy and exposure to tobacco smoke at 4 months was measured using parent-reported questionnaires...
June 5, 2018: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Gretchen Bandoli, Kristin Palmsten, Christina D Chambers, Laura L Jelliffe-Pawlowski, Rebecca J Baer, Caroline A Thompson
BACKGROUND: A "Table Fallacy," as coined by Westreich and Greenland, reports multiple adjusted effect estimates from a single model. This practice, which remains common in published literature, can be problematic when different types of effect estimates are presented together in a single table. The purpose of this paper is to quantitatively illustrate this potential for misinterpretation with an example estimating the effects of preeclampsia on preterm birth. METHODS: We analysed a retrospective population-based cohort of 2 963 888 singleton births in California between 2007 and 2012...
May 21, 2018: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
James A Hanley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 16, 2018: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Gloria Isabel Niño Cruz, Andrea Ramirez Varela, Inácio Crochemore M da Silva, Pedro Curi Hallal, Iná S Santos
BACKGROUND: Maternal physical activity (PA) during pregnancy could affect offspring's neurodevelopment. However, studies in humans in early childhood are scarce and show inconsistent results. We aimed to review the literature on the association between physical activity during pregnancy and offspring neurodevelopment. METHODS: LILACS, MEDLINE and Web of Science were searched for studies published since 1977. Original studies conducted in humans, without language, country, or study type restriction, were eligible...
May 4, 2018: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Lisa N Yelland, Thomas R Sullivan, Carmel T Collins, David J Price, Andrew J McPhee, Katherine J Lee
BACKGROUND: Including twins in randomised trials leads to non-independence or clustering in the data. Clustering has important implications for sample size calculations, yet few trials take this into account. Estimates of the intracluster correlation coefficient (ICC), or the correlation between outcomes of twins, are needed to assist with sample size planning. Our aims were to provide ICC estimates for infant outcomes, describe the information that must be specified in order to account for clustering due to twins in sample size calculations, and develop a simple tool for performing sample size calculations for trials including twins...
May 4, 2018: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Laura N Anderson, Julia A Knight, Rayjean J Hung, Sheryl L Hewko, Ryan A Seeto, Mary-Jean Martin, Alison Fleming, Jonathon L Maguire, Stephen G Matthews, Kellie E Murphy, Nan Okun, Jennifer M Jenkins, Stephen J Lye, Alan Bocking
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy and early childhood represent critical periods that impact health throughout the life-course. The Ontario Birth Study (OBS) is a pregnancy cohort study designed as a platform for research on pregnancy complications, maternal and infant health, and the developmental origins of health and disease. METHODS: Pregnant women <17 weeks gestational age were recruited between 2013 and 2015 from antenatal clinics at Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Canada...
May 2018: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Marion Taine, Marie-Aline Charles, Jacques Beltrand, Jean Christophe Rozé, Juliane Léger, Jérémie Botton, Barbara Heude
BACKGROUND: Clinicians' interest in the long-term effects of early postnatal growth (EPG) is growing. There is compelling evidence linking rapid EPG with later cardiovascular risk, but its neurodevelopmental benefits still remain hypothetical in individuals born moderately preterm (MP) or small for gestational at term (SGAT). METHODS: The objective was to perform a systematic review of the relationship between EPG before age 3 years and neurodevelopmental outcome for individuals born MP (32-36 weeks' gestational age) or SGAT...
May 2018: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
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