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Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology

Gretchen Bandoli, Kristin Palmsten, Christina D Chambers, Laura L Jelliffe-Pawlowski, Rebecca J Baer, Caroline A Thompson
BACKGROUND: A "Table Fallacy," as coined by Westreich and Greenland, reports multiple adjusted effect estimates from a single model. This practice, which remains common in published literature, can be problematic when different types of effect estimates are presented together in a single table. The purpose of this paper is to quantitatively illustrate this potential for misinterpretation with an example estimating the effects of preeclampsia on preterm birth. METHODS: We analysed a retrospective population-based cohort of 2 963 888 singleton births in California between 2007 and 2012...
May 21, 2018: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
James A Hanley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 16, 2018: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Laura N Anderson, Julia A Knight, Rayjean J Hung, Sheryl L Hewko, Ryan A Seeto, Mary-Jean Martin, Alison Fleming, Jonathon L Maguire, Stephen G Matthews, Kellie E Murphy, Nan Okun, Jennifer M Jenkins, Stephen J Lye, Alan Bocking
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy and early childhood represent critical periods that impact health throughout the life-course. The Ontario Birth Study (OBS) is a pregnancy cohort study designed as a platform for research on pregnancy complications, maternal and infant health, and the developmental origins of health and disease. METHODS: Pregnant women <17 weeks gestational age were recruited between 2013 and 2015 from antenatal clinics at Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Canada...
May 11, 2018: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Gloria Isabel Niño Cruz, Andrea Ramirez Varela, Inácio Crochemore M da Silva, Pedro Curi Hallal, Iná S Santos
BACKGROUND: Maternal physical activity (PA) during pregnancy could affect offspring's neurodevelopment. However, studies in humans in early childhood are scarce and show inconsistent results. We aimed to review the literature on the association between physical activity during pregnancy and offspring neurodevelopment. METHODS: LILACS, MEDLINE and Web of Science were searched for studies published since 1977. Original studies conducted in humans, without language, country, or study type restriction, were eligible...
May 4, 2018: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Lisa N Yelland, Thomas R Sullivan, Carmel T Collins, David J Price, Andrew J McPhee, Katherine J Lee
BACKGROUND: Including twins in randomised trials leads to non-independence or clustering in the data. Clustering has important implications for sample size calculations, yet few trials take this into account. Estimates of the intracluster correlation coefficient (ICC), or the correlation between outcomes of twins, are needed to assist with sample size planning. Our aims were to provide ICC estimates for infant outcomes, describe the information that must be specified in order to account for clustering due to twins in sample size calculations, and develop a simple tool for performing sample size calculations for trials including twins...
May 4, 2018: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Marion Taine, Marie-Aline Charles, Jacques Beltrand, Jean Christophe Rozé, Juliane Léger, Jérémie Botton, Barbara Heude
BACKGROUND: Clinicians' interest in the long-term effects of early postnatal growth (EPG) is growing. There is compelling evidence linking rapid EPG with later cardiovascular risk, but its neurodevelopmental benefits still remain hypothetical in individuals born moderately preterm (MP) or small for gestational at term (SGAT). METHODS: The objective was to perform a systematic review of the relationship between EPG before age 3 years and neurodevelopmental outcome for individuals born MP (32-36 weeks' gestational age) or SGAT...
April 25, 2018: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Ahmed Elhakeem, Rebecca Hardy, David Bann, Diana Kuh, Rachel Cooper
BACKGROUND: This study examined associations between motor performance in early life and leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) participation across adulthood, and whether these changed with age. METHODS: Data were from 2526 participants from the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development. Motor indicators were mother-reported ages at first standing and walking, teacher-rated games ability at age 13, and finger- and foot-tapping speed at age 15...
April 17, 2018: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Sunni L Mumford, Keewan Kim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 16, 2018: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Samantha E Parker, Sarah A Keim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 16, 2018: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Stephanie M Eick, Emily S Barrett, Thomas J van 't Erve, Ruby H N Nguyen, Nicole R Bush, Ginger Milne, Shanna H Swan, Kelly K Ferguson
BACKGROUND: Prenatal psychological stress during pregnancy has been associated with adverse reproductive outcomes. A growing animal literature supports an association between psychological stress and oxidative stress. We assessed this relationship in pregnant women, hypothesising that psychological stress is associated with higher concentrations of oxidative stress biomarkers during pregnancy. METHODS: Psychosocial status and stressful life events (SLE) were self-reported...
March 30, 2018: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Kristin Palmsten, Christina D Chambers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 25, 2018: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Courtney D Lynch, Mona R Prasad
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 23, 2018: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Jun Zhang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 23, 2018: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Gerd-Marie Eskerud Harris, Mollie Wood, Eivind Ystrom, Hedvig Nordeng
BACKGROUND: Triptans are commonly used to treat migraine headaches, but data on the long-term safety of these medications during pregnancy are sparse. Triptans have a biologically plausible mechanism for effects on the fetal brain through binding to 5-HT1 -receptors, and previous studies show increased risks of externalising behaviour problems in toddlers exposed to triptans during pregnancy. METHODS: We included 3784 children in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, whose mothers returned the 5-year-questionnaire and reported a history of migraine or triptan use; 353 (9...
March 23, 2018: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Sarah C MacDonald, Miguel A Hernán, Thomas F McElrath, Sonia Hernández-Díaz
BACKGROUND: Pre-existing conditions are imperfectly recorded in health care databases. We assessed whether pre-existing neurologic conditions (epilepsy, multiple sclerosis [MS]) were differentially recorded in the presence of major obstetric outcomes (Caesarean delivery, preterm delivery, preeclampsia) in delivery records. We also evaluated the impact of differential recording on measures of frequency and association between the conditions and outcomes. METHODS: The 2011-2014 Truven Health MarketScan® Commercial Claims Dataset was used to identify pregnancies...
March 22, 2018: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Melanie H Jacobson, Penelope P Howards, Lyndsey A Darrow, Juliana W Meadows, James S Kesner, Jessica B Spencer, Metrecia L Terrell, Michele Marcus
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported that hyperthyroid and hypothyroid women experience menstrual irregularities more often compared with euthyroid women, but reasons for this are not well-understood and studies on thyroid hormones among euthyroid women are lacking. In a prospective cohort study of euthyroid women, this study characterised the relationship between thyroid hormone concentrations and prospectively collected menstrual function outcomes. METHODS: Between 2004-2014, 86 euthyroid premenopausal women not lactating or taking hormonal medications participated in a study measuring menstrual function...
March 8, 2018: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Gabriel Conzuelo-Rodriguez, Ashley I Naimi
BACKGROUND: Short interpregnancy intervals (IPI) are associated with poor birth outcomes. Often, only livebirths are considered to estimate IPI. The objective of our work is to explore whether the associations between demographic, behavioural, and pregnancy variables and IPI change when events other than livebirth are included. METHODS: We used data from the 2006-10 and 2011-13 period of the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). We defined IPI using the conception date of the index pregnancy and the event date of the previous one ending in (i) livebirth; (ii) stillbirth; (iii) miscarriage; (iv) abortion; or (v) any of these events...
March 2018: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Elizabeth M Widen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Jennifer A Hutcheon, Robert W Platt, Barbara Abrams, Betty J Braxter, Cara L Eckhardt, Katherine P Himes, Lisa M Bodnar
BACKGROUND: Twin pregnancies are at increased risk for adverse outcomes and are associated with greater gestational weight gain compared to singleton pregnancies. Studies that disentangle the relationship between gestational duration, weight gain and adverse outcomes are needed to inform weight gain guidelines. We created charts of the mean, standard deviation and select percentiles of maternal weight gain-for-gestational age in twin pregnancies and compared them to singleton curves. METHODS: We abstracted serial prenatal weight measurements of women delivering uncomplicated twin pregnancies at Magee-Womens Hospital (Pittsburgh, PA, 1998-2013) and merged them with the hospital's perinatal database...
March 2018: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Lara S Lemon, Ashley Naimi, Steve N Caritis, Robert W Platt, Raman Venkataramanan, Lisa M Bodnar
BACKGROUND: Pregnant women treated with methadone as opioid maintenance therapy are more likely than women treated with buprenorphine to deliver preterm. Preterm birth is associated with less risk of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). We sought to assess the role of preterm birth as a mediator of the relationship between in utero exposure to methadone and NAS compared with buprenorphine. METHODS: We studied 716 women receiving methadone or buprenorphine and delivering liveborn infants at Magee-Womens Hospital, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (2013-15)...
March 2018: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
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