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Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology

Malte Langeheine, Hermann Pohlabeln, Wolfgang Ahrens, Stefan Rach
BACKGROUND: Declining response proportions in population-based studies are often countered by extended recruitment efforts at baseline that may, however, result in higher attrition in a subsequent follow-up. This study analysed the effect of extended recruitment efforts on attrition at the first follow-up of a child cohort. METHODS: We used paradata (i.e. information about the process of data collection) from the German IDEFICS cohort investigating dietary- and life style-induced health effects on children to quantify recruitment effort and classify respondents as completing the recruitment early vs...
November 21, 2016: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Jason L Salemi, Jean Paul Tanner, Diana P Sampat, Rachel E Rutkowski, Suzanne B Anjohrin, Jennifer Marshall, Russell S Kirby
BACKGROUND: The 2003 revision of the U.S. Birth Certificate was restricted to birth defects readily identifiable at birth. Despite being the lone source of birth defects cases in some studies, we lack population-based information on the quality of birth defects data from the most recent revision of the birth certificate. METHODS: We linked birth certificate data to confirmed cases from the Florida Birth Defects Registry (FBDR) to assess the sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) of birth defects indicators on the birth certificate...
November 18, 2016: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Debra B Stulberg, Loretta Cain, Irma Hasham Dahlquist, Diane S Lauderdale
BACKGROUND: Ectopic pregnancy causes significant maternal morbidity and mortality. Complications are more common among women with Medicaid or no insurance compared to those with private insurance. It is unknown whether preventive care prior to pregnancy and prenatal care, which are covered by Medicaid, would decrease complications if they were more fully utilised. METHODS: Medicaid claims were used to identify a clinical cohort of women who experienced an ectopic pregnancy during 2004-08 among all female Medicaid enrolees from a large 14-state population, ages 15-44...
November 16, 2016: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Katherine J Sapra, Ashok K Chaurasia, Jennifer A Hutcheon, Katherine A Ahrens
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies examining preconception risk factors on perinatal outcomes are typically restricted to livebirths. By including only non-terminated pregnancies, estimates for the underlying pregnancy cohort may be subject to selection bias. We examined if potential selection bias due to induced termination by maternal race may result in different estimates of the non-Hispanic black - non-Hispanic white risk ratio (RR) for preterm delivery (PTD) among a reconstructed pregnancy cohort ('pseudo-pregnancy cohort')...
October 29, 2016: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Catherine Y Spong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
William D Fraser, Gabriel D Shapiro, François Audibert, Lise Dubois, Jean-Charles Pasquier, Pierre Julien, Anick Bérard, Gina Muckle, Jacquetta Trasler, Richard E Tremblay, Haim Abenhaim, Michel Welt, Marie-Josée Bédard, François Bissonnette, Emmanuel Bujold, Robert Gagnon, Jacques L Michaud, Isabelle Girard, Jean-Marie Moutquin, Isabelle Marc, Patricia Monnier, Jean R Séguin, Zhong-Cheng Luo
BACKGROUND: The 3D Cohort Study (Design, Develop, Discover) was established to help bridge knowledge gaps about the links between various adverse exposures during pregnancy with birth outcomes and later health outcomes in children. METHODS: Pregnant women and their partners were recruited during the first trimester from nine sites in Quebec and followed along with their children through to 2 years of age. Questionnaires were administered during pregnancy and post-delivery to collect information on demographics, mental health and life style, medical history, psychosocial measures, diet, infant growth, and neurodevelopment...
November 2016: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Jennifer L Richards, Carolyn Drews-Botsch, Jessica M Sales, William Dana Flanders, Michael R Kramer
BACKGROUND: Preterm children face higher risk of cognitive and academic deficits compared with their full-term peers. The objective of this study was to describe early childhood cognitive ability and kindergarten academic achievement across gestational age at birth in a population-based longitudinal cohort. METHODS: The study population included singletons born at 24-42 weeks gestation enrolled in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (n = 6150 for 2-year outcome, n = 4450 for kindergarten outcome)...
November 2016: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Caroline M Taylor, Jean Golding, Alan M Emond
BACKGROUND/AIM: Studies on the effects of moderate prenatal exposure to cadmium (Cd) on birth outcomes have been contradictory and it has been suggested that effects may be partly masked by sex-specific effects. Our aim was to examine the association of Cd exposure in a large group of pregnant women with birth outcomes in the whole group of participants and by sex. METHODS: Pregnant women were enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC)...
November 2016: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Emmi Helle, Sture Andersson, Unto Häkkinen, Jutta Järvelin, Janne Eskelinen, Eero Kajantie
BACKGROUND: Early term birth is associated with increased need for hospital care during the early postnatal period. The objective of this study was to assess the morbidity and health care-related costs during the first 3 years of life in children born early term. METHODS: Data come from a population-based birth cohort study in the municipalities of Helsinki, Espoo, and Vantaa, Finland using data from the national medical birth register and outpatient, inpatient, and primary care registers...
November 2016: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Alexandre S Stephens, Samantha J Lain, Christine L Roberts, Jennifer R Bowen, Natasha Nassar
BACKGROUND: Although infant and child mortality rates have decreased substantially worldwide over the past two decades, efforts continue in many nations to further these declines. The identification of pertinent perinatal factors that are associated with early childhood mortality would help with these efforts. We investigated the association of two crucial perinatal factors, gestational age and severe neonatal morbidity at birth, with mortality during infancy (29-364 days) and early childhood (1-5 years)...
November 2016: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Emily W Harville, Fernando A Althabe, Gérard Bréart, Pierre Buekens
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Sven Cnattingius, Anna-Karin Wikström, Olof Stephansson, Kari Johansson
BACKGROUND: Results from uterine artery Doppler investigations suggest that the aetiology of late preeclampsia with fetal growth restriction may be more similar to the aetiology of early preeclampsia than with late preeclampsia without fetal growth restriction. We hypothesised that a small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth in a late preeclamptic pregnancy may be associated with increased subsequent risk of early preeclampsia. We also studied effects of maternal factors on risks of preeclampsia recurrence...
November 2016: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Jane B Ford, Kathrin Schemann, Jillian A Patterson, Jonathan Morris, Robert D Herbert, Christine L Roberts
BACKGROUND: Risk factors for preeclampsia are well established, whereas, the triggers associated with timing of preeclampsia onset are not. The aim of this study was to establish whether recent infection or other triggers were associated with timing of preeclampsia onset. METHODS: We used a case-crossover design with preeclampsia cases serving as their own controls. Women with singleton pregnancies of ≥20 weeks gestation presenting at three hospitals were eligible for inclusion...
November 2016: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Bin Zhang, Shaoping Yang, Rong Yang, Jing Wang, Shengwen Liang, Ronghua Hu, Hong Xian, Ke Hu, Yimin Zhang, Nancy L Weaver, Hongming Wei, Michael G Vaughn, Hui Peng, Brian B Boutwell, Zhen Huang, Zhengmin Qian
BACKGROUND: Both high and low prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) has been associated with small for gestational age births (SGA; birthweight below the population specific 10th centile for the gestational age), but results remain inconsistent. We examined the association between maternal BMI and SGA, and evaluated if the associations were modified by preterm birth (being born prior to 37 weeks) status. METHODS: A population-based cohort study was conducted in Wuhan, China from June 2011, to June 2013...
November 2016: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Fabienne Marquant, Stéphanie Goujon, Laure Faure, Sandra Guissou, Laurent Orsi, Denis Hémon, Brigitte Lacour, Jacqueline Clavel
BACKGROUND: Socio-economic status is related to many life style and environmental factors, some of which have been suggested to influence the risk of childhood cancer. Studies requiring subject participation are usually hampered by selection of more educated parents. To prevent such bias, we used unselected nationwide Geographical Information System (GIS)-based registry data, to investigate the influence of socio-economic disparities on the risk of childhood cancer. METHODS: The Geocap study included all French residents diagnosed with cancer aged up to 15 years over the period 2002-2010 (15 111 cases) and 45 000 contemporaneous controls representative of the childhood population...
November 2016: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Nils-Halvdan Morken, Rolv Skjaerven, Jennifer L Richards, Michael R Kramer, Sven Cnattingius, Stefan Johansson, Mika Gissler, Siobhan M Dolan, Jennifer Zeitlin, Michael S Kramer
BACKGROUND: Gestational age estimation by last menstrual period (LMP) vs. ultrasound (or best obstetric estimate in the US) may result in discrepant classification of preterm vs. term birth. We investigated whether such discrepancies are associated with adverse infant outcomes. METHODS: We studied singleton livebirths in the Medical Birth Registries of Norway, Sweden and Finland and US live birth certificates from 1999 to the most recent year available. Risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) by discordant and concordant gestational age estimation for infant, neonatal and post-neonatal mortality, Apgar score <4 and <7 at 5 min, and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission were estimated using generalised linear models, adjusting for maternal age, education, parity, year of birth, and infant sex...
November 2016: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Teumzghi F Mebrahtu, Richard G Feltbower, Roger C Parslow
BACKGROUND: Bradford city has high infant mortality and there is a major health concern in the community due to environmental pollution. The aim of the study was to investigate the incidence and burden of wheezing disorders, eczema, and rhinitis in children aged 3-7 years . METHODS: It is a prospective cohort study; the participants were 13 734 children from the Born in Bradford cohort. RESULTS: There were a total of 22.1% (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 21...
November 2016: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Chris M Laugen, Nazrul Islam, Patricia A Janssen
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommendation for exclusive breast feeding for 6 months has been endorsed by Health Canada, the Canadian Pediatric Society, Dietitians of Canada, and the Breastfeeding Committee for Canada as of 2012. This study examines whether social support is associated with exclusive breast feeding up to 6 months among Canadian mothers. METHODS: We utilised data from the Canadian Community Health Survey and limited our sample to mothers who gave birth in the 5 years prior to the 2009-2010 survey (n = 2133)...
September 2016: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Siddika Songül Yalçin, Anselm S Berde, Suzan Yalçin
BACKGROUND: The study aimed to provide an overall picture of the general pattern of exclusive breast feeding (EBF) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) by examining maternal sociodemographic, antenatal and postnatal factors associated with EBF in the region, as well as explore countries variations in EBF rates. METHODS: We utilised cross-sectional data from the Demographic Health Surveys in 27 SSA countries. Our study sample included 25 084 infants under 6 months of age...
September 2016: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Naho Morisaki, Ichiro Kawachi, Emily Oken, Takeo Fujiwara
BACKGROUND: Whether birthweight differences observed between races are due to modifiable factors remains controversial. In the United States, Asian infants weigh less than white infants and Japanese infants weigh the least. METHODS: Using US Natality data, we evaluated 4 132 319 singleton term livebirths to parents of non-Hispanic white or Japanese race/ethnicity from 2009 to 2012. Infants were categorised by parental race/ethnicity (both white, n = 4 116 637; Japanese father/white mother, n = 2377; white father/Japanese mother, n = 7478; both Japanese, n = 5827)...
September 2016: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
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