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Occupational and Environmental Medicine

Judith M Graber
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 10, 2018: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Chen-Long Wu, Fan-Yun Lan, Bo-Lei Chen, Ray Hsienho Chang, Wei Hung Chang, Shih-Tien Pan, Pin-Hui Fang, Chien-Hsin Lu, Chih-Hao Lin
OBJECTIVES: High respiratory hazards among search and rescue workers (SRWs) emerged after the World Trade Center attacks on 11 September 2001. There have been limited studies on respiratory symptoms among earthquake SRWs. We investigated the respiratory symptoms and the use of respiratory protective equipment among the SRWs who responded to the 2016 Taiwan earthquake. METHODS: On 6 February 2016, a 6.4-magnitude earthquake struck southern Taiwan and caused 513 injuries and 117 deaths...
July 10, 2018: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Audrey Blanc-Lapierre, Jean-François Sauvé, Marie-Elise Parent
OBJECTIVES: While several monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are classified as definite or possible carcinogens to humans, little data exist on their role in prostate cancer (PCa). We examined occupational exposure to benzene, toluene, xylene (BTX) and styrene and PCa risk in a population-based case-control study in Montreal, Canada. METHODS: Cases aged ≤75 years diagnosed with PCa in 2005-2009 (n=1920) and population controls frequency-matched on age (n=1989) provided detailed work histories...
July 6, 2018: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Won Jin Lee, Seulki Ko, Ye Jin Bang, Eun Shil Cha, Kyoung-Mu Lee
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the risk for all-cause and cause-specific mortality in diagnostic medical radiation workers in South Korea. METHODS: The study population included all diagnostic medical radiation workers enrolled in the National Dosimetry Registry (NDR) between 1996 and 2011. NDR data were linked with mortality data obtained from national registries through 2015. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) and relative standardised mortality ratios (rSMRs) were calculated for external comparison and for adjustment of the cohort's overall healthiness...
June 30, 2018: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Mai Bjørnskov Mikkelsen, Michael Rosholm
OBJECTIVES: Mental disorders are associated with significant functional impairment, sickness absence and disability. The consequences of sickness absence warrant investigation into interventions aimed at enhancing return to work (RTW) for workers with mental disorders. The present systematic review and meta-analysis aim to synthesise evidence on the effectiveness of interventions aimed at enhancing RTW in sick-listed workers with mental disorders. METHODS: EconLit, Embase, PsychInfo, PubMed, Svemed+ and Web of Science were searched for peer-reviewed, randomised or controlled studies assessing employment-related outcomes of interventions...
June 28, 2018: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Aisha S Dickerson, Johnni Hansen, Marianthi-Anna Kioumourtzoglou, Aaron J Specht, Ole Gredal, Marc G Weisskopf
OBJECTIVES: Several manuscripts have proposed associations between amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and occupational toxicant exposures-not to mention physical activity and trauma/injury. Some have also reported associations in investigations of specific occupations. Using data from a prospective Danish cohort study, we investigated the association between employment in certain industries and ALS diagnosis. METHODS: We identified 1826 ALS cases who were 25 years old or less in 1964 and diagnosed from 1982 to 2013 from the Danish National Patient Registry then matched 100 population controls to each case based on birth year and sex...
June 25, 2018: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Ntombizodwa Ndlovu, Eustasius Musenge, Sung Kyun Park, Brendan Girdler-Brown, Guy Richards, Jill Murray
OBJECTIVE: We investigated trends and determinants of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in deceased South African miners. METHODS: Statutory autopsies are performed on miners for occupational lung disease compensation, irrespective of cause of death. Data were extracted from the PATHAUT (Pathology Automation System) autopsy database. PTB trends were analysed and explanatory variables (year of autopsy, age at death, gold employment duration, silicosis and HIV) were evaluated using binary logistic regression modelling...
June 22, 2018: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Méyomo Gaelle Wendeu-Foyet, Virginie Bayon, Sylvie Cénée, Brigitte Trétarre, Xavier Rébillard, Géraldine Cancel-Tassin, Olivier Cussenot, Pierre-Jean Lamy, Brice Faraut, Soumaya Ben Khedher, Damien Léger, Florence Menegaux
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of night work in prostate cancer based on data from the EPICAP Study. METHODS: EPICAP is a French population-based case-control study including 818 incident prostate cancer cases and 875 frequency-matched controls that have been interviewed face to face on several potential risk factors including lifetime occupational history. Detailed information on work schedules for each job (permanent or rotating night work, duration, total number of nights, length of the shift, number of consecutive nights) as well as sleep duration and chronotype, was gathered...
June 19, 2018: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Michael Zoorob
OBJECTIVE: Economic policies can have unintended consequences on population health. In recent years, many states in the USA have passed 'right to work' (RTW) laws which weaken labour unions. The effect of these laws on occupational health remains unexplored. This study fills this gap by analysing the effect of RTW on occupational fatalities through its effect on unionisation. METHODS: Two-way fixed effects regression models are used to estimate the effect of unionisation on occupational mortality per 100 000 workers, controlling for state policy liberalism and workforce composition over the period 1992-2016...
June 13, 2018: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Eszter Török, Alice Jessie Clark, Johan Høy Jensen, Theis Lange, Jens Peter Bonde, Jakob Bue Bjorner, Reiner Rugulies, Ulla Arthur Hvidtfeldt, Åse Marie Hansen, Annette Kjær Ersbøll, Naja Hulvej Rod
OBJECTIVE: There is a lack of studies investigating social capital at the workplace level in small and relatively homogeneous work-units. The aim of the study was to investigate whether work-unit social capital predicts a lower risk of individual long-term sickness absence among Danish hospital employees followed prospectively for 1 year. METHODS: This study is based on the Well-being in HospitAL Employees cohort. The study sample consisted of 32 053 individuals nested within 2182 work-units in the Capital Region of Denmark...
June 6, 2018: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Kajsa Ugelvig Petersen, Julie Volk, Linda Kaerlev, Henrik Lyngbeck Hansen, Johnni Hansen
OBJECTIVES: While maritime safety generally has improved dramatically over the last century, modern seafarers are still faced with numerous occupational hazards potentially affecting their risk of chronic diseases such as cancer. The aim of this study is to offer updated information on the incidence of specific cancers among both male and female seafarers. METHODS: Using records from the Danish Seafarer Registry, all seafarers employed on Danish ships during 1986-1999 were identified, resulting in a cohort of 33 084 men and 11 209 women...
May 19, 2018: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Emilie Lévêque, Aude Lacourt, Danièle Luce, Marie-Pierre Sylvestre, Pascal Guénel, Isabelle Stücker, Karen Leffondré
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the impact of intensity of both smoking and occupational exposure to asbestos on the risk of lung cancer throughout the whole exposure history. METHODS: Data on 2026 male cases and 2610 male controls came from the French ICARE (Investigation of occupational and environmental causes of respiratory cancers) population-based, case-control study. Lifetime smoking history and occupational history were collected from standardised questionnaires and face-to-face interviews...
May 18, 2018: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Dana Loomis, Neela Guha, Amy L Hall, Kurt Straif
The recognition of occupational carcinogens is important for primary prevention, compensation and surveillance of exposed workers, as well as identifying causes of cancer in the general population. This study updates previously published lists of known occupational carcinogens while providing additional information on cancer type, exposure scenarios and routes, and discussing trends in the identification of carcinogens over time. Data were extracted from International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monographs covering the years 1971-2017, using specific criteria to ensure occupational relevance and provide high confidence in the causality of observed exposure-disease associations...
May 16, 2018: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Hunter Warden, Harriet Richardson, Lesley Richardson, Jack Siemiatycki, Vikki Ho
BACKGROUND: Benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX) are aromatic hydrocarbons with inconclusive evidence of lung carcinogenicity. The aim of this research was to assess the associations between occupational exposures to BTX agents and lung cancer. METHODS: In a population-based case-control study of lung cancer, occupational histories were obtained and exposures were assessed by experts. Unconditional multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate ORs and 95% CIs, among men, between various metrics of occupational exposure to BTX and lung cancer, while adjusting for established and possible risk factors...
May 15, 2018: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Catherine Quinot, Sylvie Amsellem-Dubourget, Sofia Temam, Etienne Sevin, Christine Barreto, Arzu Tackin, Jérémy Félicité, Sarah Lyon-Caen, Valérie Siroux, Raphaële Girard, Alexis Descatha, Nicole Le Moual, Orianne Dumas
OBJECTIVE: Healthcare workers are highly exposed to various types of disinfectants and cleaning products. Assessment of exposure to these products remains a challenge. We aimed to investigate the feasibility of a method, based on a smartphone application and bar codes, to improve occupational exposure assessment among hospital/cleaning workers in epidemiological studies. METHODS: A database of disinfectants and cleaning products used in French hospitals, including their names, bar codes and composition, was developed using several sources: ProdHyBase (a database of disinfectants managed by hospital hygiene experts), and specific regulatory agencies and industrial websites...
May 14, 2018: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Erika Garcia, Sally Picciotto, Andreas M Neophytou, Patrick T Bradshaw, John R Balmes, Ellen A Eisen
OBJECTIVES: Synthetic metalworking fluids (MWFs), widely used to cool and lubricate industrial machining and grinding operations, have been linked with increased risk of several cancers. Estimates of their relation with lung cancer, however, are inconsistent. Controlling for the healthy worker survivor effect, we examined the relations between lung cancer mortality and exposure to synthetic MWF, as well as to biocides added to water-based fluids to control microbial growth, in a cohort of autoworkers...
May 9, 2018: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
James K H Jung, Saul G Feinstein, Luis Palma Lazgare, Jill S Macleod, Victoria H Arrandale, Christopher B McLeod, Alice Peter, Paul A Demers
BACKGROUND: The Occupational Disease Surveillance System (ODSS) was established in Ontario, Canada by linking a cohort of workers with data created from Workplace Safety and Insurance Board (WSIB) claims to administrative health databases. The aim of this study was to use ODSS to identify high-risk industry and occupation groups for lung cancer in Ontario. METHODS: Workers in the WSIB lost time claims database were linked to the Ontario Cancer Registry using subjects' health insurance numbers, name, sex, birthdate and death date (if applicable)...
May 7, 2018: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Claire Marant Micallef, Kevin David Shield, Isabelle Baldi, Barbara Charbotel, Béatrice Fervers, Anabelle Gilg Soit Ilg, Pascal Guénel, Ann Olsson, Lesley Rushton, Sally J Hutchings, Kurt Straif, Isabelle Soerjomataram
OBJECTIVES: The contribution of occupational exposures to the cancer burden can be estimated using population-attributable fractions, which is of great importance for policy making. This paper reviews occupational carcinogens, and presents the most relevant risk relations to cancer in high-income countries using France as an example, to provide a framework for national estimation of cancer burden attributable to occupational exposure. METHODS: Occupational exposures that should be included in cancer burden studies were evaluated using multiple criteria: classified as carcinogenic or probably carcinogenic by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monographs volumes 1-114, being a primary occupational exposure, historical and current presence of the exposure in France and the availability of exposure and risk relation data...
May 7, 2018: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Marie Odile Bernier, Michele M Doody, Miriam E Van Dyke, Daphné Villoing, Bruce H Alexander, Martha S Linet, Cari M Kitahara
INTRODUCTION: Technologists working in nuclear medicine (NM) are exposed to higher radiation doses than most other occupationally exposed populations. The aim of this study was to estimate the risk of cancer in NM technologists in relation to work history, procedures performed and radioprotection practices. METHODS: From the US Radiologic Technologists cohort study, 72 755 radiologic technologists who completed a 2003-2005 questionnaire were followed for cancer mortality through 31 December 2012 and for cancer incidence through completion of a questionnaire in 2012-2013...
May 2, 2018: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Joanne Kim, Cheryl E Peters, Victoria H Arrandale, France Labrèche, Calvin B Ge, Christopher B McLeod, Chaojie Song, Jérôme Lavoué, Hugh W Davies, Anne-Marie Nicol, Manisha Pahwa, Paul A Demers
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the population attributable fraction (PAF) and number of incident and fatal lung cancers in Canada from occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust (DEE). METHODS: DEE exposure prevalence and level estimates were used with Canadian Census and Labour Force Survey data to model the exposed population across the risk exposure period (REP, 1961-2001). Relative risks of lung cancer were calculated based on a meta-regression selected from the literature...
April 28, 2018: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
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