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Occupational and Environmental Medicine

Arif Jetha, Cynthia Chen, Cameron Mustard, Selahadin Ibrahim, Amber Bielecky, Dorcas Beaton, Peter Smith
OBJECTIVES: To examine the longitudinal relationship between incidence of diagnosed chronic disease and work status and hours worked. METHODS: A dynamic cohort approach was taken to construct our study sample using the Canadian National Population Health Survey. Participant inclusion criteria included being employed and without a chronic health condition in the survey cycle prior to diagnosis, and participation in consecutive surveys following diagnosis. Each respondent was matched with up to 5 respondents without a diagnosed health condition...
September 30, 2016: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Roel Vermeulen, Lützen Portengen
OBJECTIVES: Recently, diesel motor exhaust (DME) has been classified as a known human carcinogen. We used data from epidemiological studies of diesel exposures to perform a quantitative risk assessment to calculate DME exposure levels, expressed as elemental carbon (EC), corresponding to acceptable risk (AR) and maximum tolerable risk (MTR) levels of 4 to 10(-5) and 4 to 10(-3) for the lifetime excess probability of dying from lung cancer. METHODS: Previously published slope estimates (n=14) of the exposure-response curve (ERC) for EC exposure and lung cancer were used in life-table analyses to calculate EC exposure levels corresponding to the specified AR and MTR levels...
September 28, 2016: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Chung-Ching Wang, Wei-Liang Chen, Chia-Ni Hsiung, Sheng-Ta Chiang, Ying-Chuan Wang, Ching-Hui Loh, I-Shen Lin, Hong-I Chen, Saou-Hsing Liou
OBJECTIVES: We investigated the relationship between 4,4'-methylene-bis(2-chloroaniline) (MBOCA) exposure and micronucleus (MN) frequency, and how this association was affected by genetic polymorphism of the cytochrome P450 enzyme (CYP3A4). METHODS: We divided the study population into an exposed group (n=44 with total urine MBOCA ≥20 μg/g creatinine) and a control group (n=47 with total urine MBOCA <20 μg/g creatinine). Lymphocyte MN frequency (MNF) and micronucleated cell (MNC) frequency were measured by the cytokinesis-block MN assay method...
September 27, 2016: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
A Feleus, H S Miedema, S M A Bierma-Zeinstra, T Hoekstra, B W Koes, A Burdorf
OBJECTIVES: Impediments due to complaints of non-traumatic arm, neck and/or shoulder (CANS) during work often leads to consultation in primary care. This study examines the occurrence of sick leave among workers with new CANS, and evaluates sick leave trajectories and their characteristics. METHODS: This prospective 2-year cohort study included workers with a new CANS presenting in general practice. Participants filled out postal questionnaires on sick leave at 6-monthly intervals...
September 27, 2016: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Mikko Härmä, Aki Koskinen, Annina Ropponen, Sampsa Puttonen, Kati Karhula, Jussi Vahtera, Mika Kivimäki
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the validity of widely used questionnaire items on work schedule using objective registry data as reference. METHOD: A cohort study of hospital employees who responded to a self-administered questionnaire on work schedule in 2008, 2012 and 2014 and were linked to individual-level pay-roll-based records on work shifts. For predictive validity, leisure-time fatigue was assessed. RESULTS: According to the survey data in 2014 (n=8896), 55% of the day workers had at least 1 year of earlier shift work experience...
September 27, 2016: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Yolande Esquirol, Michel Niezborala, Monique Visentin, Anne Leguevel, Ignacio Gonzalez, Jean-Claude Marquié
OBJECTIVE: Among the aetiological factors of chronic low back pain (CLBP), occupational factors are often suspected, but their contribution remains to be ascertained. This study aimed to determine the impact of a wide range of occupational factors on the incidence and persistence of CLBP. METHOD: From the VISAT (VIeillissement SAnté Travail) study, 1560 workers were examined at baseline and 5 years later. CLBP was defined as having low back pain or specific treatment for at least 6 months...
September 26, 2016: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Carolyn J Heckman, Jacqueline D Kloss, Diane Feskanich, Elizabeth Culnan, Eva S Schernhammer
BACKGROUND: Night shift work and sleep duration have been associated with breast and other cancers. Results from the few prior studies of night shift work and skin cancer risk have been mixed and not fully accounted for other potentially important health-related variables (eg, sleep characteristics). This study evaluated the relationship between rotating night shift work and skin cancer risk and included additional skin cancer risk factors and sleep-related variables. METHODS: The current study used data from 74 323 Nurses' Health Study (NHS) II participants...
September 23, 2016: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Liana S Leach, Carmel Poyser, Peter Butterworth
The established links between workplace bullying and poor mental health provide a prima facie reason to expect that workplace bullying increases the risk of suicidal ideation (thoughts) and behaviours. Until now, there has been no systematic summary of the available evidence. This systematic review summarises published studies reporting data on workplace bullying and suicidal ideation, or behaviour. The review sought to ascertain the nature of this association and highlight future research directions. 5 electronic databases were searched...
September 23, 2016: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Loretta G Platts, Jenny Head, Sari Stenholm, Holendro Singh Chungkham, Marcel Goldberg, Marie Zins
OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationships of strenuous and hazardous working conditions and rotating shifts that involve night working with life expectancy in good perceived health and life expectancy without chronic disease. METHODS: The sample contained male gas and electricity workers from the French GAZEL cohort (n=13 393). Six measures of physical working conditions were examined: Self-reports from 1989 and 1990 of ergonomic strain, physical danger, rotating shifts that involve night working and perceived physical strain; company records of workplace injuries and a job-exposure matrix of chemical exposures...
September 21, 2016: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Lygia T Budnik, Edwin Scheer, P Sherwood Burge, Xaver Baur
OBJECTIVES: The use of genetically engineered enzymes in the synthesis of flavourings, fragrances and other applications has increased tremendously. There is, however, a paucity of data on sensitisation and/or allergy to the finished products. We aimed to review the use of genetically modified enzymes and the enormous challenges in human biomonitoring studies with suitable assays of specific IgE to a variety of modified enzyme proteins in occupational settings and measure specific IgE to modified enzymes in exposed workers...
September 21, 2016: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Garthika Navaranjan, Colin Berriault, Minh Do, Paul J Villeneuve, Paul A Demers
OBJECTIVES: The study objectives were to extend the follow-up of the Ontario uranium miners cohort, one of the largest cohorts of uranium miners with low cumulative exposures, to examine the relationship between radon exposure and lung cancer mortality and, for the first time incidence, and address gaps in the literature, including dose-response relationship between radon exposure and other cancer sites, and non-cancer mortality. METHODS: The cohort of mine and mill workers was created using data from Canada's National Dose Registry and the Ontario Mining Master File...
September 20, 2016: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
T V Azizova, G V Zhuntova, Rge Haylock, M B Moseeva, E S Grigoryeva, M V Bannikova, Z D Belyaeva, E V Bragin
OBJECTIVES: This paper describes findings from the study of chronic bronchitis (CB) incidence after occupational exposure to ionising radiation among workers employed at Russian Mayak Production Association (PA) during 1948 and 1982 and followed up until 2008 based on 'Mayak Worker Dosimetry System 2008'. METHODS: Analyses were based on 2135 verified cases among 21 417 workers. Rate ratios (RR) were estimated by categorical analysis for non-radiation and radiation factors...
September 19, 2016: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Kyriaki Papantoniou, Céline Vetter, Eva S Schernhammer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 14, 2016: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Qiuyue Yang, Xiangrong Xu, Jie Jiao, Yuxin Zheng, Lihua He, Shanfa Yu, Guizhen Gu, Guoshun Chen, Wenhui Zhou, Hui Wu, Yanhong Li, Huanling Zhang, Zengrui Zhang
OBJECTIVES: Noise-induced hearing loss is one of the most serious occupational diseases worldwide. It is caused by interactions between environmental and genetic factors. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between the genetic susceptibility of the eye absent homolog 4 (EYA4) gene and the risk of developing noise-induced hearing loss in China. METHODS: A case-control association study was carried out with 326 hearing loss cases and 326 controls matched with age and duration of noise exposure, drawn from a cohort of steel workers...
September 9, 2016: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Lee C Yong, Jia Li, Geoffrey M Calvert
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of a comprehensive set of self-reported sleep problems by job characteristics, including shiftwork status, among a representative sample of US workers. METHODS: Data for 6338 workers aged ≥18 years were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Short sleep duration was defined as <7 hours per weekday/workday. Sleep quality was categorised as good, moderate and poor based on the frequency of 6 sleep-related symptoms...
September 8, 2016: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Jasmine Jomichen, Sonia El-Zaemey, Jane S Heyworth, Renee N Carey, Ellie Darcey, Alison Reid, Deborah C Glass, Tim Driscoll, Susan Peters, Michael Abramson, Lin Fritschi
BACKGROUND: Pesticides are widely used in some occupational settings. Some pesticides have been classified as carcinogens; however, data on the number of workers exposed to pesticides are not available in Australia. The main aim of this study was to estimate the current prevalence of pesticide exposure in Australian workplaces. METHODS: The analysis used data from the Australian Work Exposures Study, a series of nationwide telephone surveys which investigated work-related prevalence and exposure to carcinogens and asthmagens, including pesticides, among current Australian workers...
September 8, 2016: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Andrea 't Mannetje, Amanda Eng, Chris Walls, Evan Dryson, Manolis Kogevinas, Collin Brooks, Dave McLean, Soo Cheng, Allan H Smith, Neil Pearce
OBJECTIVES: Exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) has inconsistently been associated with a decreased sex ratio of the offspring (number of male births divided by total births). We conducted a study among men and women who were employed in a New Zealand phenoxy herbicide production plant between 1969 and 1984, to study their offspring sex ratio in relation to their back-calculated TCDD serum concentrations determined in 2007/2008. METHODS: A total of 127 men and 21 women reported that 355 children were conceived after starting employment at the plant...
August 31, 2016: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
John Andrew Tomenson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 26, 2016: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
C Quinot, O Dumas, P K Henneberger, R Varraso, A S Wiley, F E Speizer, M Goldberg, J P Zock, C A Camargo, N Le Moual
OBJECTIVES: Occupational exposure to disinfectants is associated with work-related asthma, especially in healthcare workers. However, little is known about the specific products involved. To evaluate disinfectant exposures, we designed job-exposure (JEM) and job-task-exposure (JTEM) matrices, which are thought to be less prone to differential misclassification bias than self-reported exposure. We then compared the three assessment methods: self-reported exposure, JEM and JTEM. METHODS: Disinfectant use was assessed by an occupational questionnaire in 9073 US female registered nurses without asthma, aged 49-68 years, drawn from the Nurses' Health Study II...
August 26, 2016: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Evan D Chinoy, Michael P Harris, Min Ju Kim, Wei Wang, Jeanne F Duffy
OBJECTIVES: We tested whether a sleep and circadian-based treatment shown to improve circadian adaptation to night shifts and attenuate negative effects on alertness, performance and sleep in young adults would also be effective in older adults. METHODS: We assessed subjective alertness, sustained attention (psychomotor vigilance task, PVT), sleep duration (actigraphy) and circadian timing (salivary dim-light melatonin onset, DLMO) in 18 older adults (57.2±3.8 years; mean±SD) in a simulated shift work protocol...
August 25, 2016: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
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