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Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340252/urinary-tract-infection-recent-insight-into-the-evolutionary-arms-race-between-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-and-our-immune-system
#1
Sebastian Schwab, Katarzyna Jobin, Christian Kurts
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections worldwide. Humans evolved various immune-dependent and independent defense mechanisms, while pathogens evolved multiple virulence factors to fight back. This article summarizes recent findings regarding the arms race between hosts and pathogens in UTIs. It was recently reported that macrophage subsets regulate neutrophil-mediated defense in primary UTIs but seem to subvert adaptive immunity upon re-infection. Moreover, some bacterial strains can survive inside macrophages, leading to recurrent infections...
March 15, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340245/unacceptable-human-leucocyte-antigens-for-organ-offers-in-the-era-of-organ-shortage-influence-on-waiting-time-before-kidney-transplantation
#2
Malte Ziemann, Nicole Heßler, Inke R König, Nils Lachmann, Andrea Dick, Vanessa Ditt, Klemens Budde, Petra Reinke, Ute Eisenberger, Barbara Suwelack, Thomas Klein, Timm H Westhoff, Wolfgang Arns, Katrin Ivens, Antje Habicht, Lutz Renders, Dirk Stippel, Dominik Bös, Florian Sommer, Siegfried Görg, Martin Nitschke, Thorsten Feldkamp, Falko M Heinemann, Reinhard Kelsch
Background.: The assignment of human leucocyte antigens (HLAs) against which antibodies are detected as unacceptable antigens (UAGs) avoids allocation of HLA- incompatible allografts. There is uncertainty as to what extent UAGs decrease the probability of receiving a kidney offer. Methods.: Kidney transplantations in 3264 patients on the waiting lists of six German transplant centres were evaluated for a period of at least 2 years. The proportion of excluded offers due to UAGs was calculated as virtual panel-reactive antibodies (vPRAs)...
March 15, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340192/prediction-equation-for-calculating-residual-kidney-urea-clearance-using-urine-collections-for-different-hemodialysis-treatment-frequencies-and-interdialytic-intervals
#3
Yoshitsugu Obi, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh, Elani Streja, John T Daugirdas
Background.: The purpose of the study was to explore the precision of an equation designed to estimate residual kidney urea clearance (K RU ) from interdialytic urine collection data and pre-hemodialysis (HD) serum urea nitrogen (SUN) in different hemodialysis treatment schedules. Methods.: The generalizability of the proposed equation was tested in 32 731 HD treatments where urine was collected prior to a dialysis session, mostly for 24 h but sometimes longer, in patients being dialyzed 1-4 times/week...
March 15, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340119/the-risk-of-nephrolithiasis-is-causally-related-to-inactive-matrix-gla-protein-a-marker-of-vitamin-k-status-a-mendelian-randomization-study-in-a-flemish-population
#4
Fang-Fei Wei, Lutgarde Thijs, Zhen-Yu Zhang, Lotte Jacobs, Wen-Yi Yang, Erika Salvi, Lorena Citterio, Nicholas Cauwenberghs, Tatiana Kuznetsova, Nadja E A Drummen, Azusa Hara, Paolo Manunta, Yan Li, Peter Verhamme, Karel Allegaert, Daniele Cusi, Cees Vermeer, Jan A Staessen
Background.: Vitamin K (VK)-dependent γ-glutamate carboxylation and serine phosphorylation activate matrix Gla protein (MGP) to a potent locally acting inhibitor of calcification. Nephrolithiasis represents a process of unwanted calcification associated with substantial mortality and high recurrence rates. We hypothesized that the risk of nephrolithiasis increases with VK shortage, as exemplified by higher plasma levels of desphospho-uncarboxylated MGP (dp-ucMGP). Methods...
March 15, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340246/considerations-on-glycaemic-control-in-older-and-or-frail-individuals-with-diabetes-and-advanced-kidney-disease
#5
Nicolae Mircea Panduru, Ionut Nistor, Per-Henrik Groop, Wim Van Biesen, Ken Farrington, Adrian Covic
The increasing prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diabetes over the last decade has resulted in increasing numbers of frail older patients with a combination of these conditions. Current treatment guidelines may not necessarily be relevant for such patients, who are mostly excluded from the trials upon which these recommendations are based. There is a paucity of data upon which to base the management of older patients with CKD. Nearly all current guidelines recommend less-tight glycaemic control for the older population, citing the lack of proven medium-term benefits and concerns about the high short-term risk of hypoglycaemia...
March 13, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340239/hypertension-in-dialysis-patients-a-consensus-document-by-the-european-renal-and-cardiovascular-medicine-eureca-m-working-group-of-the-european-renal-association-european-dialysis-and-transplant-association-era-edta-and-the-hypertension-and-the-kidney-working
#6
Pantelis A Sarafidis, Alexandre Persu, Rajiv Agarwal, Michel Burnier, Peter de Leeuw, Charles J Ferro, Jean-Michel Halimi, Gunnar H Heine, Michel Jadoul, Faical Jarraya, Mehmet Kanbay, Francesca Mallamaci, Patrick B Mark, Alberto Ortiz, Gianfranco Parati, Roberto Pontremoli, Patrick Rossignol, Luis Ruilope, Patricia Van der Niepen, Raymond Vanholder, Marianne C Verhaar, Andrzej Wiecek, Gregoire Wuerzner, Gérard M London, Carmine Zoccali
In patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) treated with haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis, hypertension is common and often poorly controlled. Blood pressure (BP) recordings obtained before or after haemodialysis display a J- or U-shaped association with cardiovascular events and survival, but this most likely reflects the low accuracy of these measurements and the peculiar haemodynamic setting related to dialysis treatment. Elevated BP detected by home or ambulatory BP monitoring is clearly associated with shorter survival...
March 13, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340077/idiopathic-non-lupus-full-house-nephropathy-is-associated-with-poor-renal-outcome
#7
Emilie C Rijnink, Y K Onno Teng, Tineke Kraaij, Ron Wolterbeek, Jan A Bruijn, Ingeborg M Bajema
Background.: Full-house immunofluorescence in combination with various histopathologic lesions in the renal biopsies of patients without overt systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) poses a diagnostic challenge. In this setting, the biopsy findings are sometimes termed non-lupus 'full-house nephropathy' (FHN). It is presently unknown whether idiopathic non-lupus FHN is clinicopathologically and prognostically distinct from lupus FHN. Methods.: We included non-lupus FHN patients and lupus FHN controls (four or more American College of Rheumatology or Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics criteria) who were biopsied between 1968 and 2014 at the Leiden University Medical Centre...
March 13, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340037/erratum
#8
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 13, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340076/cisplatin-induced-renal-inflammation-is-ameliorated-by-cilastatin-nephroprotection
#9
Blanca Humanes, Sonia Camaño, Jose Manuel Lara, Venkatta Sabbisetti, María Ángeles González-Nicolás, Joseph V Bonventre, Alberto Tejedor, Alberto Lázaro
Background.: Cisplatin is a potent chemotherapeutic drug whose nephrotoxic effect is a major complication and a dose-limiting factor for antitumoral therapy. There is much evidence that inflammation contributes to the pathogenesis of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. We found that cilastatin, a renal dehydropeptidase-I inhibitor, has protective effects in vitro and in vivo against cisplatin-induced renal damage by inhibiting apoptosis and oxidation. Here, we investigated the potential use of cilastatin to protect against cisplatin-induced kidney injury and inflammation in rats...
March 11, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340227/transplant-as-a-competing-risk-in-the-analysis-of-dialysis-patients
#10
Nan van Geloven, Saskia le Cessie, Friedo W Dekker, Hein Putter
Time-to-event analyses are frequently used in nephrology research, for instance, when recording time to death or time to peritonitis in dialysis patients. Many papers have pointed out the important issue of competing events (or competing risks) in such analyses. For example, when studying one particular cause of death it can be noted that patients also die from other causes. Such competing events preclude the event of interest from occurring and thereby complicate the statistical analysis. The Kaplan-Meier approach to calculating the cumulative probability of the event of interest yields invalid results in the presence of competing risks, thus the alternative cumulative incidence competing risk (CICR) approach has become the standard...
March 3, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340135/modeling-longitudinal-data-and-its-impact-on-survival-in-observational-nephrology-studies-tools-and-considerations
#11
Elani Streja, Leanne Goldstein, Melissa Soohoo, Yoshitsugu Obi, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh, Connie M Rhee
Nephrologists and kidney disease researchers are often interested in monitoring how patients' clinical and laboratory measures change over time, what factors may impact these changes, and how these changes may lead to differences in morbidity, mortality, and other outcomes. When longitudinal data with repeated measures over time in the same patients are available, there are a number of analytical approaches that could be employed to describe the trends and changes in these measures, and to explore the associations of these changes with outcomes...
March 3, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340044/oral-ghrelin-receptor-agonist-mk-0677-increases-serum-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-in-hemodialysis-patients-a-randomized-blinded-study
#12
Garland A Campbell, James T Patrie, Bruce D Gaylinn, Michael O Thorner, Warren K Bolton
Background: . Protein-energy wasting (PEW) in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, but options for treatment are limited. Growth hormone (GH) increases insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), with improved nutritional parameters, but must be given subcutaneously and does not provide normal GH secretion patterns. MK-0677, an oral ghrelin receptor agonist (GRA), maintains normal GH secretion and increases lean body mass in normal subjects; it has not been studied in dialysis patients, an essential step in assessing efficacy and safety prior to clinical trials...
March 3, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339962/fstl3-is-increased-in-renal-dysfunction
#13
Susan Kralisch, Annett Hoffmann, Nora Klöting, Anette Bachmann, Jürgen Kratzsch, Jens-Uwe Stolzenburg, Anja Dietel, Joachim Beige, Matthias Anders, Ingolf Bast, Matthias Blüher, Ming-Zhi Zhang, Raymond C Harris, Michael Stumvoll, Mathias Fasshauer, Thomas Ebert
Background.: Follistatin-like 3 (FSTL3) is a novel cytokine that regulates insulin sensitivity and counteracts activin/myostatin signalling. In the present study, regulation of FSTL3 in renal dysfunction was investigated in both human chronic kidney disease (CKD) and acute kidney dysfunction (AKD). Furthermore, mFSTL3 expression was analysed in insulin-sensitive tissues in a mouse model of CKD. Methods.: Circulating FSTL3 was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 581 patients with CKD covering the whole spectrum of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) categories from G1 to G5...
March 3, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339958/postconditioning-protects-renal-fibrosis-by-attenuating-oxidative-stress-induced-mitochondrial-injury
#14
Shuxian Zhang, Xiaohua Tan, Yan Chen, Xiuying Zhang
Background.: Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a critical role in renal fibrosis. We hypothesize that mitochondrial DNA damage and DNA deletions caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) during renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) might lead to EMT in renal fibrosis. Methods.: Rats were classified into seven groups: sham-operation, IRI, postconditioning (POC), I/R + apocynin, POC +  apocynin, I/R + Mito-Tempol (Mito-T) and POC +  Mito-T...
March 3, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339949/bone-biopsy-practice-patterns-across-europe-the-european-renal-osteodystrophy-initiative-a-position-paper
#15
Pieter Evenepoel, Patrick D'Haese, Justine Bacchetta, Jorge Cannata-Andia, Anibal Ferreira, Mathias Haarhaus, Sandro Mazzaferro, Marie-Helene Lafage Proust, Syazrah Salam, Goce Spasovski, Mario Cozzolino
Renal osteodystrophy (ROD) is a heterogeneous group of metabolic bone diseases complicating progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD). Bone biomarkers and bone imaging techniques may help to assess bone health and predict fractures in CKD but do have important inherent limitations. By informing on bone turnover and mineralization, a bone biopsy may help to guide prevention and treatment of ROD and its consequences. According to a recent survey conducted among European nephrologists, bone biopsies are performed rather exceptionally, both for clinical and research purposes...
March 3, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340221/nationwide-multicentre-kidney-biopsy-study-of-japanese-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#16
Kengo Furuichi, Yukio Yuzawa, Miho Shimizu, Akinori Hara, Tadashi Toyama, Hiroshi Kitamura, Yoshiki Suzuki, Hiroshi Sato, Noriko Uesugi, Yoshifumi Ubara, Satoshi Hisano, Yoshihiko Ueda, Shinichi Nishi, Hitoshi Yokoyama, Tomoya Nishino, Kentaro Kohagura, Daisuke Ogawa, Koki Mise, Yugo Shibagaki, Kenjiro Kimura, Masakazu Haneda, Hirofumi Makino, Seiichi Matsuo, Takashi Wada
Background.: The clinical and pathologic manifestations of nephropathy due to type 2 diabetes are diverse, but large-scale pathologic studies with long-term observations are limited. Methods.: Kidney biopsies and clinical data of 600 patients with type 2 diabetes were collected retrospectively from 13 centres across Japan. Thirteen pathologic findings (nine glomerular lesions, two interstitial lesions and two vascular lesions) were clearly defined and scored. Results...
March 2, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340152/sarcopenia-and-relationships-between-muscle-mass-measured-glomerular-filtration-rate-and-physical-function-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease-stages-3-5
#17
Yunan Zhou, Matthias Hellberg, Philippa Svensson, Peter Höglund, Naomi Clyne
Background.: Sarcopenia and poor physical function are common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Our aim was to investigate the relationships between muscle mass and measured glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and between muscle mass and strength and balance, respectively, in patients with CKD stages 3-5. Methods.: This is a baseline data analysis of a randomized controlled clinical trial. A total of 148 adult patients with an estimated GFR <30 mL/min/1...
March 1, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340079/measured-glomerular-filtration-rate-does-not-improve-prediction-of-mortality-by-cystatin-c-and-creatinine
#18
Per-Ola Sundin, Per Sjöström, Ian Jones, Lovisa A Olsson, Ruzan Udumyan, Anders Grubb, Veronica Lindström, Scott Montgomery
Background: Cystatin C may add explanatory power for associations with mortality in combination with other filtration markers, possibly indicating pathways other than glomerular filtration rate (GFR). However, this has not been firmly established since interpretation of associations independent of measured GFR (mGFR) is limited by potential multicollinearity between markers of GFR. The primary aim of this study was to assess associations between cystatin C and mortality, independent of mGFR...
March 1, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340010/non-proteinuric-rather-than-proteinuric-renal-diseases-are-the-leading-cause-of-end-stage-kidney-disease
#19
Davide Bolignano, Carmine Zoccali
Proteinuria is a distinguishing feature in primary and secondary forms of chronic glomerulonephritis, which contribute to no more than the 20% of the end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) population. The contribution of non-proteinuric nephropathies to the global ESKD burden is still poorly focused and scarce research efforts are dedicated to the elucidation of risk factors and mechanistic pathways triggering ESKD in these diseases. We abstracted information on proteinuria in the main renal diseases other than glomerulonephritides that may evolve into ESKD...
March 1, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339984/the-link-between-phenotype-and-fatty-acid-metabolism-in-advanced-chronic-kidney-disease
#20
Dan-Qian Chen, Hua Chen, Lin Chen, Nosratola D Vaziri, Ming Wang, Xiang-Ri Li, Ying-Yong Zhao
Background.: The kidney plays a central role in elimination of metabolic waste products and regulation of low-molecular weight metabolites via glomerular filtration, tubular secretion and reabsorption. Disruption of these processes results in profound changes in the biochemical milieu of the body fluids, which contribute to complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD) by inducing cytotoxicity and inflammation. Insight into the changes of the composition of metabolites and dysregulation of target genes and proteins enhances the understanding of the pathophysiology of CKD and its complications, and the development of novel therapeutic strategies...
March 1, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
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