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Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899550/using-deep-convolutional-neural-networks-to-identify-and-classify-tumor-associated-stroma-in-diagnostic-breast-biopsies
#1
Babak Ehteshami Bejnordi, Maeve Mullooly, Ruth M Pfeiffer, Shaoqi Fan, Pamela M Vacek, Donald L Weaver, Sally Herschorn, Louise A Brinton, Bram van Ginneken, Nico Karssemeijer, Andrew H Beck, Gretchen L Gierach, Jeroen A W M van der Laak, Mark E Sherman
The breast stromal microenvironment is a pivotal factor in breast cancer development, growth and metastases. Although pathologists often detect morphologic changes in stroma by light microscopy, visual classification of such changes is subjective and non-quantitative, limiting its diagnostic utility. To gain insights into stromal changes associated with breast cancer, we applied automated machine learning techniques to digital images of 2387 hematoxylin and eosin stained tissue sections of benign and malignant image-guided breast biopsies performed to investigate mammographic abnormalities among 882 patients, ages 40-65 years, that were enrolled in the Breast Radiology Evaluation and Study of Tissues (BREAST) Stamp Project...
June 13, 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899549/colonic-graft-vs-host-disease-in-autologous-versus-allogeneic-transplant-patients-earlier-onset-more-apoptosis-and-lack-of-regulatory-t-cell-attenuation
#2
Christopher P Hartley, Luis F Carrillo-Polanco, Daniel J Rowan, Catherine E Hagen
Histologic characterization of graft-vs.-host disease in autologous stem cell transplant patients has been limited. The aims of this study were to characterize colonic graft-vs.-host disease in autologous stem cell transplant patients and compare to a control group of allogeneic stem cell transplant patients, to determine whether graft-vs.-host disease can be diagnosed < 21 days post transplantation in autologous stem cell transplant recipients, and to quantify colonic T-cell populations in autologous stem cell transplant patients...
June 13, 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29884888/dna-mismatch-repair-protein-deficient-non-neoplastic-colonic-crypts-a-novel-indicator-of-lynch-syndrome
#3
Rish K Pai, Beth Dudley, Eve Karloski, Randall E Brand, Neil O'Callaghan, Christophe Rosty, Daniel D Buchanan, Mark A Jenkins, Stephen N Thibodeau, Amy J French, Noralane M Lindor, Reetesh K Pai
Lynch syndrome is the most common form of hereditary colorectal carcinoma. However, establishing the diagnosis of Lynch syndrome is challenging, and ancillary studies that distinguish between sporadic DNA mismatch repair (MMR) protein deficiency and Lynch syndrome are needed, particularly when germline mutation studies are inconclusive. The aim of this study was to determine if MMR protein-deficient non-neoplastic intestinal crypts can help distinguish between patients with and without Lynch syndrome. We evaluated the expression of MMR proteins in non-neoplastic intestinal mucosa obtained from colorectal surgical resection specimens from patients with Lynch syndrome-associated colorectal carcinoma (n = 52) and patients with colorectal carcinoma without evidence of Lynch syndrome (n = 70), including sporadic MMR protein-deficient colorectal carcinoma (n = 30), MMR protein proficient colorectal carcinoma (n = 30), and "Lynch-like" syndrome (n = 10)...
June 8, 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29849115/whole-exome-sequencing-of-duodenal-neuroendocrine-tumors-in-patients-with-neurofibromatosis-type-1
#4
Michaël Noë, Antonio Pea, Claudio Luchini, Matthäus Felsenstein, Stefano Barbi, Feriyl Bhaijee, Raluca Yonescu, Yi Ning, N Volkan Adsay, Giuseppe Zamboni, Rita T Lawlor, Aldo Scarpa, G Johan A Offerhaus, Lodewijk A A Brosens, Ralph H Hruban, Nicholas J Roberts, Laura D Wood
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a hereditary cancer predisposition syndrome characterized by frequent cutaneous and nervous system abnormalities. Patients with NF1 also have an increased prevalence of multiple gastrointestinal and peripancreatic neoplasms-neuroendocrine tumors of the ampulla that express somatostatin are particularly characteristic of NF1. In this study, we characterize the genetic alterations of a clinically well-characterized cohort of six NF1-associated duodenal neuroendocrine tumors using whole-exome sequencing...
May 30, 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29849114/association-of-tumor-infiltrating-t-cell-density-with-molecular-subtype-racial-ancestry-and-clinical-outcomes-in-prostate-cancer
#5
Harsimar B Kaur, Liana B Guedes, Jiayun Lu, Laneisha Maldonado, Logan Reitz, John R Barber, Angelo M De Marzo, Jeffrey J Tosoian, Scott A Tomlins, Edward M Schaeffer, Corinne E Joshu, Karen S Sfanos, Tamara L Lotan
The inflammatory microenvironment plays an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of tumors and may be associated with somatic genomic alterations. We examined the association of tumor-infiltrating T-cell density with clinical-pathologic variables, tumor molecular subtype, and oncologic outcomes in surgically treated primary prostate cancer occurring in patients of European-American or African-American ancestry. We evaluated 312 primary prostate tumors, enriched for patients with African-American ancestry and high grade disease...
May 30, 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29802361/the-use-of-ki-67-labeling-index-to-grade-pulmonary-well-differentiated-neuroendocrine-neoplasms-current-best-evidence
#6
Alberto M Marchevsky, Andrew Hendifar, Ann E Walts
Although Ki-67 labeling index (Ki-67%) is not a diagnostic or grading criterion in the World Health Organization classification of pulmonary carcinoid tumor, oncologists often request this test. A survey was administered at a North American Society for Neuroendocrine Tumors meeting to understand how Ki-67% is used in oncologic practices. A systematic literature review was performed to gather best evidence regarding the use of Ki-67%. Consecutive pulmonary carcinoids were stratified into pulmonary typical carcinoids with Ki-67% <5% (group A, n = 187), typical carcinoids with Ki-67% ≥5% (group B, n = 38) and atypical carcinoids irrespective of Ki-67% (group C, n = 31)...
May 25, 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29802360/low-risk-of-lymph-node-metastasis-in-495-early-gastric-cardiac-carcinomas-a-multicenter-clinicopathologic-study-of-2101-radical-gastrectomies-for-early-gastric-carcinoma
#7
Qin Huang, Yuqing Cheng, Ling Chen, Du Mingzhan, Yaohui Wang, Guifang Xu, Jiong Shi, Xiangshan Fan, Xiaoli Zhou, Yifeng Zhang, Linchuan Guo, Tianyun Liu, Dan Zhou, Hiroshi Mashimo, Jason S Gold, Xiaoping Zou
Clinical decision-making on endoscopic vs. surgical resection of early gastric cardiac carcinoma remains challenging because of uncertainty on risk of lymph node metastasis. The aim of this multicenter study was to investigate risk factors of lymph node metastasis in early gastric cardiac carcinoma. Guided with the World Health Organization diagnostic criteria, we studied 2101 radical resections of early gastric carcinoma for risk factors associated with lymph node metastasis, including tumor location, gross pattern, size, histology type, differentiation, invasion depth, lymphovascular, and perineural invasion...
May 25, 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29802359/duplications-of-kiaa1549-and-braf-screening-by-droplet-digital-pcr-from-formalin-fixed-paraffin-embedded-dna-is-an-accurate-alternative-for-kiaa1549-braf-fusion-detection-in-pilocytic-astrocytomas
#8
Romain Appay, Frédéric Fina, Nicolas Macagno, Laëtitia Padovani, Carole Colin, Doriane Barets, Joanna Ordioni, Didier Scavarda, Felice Giangaspero, Manuela Badiali, Andrey Korshunov, Stefan M Pfister, David T W Jones, Dominique Figarella-Branger
Pilocytic astrocytomas represent the most common glioma subtype in young patients and account for 5.4% of all gliomas. They are characterized by alterations in the RAS-MAP kinase pathway, the most frequent being a tandem duplication on chromosome 7q34 involving the BRAF gene, resulting in oncogenic BRAF fusion proteins. BRAF fusion involving the KIAA1549 gene is a hallmark of pilocytic astrocytoma, but it has also been recorded in rare cases of gangliogliomas, 1p/19q co-deleted oligodendroglial tumors, and it is also a common feature of disseminated oligodendroglial-like leptomeningeal neoplasm...
May 25, 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29802358/ido-expression-in-breast-cancer-an-assessment-of-281-primary-and-metastatic-cases-with-comparison-to-pd-l1
#9
Erik A Dill, Patrick M Dillon, Timothy N Bullock, Anne M Mills
The immune inhibitory enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) has been associated with immune evasion in numerous malignancies and may mark these cancers as susceptible to anti-IDO therapies. We herein address IDO expression in breast cancers, examine the relationship between IDO and PD-L1, and investigate IDO fidelity across breast cancer primaries and metastases. IDO and PD-L1 expression was assessed in tissue microarrays containing 242 invasive primary breast cancers, 20 nodal metastases, and 19 distant metastases...
May 25, 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29795438/number-not-size-of-mesenteric-tumor-deposits-affects-prognosis-of-small-intestinal-well-differentiated-neuroendocrine-tumors
#10
Raul S Gonzalez, Justin M M Cates, Chanjuan Shi
Mesenteric tumor deposits are an adverse prognostic factor for small intestinal well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors. Per the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Cancer Staging Manual (eighth edition), any mesenteric tumor deposit larger than 2 cm signifies pN2 disease. This criterion has not been critically evaluated as a prognostic factor for small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors, nor have multifocality or histologic features of mesenteric tumor deposits. We evaluated 70 small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors with mesenteric tumor deposits for lesional contour, sclerosis, inflammation, calcification, entrapped blood vessels, and perineural invasion...
May 24, 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29795437/nuclear-%C3%AE-catenin-localization-and-mutation-of-the-ctnnb1-gene-a-context-dependent-association
#11
Grace Kim, Katherine C Kurnit, Bojana Djordjevic, Charanjeet Singh, Mark F Munsell, Wei-Lien Wang, Alexander J Lazar, Wei Zhang, Russell Broaddus
Although the majority of low-grade, early-stage endometrial cancer patients have good survival with surgery alone, patients who recur tend to do poorly. Identification of patients at high risk of recurrence who would benefit from adjuvant treatment or more extensive surgical staging would help optimize individualized care of endometrial cancer patients. CTNNB1 (encodes β-catenin) mutations identify a subset of low-grade, early-stage endometrial cancer patients at high risk of recurrence. Mutation of CTNNB1 exon 3 is classically associated with translocation of the β-catenin protein from the membrane to the nucleus and activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling...
May 24, 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789650/use-of-dna-flow-cytometry-in-the-diagnosis-risk-stratification-and-management-of-gastric-epithelial-dysplasia
#12
Kwun Wah Wen, Peter S Rabinovitch, Danning Huang, Aras N Mattis, Gregory Y Lauwers, Won-Tak Choi
The natural history of gastric epithelial dysplasia and the consequential surveillance strategies are not well defined in the West. To date, the diagnosis relies on morphology, and no reliable adjunct methods, either immunohistochemical or molecular, have reproducibly been able to confirm the diagnosis and/or risk stratify gastric epithelial dysplasia. Yet, such a tool would be useful in confirming the diagnosis, and developing objective and rational surveillance guidelines. DNA flow cytometry was performed using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded gastric tissue from 23 cases of high-grade dysplasia and 38 cases of low-grade dysplasia...
May 22, 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789649/superficially-serrated-adenoma-a-proposal-for-a-novel-subtype-of-colorectal-serrated-lesion
#13
Taiki Hashimoto, Yusaku Tanaka, Reiko Ogawa, Taisuke Mori, Hiroshi Yoshida, Hirokazu Taniguchi, Nobuyoshi Hiraoka, Motohiro Kojima, Yasuhiro Oono, Yutaka Saito, Shigeki Sekine
We describe a series of colorectal polyps characterized by mixed adenomatous and serrated features, herein referred to as superficially serrated adenomas. Twenty superficially serrated adenomas were obtained from 11 female and 9 male patients aged 62-87 years. Most lesions endoscopically appeared as small sessile polyps, but larger lesions were plaque-like (2-20 mm; median, 5 mm). Eighteen lesions (90%) were located in the sigmoid colon or rectum. They consisted primarily of straight, adenomatous glands but showed serration confined to the superficial layer...
May 22, 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789648/dalm-rest-in-peace-a-pathologist-s-perspective-on-dysplasia-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-in-the-post-dalm-era
#14
REVIEW
Kenrry Chiu, Robert H Riddell, David F Schaeffer
There are few abbreviations in surgical pathology that are associated with as much immediate recognition, frustration, and confusion as DALM (dysplasia-associated lesion or mass). DALM is used to describe endoscopically visible dysplastic lesions in the surveillance of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. However, the diagnosis of DALM has been complicated by the inconsistent criteria and use of terminology for describing dysplasia in inflammatory bowel disease, and a tendency to relate DALM with the need for colectomy...
May 22, 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785021/advanced-septa-size-quantitation-determines-the-evaluation-of-histological-fibrosis-outcome-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-patients
#15
Bingqiong Wang, Yameng Sun, Jialing Zhou, Xiaoning Wu, Shuyan Chen, Shanshan Wu, Hui Liu, Tailing Wang, Xiaojuan Ou, Jidong Jia, Hong You
Hepatitis B (HBV)-related fibrosis can be reversed after effective antiviral therapy. However, detailed changes of collagen characteristics during fibrosis regression remain unclear. Paired biopsy samples obtained from chronic hepatitis B patients were imaged with second harmonic generation/two photon excitation fluorescence (SHG/TPEF)-based microscopy to identify and quantify collagen features in portal, septal, and fibrillar areas. According to the changes of Ishak stage and qFibrosis score, a total of 117 patients with paired liver biopsy appeared to have four different outcomes after 78-week antiviral therapy: fast reverse (9%), reverse (63%), stable (15%), or progress (13%) on fibrosis...
May 21, 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785020/glypican-1-immunohistochemistry-does-not-separate-mesothelioma-from-pulmonary-adenocarcinoma
#16
Kenrry Chiu, Lawrence Lee, Simon Cheung, Andrew M Churg
Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is used to help differentiate pleural mesothelioma from pulmonary adenocarcinoma in pleural biopsies and cytology specimens of pleural effusions due to overlapping morphologic features between these two malignancies. The aim of this study is to evaluate IHC glypican-1, a recently proposed marker for epithelioid mesothelioma, in our cohort of mesotheliomas and pulmonary adenocarcinoma. Tissue microarrays with duplicate cores from 33 cases of mesotheliomas (28 epithelioid type and five sarcomatoid type) and 21 cases of pulmonary adenocarcinoma were stained with glypican-1 antibody...
May 21, 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785019/cribriform-morular-variant-of-thyroid-carcinoma-a-neoplasm-with-distinctive-phenotype-associated-with-the-activation-of-the-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway
#17
REVIEW
José Manuel Cameselle-Teijeiro, Diego Peteiro-González, Javier Caneiro-Gómez, María Sánchez-Ares, Ihab Abdulkader, Catarina Eloy, Miguel Melo, Isabel Amendoeira, Paula Soares, Manuel Sobrinho-Simões
Cribriform-morular variant of thyroid carcinoma is classically associated with familial adenomatous polyposis but, it can also occur as a sporadic neoplasm. This neoplasm is much more frequently observed in women than in men (ratio of 61:1). In familial adenomatous polyposis patients, tumors are generally multifocal and/or bilateral (multinodular appearance), whereas in the sporadic cases tumors tend to occur as single nodules. The tumors are well delimited, and characteristically show a blending of follicular, cribriform, papillary, trabecular, solid, and morular patterns...
May 21, 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785018/pulmonary-adenocarcinoma-with-high-grade-fetal-adenocarcinoma-component-has-a-poor-prognosis-comparable-to-that-of-micropapillary-adenocarcinoma
#18
Masaki Suzuki, Yukio Nakatani, Hiroyuki Ito, Hiroto Narimatsu, Kozo Yamada, Emi Yoshioka, Kota Washimi, Yoichiro Okubo, Kae Kawachi, Yohei Miyagi, Tomoyuki Yokose
Fetal adenocarcinoma is a rare variant of lung adenocarcinoma, which is subcategorized into low-grade and high-grade forms. High-grade fetal adenocarcinoma confers worse prognosis than low-grade fetal adenocarcinoma, but the prognostic differences between high-grade fetal adenocarcinoma and conventional lung adenocarcinoma are unknown. We reviewed tissue sections of 3719 cases of surgically resected primary lung cancers and found 53 lung cancers with a high-grade fetal adenocarcinoma component. We analyzed their clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features, and performed a prognostic analysis of adenocarcinomas with the fetal-type component...
May 21, 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785017/myc-bcl2-bcl6-triple-hit-lymphoma-a-study-of-40-patients-with-a-comparison-to-myc-bcl2-and-myc-bcl6-double-hit-lymphomas
#19
Wenting Huang, L Jeffrey Medeiros, Pei Lin, Wei Wang, Guilin Tang, Joseph Khoury, Sergej Konoplev, C Cameron Yin, Jie Xu, Yasuhiro Oki, Shaoying Li
High-grade B-cell lymphomas with MYC, BCL2, and BCL6 rearrangements (triple hit lymphoma) are uncommon. We studied the clinicopathologic features of 40 patients with triple hit lymphoma and compared them to 157 patients with MYC/BCL2 double hit lymphoma and 13 patients with MYC/BCL6 double hit lymphoma. The triple hit lymphoma group included 25 men and 15 women with a median age of 61 years (range, 34-85). Nine patients had a history of B-cell lymphoma. Histologically, 23 (58%) cases were diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and 17 cases had features of B-cell lymphoma, unclassifiable, with features intermediate between diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and Burkitt lymphoma...
May 21, 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785016/solid-papillary-carcinoma-with-reverse-polarity-of-the-breast-harbors-specific-morphologic-immunohistochemical-and-molecular-profile-in-comparison-with-other-benign-or-malignant-papillary-lesions-of-the-breast-a-comparative-study-of-9-additional-cases
#20
Nadjla Alsadoun, Gaëtan MacGrogan, Caroline Truntzer, Magali Lacroix-Triki, Isabelle Bedgedjian, Marie-Hélène Koeb, Elsy El Alam, Dan Medioni, Michel Parent, Pascal Wuithier, Isabelle Robert, Romain Boidot, Laurent Arnould
Solid papillary carcinoma with reverse polarity is a rare breast cancer of favorable prognosis that can be difficult to diagnose. We report here nine additional cases of this tumor, and we describe its morphologic, immunohistochemical and molecular profile in comparison to other types of papillary and micropapillary lesions of the breast that are intraductal papilloma with usual ductal hyperplasia, encapsulated papillary carcinoma, solid papillary carcinoma and invasive micropapillary carcinoma. We studied nine cases of this special papillary tumor and six of each other types mentioned above...
May 21, 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
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