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Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30467323/pancreatic-cancer-arising-in-the-remnant-pancreas-is-not-always-a-relapse-of-the-preceding-primary
#1
Claudio Luchini, Antonio Pea, Jun Yu, Jin He, Roberto Salvia, Giulio Riva, Matthew J Weiss, Claudio Bassi, John L Cameron, Ralph H Hruban, Michael Goggins, Christopher L Wolfgang, Aldo Scarpa, Laura D Wood, Rita T Lawlor
This study aimed to understand the biology of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma that arises in the remnant pancreas after surgical resection of a primary pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, using integrated histological and molecular analysis. Patients who underwent a completion pancreatectomy for local recurrence following resection of a primary pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma were studied with histological analysis and next-generation sequencing of the primary and the recurrent cancer. Of six patients that met the inclusion criteria, three cases were classified as "true" recurrences, i...
November 22, 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30459475/diagnosis-of-known-sarcoma-fusions-and-novel-fusion-partners-by-targeted-rna-sequencing-with-identification-of-a-recurrent-actb-fosb-fusion-in-pseudomyogenic-hemangioendothelioma
#2
Guo Zhu, Ryma Benayed, Caleb Ho, Kerry Mullaney, Purvil Sukhadia, Kelly Rios, Ryan Berry, Brian P Rubin, Khedoudja Nafa, Lu Wang, David S Klimstra, Marc Ladanyi, Meera R Hameed
Integration of morphological, immunohistochemical, and molecular methods is often necessary for the precise diagnosis and optimal clinical management of sarcomas. We have validated and implemented a clinical molecular diagnostic assay, MSK- Fusion Solid, for detection of gene fusions in solid tumors, including sarcomas. Starting with RNA extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor material, this targeted RNA sequencing assay utilizes anchored multiplex PCR to detect oncogenic fusion transcripts involving 62 genes known to be recurrently rearranged in solid tumors including sarcomas without prior knowledge of fusion partners...
November 21, 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30459450/comparison-of-the-genomic-background-of-met-altered-carcinomas-of-the-lung-biological-differences-and-analogies
#3
Roberta Castiglione, Christina Alidousty, Barbara Holz, Svenja Wagener, Till Baar, Carina Heydt, Elke Binot, Susann Zupp, Anna Kron, Jürgen Wolf, Sabine Merkelbach-Bruse, Hans Christian Reinhardt, Reinhard Buettner, Anne Maria Schultheis
Although non-small-cell lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths, the molecular characterization and classification of its genetic alterations has drastically changed treatment options and overall survival within the last few decades. In particular, tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting specific molecular alterations, among other MET, have greatly improved the prognosis of non-small-cell lung cancer patients. Here, we compare the genomic background of a subset of non-small-cell lung cancer cases harboring either a MET high-level amplification (n = 24) or a MET exon 14 skipping mutation (n = 26), using next-generatison sequencing, fluorescence in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, and Nanostring nCounter® technology...
November 20, 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30455417/clinicopathologic-and-genetic-characteristics-of-interval-colorectal-carcinomas-favor-origin-from-missed-or-incompletely-excised-precursors
#4
Thing Rinda Soong, Jennifer Nayor, Matthew D Stachler, Molly Perencevich, Kunal Jajoo, John R Saltzman, Neal I Lindeman, Amitabh Srivastava
Interval colorectal cancers may arise from missed or incompletely excised precursors or from a unique rapid progression pathway. We compared the clinicopathologic and molecular profiles of interval and matched non-interval colorectal cancer to determine whether interval colorectal cancers harbor any unique genetic characteristics. Fifty one of 982 colorectal cancer (5.2%) were categorized as interval colorectal cancer, defined as colorectal cancer detected in a diagnostic examination prior to the next recommended colonoscopy and at least 1 year after the last colonoscopy...
November 19, 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30443013/keratin-17-is-a-sensitive-and-specific-biomarker-of-urothelial-neoplasia
#5
Sruthi Babu, Daniel C Mockler, Lucia Roa-Peña, Agnieszka Szygalowicz, Nam W Kim, Sholeh Jahanfard, Shahram S Gholami, Richard Moffitt, John P Fitzgerald, Luisa F Escobar-Hoyos, Kenneth R Shroyer
There is a clinical need to identify novel biomarkers to improve diagnostic accuracy for the detection of urothelial tumors. The current study aimed to evaluate keratin 17 (K17), an oncoprotein that drives cell cycle progression in cancers of multiple anatomic sites, as a diagnostic biomarker of urothelial neoplasia in bladder biopsies and in urine cytology specimens. We evaluated K17 expression by immunohistochemistry in formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded tissue specimens of non-papillary invasive urothelial carcinoma (UC) (classical histological cases), high grade papillary UC (PUC-LG), low grade papillary UC (PUC-HG), papillary urothelial neoplasia of low malignant potential (PUNLMP), and normal bladder mucosa...
November 15, 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30443012/minimal-microsatellite-shift-in-microsatellite-instability-high-endometrial-cancer-a-significant-pitfall-in-diagnostic-interpretation
#6
Xinyu Wu, Olivia Snir, Douglas Rottmann, Serena Wong, Natalia Buza, Pei Hui
Mismatch-repair deficiency testing plays a critical role in the identification of proband in Lynch Syndrome families and triaging patients with high stage or recurrent solid malignancies for check point inhibitor (Pembrolizumab) immunotherapy. We compared microsatellite shift patterns of microsatellite instability PCR analysis at 5 NCI recommended loci between microsatellite instability high endometrial carcinoma (n = 50) and microsatellite instability high colorectal cancer (n = 19). The endometrial cancer cohort included 45 endometrioid, 1 serous, and 4 clear cell carcinomas...
November 15, 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30429518/legumain-is-an-independent-predictor-for-invasive-recurrence-in-breast-ductal-carcinoma-in-situ
#7
Michael S Toss, Islam M Miligy, Kylie L Gorringe, L McCaffrey, Abdulbaqi AlKawaz, Asima Abidi, Ian O Ellis, Andrew R Green, Emad A Rakha
Legumain is a proteolytic enzyme that plays a role in the regulation of cell proliferation in invasive breast cancer. Studies evaluating its role in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) are lacking. Here, we aimed to characterize legumain protein expression in DCIS and evaluate its prognostic significance. Legumain was assessed immunohistochemically in a tissue microarray of a well-characterized cohort of DCIS (n = 776 pure DCIS and n = 239 DCIS associated with invasive breast cancer (DCIS-mixed)). Legumain immunoreactivity was scored in tumor cells and surrounding stroma and related to clinicopathological parameters and patient outcome...
November 14, 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30425335/rhoa-mutations-and-cldn18-arhgap-fusions-in-intestinal-type-adenocarcinoma-with-anastomosing-glands-of-the-stomach
#8
Taiki Hashimoto, Reiko Ogawa, Tzu-Yin Tang, Hiroshi Yoshida, Hirokazu Taniguchi, Hitoshi Katai, Ichiro Oda, Shigeki Sekine
A subtype of intestinal-type adenocarcinoma of the stomach, characterized by low-grade cytological atypia and anastomosing glands, has been described in several reports under different names. One of the remarkable features of these lesions, herein referred to as intestinal-type adenocarcinoma with anastomosing glands, is the frequent association of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma components. Here we analyzed 44 intestinal-type adenocarcinomas with anastomosing glands focusing on the molecular abnormalities that are common in diffuse-type gastric cancers...
November 13, 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30425334/amphiregulin-in-intestinal-acute-graft-versus-host-disease-a-possible-diagnostic-and-prognostic-aid
#9
Khalid Amin, Usman Yaqoob, Brittney Schultz, Byron P Vaughn, Alexander Khoruts, Justin R Howard, Todd E DeFor, Colleen Forster, Carolyn Meyer, Isha Gandhi, Daniel J Weisdorf, Armin Rashidi, Margaret L MacMillan, Bruce R Blazar, Angela Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Shernan G Holtan
Amphiregulin, a weak epidermal growth factor receptor agonist, is elevated, while epidermal growth factor, a strong epidermal growth factor receptor agonist, is low in the blood of patients with severe acute graft-versus-host disease. However, the tissue expression and function of these epidermal growth factor receptor ligands in acute graft-versus-host disease target organs is unknown. We compared by immunohistochemistry expression of amphiregulin and epidermal growth factor in archived, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded intestinal tissues of 48 patients with biopsy-proven gastrointestinal acute graft-versus-host disease to 3 groups: (1) 10 non-hematopoietic cell transplant normal controls, (2) 11 patients with newly diagnosed ulcerative colitis (ulcerative colitis), (3) 8 patients with a clinical diagnosis of acute graft-versus-host disease despite pathologically non-diagnostic biopsies, (4) and 10 cases of cytomegalovirus colitis...
November 13, 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30420727/amplification-of-dna-damage-inducible-transcript-3-ddit3-is-associated-with-myxoid-liposarcoma-like-morphology-and-homologous-lipoblastic-differentiation-in-dedifferentiated-liposarcoma
#10
Jose G Mantilla, Robert W Ricciotti, Eleanor Y Chen, Yajuan J Liu, Benjamin L Hoch
Dedifferentiated liposarcoma is defined as progression of atypical lipomatous tumor/well-differentiated liposarcoma to a higher grade usually non-lipogenic sarcoma, with amplification of 12q13-15. This region contains several genes involved in liposarcoma pathogenesis, including MDM2, CDK4, and DDIT3. While the former two are thought of as the main drivers in dedifferentiated liposarcoma, DDIT3 is typically rearranged in myxoid liposarcoma. Overexpression of DDIT3, along with MDM2 and CDK4, may contribute to the pathogenesis of dedifferentiated liposarcoma by interfering with adipocytic differentiation...
November 12, 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30401949/t-cell-inflamed-phenotype-and-increased-foxp3-expression-in-infiltrating-t-cells-of-mismatch-repair-deficient-endometrial-cancers
#11
Shiho Asaka, Ting-Tai Yen, Tian-Li Wang, Ie-Ming Shih, Stephanie Gaillard
Mismatch repair-deficient endometrial cancers have a high somatic mutation burden, suggesting that patients with these tumors may benefit from immunotherapy. Elucidating the immune suppressive mechanisms of mismatch repair-deficient endometrial cancers is fundamental to developing future immune-based interventions. This study aimed to determine the immune cell populations associated with mismatch repair-deficient endometrial cancers, especially focusing on targetable regulatory pathways of the immune response...
November 6, 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30401948/hematopoietic-neoplasms-with-9p24-jak2-rearrangement-a-multicenter-study
#12
Guilin Tang, John Kennedy Sydney Sir Philip, Olga Weinberg, Wayne Tam, Sam Sadigh, Jonathan I Lake, Elizabeth M Margolskee, Heesun J Rogers, Roberto N Miranda, Carlos Bueso-Ramos C, Eric D Hsi, Attilio Orazi, Robert P Hasserjian, Daniel A Arber, Adam Bagg, Sa A Wang
The purpose of this study is to examine hematopoietic neoplasms with 9p24/JAK2 rearrangement including neoplasms associated with t(8;9)(p22;p24)/PCM1-JAK2 fusion neoplasm as well as cases with translocations involving 9p24/JAK2 and other partner genes. From seven large medical centers, we identified ten patients with t(8;9)(p22;p24) /PCM1-JAK2 and 3 with t(9p24;v)/JAK2 at diagnosis. Majority of the cases showed myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) associated features (n = 7) characterized by variable degrees of eosinophilia, myelofibrosis, frequent proliferations of early erythroblasts in bone marrow and extramedullary sites, and infrequent/absent somatic mutations...
November 6, 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30401947/programmed-death-ligand-1-expression-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-in-a-western-australian-population-and-correlation-with-clinicopathologic-features
#13
Linda Ye, Connull Leslie, Angela Jacques, Nima Mesbah Ardakani, Benhur Amanuel, Michael Millward
Immune checkpoint inhibition is an important therapeutic option in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) expression may serve as a predictive marker for anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapies. The relationship between non-small cell lung cancer PD-L1 expression and clinicopathological characteristics remains unclear and there is no population level Australian data. We report the results of PD-L1 testing in patients with non-small cell lung cancer diagnosed at major Western Australian public hospitals served by a single state Pathology provider...
November 6, 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30401946/revisiting-the-role-of-the-pathological-grading-in-pediatric-adrenal-cortical-tumors-results-from-a-national-cohort-study-with-pathological-review
#14
Cécile Picard, Daniel Orbach, Matthieu Carton, Laurence Brugieres, Karine Renaudin, Sébastien Aubert, Dominique Berrebi, Louise Galmiche, Fanny Dujardin, Pierre Leblond, Cécile Thomas-Teinturier, Frédérique Dijoud
The prognosis of malignant pediatric adrenocortical tumors is closely related to disease stage, which is used to guide perioperative treatment recommendations. However, current scoring systems are inadequate to distinguish between benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors. Robust microscopic prognostic features that could help determine perioperative therapy are also lacking. The aim of this national study was to review the prognostic value of the Wieneke scoring criteria and Ki67 labeling index in unselected pediatric adrenocortical tumors...
November 6, 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30401945/a-pattern-based-approach-to-the-interpretation-of-skeletal-muscle-biopsies
#15
REVIEW
Chunyu Cai, Douglas C Anthony, Peter Pytel
The interpretation of muscle biopsies is complex and provides the most useful information when integrated with the clinical presentation of the patient. These biopsies are performed for workup of a wide range of diseases including dystrophies, metabolic diseases, and inflammatory processes. Recent insights have led to changes in the classification of inflammatory myopathies and have changed the role that muscle biopsies have in the workup of inherited diseases. These changes will be reviewed. This review follows a morphology-driven approach by discussing diseases of skeletal muscle based on a few basic patterns that include cases with (1) active myopathic damage and inflammation, (2) active myopathic damage without associated inflammation, (3) chronic myopathic changes, (4) myopathies with distinctive inclusions or vacuoles, (5) biopsies mainly showing atrophic changes, and (6) biopsies that appear normal on routine preparations...
November 6, 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30397260/the-vanderbilt-staging-system-for-retroperitoneal-sarcoma-a-validation-study-of-6857-patients-from-the-national-cancer-database
#16
Benjamin D Huggett, Justin M M Cates
The Vanderbilt staging system for retroperitoneal sarcoma incorporates information regarding the histologic subtype of sarcoma and outperforms the 7th and 8th editions of the AJCC staging systems by several different statistical criteria. The current study was performed using an independent patient cohort from the National Cancer Database (n = 6857) to validate this proposed staging system. Each staging system was assessed for degree of discrimination by pairwise comparisons of adjacent stage categories...
November 5, 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30390035/gata3-immunoreactivity-expands-the-transcription-factor-profile-of-pituitary-neuroendocrine-tumors
#17
Ozgur Mete, Mehmet Kefeli, Sultan Çalışkan, Sylvia L Asa
The modern classification of pituitary neuroendocrine tumors relies mainly on immunohistochemistry for pituitary transcription factors, hormones, and other biomarkers, including low molecular weight cytokeratins. The transcription factor GATA2 is required for development of gonadotrophs and thyrotrophs but has not been used for classification of pituitary tumors. Because of genomic paralogy of GATA2 and GATA3, we postulated that GATA3 immunohistochemistry may detect GATA2 in the adenohypophysis. We examined 151 tumors originating from Ondokuz Mayis University, Turkey (n = 83) and University Health Network, Canada (n = 68)...
November 2, 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30367104/differential-expression-of-pd-l1-and-ido1-in-association-with-the-immune-microenvironment-in-resected-lung-adenocarcinomas
#18
M Lisa Zhang, Marina Kem, Meghan J Mooradian, Jean-Pierre Eliane, Tiffany G Huynh, A John Iafrate, Justin F Gainor, Mari Mino-Kenudson
Like programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1), indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) is known to exert immunosuppressive effects and be variably expressed in human lung cancer. However, IDO1 expression has not been well studied in lung adenocarcinoma. PD-L1 and IDO1 expression was evaluated in 261 resected lung adenocarcinomas using tissue microarrays and H-scores (cutoff: 5). We compared IDO1 and PD-L1 expression with clinical features, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, HLA class I molecule expression, molecular alterations, and patient outcomes...
October 26, 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30349028/diagnostic-accuracy-of-a-panel-of-immunohistochemical-and-molecular-markers-to-distinguish-merkel-cell-carcinoma-from-other-neuroendocrine-carcinomas
#19
Thibault Kervarrec, Anne Tallet, Elodie Miquelestorena-Standley, Roland Houben, David Schrama, Thilo Gambichler, Patricia Berthon, Yannick Le Corre, Ewa Hainaut-Wierzbicka, Francois Aubin, Guido Bens, Flore Tabareau-Delalande, Nathalie Beneton, Gaëlle Fromont, Flavie Arbion, Emmanuelle Leteurtre, Antoine Touzé, Mahtab Samimi, Serge Guyétant
Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin mostly induced by Merkel cell polyomavirus integration. Cytokeratin 20 (CK20) positivity is currently used to distinguish Merkel cell carcinomas from other neuroendocrine carcinomas. However, this distinction may be challenging in CK20-negative cases and in cases without a primary skin tumor. The objectives of this study were first to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of previously described markers for the diagnosis of Merkel cell carcinoma and second to validate these markers in the setting of difficult-to-diagnose Merkel cell carcinoma variants...
October 22, 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30349027/large-cribriform-growth-pattern-identifies-isup-grade-2-prostate-cancer-at-high-risk-for-recurrence-and-metastasis
#20
Eva Hollemans, Esther I Verhoef, Chris H Bangma, John Rietbergen, Jozien Helleman, Monique J Roobol, Geert J L H van Leenders
Invasive cribriform and intraductal carcinoma are associated with adverse clinical outcome in patients with Gleason score 7 prostate cancer. It is yet unclear whether invasive cribriform and intraductal carcinoma of the prostate both have independent prognostic value, or whether field size of invasive cribriform carcinoma has impact on disease outcome. Our objective was to determine the prognostic impact of intraductal and invasive cribriform prostate cancer histological subtypes in radical prostatectomies...
October 22, 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
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