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Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186096/spitz-nevi-and-spitzoid-melanomas-exome-sequencing-and-comparison-with-conventional-melanocytic-nevi-and-melanomas
#1
Rossitza Lazova, Natapol Pornputtapong, Ruth Halaban, Marcus Bosenberg, Yalai Bai, Hao Chai, Michael Krauthammer
We performed exome sequencing of 77 melanocytic specimens composed of Spitz nevi (n=29), Spitzoid melanomas (n=27), and benign melanocytic nevi (n=21), and compared the results with published melanoma sequencing data. Our study highlights the prominent similarity between Spitzoid and conventional melanomas with similar copy number changes and high and equal numbers of ultraviolet-induced coding mutations affecting similar driver genes. Mutations in MEN1, PRKAR1A, and DNMT3A in Spitzoid melanomas may indicate involvement of the protein kinase A pathway, or a role of DNA methylation in the disease...
February 10, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128277/primary-cutaneous-aggressive-epidermotropic-cytotoxic-t-cell-lymphomas-reappraisal-of-a-provisional-entity-in-the-2016-who-classification-of-cutaneous-lymphomas
#2
Joan Guitart, M Estela Martinez-Escala, Antonio Subtil, Madeleine Duvic, Melissa P Pulitzer, Elise A Olsen, Ellen Kim, Alain H Rook, Sara S Samimi, Gary S Wood, Michael Girardi, Jacqueline Junkins-Hopkins, Doina S Ivan, M Angelica Selim, Kimberly A Sable, Pooja Virmani, Laura B Pincus, Michael T Tetzlaff, Jinah Kim, Youn H Kim
Primary cutaneous CD8-positive aggressive epidermotropic T-cell lymphoma is a rare and poorly characterized variant of cutaneous lymphoma still considered a provisional entity in the latest 2016 World Health Organization Classification of Cutaneous lymphomas. We sought to better characterize and provide diagnostic and therapeutic guidance of this rare cutaneous lymphoma. Thirty-four patients with a median age of 77 years (range 19-89 years) presented primarily with extensive annular necrotic plaques or tumor lesions with frequent mucous membrane involvement...
January 27, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128276/muc4-a-novel-immunohistochemical-marker-identified-by-gene-expression-profiling-differentiates-pleural-sarcomatoid-mesothelioma-from-lung-sarcomatoid-carcinoma
#3
Vishwa Jeet Amatya, Kei Kushitani, Amany Sayed Mawas, Yoshihiro Miyata, Morihito Okada, Takumi Kishimoto, Kouki Inai, Yukio Takeshima
Sarcomatoid mesothelioma, a histological subtype of malignant pleural mesothelioma, is a very aggressive tumor with a poor prognosis. Histological diagnosis of sarcomatoid mesothelioma largely depends on the histomorphological feature of spindled tumor cells with immunohistochemical reactivity to cytokeratins. Diagnosis also requires clinico-radiological and/or macroscopic evidence of an extrapulmonary location to differentiate it from lung sarcomatoid carcinoma. Although there are promising immunohistochemical antibody panels to differentiate mesothelioma from lung carcinoma, a consensus on the immunohistochemical markers that distinguish sarcomatoid mesothelioma from lung sarcomatoid carcinoma has not been reached and requires further study...
January 27, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106106/serous-tubal-intraepithelial-neoplasia-the-concept-and-its-application
#4
REVIEW
Emily E K Meserve, Jan Brouwer, Christopher P Crum
In recent years it has become clear that many extra-uterine (pelvic) high-grade serous carcinomas (serous carcinomas) are preceded by a precursor lesion in the distal fallopian tube. Precursors range from small self-limited 'p53 signatures' to expansile serous tubal intraepithelial neoplasms that include both serous tubal epithelial proliferations (or lesions) of uncertain significance and serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas. These precursors can be considered from three perspectives. The first is biologic underpinnings, which are multifactorial, and include the intersection of DNA damage with Tp53 mutations and disturbances in transcriptional regulation that increase with age...
January 20, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106105/autoimmune-hepatitis-review-of-histologic-features-included-in-the-simplified-criteria-proposed-by-the-international-autoimmune-hepatitis-group-and-proposal-for-new-histologic-criteria
#5
Dana Balitzer, Nafis Shafizadeh, Marion G Peters, Linda D Ferrell, Najeeb Alshak, Sanjay Kakar
Simplified criteria for diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis are based on autoantibodies, serum immunoglobulin G, histologic features, and negative viral serology. A score of 6 points is necessary for the designation of probable autoimmune hepatitis and 7 points or more for definite autoimmune hepatitis. The presence of three histologic features is required for categorizing a case as typical (2 points): interface hepatitis with portal lymphocytic/lymphoplasmacytic cells extending into lobule, emperipolesis, and rosettes...
January 20, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106104/high-aldh1-expression-correlates-with-better-prognosis-in-tumorigenic-malignant-melanoma
#6
Laura A Taylor, Ronnie M Abraham, Emin Tahirovic, Patricia van Belle, Bin Li, Linfang Huang, David E Elder, Phyllis Gimotty, Xiaowei Xu
Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) has been proposed as biomarker of stem cells for certain human cancers. ALDH1 expression has been correlated with poor patient outcomes in a variety of malignancies but better patient outcomes in others, and its prognostic significance in malignant melanoma is unclear. Thus, 68 melanoma patients with comprehensive clinical and pathologic follow-up data were used to construct a tissue microarray. A modified histological score (H-score) with a maximum score of 300 was used to quantify immunohistochemical staining for ALDH1...
January 20, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106103/sox2-and-rb1-in-esophageal-small-cell-carcinoma-their-possible-involvement-in-pathogenesis
#7
Hirotaka Ishida, Atsuko Kasajima, Takashi Kamei, Tsuyoshi Miura, Naomi Oka, Samaneh Yazdani, Yohei Ozawa, Fumiyoshi Fujishima, Akira Sakurada, Yasuhiro Nakamura, Yoichi Tanaka, Masafumi Kurosumi, Yuichi Ishikawa, Yoshinori Okada, Noriaki Ohuchi, Hironobu Sasano
Clinicopathological features and pathogenesis of esophageal small-cell carcinoma remain unclear. We hypothesized common cellular origin and pathogenesis in small-cell carcinoma of esophagus and lung associated with SOX2 overexpression and loss of Rb1. Expression of squamous-basal markers (CK5/6 and p40), glandular markers (CK18 and CEA), SOX2, and Rb1 were evaluated in 15 esophageal small-cell carcinomas, 46 poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinomas, and 88 small-cell lung carcinoma, as well as 16 embryonic esophagus...
January 20, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084345/synaptophysin-ki67-double-stain-a-novel-technique-that-improves-interobserver-agreement-in-the-grading-of-well-differentiated-gastrointestinal-neuroendocrine-tumors
#8
Karen Matsukuma, Kristin A Olson, Dorina Gui, Regina Gandour-Edwards, Yueju Li, Laurel Beckett
A common problem in the assessment of Ki67 proliferative index in well-differentiated gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors is distinguishing tumor from non-tumor. This is because background stromal lymphocytes, entrapped non-neoplastic glands, and the delicate vascular network characteristic of neuroendocrine tumors frequently contain a subset of proliferating cells. Furthermore, in small biopsies, crush and cautery artifact can alter the morphologic appearance of tumor cells, making the Ki67 proliferative index more difficult to assess...
January 13, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084344/mcm2-an-alternative-to-ki-67-for-measuring-breast-cancer-cell-proliferation
#9
Einas M Yousef, Daniela Furrer, David L Laperriere, Muhammad R Tahir, Sylvie Mader, Caroline Diorio, Louis A Gaboury
Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease comprising a diversity of tumor subtypes that manifest themselves in a wide variety of clinical, pathological, and molecular features. One important subset, luminal breast cancers, comprises two clinically distinct subtypes luminal A and B each of them endowed with its own genetic program of differentiation and proliferation. Luminal breast cancers were operationally defined as follows: Luminal A: ER+, PR+, HER2-, Ki-67<14% and Luminal B: ER+ and/or PR+, HER2-,Ki-67≥14% or, alternatively ER+ and/or PR+, HER2+, any Ki-67...
January 13, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084343/recurrent-gnaq-mutations-in-anastomosing-hemangiomas
#10
Gregory R Bean, Nancy M Joseph, Ryan M Gill, Andrew L Folpe, Andrew E Horvai, Sarah E Umetsu
Anastomosing hemangiomas are recently described benign vascular lesions that occur chiefly in the genitourinary tract and paravertebral soft tissues. Owing to their rarity and unusual cytoarchitectural features, anastomosing hemangiomas are frequently confused with low-grade angiosarcomas. The specific genetic alterations underlying these lesions are currently unknown. We performed capture-based next-generation DNA sequencing analysis on 13 anastomosing hemangiomas and identified frequent somatic mutations in the heterotrimeric G-protein alpha-subunit, GNAQ...
January 13, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084342/concurrent-fine-needle-aspirations-and-core-needle-biopsies-a-comparative-study-of-substrates-for-next-generation-sequencing-in-solid-organ-malignancies
#11
Sinchita Roy-Chowdhuri, Hui Chen, Rajesh R Singh, Savitri Krishnamurthy, Keyur P Patel, Mark J Routbort, Jawad Manekia, Bedia A Barkoh, Hui Yao, Sharjeel Sabir, Russell R Broaddus, L Jeffrey Medeiros, Gregg Staerkel, John Stewart, Rajyalakshmi Luthra
Minimally invasive procedures, such as fine needle aspiration and core needle biopsy, are commonly used for the diagnosis in solid organ malignancies. In the era of targeted therapy, it is crucial for molecular testing to be performed on these limited volume specimens. Although several recent studies have demonstrated the utility of small biopsy specimens for molecular testing, there remains debate as to whether core needle biopsy specimens are more reliable than fine needle aspiration for molecular studies...
January 13, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084340/claudin-4-expression-distinguishes-swi-snf-complex-deficient-undifferentiated-carcinomas-from-sarcomas
#12
Inga-Marie Schaefer, Abbas Agaimy, Christopher Dm Fletcher, Jason L Hornick
Inactivation of SWI/SNF (switch/sucrose non-fermentable) chromatin remodeling complex subunits is a feature shared by select carcinomas and sarcomas with epithelioid morphology and variable keratin expression, making the distinction between carcinoma and sarcoma challenging in some cases. The tight junction-associated protein claudin-4 is a marker of epithelial differentiation that is expressed in nearly all carcinomas. Claudin-4 expression has been reported in the glandular component of biphasic synovial sarcoma but has not been systematically evaluated in other sarcoma types...
January 13, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084339/recurrent-idh2-r172x-mutations-in-sinonasal-undifferentiated-carcinoma
#13
Vickie Y Jo, Nicole G Chau, Jason L Hornick, Jeffrey F Krane, Lynette M Sholl
Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma is a rare and aggressive malignancy. Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma has long been considered a diagnosis of exclusion; to date, the molecular pathogenetic basis for sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma is unknown. To identify potential oncogenic drivers in sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma, targeted next-generation sequencing of 300 cancer-related genes was performed on 11 cases of sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma. We identified IDH2 R172X mutations in 55% of sinonasal undifferentiated carcinomas including R172S, R172T, and R172M...
January 13, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084338/p-cadherin-a-useful-biomarker-for-axillary-based-breast-cancer-decisions-in-the-clinical-practice
#14
André Filipe Vieira, Maria Rita Dionísio, Madalena Gomes, Jorge F Cameselle-Teijeiro, Manuela Lacerda, Isabel Amendoeira, Fernando Schmitt, Joana Paredes
Axillary lymph node metastases represent the most powerful breast cancer prognostic factor, dictating disease staging and clinical therapeutic decisions. Nonetheless, breast cancer patients with positive lymph nodes still exhibit a heterogeneous behavior regarding disease progression. Stem-like subpopulations of cancer cells show high migratory and metastatic capacity, thus we hypothesize that breast cancer stem cell markers evaluation in metastasized lymph nodes could provide a more accurate prediction of patient's prognosis...
January 13, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084337/tumoral-pd-l1-expression-in-desmoplastic-melanoma-is-associated-with-depth-of-invasion-tumor-infiltrating-cd8-cytotoxic-lymphocytes-and-the-mixed-cytomorphological-variant
#15
Noah Frydenlund, Dominick Leone, Shi Yang, Mai P Hoang, April Deng, Marier Hernandez-Perez, Rajendra Singh, Asok Biswas, Ron Yaar, Meera Mahalingam
Recently, patients with metastatic desmoplastic melanoma (DM) have been shown to respond more favorably to anti-PD1/PD-L1 therapy than other melanoma subtypes. Given this, we evaluated PD-L1/2 expression in primary DM samples and correlated these with subtype, CD8+ lymphocyte status, histopathological prognosticators, and select genetic alterations. Eighty-six (36 mixed DM, 50 pure DM) archival annotated samples met inclusion criteria and were immunohistochemically semiquantitatively evaluated. Per established criteria, for PD-L1/L2, cases with ⩾5% tumoral expression, and for CD8, cases with a predominantly peri/intratumoral CD8+ infiltrate were scored positive...
January 13, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084336/giant-cell-tumor-of-soft-tissue-is-genetically-distinct-from-its-bone-counterpart
#16
Jen-Chieh Lee, Cher-Wei Liang, Christopher Dm Fletcher
Giant cell tumors of bone are locally aggressive bone neoplasms with a predilection for young adults. Histologically, they are composed of histiocytoid to spindled mononuclear cells, admixed with numerous large osteoclastic giant cells. Giant cell tumors of soft tissue are rare tumors that bear striking histological resemblance to giant cell tumors of bone and might be regarded as a soft tissue analog thereof. Point mutations of the H3F3A gene (coding for a histone H3.3 protein) at the Gly34 codon, mostly G34W resulting from a GGG>TGG nucleotide change, have recently been identified in a vast majority of giant cell tumors of bone...
January 13, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084335/hhv8-related-lymphoid-proliferations-a-broad-spectrum-of-lesions-from-reactive-lymphoid-hyperplasia-to-overt-lymphoma
#17
Blanca Gonzalez-Farre, Daniel Martinez, Monica Lopez-Guerra, Marc Xipell, Ester Monclus, Jordina Rovira, Felipe Garcia, Armando Lopez-Guillermo, Luis Colomo, Elias Campo, Antonio Martinez
Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8)-associated lymphoid proliferations are uncommon and poorly characterized disorders mainly affecting immunosuppressed patients, especially with HIV infection. They encompass different diseases with overlapping features that complicate their classification. In addition, the role of HHV8 in reactive lymphoid hyperplasia is not well known. To analyze the clinicopathological spectrum of these lesions, we have reviewed 66 biopsies of 61 patients with HHV8 infection. All cases were also investigated for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and HIV infection...
January 13, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084334/langerhans-cell-histiocytosis-associated-with-lymphoma-an-incidental-finding-that-is-not-associated-with-braf-or-map2k1-mutations
#18
Sergio Pina-Oviedo, L Jeffrey Medeiros, Shaoying Li, Joseph D Khoury, Keyur P Patel, Khaled Alayed, R Craig Cason, Christopher J Bowman, C Cameron Yin
Langerhans cell histiocytosis is characterized by a localized or systemic proliferation of Langerhans cells. BRAF mutations have been reported in 40-70% of cases and MAP2K1 mutations have been found in BRAF-negative cases, supporting that Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a true neoplasm, at least in mutated cases. In a small subset of patients, Langerhans cell histiocytosis is detected incidentally in a biopsy involved by lymphoma. These lesions are usually minute and rarely have been assessed for mutations...
January 13, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084333/male-breast-cancer-precursor-lesions-analysis-of-the-eortc-10085-tbcrc-big-nabcg-international-male-breast-cancer-program
#19
Shusma C Doebar, Leen Slaets, Fatima Cardoso, Sharon H Giordano, John Ms Bartlett, Konstantinos Tryfonidis, Nizet H Dijkstra, Caroline P Schröder, Christi J van Asperen, Barbro Linderholm, Kim Benstead, Winan Nm Dinjens, Ronald van Marion, Paul J van Diest, John Wm Martens, Carolien Hm van Deurzen
In men, data regarding breast cancer carcinogenesis are limited. The aim of our study was to describe the presence of precursor lesions adjacent to invasive male breast cancer, in order to increase our understanding of carcinogenesis in these patients. Central pathology review was performed for 1328 male breast cancer patients, registered in the retrospective joint analysis of the International Male Breast Cancer Program, which included the presence and type of breast cancer precursor lesions. In a subset, invasive breast cancer was compared with the adjacent precursor lesion by immunohistochemistry (n=83) or targeted next generation sequencing (n=7)...
January 13, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059101/steroid-hormone-synthesis-by-the-ovarian-stroma-surrounding-epithelial-ovarian-tumors-a-potential-mechanism-in-ovarian-tumorigenesis
#20
Luis Z Blanco, Elisabetta Kuhn, Jane C Morrison, Asli Bahadirli-Talbott, Anne Smith-Sehdev, Robert J Kurman
Epithelial ovarian tumors are responsive to steroid hormone stimulation and the ovarian stroma may have a direct role in this process. We evaluated immunohistochemical markers of sex-steroid differentiation and steroidogenesis (calretinin, inhibin, steroidogenic factor 1), steroid enzymes involved in hormone biosynthesis (CYP17, CYP19, HSD17β1, AKR1C3), and hormone receptors (estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and androgen receptor) in 101 epithelial ovarian tumors and in normal structures implicated in ovarian carcinogenesis (ovarian surface epithelium and cortical inclusion cysts) in an attempt to elucidate this process...
January 6, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
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