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Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084345/synaptophysin-ki67-double-stain-a-novel-technique-that-improves-interobserver-agreement-in-the-grading-of-well-differentiated-gastrointestinal-neuroendocrine-tumors
#1
Karen Matsukuma, Kristin A Olson, Dorina Gui, Regina Gandour-Edwards, Yueju Li, Laurel Beckett
A common problem in the assessment of Ki67 proliferative index in well-differentiated gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors is distinguishing tumor from non-tumor. This is because background stromal lymphocytes, entrapped non-neoplastic glands, and the delicate vascular network characteristic of neuroendocrine tumors frequently contain a subset of proliferating cells. Furthermore, in small biopsies, crush and cautery artifact can alter the morphologic appearance of tumor cells, making the Ki67 proliferative index more difficult to assess...
January 13, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084344/mcm2-an-alternative-to-ki-67-for-measuring-breast-cancer-cell-proliferation
#2
Einas M Yousef, Daniela Furrer, David L Laperriere, Muhammad R Tahir, Sylvie Mader, Caroline Diorio, Louis A Gaboury
Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease comprising a diversity of tumor subtypes that manifest themselves in a wide variety of clinical, pathological, and molecular features. One important subset, luminal breast cancers, comprises two clinically distinct subtypes luminal A and B each of them endowed with its own genetic program of differentiation and proliferation. Luminal breast cancers were operationally defined as follows: Luminal A: ER+, PR+, HER2-, Ki-67<14% and Luminal B: ER+ and/or PR+, HER2-,Ki-67≥14% or, alternatively ER+ and/or PR+, HER2+, any Ki-67...
January 13, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084343/recurrent-gnaq-mutations-in-anastomosing-hemangiomas
#3
Gregory R Bean, Nancy M Joseph, Ryan M Gill, Andrew L Folpe, Andrew E Horvai, Sarah E Umetsu
Anastomosing hemangiomas are recently described benign vascular lesions that occur chiefly in the genitourinary tract and paravertebral soft tissues. Owing to their rarity and unusual cytoarchitectural features, anastomosing hemangiomas are frequently confused with low-grade angiosarcomas. The specific genetic alterations underlying these lesions are currently unknown. We performed capture-based next-generation DNA sequencing analysis on 13 anastomosing hemangiomas and identified frequent somatic mutations in the heterotrimeric G-protein alpha-subunit, GNAQ...
January 13, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084342/concurrent-fine-needle-aspirations-and-core-needle-biopsies-a-comparative-study-of-substrates-for-next-generation-sequencing-in-solid-organ-malignancies
#4
Sinchita Roy-Chowdhuri, Hui Chen, Rajesh R Singh, Savitri Krishnamurthy, Keyur P Patel, Mark J Routbort, Jawad Manekia, Bedia A Barkoh, Hui Yao, Sharjeel Sabir, Russell R Broaddus, L Jeffrey Medeiros, Gregg Staerkel, John Stewart, Rajyalakshmi Luthra
Minimally invasive procedures, such as fine needle aspiration and core needle biopsy, are commonly used for the diagnosis in solid organ malignancies. In the era of targeted therapy, it is crucial for molecular testing to be performed on these limited volume specimens. Although several recent studies have demonstrated the utility of small biopsy specimens for molecular testing, there remains debate as to whether core needle biopsy specimens are more reliable than fine needle aspiration for molecular studies...
January 13, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084341/-insitupathologists-how-the-uscap2015-meeting-went-viral-on-twitter-and-founded-the-social-media-movement-for-the-united-states-and-canadian-academy-of-pathology
#5
EDITORIAL
David Cohen, Timothy Craig Allen, Serdar Balci, Philip T Cagle, Julie Teruya-Feldstein, Samson W Fine, Dibson D Gondim, Jennifer L Hunt, Jack Jacob, Kimberly Jewett, Xiaoyin 'Sara' Jiang, Keith J Kaplan, Ibrahim Kulac, Rashna Meunier, Nicole D Riddle, Patrick S Rush, Jennifer Stall, Lauren N Stuart, David Terrano, Ed Uthman, Matthew J Wasco, Sean R Williamson, Roseann I Wu, Jerad M Gardner
Professional medical conferences over the past five years have seen an enormous increase in the use of Twitter in real-time, also known as "live-tweeting". At the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology (USCAP) 2015 annual meeting, 24 attendees (the authors) volunteered to participate in a live-tweet group, the #InSituPathologists. This group, along with other attendees, kept the world updated via Twitter about the happenings at the annual meeting. There were 6,524 #USCAP2015 tweets made by 662 individual Twitter users; these generated 5,869,323 unique impressions (potential tweet-views) over a 13-day time span encompassing the dates of the annual meeting...
January 13, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084340/claudin-4-expression-distinguishes-swi-snf-complex-deficient-undifferentiated-carcinomas-from-sarcomas
#6
Inga-Marie Schaefer, Abbas Agaimy, Christopher Dm Fletcher, Jason L Hornick
Inactivation of SWI/SNF (switch/sucrose non-fermentable) chromatin remodeling complex subunits is a feature shared by select carcinomas and sarcomas with epithelioid morphology and variable keratin expression, making the distinction between carcinoma and sarcoma challenging in some cases. The tight junction-associated protein claudin-4 is a marker of epithelial differentiation that is expressed in nearly all carcinomas. Claudin-4 expression has been reported in the glandular component of biphasic synovial sarcoma but has not been systematically evaluated in other sarcoma types...
January 13, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084339/recurrent-idh2-r172x-mutations-in-sinonasal-undifferentiated-carcinoma
#7
Vickie Y Jo, Nicole G Chau, Jason L Hornick, Jeffrey F Krane, Lynette M Sholl
Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma is a rare and aggressive malignancy. Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma has long been considered a diagnosis of exclusion; to date, the molecular pathogenetic basis for sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma is unknown. To identify potential oncogenic drivers in sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma, targeted next-generation sequencing of 300 cancer-related genes was performed on 11 cases of sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma. We identified IDH2 R172X mutations in 55% of sinonasal undifferentiated carcinomas including R172S, R172T, and R172M...
January 13, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084338/p-cadherin-a-useful-biomarker-for-axillary-based-breast-cancer-decisions-in-the-clinical-practice
#8
André Filipe Vieira, Maria Rita Dionísio, Madalena Gomes, Jorge F Cameselle-Teijeiro, Manuela Lacerda, Isabel Amendoeira, Fernando Schmitt, Joana Paredes
Axillary lymph node metastases represent the most powerful breast cancer prognostic factor, dictating disease staging and clinical therapeutic decisions. Nonetheless, breast cancer patients with positive lymph nodes still exhibit a heterogeneous behavior regarding disease progression. Stem-like subpopulations of cancer cells show high migratory and metastatic capacity, thus we hypothesize that breast cancer stem cell markers evaluation in metastasized lymph nodes could provide a more accurate prediction of patient's prognosis...
January 13, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084337/tumoral-pd-l1-expression-in-desmoplastic-melanoma-is-associated-with-depth-of-invasion-tumor-infiltrating-cd8-cytotoxic-lymphocytes-and-the-mixed-cytomorphological-variant
#9
Noah Frydenlund, Dominick Leone, Shi Yang, Mai P Hoang, April Deng, Marier Hernandez-Perez, Rajendra Singh, Asok Biswas, Ron Yaar, Meera Mahalingam
Recently, patients with metastatic desmoplastic melanoma (DM) have been shown to respond more favorably to anti-PD1/PD-L1 therapy than other melanoma subtypes. Given this, we evaluated PD-L1/2 expression in primary DM samples and correlated these with subtype, CD8+ lymphocyte status, histopathological prognosticators, and select genetic alterations. Eighty-six (36 mixed DM, 50 pure DM) archival annotated samples met inclusion criteria and were immunohistochemically semiquantitatively evaluated. Per established criteria, for PD-L1/L2, cases with ⩾5% tumoral expression, and for CD8, cases with a predominantly peri/intratumoral CD8+ infiltrate were scored positive...
January 13, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084336/giant-cell-tumor-of-soft-tissue-is-genetically-distinct-from-its-bone-counterpart
#10
Jen-Chieh Lee, Cher-Wei Liang, Christopher Dm Fletcher
Giant cell tumors of bone are locally aggressive bone neoplasms with a predilection for young adults. Histologically, they are composed of histiocytoid to spindled mononuclear cells, admixed with numerous large osteoclastic giant cells. Giant cell tumors of soft tissue are rare tumors that bear striking histological resemblance to giant cell tumors of bone and might be regarded as a soft tissue analog thereof. Point mutations of the H3F3A gene (coding for a histone H3.3 protein) at the Gly34 codon, mostly G34W resulting from a GGG>TGG nucleotide change, have recently been identified in a vast majority of giant cell tumors of bone...
January 13, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084335/hhv8-related-lymphoid-proliferations-a-broad-spectrum-of-lesions-from-reactive-lymphoid-hyperplasia-to-overt-lymphoma
#11
Blanca Gonzalez-Farre, Daniel Martinez, Monica Lopez-Guerra, Marc Xipell, Ester Monclus, Jordina Rovira, Felipe Garcia, Armando Lopez-Guillermo, Luis Colomo, Elias Campo, Antonio Martinez
Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8)-associated lymphoid proliferations are uncommon and poorly characterized disorders mainly affecting immunosuppressed patients, especially with HIV infection. They encompass different diseases with overlapping features that complicate their classification. In addition, the role of HHV8 in reactive lymphoid hyperplasia is not well known. To analyze the clinicopathological spectrum of these lesions, we have reviewed 66 biopsies of 61 patients with HHV8 infection. All cases were also investigated for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and HIV infection...
January 13, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084334/langerhans-cell-histiocytosis-associated-with-lymphoma-an-incidental-finding-that-is-not-associated-with-braf-or-map2k1-mutations
#12
Sergio Pina-Oviedo, L Jeffrey Medeiros, Shaoying Li, Joseph D Khoury, Keyur P Patel, Khaled Alayed, R Craig Cason, Christopher J Bowman, C Cameron Yin
Langerhans cell histiocytosis is characterized by a localized or systemic proliferation of Langerhans cells. BRAF mutations have been reported in 40-70% of cases and MAP2K1 mutations have been found in BRAF-negative cases, supporting that Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a true neoplasm, at least in mutated cases. In a small subset of patients, Langerhans cell histiocytosis is detected incidentally in a biopsy involved by lymphoma. These lesions are usually minute and rarely have been assessed for mutations...
January 13, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084333/male-breast-cancer-precursor-lesions-analysis-of-the-eortc-10085-tbcrc-big-nabcg-international-male-breast-cancer-program
#13
Shusma C Doebar, Leen Slaets, Fatima Cardoso, Sharon H Giordano, John Ms Bartlett, Konstantinos Tryfonidis, Nizet H Dijkstra, Caroline P Schröder, Christi J van Asperen, Barbro Linderholm, Kim Benstead, Winan Nm Dinjens, Ronald van Marion, Paul J van Diest, John Wm Martens, Carolien Hm van Deurzen
In men, data regarding breast cancer carcinogenesis are limited. The aim of our study was to describe the presence of precursor lesions adjacent to invasive male breast cancer, in order to increase our understanding of carcinogenesis in these patients. Central pathology review was performed for 1328 male breast cancer patients, registered in the retrospective joint analysis of the International Male Breast Cancer Program, which included the presence and type of breast cancer precursor lesions. In a subset, invasive breast cancer was compared with the adjacent precursor lesion by immunohistochemistry (n=83) or targeted next generation sequencing (n=7)...
January 13, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059101/steroid-hormone-synthesis-by-the-ovarian-stroma-surrounding-epithelial-ovarian-tumors-a-potential-mechanism-in-ovarian-tumorigenesis
#14
Luis Z Blanco, Elisabetta Kuhn, Jane C Morrison, Asli Bahadirli-Talbott, Anne Smith-Sehdev, Robert J Kurman
Epithelial ovarian tumors are responsive to steroid hormone stimulation and the ovarian stroma may have a direct role in this process. We evaluated immunohistochemical markers of sex-steroid differentiation and steroidogenesis (calretinin, inhibin, steroidogenic factor 1), steroid enzymes involved in hormone biosynthesis (CYP17, CYP19, HSD17β1, AKR1C3), and hormone receptors (estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and androgen receptor) in 101 epithelial ovarian tumors and in normal structures implicated in ovarian carcinogenesis (ovarian surface epithelium and cortical inclusion cysts) in an attempt to elucidate this process...
January 6, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059100/a-tailored-approach-to-braf-and-mlh1-methylation-testing-in-a-universal-screening-program-for-lynch-syndrome
#15
Tomer Adar, Linda H Rodgers, Kristen M Shannon, Makoto Yoshida, Tianle Ma, Anthony Mattia, Gregory Y Lauwers, Anthony J Iafrate, Daniel C Chung
To determine the correlation between BRAF genotype and MLH1 promoter methylation in a screening program for Lynch syndrome (LS), a universal screening program for LS was established in two medical centers. Tumors with abnormal MLH1 staining were evaluated for both BRAF V600E genotype and MLH1 promoter methylation. Tumors positive for both were considered sporadic, and genetic testing was recommended for all others. A total 1011 colorectal cancer cases were screened for Lynch syndrome, and 148 (14.6%) exhibited absent MLH1 immunostaining...
January 6, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059099/biological-relevance-of-human-papillomaviruses-in-vulvar-cancer
#16
Gordana Halec, Laia Alemany, Beatriz Quiros, Omar Clavero, Daniela Höfler, Maria Alejo, Wim Quint, Michael Pawlita, Francesc X Bosch, Silvia de Sanjose
The carcinogenic role of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) types in the increasing subset of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia and vulvar cancer in young women has been established. However, the actual number of vulvar cancer cases attributed to HPV is still imprecisely defined. In an attempt to provide a more precise definition of HPV-driven vulvar cancer, we performed HPV-type-specific E6*I mRNA analyses available for 20 HR-/possible HR (pHR)-HPV types, on tissue samples from 447 cases of vulvar cancer...
January 6, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059098/somatostatin-receptor-expression-related-to-tp53-and-rb1-alterations-in-pancreatic-and-extrapancreatic-neuroendocrine-neoplasms-with-a-ki67-index-above-20
#17
Björn Konukiewitz, Anna Melissa Schlitter, Moritz Jesinghaus, Dominik Pfister, Katja Steiger, Angela Segler, Abbas Agaimy, Bence Sipos, Giuseppe Zamboni, Wilko Weichert, Irene Esposito, Nicole Pfarr, Günter Klöppel
Somatostatin receptor 2A expression is a feature of well-differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasms and is important for their diagnosis and therapy. Little is known about somatostatin receptor 2A expression in poorly differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasms in relation to TP53 and RB1 status and how these features may contribute to the separation of well from poorly differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasms with a proliferation index above 20%. This study investigates the expression of somatostatin receptors, p53 and Rb1, and TP53 alterations in pancreatic and extrapancreatic well and poorly differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasms (Ki67-index >20%)...
January 6, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059097/fibrous-hamartoma-of-infancy-a-clinicopathologic-study-of-145-cases-including-2-with-sarcomatous-features
#18
Alyaa Al-Ibraheemi, Anthony Martinez, Sharon W Weiss, Harry P Kozakewich, Antonio R Perez-Atayde, Henry Tran, David M Parham, William R Sukov, Karen J Fritchie, Andrew L Folpe
Fibrous hamartoma of infancy is a rare soft tissue lesion of infants and young children with characteristic triphasic morphology, which typically occurs in the axilla and less commonly in other locations. We reviewed 145 cases of fibrous hamartoma of infancy from our consultation archives. Cases occurred in 106 males and 39 females (mean age-15 months; range-birth to 14 years), and involved both typical sites (eg, axilla/back/upper arm) (n=69) and unusual locations (n=76). Six were congenital. The tumors presented as subcutaneous masses and ranged from 0...
January 6, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059096/colorectal-mixed-adenoneuroendocrine-carcinomas-and-neuroendocrine-carcinomas-are-genetically-closely-related-to-colorectal-adenocarcinomas
#19
Moritz Jesinghaus, Björn Konukiewitz, Gisela Keller, Matthias Kloor, Katja Steiger, Magdalena Reiche, Roland Penzel, Volker Endris, Ruza Arsenic, Gratiana Hermann, Albrecht Stenzinger, Wilko Weichert, Nicole Pfarr, Günter Klöppel
Colorectal mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinomas are rare and clinically aggressive neoplasms with considerable morphological heterogeneity. Data on their genomic characteristics and molecular associations to either conventional colorectal adenocarcinomas or poorly differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasms is still scarce, hampering optimized patient treatment and care. Tissue from 19 colorectal mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinomas and eight colorectal poorly differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasms (neuroendocrine carcinomas) was microdissected and subjected to next-generation sequencing using a colorectal adenocarcinoma-specific panel comprising 196 amplicons covering 32 genes linked to colorectal adenocarcinoma, and poorly differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasm tumorigenesis...
January 6, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059095/h3f3-mutation-status-of-giant-cell-tumors-of-the-bone-chondroblastomas-and-their-mimics-a-combined-high-resolution-melting-and-pyrosequencing-approach
#20
Thibault Kervarrec, Christine Collin, Frédérique Larousserie, Corinne Bouvier, Sébastien Aubert, Anne Gomez-Brouchet, Béatrice Marie, Elodie Miquelestorena-Standley, Louis Romée Le Nail, Pierre Avril, Jean Christophe Pagès, Gonzague de Pinieux
Behjati et al recently described recurrent mutations of H3F3 genes in giant cell tumors of the bone and chondroblastomas. Both these entities belong to the spectrum of giant cell-rich bone lesions, often presenting a diagnostic challenge for the pathologist. Our aim was to investigate the value of searching for H3F3 mutations in the diagnosis of giant cell tumors of the bone and giant cell-rich chondroblastomas. Two hundred eighty-one bone lesion samples, including 170 giant cell tumors of the bone, 26 chondroblastomas and 85 other giant cell-rich and/or epiphyseal tumors, were analyzed...
January 6, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
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