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Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30113525/range-of-extension-correlates-with-posterior-capsule-length-after-knee-remobilization
#1
Haodong Zhou, Guy Trudel, Hans K Uhthoff, Odette Laneuville
INTRODUCTION: Knee injuries are common in sports, and post-injury immobilization is often required to protect healing tissues and alleviate pain, but both the injury and the immobilization can lead to a knee contracture. Knee flexion contractures limit performance. Previous research has identified posterior knee capsule fibrosis as a contributor to immobility-induced knee flexion contractures. This study aims to measure posterior knee capsule length at various durations of remobilization after knee immobilization and to correlate with the recovery of knee range of motion...
August 15, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30113524/predictors-of-dropout-in-exercise-trials-in-older-adults
#2
Hallgeir Viken, Line Skarsem Reitlo, Nina Zisko, Javaid Nauman, Nils Petter Aspvik, Jan Erik Ingebrigtsen, Ulrik Wisløff, Dorthe Stensvold
PURPOSE: Dropout from exercise programs, both in the real world and in research, is a challenge, and more information on dropout-predictors is needed for establishing strategies to increase the likelihood of maintaining participants in a prescribed exercise program. The aim of the present study was to determine the dropout rate and its predictors during a 3-year exercise program in older adults. METHODS: In total, 1514 men and women (age 72.4±1.9 years) were included in the present study...
August 15, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30113523/augmented-anabolic-responses-following-8-weeks-cycling-with-blood-flow-restriction
#3
Miguel S Conceição, Edson M M Junior, Guilherme D Telles, Cleiton A Libardi, Alex Castro, André L L Andrade, Patrícia C Brum, Úrsula Urias, Mirian Ayumi Kurauti, José Maria Costa Júnior, Antonio Carlos Boschero, Cláudia R Cavaglieri, Donny M Camera, Mara P T Chacon-Mikahil
INTRODUCTION: Low-intensity endurance training performed with blood flow restriction (ET-BFR) can improve muscle strength, cross-sectional area (CSA) and cardiorespiratory capacity. Whether muscle strength and CSA as well as cardiorespiratory capacity (i.e.:V˙O2max) and underlying molecular processes regulating such respective muscle adaptations are comparable to resistance and endurance training is unknown. PURPOSE: To determine the respective chronic (i.e.: 8 weeks) functional, morphological and molecular responses of ET-BFR training compared to conventional, unrestricted resistance training (RT) and endurance training (ET)...
August 15, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30113522/equivalent-hypertrophy-and-strength-gains-in-hmb-or-leucine-supplemented-men
#4
Josephine S Jakubowski, Edwin P T Wong, Everson A Nunes, Kenneth S Noguchi, Joshua K Vandeweerd, Kevin T Murphy, Robert W Morton, Chris McGlory, Stuart M Phillips
Ingestion of proteins with high leucine content during resistance training (RT) can augment hypertrophy. Some data suggest that a leucine metabolite, β-hydroxy, β-methylbutyrate (HMB), is substantially more anabolically efficacious than leucine. PURPOSE: We aimed to test whether supplementation with HMB versus leucine, added to whey protein, would result in differential muscle hypertrophy and strength gains in young men performing resistance training. METHODS: Twenty-six resistance-trained men (23 ± 2 y) performed 12 wk of RT with 3 phases...
August 15, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30113521/walking-in-minimalist-shoes-is-effective-for-strengthening-foot-muscles
#5
Sarah T Ridge, Mark T Olsen, Dustin A Bruening, Kevin Jurgensmeier, David Griffin, Irene S Davis, A Wayne Johnson
INTRODUCTION: Weakness of foot muscles may contribute to a variety of loading related injuries. Supportive footwear may contribute to intrinsic foot muscle weakness by reducing the muscles' role in locomotion (e.g. absorbing forces and controlling motion). Increased stimulus to the foot muscles can be provided through a variety of mechanisms, including minimalist footwear and directed exercise. PURPOSE: To determine the effect of walking in minimalist footwear or performing foot strengthening exercises on foot muscle size and strength...
August 15, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30113520/esr1-rs2234693-polymorphism-is-associated-with-muscle-injury-and-muscle-stiffness
#6
Hiroshi Kumagai, Eri Miyamoto-Mikami, Kosuke Hirata, Naoki Kikuchi, Nobuhiro Kamiya, Seigo Hoshikawa, Hirofumi Zempo, Hisashi Naito, Naokazu Miyamoto, Noriyuki Fuku
PURPOSE: Muscle injury is the most common sports injury. Muscle stiffness, a risk factor for muscle injury, is lower in females than in males, implying that sex-related genetic polymorphisms influence muscle injury associated with muscle stiffness. The present study aimed to clarify the associations between two genetic polymorphisms (rs2234693 and rs9340799) in the estrogen receptor 1 gene (ESR1) and muscle injury or muscle stiffness. METHODS: In study 1, a questionnaire was used to assess the muscle injury history of 1,311 Japanese top-level athletes...
August 15, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30102679/genome-wide-association-study-of-leisure-time-exercise-behavior-in-japanese-adults
#7
Megumi Hara, Tsuyoshi Hachiya, Yoichi Sutoh, Keitaro Matsuo, Yuichiro Nishida, Chisato Shimanoe, Keitaro Tanaka, Atsushi Shimizu, Keizo Ohnaka, Takahisa Kawaguchi, Isao Oze, Fumihiko Matsuda, Hidemi Ito, Sayo Kawai, Asahi Hishida, Rieko Okada, Tae Sasakabe, Akie Hirata, Rie Ibusuki, Yora Nindita, Norihiro Furusyo, Hiroaki Ikezaki, Nagato Kuriyama, Etsuko Ozaki, Haruo Mikami, Yohko Nakamura, Sadao Suzuki, Akihiro Hosono, Sakurako Katsuura-Kamano, Kokichi Arisawa, Kiyonori Kuriki, Kaori Endoh, Naoyuki Takashima, Aya Kadota, Masahiro Nakatochi, Yukihide Momozawa, Michiaki Kubo, Mariko Naito, Kenji Wakai
PURPOSE: Although several genetic factors may play a role in leisure-time exercise behavior, there is currently no evidence of a significant genome-wide association, and candidate gene replication studies have produced inconsistent results. METHODS: We conducted a two-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) and candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) association study on leisure-time exercise behavior using 13,980 discovery samples from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) study, and 2,036 replication samples from the Hospital-based Epidemiologic Research Program at Aichi Cancer Center-2 (HERPACC-2) study...
August 10, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30102678/blunted-cardiac-output-from-overtraining-is-related-to-increased-arterial-stiffness
#8
Alexandra M Coates, Philip J Millar, Jamie F Burr
PURPOSE: Moderate overtraining has been characterized by decreased exercising heart rate (HR) and recently, decreased exercising stroke volume (SV), independent of alterations to blood volume. The aim of this study was to assess changes in arterial stiffness and central hemodynamics, and their relationship to exercising SV, following three weeks of overload training. METHODS: Twenty-six cyclists and triathletes completed 3-weeks of either regular training (CON; n=13) or overload training (OL; n=13)...
August 10, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30102677/leucine-metabolites-do-not-enhance-training-induced-performance-or-muscle-thickness
#9
Filipe J Teixeira, Catarina N Matias, Cristina P Monteiro, Maria J Valamatos, Joana Reis, Francisco Tavares, Ana Batista, Christophe Domingos, Francisco Alves, Luís B Sardinha, Stuart M Phillips
Leucine metabolites, α-hydroxyisocaproic acid (α-HICA) and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (calcium, HMB-Ca and free acid, HMB-FA), have been proposed to augment resistance training-induced changes in body composition and performance. PURPOSE: We aimed to conduct a double-blind randomized controlled pragmatic trial to evaluate the effects of off-the-shelf leucine metabolite supplements of α-HICA, HMB-FA and HMB-Ca, on resistance training-induced changes in muscle thickness, and performance...
August 10, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30102676/effect-of-unintentional-boosting-on-exercise-performance-in-a-tetraplegic-athlete
#10
Cameron M Gee, Melissa A Lacroix, Christopher R West
Boosting is the induction of autonomic dysreflexia (AD) to reflexively activate otherwise dormant thoracolumbar sympathetic circuitry to 'boost' the capacity of the cardiovascular system and enhance exercise performance. AD is a life-threatening condition unique to individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) characterized by a sudden increase in sympathetic activity below the level of the SCI. Here we report on the temporal heart rate response to an episode of unintentional boosting during a validated field-based exercise performance test in an athlete with tetraplegia...
August 10, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30102675/acute-high-intensity-exercise-impairs-skeletal-muscle-respiratory-capacity
#11
Gwenael Layec, Gregory M Blain, Matthew J Rossman, Song Y Park, Corey R Hart, Joel D Trinity, Jayson R Gifford, Simranjit K Sidhu, Joshua C Weavil, Thomas J Hureau, Markus Amann, Russell S Richardson
PURPOSE: The impact of an acute bout of exercise, especially high-intensity exercise, on the function of mitochondrial respiratory complexes is not well understood, with potential implications for both the healthy population and patients undergoing exercise based rehabilitation. Therefore, this study sought to comprehensively examine respiratory flux through the different complexes of the electron transport chain (ETC) in skeletal muscle mitochondria before and immediately after high-intensity aerobic exercise...
August 10, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30102674/appropriate-amount-of-regular-exercise-is-associated-with-a-reduced-mortality-risk
#12
Da Young Lee, Eun-Jung Rhee, Jung Hwan Cho, Hyemi Kwon, Se Eun Park, Yang-Hyun Kim, Kyungdo Han, Yong-Kyu Park, Soon Jib Yoo, Won-Young Lee
PURPOSE: This study aimed at investigating whether there is a continuous dose-response relationship between the amount of physical activity (PA) and longevity benefit. METHODS: We evaluated the records of 23,257,723 Koreans aged ≥20 years who had undergone one biennial medical evaluation by the National Health Insurance Corporation. Participants with ≥20 minutes of vigorous or ≥30 minutes of moderate PA or walking were stratified into four groups: 0 days/week; 1-3 days/week; 4-5 days/week; and 6-7 days/week...
August 10, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30095751/how-sickle-cell-disease-impairs-skeletal-muscle-function-implications-in-daily-life
#13
Angèle N Merlet, Benjamin Chatel, Christophe Hourdé, Marion Ravelojaona, David Bendahan, Léonard Féasson, Laurent A Messonnier
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is the most frequent life-threatening genetic hemoglobinopathy in the world and occurs due to the synthesis of abnormal hemoglobin S (HbS). HbS-containing red blood cells (RBCs) are fragile, leading to hemolysis and anemia, and adhere to the endothelium, leading to hemorheological and hemodynamical disturbances. In its deoxygenated form, HbS may polymerize, leading to sickling of RBCs and potentially to vaso-occlusive crises. Recent findings observed that sickle cell disease patients demonstrate significant skeletal muscle remodeling and display reduced muscle functional capacities, contributing to exercise intolerance and poor quality of life...
August 8, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30095750/thermal-behavior-differs-between-males-and-females-during-exercise-and-recovery
#14
Nicole T Vargas, Christopher L Chapman, James R Sackett, Blair D Johnson, Rob Gathercole, Zachary J Schlader
INTRODUCTION: This study tested the hypothesis that females rely on thermal behavior to a greater extent during and following exercise, relative to males. METHODS: In a 24±1°C; (45±10% RH) environment, 10 males (M) and 10 females (F) (22±2 y) cycled for 60 min (metabolic heat production-M: 117±18; F: 129±21 W·m), followed by 60 min recovery. Mean skin and core temperatures, skin blood flow and local sweat rates were measured continually. Subjects controlled the temperature of their dorsal neck to perceived thermal comfort using a custom-made device...
August 8, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30095745/fat-free-mass-characteristics-of-muscular-physique-athletes
#15
Grant M Tinsley, Austin J Graybeal, M Lane Moore, Brett S Nickerson
PURPOSE: Simple body composition models, such as two-compartment models, employ assumptions which may be violated in specific athletic populations (e.g. the constancy of fat-free mass density [DFFM] and hydration [TBW:FFM]). The present analysis examined FFM characteristics of muscular physique athletes. METHODS: Twenty-six athletes (16 M: 94.5±9.9 kg, 12.2±4.2 %fat; 10 F: 63.8±5.7 kg, 19.7±4.9 %fat) completed duplicate assessments of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS), and single- and multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (SFBIA; MFBIA)...
August 7, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30095744/supraspinal-fatigue-and-neural-evoked-responses-in-lowlanders-and-sherpa-at-5050-m
#16
Luca Ruggiero, Chris J McNeil
PURPOSE: At high-altitude, Lowlanders exhibit exacerbated fatigue and impaired performance. Conversely, Sherpa (native Highlanders) are known for their outstanding performance at altitude. Presently, there are no reports comparing neuromuscular fatigue and its etiology between Lowlanders and native Sherpa at altitude. METHODS: At 5050 m, nine age-matched Lowlanders and Sherpa (31±10 vs. 30±12 years, respectively) completed a 4-minute sustained isometric elbow flexion at 25% maximal voluntary (MVC) torque...
August 7, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30095743/demographic-specific-validity-of-the-cancer-prevention-study-3-sedentary-time-survey
#17
Erika Rees-Punia, Charles E Matthews, Ellen M Evans, Sarah K Keadle, Rebecca L Anderson, Jennifer L Gay, Michael D Schmidt, Susan M Gapstur, Alpa V Patel
PURPOSE: This study examined the one-year test-re-test reliability and criterion validity of sedentary time survey items in a subset of participants from a large, nationwide prospective cohort. METHODS: Participants included 423 women and 290 men aged 31-72 years in the Cancer Prevention Study-3 (CPS-3). Reliability was assessed by computing Spearman correlation coefficients between responses from pre- and post-study surveys. Validity was assessed by comparing survey-estimated sedentary time with a latent variable representing true sedentary time estimated from the seven-day diaries, accelerometry, and surveys through the method of triads...
August 7, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30095742/normobaric-hypoxia-reduces-v%C3%AB-o2-at-different-intensities-in-highly-trained-runners
#18
Avish P Sharma, Philo U Saunders, Laura A Garvican-Lewis, Brad Clark, Christopher J Gore, Kevin G Thompson, Julien D Périard
INTRODUCTION: We sought to determine the effect of low and moderate normobaric hypoxia on oxygen consumption and anaerobic contribution during interval running at different exercise intensities. METHODS: Eight runners (age: 25 ± 7 years, V˙O2max: 72.1 ± 5.6 ml.kg.min) completed three separate interval sessions at threshold (4 x 5 min, 2 min recovery), V˙O2max (8 x 90 s, 90 s recovery), and race pace (10 x 45 s, 1 min 45 s recovery) in each of; normoxia (elevation: 580 m, FiO2: 0...
August 7, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30095741/looking-further-when-symptoms-are-disproportionate-to-physical-findings
#19
Ian Shrier, David R Morrison, Roger Hawkes
A 36 year-old male presents with left ulnar-side wrist pain during an ice hockey game that prevented him from playing hockey or golf. There was no acute mechanism of injury. The usual clinical examination revealed only minimal tenderness and minimal pain with resisted wrist extension. Careful attention to precipitating factors led to testing resisted wrist extension with the forearm fully supinated, which reliably reproduced the intensity of the patient's symptoms, and a diagnosis of extensor carpi ulnaris tendinopathy...
August 7, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30095740/peak-ventilation-reference-standards-from-exercise-testing-from-the-friend-registry
#20
Leonard A Kaminsky, Matthew P Harber, Mary T Imboden, Ross Arena, Jonathan Myers
PURPOSE: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) provides valuable clinical information, including peak ventilation (VEpeak), which has been shown to have diagnostic and prognostic value in the assessment of patients with underlying pulmonary disease. This report provides reference standards for VEpeak derived from CPX on treadmills in apparently healthy individuals. METHODS: Nine laboratories in the United States experienced in CPX administration with established quality control procedures contributed to the Fitness Registry and the Importance of Exercise National Database from 2014 to 2017...
August 7, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
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