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Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817510/elite-distance-runners-a-45-year-follow-up
#1
Sarah Everman, James W Farris, R Curtis Bay, Jack T Daniels
PURPOSE: The present longitudinal study assessed cardiorespiratory capacity and running economy of Olympic athletes over several decades to measure changes in fitness in an elite group during aging. METHODS: Twenty-six male runners training for the 1968 Olympics were recruited. Heart rate, VO2max, ventilation, and running economy were measured in 1968, 1993, and 2013. In 2013, 22 of the original runners participated: three passed away between 1993 and 2013, and one declined to participate...
August 16, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817509/high-intensity-exercise-enhances-conduit-artery-vascular-function-in-older-adults
#2
Erika Iwamoto, Josh M Bock, Darren P Casey
PURPOSE: Modulation of vascular function follows an exercise intensity-dependent pattern in young adults. This study aimed to investigate the potential intensity-dependent effects of an acute bout of exercise on conduit and resistance artery function in healthy older adults. METHODS: Eleven healthy older adults (5 males/6 females, 66±1 years) completed 30 minutes of recumbent cycling at 50-55% (low-intensity) and 75-80% (high-intensity) of their age-predicted maximal heart rate on two separate study visits...
August 16, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816922/nil-whey-protein-effect-on-glycaemic-control-after-intense-mixed-mode-training-in-t2d
#3
Kim A Gaffney, Adam Lucero, Lee Stoner, James Faulkner, Patricia Whitfield, Jeremy Krebs, David S Rowlands
While intense endurance and resistance exercise training and whey protein supplementation have both been shown to independently improve glycaemic control, no known studies have examined the effect of high-intensity mixed-mode interval training (MMIT) and whey supplementation in adults with Type-2 diabetes (T2D). PURPOSE: To determine if peri-training whey protein supplementation combined with MMIT can improve glycaemic control. METHODS: In a double-blind randomised controlled trial, 24 men (55...
August 14, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816921/validity-reliability-and-inertia-of-four-different-temperature-capsule-systems
#4
Coen C W G Bongers, Hein A M Daanen, Cornelis P Bogerd, Maria T E Hopman, Thijs M H Eijsvogels
PURPOSE: Telemetric temperature capsule systems are wireless, relatively non-invasive and easily applicable in field conditions, and have therefore great advantages for monitoring core body temperature. However, the accuracy and responsiveness of available capsule systems have not been compared previously. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the validity, reliability and inertia characteristics of four ingestible temperature capsule systems (i.e. CorTemp, e-Celsius, myTemp and VitalSense)...
August 14, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806276/circulating-progenitor-cell-response-to-exercise-in-wheelchair-racing-athletes
#5
Grace M Niemiro, Thomas Edwards, J P Barfield, Joseph W Beals, Elizabeth M Broad, Robert W Motl, Nicholas A Burd, Lara A Pilutti, Michael De Lisio
INTRODUCTION: Circulating progenitor cells (CPCs) are a heterogeneous population of stem/progenitor cells in peripheral blood that participate in tissue repair. CPC mobilization has been well characterized in able-bodied persons, but has not been previously investigated in wheelchair racing athletes. The purpose of this study was to characterize CPC and CPC sub-population mobilization in elite wheelchair racing athletes in response to acute, upper-extremity aerobic exercise to determine if CPC responses are similar to ambulatory populations...
August 11, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806275/effects-of-creatine-and-carbohydrate-loading-on-cycling-time-trial-performance
#6
Kristyen A Tomcik, Donny M Camera, Julia L Bone, Megan L Ross, Nikki A Jeacocke, Bill Tachtsis, Joan Senden, Luc J C van Loon, John A Hawley, Louise M Burke
INTRODUCTION: Creatine- and carbohydrate-loading are dietary strategies used to enhance exercise capacity. This study examined the metabolic and performance effects of a combined creatine and CHO-loading regiment on time-trial (TT) cycling bouts. METHODS: Eighteen well-trained (~65mL[BULLET OPERATOR]kg[BULLET OPERATOR]min VO2peak) males completed three performance trials (PT) comprised of a 120-km cycling TT interspersed with alternating 1- and 4-km sprints (6 sprints each) performed every 10-km followed by an inclined ride to fatigue (~90% VO2peak)...
August 11, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796655/effects-of-childhood-gymnastics-program-on-spatial-working-memory
#7
Shu-Shih Hsieh, Chih-Chien Lin, Yu-Kai Chang, Chun-Ju Huang, Tsung-Min Hung
PURPOSE: A growing body of evidence has demonstrated the positive effects of physical exercise on cognition in children, and recent studies have specifically investigated the cognitive benefits of exercises involving cognitive-motor interactions, such as gymnastics. This study examined the effect of 8 weeks of gymnastics training on behavioral and neurophysiological measures of spatial working memory in children. METHODS: Forty-four children aged 7 to 10 yrs were recruited...
August 7, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767527/bioenergetics-and-atp-synthesis-during-exercise-role-of-group-iii-iv-muscle-afferents
#8
Ryan M Broxterman, Gwenael Layec, Thomas J Hureau, David E Morgan, Amber D Bledsoe, Jacob E Jessop, Markus Amann, Russell S Richardson
PURPOSE: To investigate the role of the group III/IV muscle afferents in the bioenergetics of exercising skeletal muscle beyond constraining the magnitude of metabolic perturbation. METHODS: Eight healthy men, performed intermittent isometric knee-extensor exercise to task failure at ~58% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) under control conditions (CTRL) and with lumbar intrathecal fentanyl to attenuate group III/IV leg muscle afferents (FENT). Intramuscular concentrations of phosphocreatine (PCr), inorganic phosphate (Pi), diprotonated phosphate (H2PO4¯), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and pH were determined using phosphorous magnetic resonance spectroscopy (P-MRS)...
July 31, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767526/exercise-protects-skeletal-muscle-during-chronic-doxorubicin-administration
#9
Jared M Dickinson, Andrew C D'Lugos, Tara N Mahmood, Jordan C Ormsby, Lara Salvo, W Logan Dedmon, Shivam H Patel, Mark S Katsma, Farouk Mookadam, Rayna J Gonzales, Taben M Hale, Chad C Carroll, Siddhartha S Angadi
PURPOSE: To assess the ability for exercise training performed before and during bi-weekly doxorubicin (DOX) administration to attenuate adverse effects of DOX on skeletal muscle. We hypothesized that DOX treatment would increase REDD1, impair mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling, and reduce muscle fiber size, and that exercise training would attenuate these responses. METHODS: Eight-week old ovariectomized female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to one of four treatments: Exercise+DOX (Ex-Dox); Ex+Vehicle (Ex-Veh), Sedentary+DOX (Sed-Dox); and Sed+Veh (Sed-Veh)...
July 31, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767525/comparison-of-lower-limb-and-back-exercises-for-runners-with-chronic-low-back-pain
#10
Congcong Cai, Yifan Yang, Pui W Kong
INTRODUCTION: This single-blind randomized trial was conducted to compare the treatment effect of lower limb (LL) exercises versus conventional lumbar extensor (LE) and lumbar stabilization (LS) exercises in recreational runners with chronic low back pain (cLBP), since there is currently no specific protocol for managing runners with cLBP. METHODS: 84 recreational runners with cLBP were allocated to three exercise groups (LL, LE, LS) for an 8-week intervention. Outcome measures included self-rated pain and running capability, lower limb strength, back muscles function, and running gait...
July 31, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767524/endurance-exercise-attenuates-postprandial-whole-body-leucine-balance-in-trained-men
#11
Michael Mazzulla, Justin T Parel, Joseph W Beals, Stephan van Vliet, Sidney Abou Sawan, Daniel W D West, Scott A Paluska, Alexander V Ulanov, Daniel R Moore, Nicholas A Burd
PURPOSE: Endurance exercise increases indices of small intestinal damage and leucine oxidation, which may attenuate dietary amino acid appearance and postprandial leucine balance during postexercise recovery. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the impact of an acute bout of endurance exercise on postprandial leucine kinetics and net leucine balance. METHODS: In a crossover design, seven trained young men (age = 25.6 ± 2.3 y; VO2peak = 61.4 ± 2...
July 31, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767523/respiratory-mechanical-and-cardiorespiratory-consequences-of-cycling-with-aerobars
#12
Jesse M Charlton, Andrew H Ramsook, Reid A Mitchell, Michael A Hunt, Joseph H Puyat, Jordan A Guenette
PURPOSE: Aerobars place a cyclist in a position where the trunk is flexed forward and the elbows are close to the midline of the body. This position is known to improve cycling aerodynamics and time trial race performance compared to upright cycling positions. However, the aggressive nature of this position may have important cardiorespiratory and metabolic consequences. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the respiratory mechanical, ventilatory, metabolic, and sensory consequences of cycling while using aerobars during laboratory based cycling...
July 31, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767522/impact-of-physical-load-on-aerobic-exercise-performance-during-heat-stress
#13
Robert W Kenefick, Kristen R Heavens, Adam J Luippold, Nisha Charkoudian, Steven A Schwartz, Samuel N Cheuvront
Heavy external loads and heat exposure can negatively impact exercise performance.Independent effects of heat and load have been studied previously; however the combined effects remain unknown. PURPOSE: To investigate the impact of increasing external loads on 5 km treadmill time trial (TT) performance in 20°C (Temp) and 40°C (Hot) environmental conditions and to construct an ecologically relevant performance prediction decision-aid. METHODS: 26 male and 4 female volunteers (age 23...
July 31, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753161/impact-of-exercise-on-cardiometabolic-component-risks-in-spinal-cord-injured-humans
#14
Tom E Nightingale, Jean-Philippe Walhin, Dylan Thompson, James L J Bilzon
PURPOSE: Spinal cord injury (SCI) creates a complex pathology, characterised by low levels of habitual physical activity and an increased risk of cardiometabolic disease. This study aimed to assess the impact of a moderate-intensity upper-body exercise training intervention on, biomarkers of cardiometabolic component risks, adipose tissue metabolism and cardiorespiratory fitness in persons with SCI. METHODS: Twenty-one inactive men and women with chronic (>1 year) SCI (all paraplegic injuries), aged 47 ± 8 years (mean ± S...
July 28, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737531/potential-causes-of-elevated-ree-following-high-intensity-exercise
#15
Gary R Hunter, Douglas R Moellering, Stephen J Carter, Barbara A Gower, Marcas M Bamman, Lyndsey M Hornbuckle, Eric P Plaisance, Gordon Fisher
INTRODUCTION: Resting energy expenditure (REE) increases following intense exercise; however, little is known concerning mechanisms. PURPOSE: Determine effects of a single bout of moderate-intensity continuous aerobic exercise (MIC), or high intensity interval exercise (HII) on REE under energy balance conditions. METHODS: Thirty-three untrained premenopausal women were evaluated at baseline, after 8-16 weeks of training, 22 hours following either MIC (50% peak VO2) or HII (84% peak VO2)...
July 21, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731987/evidence-of-heritable-determinants-of-decompression-sickness-in-rats
#16
Jacky Lautridou, Peter Buzzacott, Marc Belhomme, Emmanuel Dugrenot, Pierre Lafère, Costantino Balestra, François Guerrero
INTRODUCTION: Decompression sickness (DCS) is a complex and poorly understood systemic disease caused by inadequate desaturation following a decrease of ambient pressure. Strong variability between individuals is observed for DCS occurrence. This raises questions concerning factors that may be involved in the inter-individual variability of DCS occurrence. This study aimed to experimentally assess the existence of heritable factors involved in DCS occurrence by selectively breeding individuals resistant to DCS from a population stock of wistar rats...
July 20, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731986/the-effect-of-sex-on-heart-rate-variability-at-high-altitude
#17
Christopher John Boos, Emma Vincent, Adrian Mellor, John O'Hara, Caroline Newman, Richard Cruttenden, Phylip Scott, Mark Cooke, Jamie Matu, David Richard Woods
There is evidence to suggest that high altitude (HA) exposure leads to a fall in heart rate variability (HRV) that is linked to the development of acute mountain sickness (AMS). The effects of sex on changes in HRV at HA and its relationship to AMS are unknown. METHODS: HRV (5-minute single lead ECG) was measured in 63 healthy adults (41 men and 22 women) aged 18-56 years at sea level (SL) and during a HA trek at 3619m, 4600m and 5140m respectively. The main effects of altitude (SL, 3619, 4600 and 5140m) and sex (men vs women) and their potential interaction were assessed using a Factorial Repeated Measures ANOVA...
July 20, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727643/improving-early-adolescent-girls-motor-skill-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Natalie Lander, Philip J Morgan, Jo Salmon, Lisa M Barnett
BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) levels decline substantially during adolescence, and are consistently lower in girls. Competency in a range of fundamental movement skills (FMS) may serve as a protective factor for the decline in PA typically observed in adolescent girls; yet, girls' mastery in FMS is low. Whilst interventions can improve FMS, there is a lack of interventions targeting girls, and very few are conducted in high schools. Additionally, interventions are usually conducted by researchers, not teachers, and thus have little chance of being embedded into curricula...
July 19, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723844/associations-of-physical-activity-intensities-with-markers-of-insulin-sensitivity
#19
Charlotte Jelleyman, Charlotte L Edwardson, Joseph Henson, Laura J Gray, Alex V Rowlands, Kamlesh Khunti, Melanie J Davies, Thomas Yates
BACKGROUND: Objectively measured physical activity (PA) intensity has traditionally been categorised as light, moderate and vigorous using laboratory calibrated cut-points. The relative contribution of time spent across a spectrum of accelerometer-determined intensities on health outcomes is less clear. PURPOSE: To assess the relationship between objectively measured PA intensity on a continuous scale and markers of insulin sensitivity. METHODS: Participants at high risk of type 2 diabetes were recruited from primary care (Leicestershire, UK)...
July 19, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723843/no-superior-adaptations-to-carbohydrate-periodization-in-elite-endurance-athletes
#20
Kasper Degn Gejl, Line Thams, Mette Hansen, Torben Rokkedal-Lausch, Peter Plomgaard, Lars Nybo, Filip J Larsen, Daniele A Cardinale, Kurt Jensen, Hans-Christer Holmberg, Kristian Vissing, Niels Ørtenblad
PURPOSE: The present study investigated the effects of periodic CHO restriction on endurance performance and metabolic markers in elite endurance athletes. METHODS: Twenty-six male elite endurance athletes (VO2max: 65.0 ml O2[BULLET OPERATOR]kg[BULLET OPERATOR]min) completed 4 weeks of regular endurance training, while matched and randomized into two groups training with (Low) or without (High) carbohydrate (CHO) manipulation three days a week. The CHO manipulation days consisted of a 1-hr high intensity bike session in the morning, recovery for 7 hrs while consuming isocaloric diets containing either high CHO (414±2...
July 19, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
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