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Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise

Raphael Knaier, Max Niemeyer, Jonathan Wagner, Denis Infanger, Timo Hinrichs, Christopher Klenk, Sabrina Frutig, Christian Cajochen, Arno Schmidt-Trucksäss
PURPOSE: The aim was to determine the minimum secondary exhaustion criteria cut-offs (i.e. max respiratory exchange ratio [RERmax], max heart rate [HRmax], max rating of perceived exertion [RPEmax], and max blood lactate concentration [BLmax]) necessary to determine maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) during cardiopulmonary exercise tests (CPET), by balancing type I and type II errors. A further aim was to investigate if the defined cut-offs would be robust to diurnal and to day-to-day variations...
December 13, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Gordon Fisher, Barbara A Gower, Fernando Ovalle, Christian E Behrens, Gary R Hunter
Exercise is known to improve insulin sensitivity (SI), however studies to date have been confounded by negative energy deficits following exercise. PURPOSE: The primary objective of this study was to assess the effect of 8-16 weeks of aerobic exercise training on the SI of untrained women under rigorously controlled energy balanced conditions. The secondary objective was to determine if one acute bout of moderate (MIC)- or high (HII)-intensity exercise further affected SI. METHODS: SI was assessed in 28 untrained women at baseline, following 8-16-weeks of training with no-exercise prior to assessment (NE), 22hrs after MIC (50% VO2peak), and 22hrs after HII (84% VO2peak) using a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp...
December 13, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Oliver J Price, Costas Tsakirides, Mike Gray, Antonios Stavropoulos-Kalinoglou
PURPOSE: Pre-participation health screening is recommended to detect individuals susceptible to serious adverse cardiovascular complications during exercise. Although expert opinion and best available scientific evidence have informed recent modifications, there remains limited experimental data to support or refute current practice. We therefore aimed to quantify the impact of change to the ACSM pre-participation health screening guidelines on risk classification and referral for medical clearance in a large cohort of undergraduate university students...
December 11, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Elizabeth A Hubbard, Robert W Motl, Bo Fernhall
INTRODUCTION: Multiple sclerosis(MS) is an immune-mediated, neurological disease that results in physiological deconditioning with increasing disability. High-intensity interval training exercise(HIIT) has induced significant improvements in physiological conditioning in healthy and clinical populations, and might be appropriate for persons with MS who have mobility disability. The feasibility and acute effects of HIIT using recumbent stepping in persons with MS who have mobility disability are relatively unknown...
December 7, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Juuso O Hakala, Suvi P Rovio, Katja Pahkala, Jaakko Nevalainen, Markus Juonala, Nina Hutri-Kähönen, Olli J Heinonen, Mirja Hirvensalo, Risto Telama, Jorma Sa Viikari, Tuija H Tammelin, Olli T Raitakari
INTRODUCTION: Physical activity (PA) has been suggested to protect against old-age cognitive deficits. However, the independent role of childhood/youth PA for adulthood cognitive performance is unknown. This study investigated the association between PA from childhood to adulthood and midlife cognitive performance. METHODS: This study is a part of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Since 1980, a population-based cohort of 3,596 children (age 3-18 years) have been followed-up in 3-9-year intervals...
December 7, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Heleen Demeyer, David Donaire-Gonzalez, Elena Gimeno-Santos, Maria A Ramon, Jordi de Batlle, Marta Benet, Ignasi Serra, Stefano Guerra, Eva Farrero, Esther Rodriguez, Jaume Ferrer, Jaume Sauleda, Eduard Monso, Joaquim Gea, Robert Rodriguez-Roisin, Alvar Agusti, Josep M Antó, Judith Garcia-Aymerich
INTRODUCTION: COPD progression is variable and affects several disease domains, including decline in lung function, exercise capacity, muscle strength and health status as well as changes in body composition. We aimed to assess the longitudinal association of physical activity (PA) with these a priori selected components of disease progression. METHOD: We studied 114 COPD patients from the PAC-COPD cohort [94% male, mean (SD) 70 (8) years of age, 54 (16) FEV1 % predicted] at baseline and 2...
December 7, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Matthew P Herring, Derek C Monroe, Brett R Gordon, Mats Hallgren, Mark J Campbell
Recent findings support positive effects of acute aerobic exercise on worry, state anxiety, and feelings of energy and fatigue among young adult women with subclinical, or analogue, Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD). However, exercise effects among young adult men with analogue GAD are unstudied. PURPOSE: This study replicated initial findings of positive effects of acute vigorous-intensity aerobic exercise on worry, state anxiety, and feelings of energy and fatigue among young adult women with analogue GAD, examined responses among young adult men with analogue GAD, and explored sex-related differences and moderation by physical activity level, trait anxiety, depression, and poor sleep status...
December 5, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Kaisu M Kaikkonen, Saana S Saltevo, Juha T Korpelainen, Marja L Vanhala, Jari J Jokelainen, Raija I Korpelainen, Sirkka M Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi
INTRODUCTION: This 24-month study aimed to determine if exercise intervention added to weight loss treatment at 6 months is effective for weight loss and maintenance. METHODS: A total of 120 obese subjects (BMI > 30) were randomly assigned to behavioural modification (iBM) (n = 30), behavioural modification + exercise from 0 to 3 months (CWT1) (n = 30), behavioural modification + exercise from 6 to 9 months (CWT2) (n = 30), and a control group (CON) (n = 30)...
December 5, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Jacob T Caldwell, Shelbi L Sutterfield, Hunter K Post, Jesse C Craig, Dryden R Baumfalk, Steven W Copp, Carl J Ade
INTRODUCTION: the aim of the current investigation was to examine if dietary nitrate supplementation would improve vascular control in hypertensive post-menopausal women (PMW). We tested the hypotheses that acute dietary nitrate supplementation would 1) significantly decrease arterial blood pressure (BP) at rest and during exercise; 2) increase limb blood flow during steady-state exercise; and 3) improve functional sympatholysis during steady-state (SS) exercise. METHODS: ten hypertensive PMW underwent a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial with a nitrate-rich (NR) or nitrate poor (NP) supplement...
December 5, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Fernanda Ribeiro, Ferid Oueslati, Didier Saey, Pierre-Alexis Lépine, Sana Chambah, Valérie Coats, François Maltais
PURPOSE: To describe cardiorespiratory, quadriceps oxygenation, and muscle fatigue responses during a one-legged quadriceps isokinetic endurance exercise in COPD and control subjects. METHODS: Fourteen patients with COPD and 14 control subjects performed a cardiopulmonary cycling exercise test (CPET) to exhaustion to assess peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2peak), minute ventilation (V˙E2peak) and heart rate (HRpeak). They also performed a quadriceps isokinetic endurance exercise consisting in 30 maximal knee-extensions at 90°/s with continuous monitoring of expired gases, cardiac output (CO) and oxygenation of the quadriceps by near-infrared spectroscopy...
December 5, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Scott F Brennan, Andrew G Cresswell, Dominic J Farris, Glen A Lichtwark
At a constant power output, cyclists prefer to use a higher cadence than those that minimise metabolic cost. The neuromuscular mechanism underpinning the preferred higher cadence remains unclear. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cadence on joint level work and vastus lateralis (VL) fascicle mechanics while cycling at a constant, submaximal, power output. We hypothesised that preferred cycling cadence would enhance the power capacity of the VL muscle when compared to a more economical cadence...
December 5, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Neil Armstrong, Jo Welsman
PURPOSE: To investigate, longitudinally, short-term power output in relation to sex and concurrent changes in age, body mass, fat free mass (FFM), and maturity status. METHODS: Multiplicative multilevel modeling which enables the effects of variables to be partitioned concurrently within an allometric framework was used to analyze the peak power (PP) and mean power (MP) of 388 11-18 year-olds. Multilevel models were founded on 763 (405 from boys; 358 from girls) determinations of PP and MP from Wingate anaerobic tests, supported by anthropometric measures and maturity status...
December 5, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Samuel N Cheuvront, Kurt J Sollanek, Kelly Fattman, Chris Troyanos
Water planning is an important risk management concern for road race event organizers. PURPOSE: To compare water and cup prediction outputs from a mobile application (app) planning tool against: 1) measured group sweat losses, 2) documented event water and cup usage, and 3) traditional mathematical planning solutions. METHODS: Group mean sweating rates (L/h) from 12 published outdoor running studies were each compared to 12 composite averages using the Road Race Water Planner© app (RRWP)...
December 5, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
David M Hurley, Ewan R Williams, Jeff M Cross, Brad R Riedinger, Ronald A Meyer, George S Abela, Jill M Slade
Microvascular function is reduced with age, disease, and inactivity. Exercise is well known to improve vascular health and has the potential to improve microvascular function in aging and disease. PURPOSE: The study aimed to assess changes in peripheral microvascular function in sedentary older adults following aerobic exercise training. METHODS: Twenty-three, sedentary older adults (67±5 yrs, BMI=29±5, mean±SD) successfully completed a randomized 12-week graded treadmill walking intervention...
November 26, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Johannes Funken, Steffen Willwacher, Kai Heinrich, Ralf Müller, Hiroaki Hobara, Alena M Grabowski, Wolfgang Potthast
PURPOSE: The loads applied on the musculo-skeletal system during the long jump take-off step are not well established for non-amputee athletes or athletes with a lower extremity amputation. Information on joint loading and potential injury mechanisms is important for improving training or rehabilitation protocols, prosthetic design and the general understanding of the long jump. METHODS: Three-dimensional take-off step kinematics and kinetics were used for inverse dynamic model calculations on three male athletes with and seven male athletes without a below the knee amputation (BKA)...
November 26, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Leandro Brito, Tiago Peçanha, Rafael Fecchio, Rafael Rezende, Patrícia Sousa, Natan Silva-Júnior, Andrea Abreu, Giovânio Silva, Décio Mion-Junior, John Halliwill, Claudia Forjaz
INTRODUCTION: The acute blood pressure (BP) decrease is greater after evening than morning exercise, suggesting that evening training may have a greater hypotensive effect. OBJECTIVE: To compare the hypotensive effect of aerobic training performed in the morning versus evening in treated hypertensives. METHODS: Fifty treated hypertensive men were randomly allocated to 3 groups: morning training (MT); evening training (ET); and control (C)...
November 26, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Masafumi Terada, Nathan Johnson, Kyle Kosik, Phillip Gribble
PURPOSE: This study aimed to quantify differences in white matter microstructure and static postural control in individuals with and without a previous history of a lateral ankle sprain. METHODS: Ten participants with a history of a lateral ankle sprain and 10 controls performed 3, 20-second trials of single-leg static balance on a force platform under an eyes-open condition. Resultant sample entropy (SampEn) was used to assess static postural control performance...
November 21, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Mai Chinapaw, Xinhui Wang, Lars Bo Andersen, Teatske Altenburg
PURPOSE: To date, epidemiological studies have focused on the potential health effects of total volume of physical activity (PA) or sedentary behaviour (SB). However, two persons may have the same volume of PA or SB but accumulated in a completely different sequence. The pattern of accumulating PA and SB might be more important for health effects than the total volume. Therefore the aim was to develop a sophisticated algorithm translating accelerometer data into detailed sequence maps considering how PA and SB are accumulated throughout the day...
November 21, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Senne Bonnaerens, Pieter Fiers, Samuel Galle, Peter Aerts, Edward C Frederick, Yasunori Kaneko, Wim Derave, Dirk De Clercq
PURPOSE: Recent observations demonstrate that a sizeable proportion of the recreational running population runs at rather slow speeds and does not always show a clear flight phase. This study determined the key biomechanical and physiological characteristics of this running pattern, i.e. grounded running (GR), and compared these characteristics with slow aerial running (SAR) and reference data on walking at the same slow running speed. METHODS: Thirty male subjects performed instructed GR and SAR at 2...
November 21, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Steven J Pfeiffer, Jeffrey Spang, Daniel Nissman, David Lalush, Kyle Wallace, Matthew S Harkey, Laura Pietrosimone, Randy Schmitz, Todd Schwartz, Troy Blackburn, Brian Pietrosimone
PURPOSE: Aberrant walking biomechanics following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) are hypothesized to associate with deleterious changes in knee cartilage. T1ρ magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is sensitive to decreased proteoglycan density of cartilage. Our purpose was to determine associations between T1ρ MRI inter-limb ratios (ILR) and walking biomechanics 6-months post-ACLR. METHODS: Walking biomechanics (peak vertical ground reaction force [vGRF], vGRF loading rate [vGRF-LR], knee extension moment [KEM], knee abduction moment [KAM]) were extracted from the first 50% of stance phase in 29 individuals with unilateral ACLR...
November 15, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
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