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Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise

Keitaro Seki, Heikki Kyröläinen, Naoki Numazu, Keigo Ohyama-Byun, Yasushi Enomoto
PURPOSE: The present study was designed to investigate the effects of lower limb joint kinetics on energy cost during jumping. METHODS: Eight male middle and long-distance runners volunteered for the study. The subjects were asked to repeat vertical jumps at a frequency of 2 Hz for 3-min on a force platform in three different surface inclination conditions: Incline (+8°), Level (0°), and Decline (-8°). Sagittal plane kinematics were obtained using a high-speed video camera...
October 11, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Renan S Guerra, Thiago T Goya, Rosyvaldo F Silva, Marta F Lima, Eline R F Barbosa, Maria Janieire de N N Alves, Amanda G Rodrigues, Geraldo Lorenzi-Filho, Carlos Eduardo Negrão, Linda M Ueno-Pardi
We demonstrated that patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) have reduced muscle metaboreflex control of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA). Additionally, exercise training increased muscle metaboreflex control in heart failure patients. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that exercise training would increase muscle metaboreflex control of MSNA in patients with OSA. METHODS: Forty-one patients with OSA were randomized into the following two groups: (1) nontrained (OSANT, n=21) and (2) trained (OSAT, n=20)...
October 11, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Robert M Gifford, Thomas O'Leary, Rinn Cobb, Jodie Blackadder-Weinstein, Rebecca Double, Sophie L Wardle, Richard A Anderson, C Doug Thake, John Hattersley, Chris Imray, Adrian Wilson, Julie P Greeves, Rebecca M Reynolds, David R Woods
PURPOSE: To explore the effects of the first all-female transantarctic expedition on hormonal axes pertinent to reproductive and metabolic function. METHODS: Six females (aged 28-36, BMI 24.2 ±0.97 kgm) hauled 80kg sledges 1700km in 61 days. Estimated average energy intake was 20.8 ± 0.103 MJ/day (4970 ±25 kcal/day). Whole and regional body composition was measured by DXA one and two months before and 15 days after, the expedition. Body fat was also estimated by skinfold and bioimpedance immediately before and after the expedition...
October 10, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Daniel Aggio, Efstathios Papachristou, Olia Papacosta, Lucy T Lennon, Sarah Ash, Peter H Whincup, S Goya Wannamethee, Barbara J Jefferis
PURPOSE: Correlates of physical activity (PA) vary according to type. However, predictors of long-term patterns of PA types into old age are unknown. This study aimed to identify 20-year trajectories of PA types into old age and their predictors. METHODS: 7735 men (aged 40-59 years) recruited from UK towns in 1978-80 were followed up after 12, 16 and 20 years. Men reported participation in sport/exercise, recreational activity and walking, health status, lifestyle behaviours and socio-demographic characteristics...
October 9, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Jairo H Migueles, Christine Delisle Nyström, Pontus Henriksson, Cristina Cadenas-Sanchez, Francisco B Ortega, Marie Löf
PURPOSE: To assess the capacity of different acceleration metrics from wrist accelerations to estimate total and activity energy expenditure (TEE, AEE) using doubly labelled water (DLW) in preschool children. METHODS: Thirty-nine preschoolers (5.5±0.1 years) were included. TEE was measured using DLW during 14 days and AEE was then calculated using a predicted basal metabolic rate. Participants wore a wGT3X-BT accelerometer on their non-dominant wrist for ≥5 days...
October 9, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
József Tollár, Ferenc Nagy, Norbert Kovács, Tibor Hortobágyi
INTRODUCTION: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative condition and it is unclear if long-term non-pharmaceutical interventions can slow the progression of motor and non-motor symptoms and lower drug dose. METHODS: In a randomized trial, after an initial 3-week-long, 15-session supervised high-intensity sensorimotor agility exercise (E) program designed to improve postural instability, the Exercise+Maintenance (E+M, n=19) group continued to exercise three times per week for 2 years, while E (n=16) and the no exercise and no maintenance control (C, n=20) continued habitual living...
October 9, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Carlos A Celis-Morales, Stuart Gray, Fanny Petermann, Stamatina Iliodromiti, Paul Welsh, Donald M Lyall, Jana Anderson, Pierpaolo Pellicori, Daniel F Mackay, Jill P Pell, Naveed Sattar, Jason M R Gill
PURPOSE: Walking pace is associated with all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. Whether this association extends to other health outcomes and whether it is independent of total amount of time walked are currently unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether usual walking pace is associated with a range of health outcomes. METHODS: 318,185 UK Biobank participants (54% women) aged 40-69 years were included. Walking pace and total walking time were self-reported...
October 9, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Kirsten A Williams, Kathryn Bell, Robert A Jacobs, Andrew W Subudhi
INTRODUCTION: It is well known that supplemental oxygen can increase aerobic power output during high-intensity and/or maximal efforts at moderate altitude, yet the effects on self-selected work rate during lower-intensity, submaximal exercise are unknown. We reasoned that if the degree of arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) influences teleoanticipatory regulation of power output, supplemental oxygen given at moderate altitude would increase average power output during exercise performed at self-selected work rates corresponding to RPE 9 (very light) and 13 (somewhat hard)...
October 5, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Kristin L Jonvik, Kaatje Lenaerts, Joey Sj Smeets, Jeroen J Kolkman, Luc Jc van Loon, Lex B Verdijk
PURPOSE: Strenuous exercise induces intestinal injury, which is likely related to splanchnic hypoperfusion and may be associated with gastrointestinal complaints commonly reported during certain exercise modalities. Increasing circulating nitric oxide (NO) levels or inducing postprandial hyperemia may improve splanchnic perfusion, thereby attenuating intestinal injury during exercise. Therefore, we investigated the effects of both dietary nitrate ingestion and sucrose ingestion on splanchnic perfusion and intestinal injury induced by prolonged strenuous cycling...
October 5, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Lin Y Chen, Rachel Zmora, Sue Duval, Lisa S Chow, Donald M Lloyd-Jones, Pamela J Schreiner
PURPOSE: The importance of cardiorespiratory fitness vs. adiposity in determining heart rate variability (HRV) is unclear. METHODS: From CARDIA, an observational cohort study, we included 2,316 participants (mean age 45.2±3.6 years at Year 20, 57% female, 43% black) with HRV measured in 2005-06 (Year 20), and graded exercise test duration (GXTd) and adiposity measures (BMI, waist circumference) obtained in 1985-86 (baseline) and 2005-06. HRV measures (standard deviation of all normal RR intervals [SDNN] and square root of the mean of the squares of differences between all successive RR intervals [RMSSD]) were obtained from resting 30-second 12-lead ECGs...
October 1, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Hayato Tsukamoto, Takeshi Hashimoto, Niels D Olesen, Lonnie G Petersen, Henrik Sørensen, Henning B Nielsen, Niels H Secher, Shigehiko Ogoh
INTRODUCTION: High-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) is more effective at increasing metabolic and cardiovascular health compared to moderate-intensity continuous exercise for patients with cardiovascular disease, but exhaustive high-intensity continuous exercise (HICE) attenuates dynamic cerebral autoregulation (CA). This study assessed the effect of HIIE on dynamic CA. METHODS: Nine healthy men (age: 24 ± 3 years; mean ± SD) warmed up at 50%-60% maximal workload (Wmax) for 5 min before HIIE including four 4 min bouts of exercise at 80%-90% Wmax interspaced by four 3 min bouts at 50%-60% Wmax...
September 24, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Eric Williamson, Hiroyuki Kato, Kimberly A Volterman, Katsuya Suzuki, Daniel R Moore
Recommendations for dietary protein are based primarily intakes that maintain nitrogen (i.e. protein) balance rather than optimize metabolism and/or performance. PURPOSE: To determine how varying protein intakes, including a new tracer-derived safe intake, alter whole body protein metabolism and exercise performance during training. METHODS: Using a double-blind randomized crossover design, 10 male endurance-trained runners (age, 32±8 yr; VO2peak, 65.9±7.9 ml O2·kg·min) performed 3 trials consisting of 4 days of controlled training (20, 5, 10, 20 km·d, respectively) while consuming diets providing 0...
September 24, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Anna M Savolainen, Anna Karmi, Heidi Immonen, Minna Soinio, Virva Saunavaara, Tam Pham, Paulina Salminen, Mika Helmiö, Jari Ovaska, Eliisa Löyttyniemi, Marja A Heiskanen, Terho Lehtimäki, Andrea Mari, Pirjo Nuutila, Jarna C Hannukainen
PURPOSE: Bariatric surgery is considered as an effective therapeutic strategy for weight loss in severe obesity. Remission of type 2 diabetes is often achieved following the surgery. We investigated whether increase in self-reported habitual physical activity associates with improved skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity and reduction of fat depots after bariatric surgery. METHODS: We assessed self-reported habitual physical activity using Baecke questionnaire in 18 diabetic and 28 non-diabetic patients with morbid obesity (median age 46 years and BMI 42...
September 21, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
David P Looney, Adam W Potter, J Luke Pryor, Patricia E Bremner, Christopher R Chalmers, Holly M McClung, Alexander P Welles, William R Santee
INTRODUCTION: The Load Carriage Decision Aid (LCDA) is a US Army planning tool that predicts physiological responses of Soldiers during different dismounted troop scenarios. We aimed to develop an equation that calculates standing and walking metabolic rates in healthy military-age adults for the LCDA using a meta-regression. METHODS: We searched for studies that measured the energetic cost of standing and treadmill walking in healthy men and women via indirect calorimetry...
September 21, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Saki Kondo, Kumpei Tanisawa, Katsuhiko Suzuki, Shin Terada, Mitsuru Higuchi
PURPOSE: Carbohydrate (CHO) ingestion 30-45 min before exercise results in transient hypoglycemia after starting the exercise in some, but not all, subjects. However, whether transient hypoglycemia is more likely to occur under fed or fasted condition remains unknown. This study aimed to directly compare the effects of fasting vs. feeding on plasma glucose responses following pre-exercise CHO intake and to examine the relationship between insulin responses and onset of transient hypoglycemia...
September 21, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Ryan Calsbeek, Vincent Careau
INTRODUCTION: Tradeoffs are widespread in biological systems. Any investment in one trait must necessarily limit the investment in other traits. Still, many studies of physiological performance produce positive correlations between traits that are expected to tradeoff with one another. Here we investigate why predicted tradeoffs may often go unmeasured in studies of human athletes. METHODS: Triathletes compete in consecutive swimming, cycling, and running events as a single competition, events whose physical demands may be especially prone to generating performance tradeoffs...
September 21, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Alexandra N Schumacher, Daniel Yk Shackelford, Jessica M Brown, Reid Hayward
PURPOSE: To assess the quality of the relationship between VO2peak estimated from patient outcomes on the 6-minute walk test (6-MWT) and the VO2peak calculated from patient outcomes on the University of Northern Colorado Cancer Rehabilitation Institute (UNCCRI) treadmill protocol. METHODS: Cancer survivors (N = 187) completed the UNCCRI treadmill protocol and a 6MWT one week apart in randomized order to obtain VO2peak. Values from the UNCCRI treadmill protocol were compared against four common 6MWT VO2peak prediction equations...
September 19, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Christina B Vander Vegt, Johna K Register-Mihalik, Cassie B Ford, Corey J Rodrigo, Kevin M Guskiewicz, Jason P Mihalik
PURPOSE: To examine relationships among baseline demographics, symptom severity, computerized neurocognitive outcomes, and balance performance in collegiate athletes. METHODS: Collegiate varsity athletes (N=207, age=19.3 ± 1.0 years) participating in an ongoing clinical research program who completed concussion baseline assessments including a demographic questionnaire, graded symptom checklist, neurocognitive assessment, and the Sensory Organization Test (SOT) were included in this study...
September 19, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Jackie L Whittaker, Clodagh M Toomey, Alberto Nettel-Aguirre, Jacob L Jaremko, Patricia K Doyle-Baker, Linda J Woodhouse, Carolyn A Emery
PURPOSE: Active youth are vulnerable to knee injury and subsequent osteoarthritis. Improved understanding of the association between health-related outcomes and history of joint injury could inform osteoarthritis prevention strategies. The purpose of this historical cohort study is to examine the association between youth sport-related knee injury and various clinical, physiological, behavioral and functional health-related outcomes, 3-10 years post-injury. METHODS: Participants included 100 individuals who experienced a youth sport-related knee injury 3-10 years earlier and 100 age, sex and sport-matched uninjured controls...
September 19, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Erik D Hanson, Eli Danson, William S Evans, William A Wood, Claudio L Battaglini, Samy Sakkal
Mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) have properties of both the innate and adaptive immune systems but are an understudied population within exercise immunology. These lymphocytes aggregate at the mucous membranes, but it is unknown if submaximal exercise alters their circulating numbers or function. PURPOSE: To determine the MAIT cell response to submaximal exercise on activation and homing marker expression and stimulated cytokine production. METHODS: Twenty healthy, young, recreationally active males cycled for 40 min at 86% of VT following an overnight fast...
September 19, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
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