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Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650351/changes-in-health-and-fitness-in-firefighter-recruits-an-observational-cohort-study
#1
David J Cornell, Stacy L Gnacinski, Barbara B Meyer, Kyle T Ebersole
PURPOSE: To observe longitudinal changes in health and fitness among firefighter recruits. METHODS: Body composition, aerobic capacity, muscular power, muscular strength, and muscular endurance measures were longitudinally collected among 27 male firefighter recruits (mean ± SD, age = 29.9 ± 4.1 yrs; height = 179.8 ± 4.6 cm; body mass = 87.2 ± 9.7 kg) at the beginning (W1) and end (W14) of their firefighter training academy, as well as at the end of their probationary period (W38)...
June 22, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640061/intermittent-standing-but-not-a-moderate-exercise-bout-reduces-postprandial-glycaemia
#2
Fabiana B Benatti, Sidsel A Larsen, Katja Kofoed, Signe T Nielsen, Nina M Harder-Lauridsen, Mark P Lyngbæk, Dorte Eriksen, Kristian Karstoft, Rikke Krogh-Madsen, Bente K Pedersen, Mathias Ried-Larsen
PURPOSE: To determine if minimum recommended moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA; 30-min bout of continuous moderate-intensity walking) is sufficient to counteract the detrimental effects of prolonged sitting on postprandial metabolism and if there are any effects of breaking up sitting with intermittent standing when achieving minimum recommended MVPA. METHODS: Fourteen (n=14) physically inactive healthy adult males underwent four intra-hospital 27-h interventions: 9-h continuous sitting (SIT); 15-min standing bouts every 30 min during the 9-h sitting (STAND); 30-min moderate-intensity walking bout followed by 8...
June 21, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640060/individualized-estimation-of-physical-activity-in-older-adults-with-type-2-diabetes
#3
Whitney A Welch, Neil Alexander, Ann M Swartz, Nora E Miller, Erica Twardzik, Scott J Strath
PURPOSE: Compare physical activity intensity in older adults with T2DM using individualized, relative cutpoints with standard, absolute cutpoints. METHODS: One hundred older adults with T2DM (68.9±5.1y, 65% male, 32.7±6.3 kgm, 7.2±1.1% HbA1c) completed a two-speed walking protocol (varying, walking between 1-2.5 mph), followed by a modified Bruce peak exercise test. Participants wore an accelerometer-based physical activity monitor at their waist and oxygen consumption was measured...
June 21, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617704/greater-oxidative-capacity-in-primary-myotubes-from-endurance-trained-women
#4
Timothy D Heden, Terence E Ryan, Patrick J Ferrara, Robert C Hickner, Patricia M Brophy, P Darrell Neufer, Joseph M McClung, Katsuhiko Funai
PURPOSE: Exercise training promotes skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and an increase in maximal oxygen consumption. Primary myotubes retain some metabolic properties observed in vivo but it is unknown whether this includes exercise-induced mitochondrial adaptations. The goal of this study was to test if primary myotubes from exercise-trained women have higher mitochondrial content and maximal oxygen consumption compared to untrained women. METHODS: Six trained and nine untrained Caucasian women participated in this study...
June 14, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614195/assessment-of-knee-kinematics-in-older-adults-using-high-speed-stereo-radiography
#5
Vasiliki Kefala, Adam J Cyr, Michael D Harris, Donald R Hume, Bradley S Davidson, Raymond H Kim, Kevin B Shelburne
PURPOSE: Quantification of knee motion is essential for assessment of pathologic joint function, such as tracking osteoarthritis progression and evaluating outcomes following conservative or surgical treatment, including total knee arthroplasty. Our purpose was to establish a useful baseline for the kinematic envelope of knee motion in healthy older adults performing movements of daily living. METHODS: A high-speed stereo radiography system was used to measure the three-dimensional tibiofemoral kinematics of eight healthy people over 55 years of age (4F/4M, age=61...
June 13, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614194/impact-of-3-years-of-classroom-physical-activity-bouts-on-time-on-task-behavior
#6
Amanda N Szabo-Reed, Erik A Willis, Jaehoon Lee, Charles H Hillman, Richard A Washburn, Joseph E Donnelly
Participation in classroom physical activity (PA) may improve time-on-task (TOT), however, the influence of sustained moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) on TOT is unknown. PURPOSE: To explore the influence of classroom PA delivered with academic lessons on TOT, determine if the relationship between classroom PA and TOT differs by age, sex, race/ethnicity, weight or baseline fitness, and identify the influence of MVPA on TOT when controlling for demographic variables. METHODS: Teachers in intervention schools were asked to deliver two, 10-minute PA lessons/day, 5 days/week...
June 13, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614193/meta-analysis-of-cigarette-smoking-and-musculoskeletal-injuries-in-military-training
#7
Sheryl A Bedno, Rhonda Jackson, Xiaoshu Feng, Imani L Walton, Michael R Boivin, David N Cowan
PURPOSE: Tobacco use is common among military personnel, as is musculoskeletal injury during training. In a review of the literature on musculoskeletal injuries there was mixed evidence on the role of smoking as a risk factor. The purpose of this study is to review and analyze the literature on the impact of cigarette smoking on lower extremity overuse injuries in military training. METHODS: We performed a literature search on articles published through October 2016...
June 13, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609330/age-modulates-physiological-responses-during-fan-use-under-extreme-heat-and-humidity
#8
Daniel Gagnon, Steven A Romero, Matthew N Cramer, Ken Kouda, Paula Ys Poh, Hai Ngo, Ollie Jay, Craig G Crandall
PURPOSE: We examined the effect of electric fan use on cardiovascular and thermoregulatory responses of nine young (26 ± 3 years) and nine aged (68 ± 4 years) adults exposed to extreme heat and humidity. METHODS: While resting at a temperature of 42°C, relative humidity increased from 30 to 70% in 2% increments every 5 minutes. On randomized days, the protocol was repeated without or with fan use. Heart rate (HR), core (Tcore) and mean skin (Tsk) temperatures were measured continuously...
June 12, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604558/generating-actigraph-counts-from-raw-acceleration-recorded-by-an-alternative-monitor
#9
Jan Christian Brønd, Lars Bo Andersen, Daniel Arvidsson
PURPOSE: To implement an aggregation method in Matlab for generating ActiGraph counts from raw acceleration recorded with an alternative accelerometer device and to investigate the validity of the method. METHODS: The aggregation method including the frequency band-pass filter was implemented and optimized based on standardized sinusoidal acceleration signals generated in Matlab and processed in the ActiLife software. Evaluating the validity of the aggregation method was approached using a mechanical setup and with a 24-hour free-living recording using a convenient sample of nine subjects...
June 9, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598909/cardiorespiratory-reference-data-in-older-adults-the-generation-100-study
#10
Dorthe Stensvold, Silvana Bucher Sandbakk, Hallgeir Viken, Nina Zisko, Line Skarsem Reitlo, Javaid Nauman, Svein Erik Gaustad, Erlend Hassel, Marcel Moufack, Eivind Brønstad, Nils Petter Aspvik, Vegard Malmo, Sigurd Loe Steinshamn, Asbjørn Støylen, Sigmund Alfred Anderssen, Jorunn L Helbostad, Øivind Rognmo, Ulrik Wisløff
PURPOSE: Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is regarded a clinical vital sign, and accurate reference values for all age groups are essential. Little data exist on CRF and cardiorespiratory function in older adults. The aim of this study was to provide normative values for CRF and cardiorespiratory function in older adults, including people with history of cardiovascular diseases. METHODS: In total, 1537 (769 women) participants aged 70-77 underwent clinical examinations and cardiopulmonary exercise tests...
June 9, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594657/fitness-moderates-glycemic-responses-to-sitting-and-light-activity-breaks
#11
Matthew McCarthy, Charlotte L Edwardson, Melanie J Davies, Joseph Henson, Danielle H Bodicoat, Kamlesh Khunti, David W Dunstan, James A King, Thomas Yates
PURPOSE: This study aimed to experimentally determine whether cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF) modifies postprandial glycemia during prolonged sitting and investigated the potentially blunting influence this may have upon the benefits of interrupting postprandial sitting time with light activity breaks. METHODS: Thirty-four adults (18female; 16male; mean ± SD age: 40 ± 9years, BMI: 24.5 ± 3kg/m) undertook two 7·5hour experimental conditions in a randomized order: 1) Prolonged sitting; 2) Sitting interspersed with 5min light walking bouts every 30min...
June 8, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598910/power-training-induced-increases-in-muscle-activation-during-gait-in-old-adults
#12
Chantal M I Beijersbergen, Urs Granacher, Martijn Gäbler, Paul DeVita, Tibor Hortobágyi
INTRODUCTION/PURPOSE: Aging modifies neuromuscular activation of agonist and antagonist muscles during walking. Power training can evoke adaptations in neuromuscular activation that underlie gains in muscle strength and power but it is unknown if these adaptations transfer to dynamic tasks such as walking. We examined the effects of lower extremity power training on neuromuscular activation during level gait in old adults. METHODS: Twelve community dwelling old adults (age ≥ 65 years) completed a 10-week lower extremity power-training program and thirteen old adults completed a 10-week control period...
June 7, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574874/physical-activity-and-abdominal-fat-distribution-in-greenland
#13
Inger Katrine Dahl-Petersen, Søren Brage, Peter Bjerregaard, Janne Tolstrup, Marit Eika Jørgensen
PURPOSE: We examined how total volume of physical activity and reallocation of time spent at various objectively measured intensities of physical activity (PA) were associated with overall and abdominal fat distribution in adult Inuit in Greenland. METHODS: Data were collected as part of a countrywide cross-sectional health survey in Greenland. A combined accelerometer and heart rate monitor measured total physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and intensities of PA (N=1536)...
June 2, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574873/physical-activity-not-sedentary-time-predicts-dxa-measured-adiposity-age-5-19-years
#14
Kathleen F Janz, Piroska Boros, Elena M Letuchy, Soyang Kwon, Trudy L Burns, Steven M Levy
PURPOSE: To examine the associations among physical activity (PA), sedentary time (SED), and TV viewing (TV) with fat mass (FAT) and visceral adipose tissue mass (VAT) from childhood through adolescence (5-19 years). METHODS: Participants in the Iowa Bone Development Study (n = 230 males and 233 females) were examined at ages 5, 8, 11, 13, 15, 17 & 19 years. Accelerometers measured moderate- or vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA; min/day), light-intensity PA (LPA; min/day), and SED (h/day)...
June 2, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557860/applying-the-acsm-preparticipation-screening-algorithm-to-u-s-adults-nhanes-2001-04
#15
Geoffrey P Whitfield, Deborah Riebe, Meir Magal, Gary Liguori
PURPOSE: For most people, the benefits of physical activity far outweigh the risks. Research has suggested exercise preparticipation questionnaires might refer an unwarranted number of adults for medical evaluation before exercise initiation, creating a potential barrier to adoption. The new American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) prescreening algorithm relies on current exercise participation; history and symptoms of cardiovascular, metabolic or renal disease; and desired exercise intensity to determine referral status...
May 26, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548976/effect-of-prior-injury-on-changes-to-biceps-femoris-architecture-across-an-afl-season
#16
Ryan G Timmins, Matthew N Bourne, Jack T Hickey, Nirav Maniar, Paul J Tofari, Morgan D Williams, David A Opar
PURPOSE: To assess in-season alterations of biceps femoris long head (BFlh) fascicle length in elite Australian footballers with and without a history of HSI. METHODS: Thirty elite Australian football players were recruited. Twelve had a history of unilateral HSI. Eighteen had no HSI history. All had their BFlh architecture assessed at approximately monthly intervals, six times across a competitive season. RESULTS: The previously injured limb's BFlh fascicles increased from the start of the season and peaked at week 5...
May 25, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542004/do-dynamic-fat-and-fat-free-mass-changes-follow-theoretical-driven-rules-in-athletes
#17
Analiza M Silva, Catarina N Matias, Diana A Santos, Paulo M Rocha, Cláudia S Minderico, Diana Thomas, Steven B Heymsfield, Luís B Sardinha
INTRODUCTION: Maximizing fat mass (FM) loss while preserving or increasing fat-free mass (FFM) is a central goal for athletic performance but the composition of body weight (BW) changes over time with training are largely unknown. PURPOSE: We aimed to analyze FM and FFM contributions to BW changes and to test if these contributions follow established rules and predictions over one athletic season. METHODS: 70 athletes (42 males; handball, volleyball, basketball, triathlon, and swimming) were evaluated from the beginning to the competitive stage of the season and were empirically divided into those who lost (n=20) or gained >1...
May 23, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542003/providing-choice-in-exercise-influences-food-intake-at-the-subsequent-meal
#18
Natalya J Beer, James A Dimmock, Ben Jackson, Kym J Guelfi
The benefits of regular exercise for health are well established; however, certain behaviors following exercise, such as unhealthy or excessive food consumption, can counteract some of these benefits. PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of autonomy support (through the provision of choice) in exercise - relative to a no-choice condition with matched energy expenditure - on appetite and subsequent energy intake. METHODS: Fifty-eight men and women (body mass index: 22...
May 23, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538026/children-with-burn-injury-have-impaired-cardiac-output-during-submaximal-exercise
#19
Eric Rivas, David N Herndon, Kenneth C Beck, Oscar E Suman
INTRODUCTION: Burn trauma damages resting cardiac function; however, it is currently unknown if the cardiovascular response to exercise is likewise impaired. We tested the hypothesis that, in children, burn injury lowers cardiac output (Q) and stroke volume (SV) during submaximal exercise. METHODS: Five children with 49±4% total body surface area (BSA) burned (2 female, 11.7±1 y, 40.4±18 kg, 141.1±9 cm) and eight similar non-burned controls (5 female, 12.5±2 y, 58...
May 22, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538025/a-cluster-rct-to-reduce-workers-sitting-time-impact-on-cardiometabolic-biomarkers
#20
Genevieve N Healy, Elisabeth Ah Winkler, Elizabeth G Eakin, Neville Owen, Anthony D LaMontagne, Marj Moodie, David W Dunstan
PURPOSE: To evaluate the initial and long-term impacts on cardio-metabolic health indicators of the Stand Up Victoria intervention - a 12-month, multicomponent workplace-delivered intervention that successfully reduced overall sitting time, primarily by increasing standing time. METHODS: Office worksites (≥1km apart) from a single organization were cluster randomized to intervention (n=7) or control (n=7). Participants were 136 intervention and 95 control desk-based workers (5-39 per worksite; 68% women; mean±SD age = 45...
May 22, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
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