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Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise

Neil E Hill, Kevin Deighton, Jamie Matu, Shivani Misra, Nick S Oliver, Carrie Newman, Adrian Mellor, John O'Hara, David Woods
PURPOSE: Exposure to high altitude has been shown to enhance both glucose and lipid utilization depending on experimental protocol. In addition, high and low blood glucose levels have been reported at high altitude. We hypothesized that gradual ascent to high altitude results in changes in glucose levels in healthy young adults. METHODS: 25 adult volunteers, split into two teams, took part in the British Services Dhaulagiri Medical Research Expedition completing 14 days of trekking around the Dhaulagiri circuit in Nepal reaching a peak altitude of 5300m on Day 11 of the trek...
April 27, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Mathieu Marillier, Mathieu Gruet, Sébastien Baillieul, Thibault Le Roux Mallouf, Bernard Wuyam, Renaud Tamisier, Patrick Levy, Jean-Louis Pepin, Samuel Verges
PURPOSE: Lower muscle strength and endurance have been reported in severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Increased intracortical inhibition previously reported at rest in OSA suggests central neuromuscular impairments in these patients. We hypothesized that (i) OSA patients demonstrate reduced knee extensor strength and endurance due to central impairments and (ii) continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment improves neuromuscular function in these patients. METHODS: Twelve OSA patients and 11 healthy controls performed intermittent knee extensions until task failure before and after 8 weeks of CPAP treatment or control period...
April 27, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
D Alan Nelson, Patricia A Deuster, Francis G OʼConnor, Lianne M Kurina
PURPOSE: Heat illnesses are important and potentially fatal conditions among physically active individuals. We determined predictors of heat illness among enlistees in a large military population experiencing common physical activity patterns. METHODS: We estimated the adjusted odds of mild and severe heat illness associated with demographic, health-related, and geographic factors among active-duty, United States Army soldiers enlisting between January 2011 - December 2014 (N=238,168) using discrete-time multivariable logistic regression analyses...
April 27, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Sean R Notley, Robert D Meade, Andrew W DʼSouza, Brian J Friesen, Glen P Kenny
PURPOSE: Prolonged work in the heat may exacerbate the rise in core temperature on the next work day, especially in older workers who display impairments in whole-body heat loss that increase body heat storage and core temperature relative to young adults during heat stress. We therefore evaluated whether whole-body heat loss in older adults was impaired on the day following prolonged work in the heat. METHODS: Whole-body heat exchange and heat storage were assessed in nine older (53-64 years) males during three, 30-min bouts of semi-recumbent cycling at fixed rates of metabolic heat production (150 (Ex1), 200 (Ex2), 250 Wm (Ex3)), each separated by 15-min recovery, in hot-dry conditions (40°C, 20% relative humidity), immediately prior to (Day 1), and on the day following (Day 2), a prolonged, work simulation (~7...
April 21, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
James E M Blackwell, Brett Doleman, Philip J J Herrod, Samuel Ricketts, Bethan E Phillips, Jonathan N Lund, John P Williams
BACKGROUND & AIM: Exercise training regimes can lead to improvements in measures of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), improved general health, and reduced morbidity and overall mortality risk. High intensity interval training (HIIT) offers a time-efficient approach to improve CRF in healthy individuals, but the relative benefits of HIIT compared to traditional training methods are unknown in across different disease cohorts. METHODS: This systematic review and meta-analysis compares CRF gains in randomised controlled trials of short-term (<8 weeks) HIIT vs...
April 21, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Tim Braun, Leamor Kahanov
PURPOSE: Although community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections have reduced among inpatient populations, the incidence in athletics continues to range greatly dependent on the sport. Over the 2015-2016 and 2016-2017 school years, we assessed the annual CA-MRSA incidence, sport risk, referral practices, and management protocols or interventions among high school and intercollegiate athletics. METHODS: This study targeted high school and intercollegiate athletic programs across the United States...
April 21, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Yannick Molgat-Seon, Paolo B Dominelli, Andrew H Ramsook, Michele R Schaeffer, Lee M Romer, Jeremy D Road, Jordan A Guenette, A William Sheel
PURPOSE: Characterize the effects of age, sex, and their interaction on inspiratory muscle activation patterns during exercise. METHODS: Twenty younger (20-30y, n=10 women) and twenty older (60-80y, n=10 women) subjects performed an incremental cycle exercise test. Electromyography of the scalene (EMGsca) and sternocleidomastoid (EMGscm) muscles were measured using skin surface electrodes, while diaphragm electromyography (EMGdi) and esophageal and transdiaphragmatic pressures were measured using an esophageal catheter...
April 21, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Carolyn J Peddle-McIntyre, Vinicius Cavalheri, Terry Boyle, Joanne A McVeigh, Emily Jeffery, Brigid M Lynch, Jeff K Vallance
BACKGROUND: In the cancer survivorship context, physical activity and sedentary behaviour have been measured using different methods and tools. PURPOSE: To conduct a narrative review of published research in cancer survivor populations to summarise the quality and identify gaps in reporting on accelerometer data collection, data processing, and outcome measures in cancer survivors. METHODS: An initial PubMed® search of papers published in English was conducted in January 2017, and a final search was conducted in May 2017...
April 21, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Brittany Butts, Javed Butler, Sandra B Dunbar, Elizabeth Corwin, Rebecca A Gary
INTRODUCTION/PURPOSE: Inflammation contributes to heart failure (HF) progression and the interleukin (IL)-1 cytokine IL-1β is implicated in this process. The adaptor protein ASC is necessary for inflammasome activation of IL-1β. Lower ASC methylation is associated with worse outcomes in HF. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of exercise on changes in ASC methylation and activation of the interleukin-1 family cytokine IL-1β in persons with HF. METHODS: Participants (N=54) were randomized to receive exercise intervention (n=38) or attention control (n=16) for 3 months...
April 21, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Kristin L Sainani
PURPOSE: A statistical method called "Magnitude-Based Inference" (MBI) has gained a following in the sports science literature, despite concerns voiced by statisticians. Its proponents have claimed that MBI exhibits superior Type I and Type II error rates compared with standard null hypothesis testing for most cases. I have performed a re-analysis to evaluate this claim. METHODS: Using simulation code provided by MBI's proponents, I estimated Type I and Type II error rates for clinical and non-clinical MBI for a range of effect sizes, sample sizes, and smallest important effects...
April 21, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Melyssa Roy, Sheila M Williams, Rachel C Brown, Kim A Meredith-Jones, Hamish Osborne, Michelle Jospe, Rachael W Taylor
PURPOSE: Although high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous exercise have comparable health outcomes in the laboratory setting, effectiveness studies in real-world environments are lacking. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an unsupervised HIIT programme in overweight/obese adults over 12 months. METHODS: 250 overweight/obese adults could choose HIIT or current exercise guidelines of 30 minutes/day moderate-intensity exercise...
April 21, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Gary B Wilkerson, Dustin C Nabhan, Chad J Prusmack, William J Moreau
PURPOSE: Assessment of various indices of neuromechanical responsiveness for association with concussion history. METHODS: An observational cohort study included 48 elite athletes (34 males: 23.8 ±4.4 years; 14 females: 25.4 ±4.5 years) who performed visuomotor reaction time (VMRT) tests involving rapid manual contact with illuminated target buttons that included 2 dual-task conditions: 1) simultaneous oral recitation of scrolling text (VMRT+ST) and 2) simultaneous verbal responses to identify the right or left direction indicated by the center arrow of the Eriksen flanker test (VMRT+FT)...
April 21, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Jelle Van Cauwenberg, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, Peter Clarys, Bas de Geus, Benedicte Deforche
PURPOSE: Electric bicycles (e-bikes) may offer an opportunity to stimulate physical activity among older adults. The current study compared Flemish (Belgian) older e-bike users against those not using an e-bike on socio-demographics, health characteristics and access to motorized transport. Additionally, it examined the association between e-bike use and levels of cycling and the moderating effects of sex, BMI and cycling limitations. METHODS: An online- or interview-version of the same questionnaire were completed by 1146 participants...
April 11, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Hannah R Spaulding, Joshua T Selsby
INTRODUCTION: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a neuromuscular disease caused by a dystrophin protein deficiency. Dystrophin functions to stabilize and protect the muscle fiber during muscle contraction, thus the absence of functional dystrophin protein leads to muscle injury. DMD patients experience progressive muscle necrosis, loss of function, and ultimately succumb to respiratory failure or cardiomyopathy. Exercise is known to improve muscle health and strength in healthy individuals as well as positively impact other systems...
April 11, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Nigel Kurgan, Heather Logan-Sprenger, Bareket Falk, Panagiota Klentrou
INTRODUCTION/PURPOSE: To examine whether fluctuations in training load during an Olympic year lead to changes in bone mineral densities and factors that regulate bone (sclerostin, osteoprotegerin [OPG] and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand [RANKL]), energy metabolism (insulin-like growth factor-1 [IGF-1] and leptin), and inflammation (tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α] and interleukin-6 [IL-6]) in elite heavyweight female rowers. METHODS: Blood samples were drawn from 15 female heavyweight rowers (27...
April 10, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Michelle Laeremans, Evi Dons, Ione Avila-Palencia, Glòria Carrasco-Turigas, Juan Pablo Orjuela-Mendoza, Esther Anaya-Boig, Tom Cole-Hunter, Audrey de Nazelle, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, Arnout Standaert, Martine Van Poppel, Patrick De Boever, Luc Int Panis
INTRODUCTION: When physical activity is promoted in urban outdoor settings (e.g. walking and cycling), individuals are also exposed to air pollution. It has been reported that short-term lung function increases as a response to physical activity, but this beneficial effect is hampered when elevated air pollution concentrations are observed. Our study assessed the long-term impact of air pollution on the pulmonary health benefit of physical activity. METHODS: Wearable sensors were used to monitor physical activity levels (SenseWear) and exposure to black carbon (microAeth) of 115 healthy adults during one week in three European cities (Antwerp, Barcelona, London)...
April 9, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Jacob D Meyer, Elisa R Torres, Maggie L Grabow, Aleksandra E Zgierska, Hao Yang Teng, Christopher L Coe, Bruce P Barrett
Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) and aerobic exercise training (AET) programs improve health and wellbeing. Exercise participation has been related to mindfulness and may be altered by MBSR training. PURPOSE: Compare 8-weeks of MBSR, AET and no-treatment control during the fall season on objectively-measured physical activity in healthy adults. METHODS: Participants (n=66) wore an Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometer for seven days pre-randomization, and following 8-week MBSR or AET interventions, or neither (control)...
April 9, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Josje M Bootsma, Tibor Hortobágyi, John C Rothwell, Simone R Caljouw
INTRODUCTION: Task difficulty affects the amount of interpretable information from a task, which is thought to interfere with motor learning. However, it is unclear whether task difficulty in itself is a stimulus for motor learning because the experimental evidence is mixed in support of the optimal challenge point framework that predicts one specific level of task difficulty to produce the greatest magnitude of motor learning. PURPOSE: We determined the effects of functional task difficulty on motor skill acquisition, retention, and transfer...
April 9, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Vanesa Bochkezanian, Robert U Newton, Gabriel S Trajano, Anthony J Blazevich
INTRODUCTION: Muscle force production is usually impaired in people with spinal cord injury (SCI). The use of high-intensity neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) strength training can help promote metabolically active lean muscle mass and thus, increase muscle mass and improve physical health and quality of life (QoL). Nonetheless, NMES is usually used at low-stimulation intensities and there is limited evidence on the effects of high-intensity NMES strength training into improving muscle force and mass, symptoms of spasticity or physical health and quality of life (QoL) in people with SCI...
April 9, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Jonathan H Kim, Casey Hollowed, Keyur Patel, Kareem Hosny, Hiroshi Aida, Zaina Gowani, Salman Sher, James L Shoop, Angelo Galante, Craig Clark, Thomas Marshall, Gene Patterson, Gary Schmitt, Yi-An Ko, Arshed A Quyyumi, Aaron L Baggish
PURPOSE: ASF participation rates in the United States are highest among high school (HS) athletes. This study sought to compare the cardiovascular response to HS versus collegiate ASF participation. METHODS: ASF participants (HS, N=61; Collegiate, N=87) were studied at pre- and post-season time points with echocardiography and applanation tonometry. Primary outcome variables included: left ventricular (LV) mass index, LV diastolic function (early relaxation velocity [E']), and arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity [PWV])...
April 9, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
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