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Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230704/muscle-metaboreflex-control-of-sympathetic-activity-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#1
Linda M Ueno-Pardi, Renan S Guerra, Thiago T Goya, Rosyvaldo F Silva, Elisangela M Gara, Marta F Lima, Thais S Nobre, Maria J N N Alves, Ivani C Trombetta, Geraldo Lorenzi-Filho
PURPOSE: Previous studies report abnormal muscle metaboreflex control of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in obesity, hypertension, and heart failure. We hypothesized that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with augmented metaboreflex control of MSNA. METHODS: Thirty-one sedentary individuals with no comorbidities (age = 52±1 y, body mass index = 28±1 kg/m) without (control, n = 14) and with OSA (n = 17) defined by polysomnography, underwent echocardiography...
February 22, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198729/influence-of-land-or-water-exercise-in-pregnancy-on-outcomes-a-cross-sectional-study
#2
Ruben Barakat, Maria Perales, Yaiza Cordero, Mariano Bacchi, Michelle F Mottola
PURPOSE: To compare the cross-sectional results from three experimental studies conducted on land, in water, and mixed form (land + water) during pregnancy on maternal and newborn outcomes. METHODS: A cross-sectional design was used to analyze the results of three randomized clinical trials in healthy pregnant women from Madrid (Spain) and Buenos Aires (Argentina). Five hundred-sixty-eight pregnant women were recruited. For each of the studies, the number of women in the Exercise Group (EG) totalled 107 for Study I (land), 49 women for Study II (water), and 101 women for Study III (land + water)...
February 15, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195945/endurance-exercise-training-and-male-sexual-libido
#3
Anthony C Hackney, Amy R Lane, Johna Register-Mihalik, Colin B O'Leary
PURPOSE: To study the associations between aspects of endurance exercise training and the sexual libido in healthy men using a cross-sectional online survey study design. METHODS: A developed online survey questionnaire was utilized. The questionnaire was based upon pre-existing validated questionnaires and use to assess elements of physical characteristics, exercise training-habits and libido of participants (n=1077). Three evidence-based categories were created for the primary outcome of total libido score and low, normal, and high response categories set...
February 13, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181981/measuring-children-s-physical-activity-compliance-using-skin-taped-accelerometers
#4
Mikkel Bo Schneller, Peter Bentsen, Glen Nielsen, Jan Christian Brønd, Mathias Ried-Larsen, Erik Mygind, Jasper Schipperijn
INTRODUCTION: Accelerometer-based physical activity monitoring has become the method of choice in many large-scale physical activity (PA) studies. However, there is an ongoing debate regarding the placement of the device, the determination of device wear time, and how to solve a lack of participant compliance. The aim of this study was to assess the compliance of Axivity AX3 accelerometers taped directly to the skin of 9-13-year-old children. METHODS: Children in 46 school classes (53...
February 8, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166122/determinants-of-bone-outcomes-in-adolescent-athletes-at-baseline-the-pro-bone-study
#5
Dimitris Vlachopoulos, Esther Ubago-Guisado, Alan R Barker, Brad S Metcalf, Ioannis G Fatouros, Alexandra Avloniti, Karen M Knapp, Luis A Moreno, Craig A Williams, Luis Gracia-Marco
PURPOSE: The determinants of areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and hip geometry estimates in adolescent athletes are poorly understood. This study aimed to identify the determinants of aBMD and hip geometry estimates in adolescent male athletes. METHODS: One hundred twenty one males (13.1±0.1 years) were measured: 41 swimmers, 37 footballers, 29 cyclists and 14 controls. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measured aBMD at lumbar spine, femoral neck (FN) and total body...
February 4, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166121/neural-and-muscular-contributions-to-the-age-related-reductions-in-rapid-strength
#6
Gena R Gerstner, Brennan J Thompson, Joseph G Rosenberg, Eric J Sobolewski, Michael J Scharville, Eric D Ryan
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to investigate the age-related differences in absolute and normalized plantarflexion rate of torque development (RTD) at early (0-50 ms) and late (100-200 ms) time intervals, and to examine specific neural and muscular mechanisms contributing to these differences. METHODS: Thirty-two young (20.0±2.1 yrs) and 20 older (69.5±3.3 yrs) recreationally active men performed rapid plantarflexion isometric muscle actions to examine absolute and normalized RTD and muscle activation using electromyography (EMG) at early and late time intervals...
February 4, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166120/pulmonary-artery-wedge-pressure-relative-to-exercise-workrate-in-older-men-and-women
#7
Sam Esfandiari, Stephen P Wright, Jack M Goodman, Zion Sasson, Susanna Mak
PURPOSE: An augmented pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PAWP) response may explain exercise intolerance in some humans. However, routine use of exercise hemodynamic testing is limited by a lack of data from normal older men and women. Our objective was to evaluate the exercise PAWP response and the potential for sexual dimorphism in healthy, non-dyspneic older adults. METHODS: Thirty-six healthy volunteers [18 men (54±7 years)/18 women (58±6 years)] were studied at rest (Control) and during two stages of semi-upright cycle-ergometry, at heart rates of 100 bpm (Light Exercise) and 120 bpm (Moderate Exercise)...
February 4, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166119/muscle-protein-turnover-and-the-molecular-regulation-of-muscle-mass-during-hypoxia
#8
Stefan M Pasiakos, Claire E Berryman, Christopher T Carrigan, Andrew J Young, John W Carbone
Effects of environmental hypoxia on fat-free mass are well studied. Negative energy balance, increased nitrogen excretion and fat-free mass loss are commonly observed in lowlanders sojourning at high altitude. Reductions in fat-free mass can be minimized if energy consumption matches energy expenditure. However, in non-research settings, achieving energy balance during high altitude sojourns is unlikely and myofibrillar protein mass is usually lost, but the mechanisms accounting for the loss of muscle mass are not clear...
February 4, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166118/all-extremity-exercise-training-improves-arterial-stiffness-in-older-adults
#9
Han-Kyul Kim, Chueh-Lung Hwang, Jeung-Ki Yoo, Moon-Hyon Hwang, Eileen M Handberg, John W Petersen, Wilmer W Nichols, Sofia Sofianos, Demetra D Christou
: Large elastic arteries stiffen with age which predisposes older adults to increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Aerobic exercise training is known to reduce the risk for cardiovascular disease, but the optimal exercise prescription for attenuating large elastic arterial stiffening in older adults is not known. PURPOSE: The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to compare the effect of all-extremity high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) and carotid artery compliance in older adults...
February 4, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166117/the-respiratory-compensation-point-is-not-a-valid-surrogate-for-critical-power
#10
Jeffrey A Leo, Surendran Sabapathy, Michael J Simmonds, Troy J Cross
PURPOSE: It is unclear whether the respiratory compensation point (RCP) may be used as a valid surrogate for critical power (CP). Accordingly, we sought to determine the measurement agreement between CP and the RCP obtained during incremental cycling of varying ramp slopes. METHODS: Eleven recreationally-active men completed three separate ramp-incremental cycling protocols, where the work rate increment was slow (SR: 15 W[BULLET OPERATOR]min), medium (MR: 30 W[BULLET OPERATOR]min) or fast (FR: 45 W[BULLET OPERATOR]min)...
February 4, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166116/cerebral-blood-flow-responses-to-aquatic-treadmill-exercise
#11
Rhodri Parfitt, Marianne Y Hensman, Samuel J E Lucas
INTRODUCTION: Aquatic treadmills are used as a rehabilitation method for conditions such as spinal cord injury, osteoarthritis and stroke, and can facilitate an earlier return to exercise training for athletes. However, their effect on cerebral blood flow (CBF) responses has not been examined. We tested the hypothesis that aquatic treadmill exercise would augment CBF and lower heart rate compared to land-based treadmill exercise. METHODS: Eleven participants completed incremental exercise (crossover design) starting from walking pace [4 km/h, immersed to iliac crest (aquatic), 6 km/h (land)] and increasing 1 km/h every 2 min up to 10 km/h for aquatic (maximum belt speed) or 12 km/h for land...
February 4, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141620/cold-water-mediates-greater-reductions-in-limb-blood-flow-than-whole-body-cryotherapy
#12
Chris Mawhinney, David A Low, Helen Jones, Daniel J Green, Joseph T Costello, Warren Gregson
PURPOSE: Cold-water immersion (CWI) and whole body cryotherapy (WBC) are widely used recovery methods in an attempt to limit exercise-induced muscle damage, soreness and functional deficits after strenuous exercise. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of ecologically-valid CWI and WBC protocols on post-exercise lower limb thermoregulatory, femoral artery and cutaneous blood flow responses. METHODS: Ten males completed a continuous cycle exercise protocol at 70% maximal oxygen uptake until a rectal temperature of 38°C was attained...
January 30, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129234/inflammation-relates-to-resistance-training-induced-hypertrophy-in-elderly-patients
#13
Kristoffer Larsen Norheim, Christopher Kjaer Cullum, Jesper Loevind Andersen, Michael Kjaer, Anders Karlsen
PURPOSE: Aging is associated with a gradual loss of muscle mass, which some have suggested to be accelerated by short periods of muscle disuse due to medical illness. We investigated the effect of hospitalization on skeletal muscle mass in acutely ill geriatric patients with focus on the relationship between systemic inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP) and changes in muscle mass, as well as the influence of resistance training upon muscle mass. METHOD: Unilateral leg press resistance exercise was conducted daily during the hospital period...
January 26, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121799/compensatory-changes-in-energy-balance-regulation-over-one-athletic-season
#14
Analiza M Silva, Catarina N Matias, Diana A Santos, Diana Thomas, Anja Bosy-Westphal, Manfred J Müller, Steven B Heymsfield, Luís B Sardinha
PURPOSE: Mechanisms in energy balance (EB) regulation may include compensatory changes in energy intake (EI) and metabolic adaption (MA) but information is unavailable in athletes who often change EB components. We aim to investigate EB regulation compensatory mechanisms over one athletic season. METHODS: Fifty-seven athletes (39 males/18 females; handball, volleyball, basketball, triathlon, and swimming) were evaluated from the beginning to the competitive-phase of the season...
January 24, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121798/cortical-and-physical-function-following-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#15
Alia L Yasen, David R Howell, Li-Shan Chou, Angela M Pazzaglia, Anita D Christie
PURPOSE: To prospectively examine the association between intracortical inhibition and functional recovery following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). METHODS: Twenty individuals with mTBI and twenty matched control participants were assessed using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), the Attentional Network Test (ANT), and gait analysis. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to longitudinally examine potential differences between groups and relationships in the pattern of recovery in cortical silent period (CSP) duration, cognitive reaction time, and single and dual-task walking speeds across 5 testing time points...
January 24, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121797/the-effect-of-postexercise-carbohydrate-and-protein-ingestion-on-bone-metabolism
#16
Rebecca Townsend, Kirsty J Elliott-Sale, Kevin Currell, Jonathan Tang, William D Fraser, Craig Sale
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of feeding carbohydrate and protein (CHO+PRO), immediately or 2 h after an exhaustive run, on the bone turnover response in endurance runners. METHODS: 10 men (age 28±5 y, height 1.74±0.05 m, body mass 69.7±6.3 kg) performed treadmill running at 75%VO2max, until exhaustion, on three occasions. Blood was collected before and immediately, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 24 h post-exercise, for measurement of β-CTX, P1NP, PTH, PO4, ACa and Ca...
January 24, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121796/sil-6r-is-related-to-weekly-training-mileage-and-psychological-well-being-in-athletes
#17
Tom Cullen, Andrew W Thomas, Richard Webb, Thom Phillips, Michael G Hughes
INTRODUCTION: IL-6 has been ascribed both positive and negative roles in the context of exercise and training. The dichotomous nature of IL-6 signalling appears to be determined by the respective concentration of its receptors (both membrane-bound (IL-6R) and soluble (sIL-6R) forms). The purpose of the present study was to investigate the response of sIL-6R to long-term training, and to investigate the relationship between sIL-6R, self-reported measures of wellbeing, and upper respiratory illness symptoms (URS) in highly-trained endurance athletes...
January 24, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121795/change-in-sedentary-time-physical-activity-bodyweight-and-hba1c-in-high-risk-adults
#18
Matthew McCarthy, Charlotte L Edwardson, Melanie J Davies, Joseph Henson, Laura Gray, Kamlesh Khunti, Thomas Yates
PURPOSE: In recent years, there has been a migration towards the use of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in determining glycemic control. This study aimed to quantify the associations between changes in body weight, sedentary time and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) time with HbA1c levels over a three year period among adults at high risk of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: This study reports baseline and three year follow-up data from the Walking Away from Type 2 Diabetes study...
January 24, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121803/the-influence-of-cognitive-impairment-on-the-fitness-cognition-relationship-in-ms
#19
Brian M Sandroff, Robert W Motl, John DeLuca
INTRODUCTION: Cognitive processing speed impairment (PSI) is common and debilitating in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). Exercise training has been proposed as a behavioral approach for possibly managing MS-related processing speed dysfunction, largely based on cross-sectional studies of the relationship of cardiorespiratory fitness and cognitive processing speed. However, there is minimal evidence supporting exercise training as a treatment for MS-related PSI, as the vast majority of the existing studies have examined exercise and cardiorespiratory fitness effects on cognition in samples of non-cognitively impaired persons with MS...
January 23, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121802/delayed-effect-of-blood-flow-restricted-resistance-training-on-rapid-force-capacity
#20
Jakob Lindberg Nielsen, Ulrik Frandsen, Tatyana Prokhorova, Rune Dueholm Bech, Tobias Nygaard, Charlotte Suetta, Per Aagaard
PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect and time course of high-frequent low-load resistance training with blood-flow restriction (BFR) on rapid force capacity (i.e. rate of torque development (RTD)). METHODS: Ten male subjects (22.8±2.3 years) performed four sets of knee extensor exercise (20%1RM) to concentric failure during concurrent BFR of the thigh (100mmHg), while eight work-matched controls (21.9±3.0 years) trained without BFR (CON)...
January 23, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
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