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Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise

Jonathan A Mitchell, Marsha Dowda, Russell R Pate, Katarzyna Kordas, Karsten Froberg, Luís B Sardinha, Elin Kolle, Angela Page
PURPOSE: We aimed to determine if moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior (SB) were independently associated with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in children and adolescents. METHODS: Data from the International Children's Accelerometry Database (ICAD) were used to address our objectives (N=11,115; 6-18y; 51% female). We calculated age and gender specific body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) Z-scores and used accelerometry to estimate MVPA and total SB...
October 17, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Mark W Creaby, Conor Honeywill, Melinda M Franettovich Smith, Anthony G Schache, Kay M Crossley
PURPOSE: Achilles tendinopathy (AT) is a prevalent injury in running sports. Understanding the biomechanical factors associated with AT will assist in its management and prevention. The purpose of this study was to compare hip and ankle kinematics and kinetics in runners with and without AT. METHODS: Fourteen male runners with AT and eleven healthy male runners (CTRL) ran over-ground whilst lower-limb joint motion and ground reaction force data were synchronously captured...
October 17, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Jacqueline Kerr, Catherine R Marinac, Katherine Ellis, Suneeta Godbole, Aaron Hipp, Karen Glanz, Jonathan Mitchell, Francine Laden, Peter James, David Berrigan
PURPOSE: To compare physical activity estimates across different accelerometer wear locations, wear time protocols, and data processing techniques. METHODS: A convenience sample of middle aged to older women wore a GT3X+ accelerometer at the wrist and hip for 7 days. Physical activity estimates were calculated using three data processing techniques: single axis cut points, raw vector magnitude thresholds, and machine learning algorithms applied to the raw data from the three axes...
October 14, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Markus Gerber, Katharina Endes, Christian Herrmann, Flora Colledge, Serge Brand, Lars Donath, Oliver Faude, Uwe Pühse, Henner Hanssen, Lukas Zahner
PURPOSE: A better understanding of how social and environmental contexts impact on childhood overweight/obesity is needed to develop more effective prevention strategies. Because the relationship between physical activity, stress and obesity measures has received limited attention, this study examined for the first time in first grade schoolchildren whether physical activity and fitness moderate the relationship between psychosocial stress and obesity-related measures. METHODS: 325 children (51% girls, Mage=7...
October 14, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Teresa E Flaxman, Tine Alkjær, Erik B Simonsen, Michael R Krogsgaard, Daniel L Benoit
INTRODUCTION: Knee muscles are commonly labelled as flexors or extensors and aptly stabilize the knee against sagittal plane loads. However, how these muscles stabilize the knee against adduction-abduction and rotational loads remains unclear. Our study sought to: (1) classify muscle roles as they relate to joint stability by quantifying the relationship between individual muscle activation patterns and internal net joint moments in all three loading planes, and (2) determine if these roles change with increasing force levels...
October 14, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Attila Oláh, Dalma Kellermayer, Csaba Mátyás, Balázs Tamás Németh, Árpád Lux, Lilla Szabó, Marianna Török, Mihály Ruppert, Anna Meltzer, Alex Ali Sayour, Kálmán Benke, István Hartyánszky, Béla Merkely, Tamás Radovits
PURPOSE: Long-term exercise training is associated with characteristic cardiac adaptation, termed athlete's heart. Our research group previously characterized in vivo left ventricular (LV) function of exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy in detail in a rat model, however the effect of detraining on LV function is still unclear. We aimed at evaluating the reversibility of functional alterations of athlete's heart after detraining. METHODS: Rats (n=16) were divided into detrained exercised (DEx) and detrained control (DCo) groups...
October 14, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Julia R Dahlqvist, Christoffer R Vissing, Gitte Hedermann, Carsten Thomsen, John Vissing
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the age-related changes in fatty replacement and cross sectional area (CSA) of cervical, thoracic and lumbar paraspinal muscles vs. leg muscles in healthy adults, and to test for association between muscle fat fraction and lifestyle factors. METHODS: Fifty-three healthy adults (24-76 years) were included. Dixon MRI technique was used to determine CSA and quantify fat fraction of paraspinal and leg muscles. Muscle CSA and fat fractions were tested for association with age and muscle strength...
October 13, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Daniel J Owens, Jonathan C Y Tang, Warren J Bradley, S Andy Sparks, William D Fraser, James P Morton, Graeme L Close
PURPOSE: Supplementation with dietary forms of vitamin D is commonplace in clinical medicine, elite athletic cohorts and the general population, yet the response of all major vitamin D metabolites to high doses of vitamin D is poorly characterized. We aimed to identify the responses of all major vitamin D metabolites to moderate and high dose supplemental vitamin D3. METHODS: A repeated measures design was implemented in which 46 elite professional European athletes were block randomized based on their basal 25[OH]D concentration into two treatment groups...
October 13, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Eve Normandin, Elizabeth Chmelo, Mary F Lyles, Anthony P Marsh, Barbara J Nicklas
PURPOSE: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is greatest in older obese adults and effective evidence-based treatment strategies are lacking. This study determined the efficacy of adding caloric restriction (CR) for weight loss to resistance training (RT) on metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its individual components in older overweight and obese adults. METHODS: We performed a 5-month randomized controlled trial in 126 older (65-79 yrs) overweight and obese (Body Mass Index: 27-35 kg/m) men and women who were assigned to progressive 3-d/wk, moderate-intensity RT with (RT+CR) or without caloric restriction (RT)...
October 13, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Bhupinder Singh, Huy Vo, Shelby L Francis, Kathleen F Janz, John H Yack
PURPOSE: This study assessed the biomechanical gait changes in obese and normal weight female adult subjects following a commonly recommended 30-minute walking session. Hip and knee adduction and extensor moments, which are the primary modulators of frontal and sagittal plane load distribution were hypothesized to increase in obese females following a 30-minute walking period, resulting in more stress across the hip and knee joint. METHODS: Ten obese (37.7 ± 4...
October 6, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Marc Jubeau, Thomas Rupp, John Temesi, Stéphane Perrey, Bernard Wuyam, Guillaume Y Millet, Samuel Verges
PURPOSE: Prolonged cycling exercise performance in normoxia is limited due to both peripheral and central neuromuscular impairments. It has been reported that cerebral perturbations are greater during short-duration exercise in hypoxia compared to normoxia. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that central deficits are accentuated in hypoxia compared to normoxia during prolonged (3 bouts of 80 min separated by 25 min) whole-body exercise at the same relative intensity...
October 6, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Yasuhide Yoshitake, Hiroaki Kanehisa, Minoru Shinohara
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the modulation of common low-frequency oscillations in pools of motor units across antagonistic muscles due to the difference in the activation level of pools of spinal motor neurons and the presence of neuromuscular fatigue during intended co-contraction. METHODS: Ten healthy young men (21.8 ± 1.5 yr) performed intended steady co-contractions of elbow flexors and extensors at maximal and a submaximal (10% of maximal electromyogram, EMG) effort...
October 6, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Viola Grabs, Anna Kersten, Bernhard Haller, Siegmund Braun, David C Nieman, Martin Halle, Johannes Scherr
INTRODUCTION: Vigorous and prolonged exercise such as marathon running increases inflammatory markers and the risk of upper respiratory illness (URI) in athletes. Nutritional supplements are being tested as countermeasures of exercise-induced inflammation and immune dysfunction. METHODS: In this prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase I trial, healthy male runners (N = 138, age 42 ± 11 y) were supplemented with rutoside (600-1200 mg/day) and hydrolytic enzymes (540-1,080 mg/day bromelain, 288-576 mg/day trypsin) (WOB) or placebo (PL) for one week before and two weeks after the Munich Marathon 2013...
October 6, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Debbie Van Biesen, Florentina Hettinga, Katina McCulloch, Yves C Vanlandewijck
PURPOSE: To understand how athletes invest their energy over a race, differences in pacing ability between athletes with and without intellectual impairment (II) were explored using a novel field test. METHODS: Well-trained runners (n=67) participated in this study, including 34 runners with II (age = 24.4 ± 4.5 years; IQ = 63.1 ± 7.7) and 33 runners without II (age = 31.4 ± 11.2 years). The ability to perform at a pre-planned submaximal pace was assessed. Two 400m running trials were performed on an athletics track, with an individually standardized velocity...
October 5, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Kara M Whitaker, Andrew O Odegaard, David R Jacobs, Stephen Sidney, Mark A Pereira
PURPOSE: We examined whether sedentary lifestyle habits and physical activity level are associated with abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT), and liver attenuation, independently of each other and potential confounders. METHODS: Analysis of 3,010 African American and Caucasian men and women, aged 42-59 years, from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study who completed multiple-slice abdominal computed tomography (CT) in 2010-2011...
October 3, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Daniel L Belavý, Ulf Gast, Dieter Felsenberg
PURPOSE: To investigate atrophy in the deep abdominal muscles, spinal extensors and the impact of high-load resistive exercise with and without whole body vibration following 60d of strict bed-rest. METHODS: 24 subjects underwent 60-days of head-down tilt bed-rest and performed either resistive vibration exercise (RVE), resistive exercise only (RE) or no exercise control (2nd Berlin BedRest Study). The thickness of the transversus abdominis, internal oblique and erector spinae muscles and area of the multifidus muscle were measured bilaterally via real-time ultrasound...
September 28, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Christian Haser, Thomas Stöggl, Monika Kriner, Jörg Mikoleit, Bernd Wolfahrt, Johannes Scherr, Martin Halle, Florian Pfab
PURPOSE: Increase in muscle force, endurance and flexibility is desired in elite athletes in order to improve performance and avoid injuries but often hindered by occurence of myofascial trigger points. Dry needling (DN) has been shown effective in eliminating myofascial trigger points. METHODS: This randomized controlled study in 30 elite youth soccer players of a professional soccer Bundesliga Club investigated the effects of four weekly sessions of DN plus water-pressure-massage on thigh muscle force and range-of-motion of hip flexion...
September 28, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Thomas Morville, Mads Rosenkilde, Thor Munch-Andersen, Peter Riis Andersen, Katja Kjær, Signe Helbo, Marianne Kristensen, Andreas Vigelsø, Nick Mattsson, Hanne Kruuse Rasmusen, Amelia Guadalupe-Grau, Angela Fago, Christina Neigaard Hansen, Brigitte Twelkmeyer, Jesper Løvind Andersen, Flemming Dela, Jørn Wulff Helge
INTRODUCTION/PURPOSE: Fat metabolism and muscle adaptation was investigated in 6 older trained men (age: 61 ± 4 years; VO2max: 48 ± 2 mL kg min) following repeated prolonged exercise). METHODS: 2706 km (1,681 miles) cycling was performed over 14 days and a blood sample and a muscle biopsy were obtained at rest after an overnight fast before and 30 hours after the completion of the cycling. VO2-max and maximal fat oxidation were measured using incremental exercise tests...
September 28, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Nadia Beaudoin, Guillaume F Bouvet, Adèle Coriati, Rémi Rabasa-Lhoret, Yves Berthiaume
PURPOSE: Glucose abnormality and diabetes are the most common comorbidities in cystic fibrosis (CF). Combined (aerobic & resistance) exercise program in type 2 diabetes patients demonstrated an improvement of glycemic control. The aim of the study was to determine if a combined exercise program is beneficial to improve plasma glucose at 2-h of the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in CF. METHOD: 18 adult with CF with glucose abnormality were recruited (Clinicaltrial...
September 23, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Catrine Tudor-Locke, John M Schuna, Ho Han, Elroy J Aguiar, Michael A Green, Michael A Busa, Sandra Larrivee, William D Johnson
PURPOSE: To catalog the relationships between step-based accelerometer metrics indicative of physical activity volume (steps/day, adjusted to a pedometer scale), intensity (mean steps/min from the highest, not necessarily consecutive, minutes in a day; peak 30-min cadence) and sedentary behavior (percent time at zero cadence relative to wear time; %TZC) and cardiometabolic risk factors. METHODS: We analyzed data from 3388 20+ year-old participants in the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey with ≥1 valid day of accelerometer data and at least some data on weight, BMI, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, glucose, insulin, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and/or glycohemoglobin...
September 23, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
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