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Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443824/improving-hip-worn-accelerometer-estimates-of-sitting-using-machine-learning-methods
#1
Jacqueline Kerr, Jordan Carlson, Suneeta Godbole, Lisa Cadmus-Bertram, John Bellettiere, Sheri Hartman
PURPOSE: To improve estimates of sitting time from hip worn accelerometers used in large cohort studies by employing machine learning methods developed on free living activPAL data. METHODS: Thirty breast cancer survivors concurrently wore a hip worn accelerometer and a thigh worn activPAL for 7 days. A random forest classifier, trained on the activPAL data, was employed to detect sitting, standing and sit-stand transitions in 5 second windows in the hip worn accelerometer...
February 13, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443823/aerobic-training-improves-quality-of-life-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#2
Eduardo Caldas Costa, Joceline Cássia Ferezini de Sá, Nigel Keith Stepto, Ingrid Bezerra Barbosa Costa, Luiz Fernando Farias-Junior, Simone da Nóbrega Tomaz Moreira, Elvira Maria Mafaldo Soares, Telma Maria Araújo Moura Lemos, Rodrigo Alberto Vieira Browne, George Dantas Azevedo
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of a supervised aerobic exercise training intervention on health-related quality of life (HRQL), cardiorespiratory fitness, cardiometabolic profile, and affective response in overweight/obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). METHODS: Twenty-seven overweight/obese inactive women with PCOS (body mass index, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m; aged from 18 to 34 years) were allocated into an exercise group (n = 14) and a control group (n = 13)...
February 13, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443822/power-to-strength-ratio-influences-performance-enhancement-with-contrast-training
#3
Knut Thomas Schneiker, Jackson James Fyfe, Francois Billaut, David John Bishop
PURPOSE: The effectiveness of contrast training (CST) for improving explosive exercise performance is modulated by various individual characteristics; however, further work is required to define these factors. METHODS: Sub-elite male Australian Football players [n = 22; age, 19 ± 2 y; body mass, 80.4 ± 9.4 kg; one-repetition maximum (1-RM) half squat, 172 ± 18 kg; mean ± SD] completed two experimental trials involving two sets of squat jumps (6 repetitions at 30% 1-RM) performed either alone (CTL condition) or after half squats (6 repetitions at 85% 1-RM; CST condition)...
February 13, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443821/changes-in-cycling-and-incidence-of-overweight-and-obesity-among-danish-men-and-women
#4
Martin G Rasmussen, Kim Overvad, Anne Tjønneland, Majken K Jensen, Lars Østergaard, Anders Grøntved
PURPOSE: Overweight and obesity is associated with increased risk of several non-communicable diseases and is a growing public health issue. The primary purpose of the current study was to investigate incidence of overweight and obesity according to five-year cycling habits. The secondary purpose was to investigate incidence of remission from overweight and obesity according to five-year cycling habits. METHODS: We analyzed 9014 men and 8661 women without chronic disease who between 1993 and 2003 completed two assessments approximately five years apart...
February 13, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432326/exercise-improves-physical-activity-and-comorbidities-in-obese-adults-with-asthma
#5
Patrícia Duarte Freitas, Aline Grandi Silva, Palmira Gabriele Ferreira, Analuci da Silva, João Marcos Salge, Regina Maria Carvalho-Pinto, Alberto Cukier, Claudia M Brito, Marcio C Mancini, Celso R F Carvalho
INTRODUCTION: Obese adults with asthma have an increased number of comorbidities and reduced daily life physical activity (DLPA), which may worsen asthma symptoms. Exercise is recommended to improve asthma outcomes; however, the benefits of exercise for psychosocial comorbidities and physical activity levels in obese adults with asthma have been poorly investigated. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of exercise on DLPA, asthma symptoms and psychosocial comorbidities in obese adults with asthma...
February 9, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432325/let-the-pleasure-guide-your-resistance-training-intensity
#6
Hassan Mohamed Elsangedy, Daniel Gomes da Silva Machado, Kleverton Krinski, Paulo Henrique Duarte do Nascimento, Gledson Tavares de Amorim Oliveira, Tony Meireles Santos, Elaine A Hargreaves, Gaynor Parfitt
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and reliability of the Feeling Scale (FS) to self-regulate resistance training (RT) intensity. METHODS: Sixteen sedentary men (39.7±7.5 years) performed 3 familiarization sessions, 2 one repetition maximum testing (1RM), and 16 RT sessions (4 sessions for each FS descriptor; randomized). The FS descriptors were "very good" (FS+5), "good" (FS+3), "fairly good" (FS+1), and "fairly bad" (FS-1)...
February 9, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432324/classification-of-intensity-in-team-sport-activity
#7
Ted Polglaze, Cruz Hogan, Brian Dawson, Alec Buttfield, Cristian Osgnach, Leanne Lester, Peter Peeling
PURPOSE: To assess the efficacy of critical metabolic power derived from variable-speed movement for classifying intensity in team sport activity. METHODS: Elite male hockey players (n = 12) completed a series of time trials (100 yd, 400 yd, 1500 yd) and a 3-min all-out test to derive both critical speed (CS) and critical power (CP). Heart rate (HR), blood lactate (BLa) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured during each protocol. Participants (n = 10) then played 2 competitive hockey matches...
February 9, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432323/changes-in-motor-coordination-induced-by-local-fatigue-during-a-sprint-cycling-task
#8
Niels-Peter Brøchner Nielsen, François Hug, Arnaud Guével, Floren Colloud, Julien Lardy, Sylvain Dorel
PURPOSE: This study investigated how muscle coordination is adjusted in response to a decrease in the force-generating capacity of one muscle group during a sprint cycling task. METHODS: Fifteen participants were tested during a sprint before and after a fatigue electromyostimulation protocol was conducted on the quadriceps of one leg. Motor coordination was assessed by measuring myoelectrical activity, pedal force and joint power. RESULTS: The decrease in force-generating capacity of the quadriceps (-28...
February 9, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420437/objectively-differentiating-movement-patterns-between-elite-and-novice-athletes
#9
Gwyneth B Ross, Brittany Dowling, Nikolaus F Troje, Steven L Fischer, Ryan B Graham
INTRODUCTION: Movement screens are frequently used to identify abnormal movement patterns that may increase risk of injury or hinder performance. Abnormal patterns are often detected visually based on the observations of a coach or clinician. Quantitative, or data-driven methods can increase objectivity, remove issues related to inter-rater reliability and offer the potential to detect new and important features that may not be observable by the human eye. Applying principal components analysis (PCA) to whole-body motion data may provide an objective data-driven method to identify unique and statistically important movement patterns, an important first step to objectively characterize optimal patterns or identify abnormalities...
February 5, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401141/abdominal-muscle-density-is-inversely-related-to-adiposity-inflammatory-mediators
#10
Rachel B Van Hollebeke, Mary Cushman, Emma F Schlueter, Matthew A Allison
PURPOSE: Skeletal muscle is the largest regulator of glucose metabolism but few population-based studies have examined the associations between muscle and inflammation. We studied the relationships between abdominal muscle area and density with selected adiposity associated inflammatory mediators. METHODS: Nearly 2,000 subjects underwent computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen and had venous fasting blood drawn concomitantly. The CT scans were interrogated for visceral and subcutaneous fat, as well as abdominal lean muscle areas and densities...
February 2, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389836/strength-training-effects-on-muscular-regeneration-after-acl-reconstruction
#11
Birgit Friedmann-Bette, Francesca Profit, Thomas Gwechenberger, Nadine Weiberg, Mario Parstorfer, Marc-Andre Weber, Nikolaus Streich, Alexander Barié
PURPOSE: Protracted quadriceps muscle atrophy is observed after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACL-R). The aim of this study was to assess if quadriceps strength training with eccentric overload (CON/ECC) is more efficient to induce muscle regeneration after ACL-R than conventional concentric/eccentric (CON/ECC) strength training. METHODS: Biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle were obtained from 37 recreational athletes after 12 weeks of regular rehabilitation following ACL-R and again after 12 weeks with twice a week either conventional CON/ECC (n = 16) or CON/ECC (n = 21) one-legged supervised leg-press training...
January 31, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389835/effects-of-acute-salbutamol-intake-on-peripheral-and-central-fatigue-in-trained-men
#12
Julien Laurent, Michel Guinot, Thibault Le Roux Mallouf, Mathieu Marillier, Julie Larribaut, Samuel Verges
PURPOSE: Ergogenic effect in physically active subjects has been reported following acute salbutamol (SAL) intake. β2-agonists have potential stimulant effects within the central nervous system that could be involved in this ergogenic effect. We hypothesized that acute SAL intake would induce changes in cerebral responses during exercise, with significant improvement in cerebral oxygenation and voluntary activation (VA) contributing to an increase in muscle performance. METHODS: Fourteen trained male subjects (25 ± 5 years) performed repeated isometric knee extensions until task failure (TF) following 4 mg (oral) SAL, 800 μg (inhaled) SAL, or placebo intake...
January 31, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381652/comparison-of-two-generations-of-actigraph-accelerometers-the-cardia-study
#13
Kara M Whitaker, Kelley Pettee Gabriel, David R Jacobs, Stephen Sidney, Barbara Sternfeld
PURPOSE: To examine the comparability of the ActiGraph 7164 and wGT3X-BT wear time, count-based estimates, and average time/day in physical activity of different intensities. METHODS: We studied 87 Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) participants, aged 48-60 years, who simultaneously wore the 7164 and wGT3X-BT accelerometers at the waist in 2015-16, with wear time ≥4 of 7 days, ≥10 hours/day for both monitors. Freedson cutpoints (counts/min) were used to define sedentary (<100), light (100-1951), moderate (1952-5724), and vigorous activity (≥5725)...
January 30, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381651/exercise-effects-on-adipose-tissue-postprandial-lipolysis-and-blood-flow-in-children
#14
Huimin Yan, Joseph R Pierce, Kimberly B Myers, Katrina D DuBose, Gabriel S Dubis, Charles J Tanner, Robert C Hickner
Poor suppression of lipolysis and blunted increase in blood flow following meal ingestion in obese adults may indicate resistance to the antilipolytic action of insulin. Exercise may be used to normalize lipolytic responses to food intake by increasing insulin sensitivity. PURPOSE: To determine if acute bouts of aerobic exercise and/or excise training alter lipolytic and blood flow responses to food intake in lean (LN) and obese (OB) children. METHODS: Sixty-five children (9-11 yrs) were randomized into acute exercise (EX: 16 LN and 28 OB) or control (CON: 9 LN and 12 OB) groups that exercised (EX), or rested (CON) between standardized breakfast and lunch...
January 30, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381650/effects-of-different-exercise-modes-on-arterial-stiffness-and-nitric-oxide-synthesis
#15
Natsuki Hasegawa, Shumpei Fujie, Naoki Horii, Eri Miyamoto-Mikami, Katsunori Tsuji, Masataka Uchida, Takafumi Hamaoka, Izumi Tabata, Motoyuki Iemitsu
PURPOSE: Aerobic training (AT) and high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) reduce arterial stiffness, whereas resistance training (RT) induces deterioration of or no change in arterial stiffness. However, the molecular mechanism of these effects of different exercise modes remains unclear. This study aimed to clarify the difference of different exercise effects on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) signaling pathway and arterial stiffness in rats and humans. METHODS: In the animal study, forty 10-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4groups: sedentary control (CON), AT (treadmill running, 60min at 30m/min, 5days/wk for 8weeks), RT (ladder-climbing, 8-10sets/day, 3days/wk for 8weeks), and HIIT (14repeats of 20-sec swimming session with 10-sec pause between sessions, 4days/wk for 6weeks from 12-week-old) groups (n=10 in each group)...
January 30, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381649/video-recorded-validation-of-wearable-step-counters-under-free-living-conditions
#16
Lindsay P Toth, Susan Park, Cary M Springer, McKenzie D Feyerabend, Jeremy A Steeves, David R Bassett
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of 14 step counting methods under free-living conditions. MethodsTwelve adults (mean±SD, age: 35±13 yr) wore a chest harness that held a GoPro camera pointed down at the feet during all waking hours for one day. The GoPro continuously recorded video of all steps taken throughout the day. Simultaneously, participants wore two StepWatch [SW] devices on each ankle (all programmed with different settings), one activPAL [AP] on each thigh, four devices at the waist (Fitbit Zip [FZ], Yamax Digi-Walker SW-200 [DW], New Lifestyles NL-2000 [NL], and ActiGraph GT9X [AG]), and two devices on the dominant and non-dominant wrists (Fitbit Charge [FC] and AG)...
January 30, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373340/residual-force-enhancement-is-preserved-for-conditions-of-reduced-contractile-force
#17
Atsuki Fukutani, Walter Herzog
INTRODUCTION: The isometric muscle force attained after active stretch is greater than that attained in a purely isometric contraction. This property is referred to as residual force enhancement (RFE). Since RFE is thought to be caused by a titin-based passive force, it should be preserved in reduced contractile force states. Therefore, we evaluated the magnitude of RFE in normal and reduced contractile force states. METHODS: Skinned fibers of rabbit psoas and soleus (N = 60) were used in all experiments...
January 26, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369090/easy-an-instrument-for-surveillance-of-physical-activity-in-youth
#18
Russell R Pate, Kerry McIver, Marsha Dowda, Michaela A Schenkelberg, Michael Beets, Christine DiStefano
PURPOSE: Physical activity (PA) promotion among youth is a public health priority and there is a need for robust surveillance systems to help support such initiatives. Existing youth PA self-report instruments that are used for surveillance lack information regarding the types and contexts of activity. Further, these instruments have limited validity with accelerometry. The purpose of the present study was to develop a self-report instrument, with sound psychometric properties, for monitoring compliance with PA guidelines in youth...
January 23, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360664/beyond-cut-points-accelerometer-metrics-that-capture-the-physical-activity-profile
#19
Alex V Rowlands, Charlotte L Edwardson, Melanie J Davies, Kamlesh Khunti, Deirdre M Harrington, Tom Yates
PURPOSE: Commonly used physical activity metrics tell us little about the intensity distribution across the activity profile. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a metric, the intensity gradient, which can be used in combination with average acceleration (overall activity level) to fully describe the activity profile. METHODS: 1669 adolescent girls (sample 1) and 295 adults with type 2 diabetes (sample 2) wore a GENEActiv accelerometer on their non-dominant wrist for up to 7-days...
January 23, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360663/kinetic-asymmetry-during-running-at-preferred-and-nonpreferred-speeds
#20
Laura-Anne M Furlong, Natalie L Egginton
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of altering preferred running speed by ±20% on kinetic asymmetry. METHODS: Three-dimensional motion analysis and force data were acquired from 15 healthy males (age: 27 ± 4.6 years, height: 1.81 ± 0.09 m, mass: 80.4 ± 12.4 kg) during their preferred running speed, and at ±20% of this speed. 3T magnetic resonance images were used to measure Achilles tendon cross-sectional area and moment arm, for use in calculation of tendon stress...
January 23, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
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