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Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053480/impact-of-moderate-intensity-and-vigorous-intensity-physical-activity-on-mortality
#1
Hiroyuki Kikuchi, Shigeru Inoue, I-Min Lee, Yuko Odagiri, Norie Sawada, Manami Inoue, Shoichiro Tsugane
PURPOSE: Physical activity guidelines recommend at least 150 min of moderate-intensity physical activity (MPA), 75 min of vigorous-intensity physical activity (VPA), or combination of MPA and VPA. However, few epidemiological studies have examined whether the general population can derive equal health benefits from MPA or VPA. This study examined the associations of different activity intensities with mortality. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, a total of 83,454 community-dwelling Japanese who answered a questionnaire in 2000-2003 were followed for all-cause mortality through 2012...
October 19, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049096/the-effect-of-tackler-technique-on-head-injury-assessment-risk-in-elite-rugby-union
#2
Gregory J Tierney, Karl Denvir, Garreth Farrell, Ciaran K Simms
PURPOSE: To use match video evidence of tackles in elite level rugby union in order to identify tackler proficiency characteristics, for both Lower Body and Upper Body Tackles, that result in Head Injury Assessments (HIA) for the tackler. METHODS: A review of international rugby union matches (2013-2016) and Pro 12/ERC Champions Cup matches (2014-2016) from a professional rugby union club was conducted. HIA (n=53) and non-HIA tackles (n=233) were categorised as either front-on or side-on Upper Body or Lower Body Tackles and scored for tackling proficiency characteristics...
October 18, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040226/propranolol-and-oxandrolone-therapy-accelerated-muscle-recovery-in-burned-children
#3
Tony Chao, Craig Porter, David N Herndon, Aikaterina Siopi, Henry Ideker, Ronald P Mlcak, Labros S Sidossis, Oscar E Suman
INTRODUCTION: Severe burns result in prolonged hypermetabolism and skeletal muscle catabolism. Rehabilitative exercise training (RET) programs improved muscle mass and strength in severely burned children. The combination of RET with β-blockade or testosterone analogues showed improved exercise-induced benefits on body composition and muscle function. However, the effect of RET combined with multiple drug therapy on muscle mass, strength, cardiorespiratory fitness and protein turnover are unknown...
October 16, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040225/validation-of-a-novel-device-to-measure-and-provide-feedback-on-sedentary-behavior
#4
Jason M R Gill, Nabeha S A Hawari, Douglas J Maxwell, David Louden, Nikos Mourselas, Christopher Bunn, Cindy M Gray, Hidde P van der Ploeg, Kate Hunt, Anne Martin, Sally Wyke, Nanette Mutrie
PURPOSE: Pedometers, which enable self-monitoring of step counts, are effective in facilitating increases in physical activity. Similar devices which provide real-time feedback on sedentary (sitting) behavior are limited. This study aimed to develop and validate a novel device - the SitFIT - which could accurately measure and provide feedback on sedentary behavior and physical activity. METHODS: The SitFIT is a tri-axial accelerometer, developed by PAL Technologies, which is worn in the front trouser pocket...
October 16, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040224/fes-assisted-cycling-improves-aerobic-capacity-and-locomotor-function-post-cva
#5
Stacey E Aaron, Catherine J VanDerwerker, Aaron E Embry, Jennifer H Newton, Samuel C K Lee, Chris M Gregory
PURPOSE: After a cerebrovascular accident (CVA) aerobic deconditioning contributes to diminished physical function. Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES)-assisted cycling is a promising exercise paradigm designed to target both aerobic capacity and locomotor function. This pilot study aimed to evaluate the effects of an FES-assisted cycling intervention on aerobic capacity and locomotor function in individuals post-CVA. METHODS: Eleven individuals with chronic (> 6 months) post-CVA hemiparesis completed an 8-week (3x/wk; 24 sessions) progressive FES-assisted cycling intervention...
October 16, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040223/effect-of-losartan-on-the-acute-response-of-human-elderly-skeletal-muscle-to-exercise
#6
Mette Flindt Heisterberg, Jesper L Andersen, Peter Schjerling, Jacob Bülow, Jeppe Bo Lauersen, Heidi L Roeber, Michael Kjaer, Abigail L Mackey
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of blocking the angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1R) upon the response to acute heavy resistance exercise in elderly human skeletal muscle. The hypothesis was that AT1R blocking would result in a superior myogenic response accompanied by downregulation of TGF-β and upregulation of IGF-1 signalling. METHODS: 28 healthy elderly men (+64 years) were randomized into two groups, consuming either AT1R blocker (Losartan, 100mg/day) or Placebo for 18 days prior to exercise...
October 16, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040222/neurovascular-response-during-exercise-and-mental-stress-in-anabolic-steroid-users
#7
Rafael Armani Porello, Marcelo Rodrigues Dos Santos, Francis Ribeiro de Souza, Guilherme Wesley Peixoto da Fonseca, Ana Luiza Carrari Sayegh, Tiago Franco de Oliveira, César Abreu Akiho, Maurício Yonamine, Rosa Maria Rodrigues Pereira, Carlos Eduardo Negrão, Maria-Janieire de Nazaré Nunes Alves
PURPOSE: Increased resting muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and lower forearm blood flow (FBF) were observed in young men who use anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS). However, the response of MSNA and FBF in AAS users triggered by muscle mechanoreflex and central command has never been tested. Additionally, we evaluated the blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) responses during these maneuvers. METHODS: Nineteen AAS users (AASU) aged 31±6 yr and 18 AAS nonusers (AASNU) aged 29±4 yr were recruited...
October 16, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040221/thermoeffector-responses-at-a-fixed-rate-of-heat-production-in-heart-failure-patients
#8
Bryce N Balmain, Ollie Jay, Norman R Morris, Kenji Shiino, Glenn M Stewart, Rohan Jayasinghe, Jonathan Chan, Surendran Sabapathy
PURPOSE: Heart failure (HF) patients appear to exhibit altered thermoregulatory responses during exercise in the heat. However, the extent to which these responses are altered due to physiological impairments independently of biophysical factors associated with differences in metabolic heat production (Hprod), evaporative heat balance requirements (Ereq) and/or body size, is presently unclear. Therefore, we examined thermoregulatory responses in 10 HF and 10 age-matched controls (CON) similar in body size during exercise at a fixed rate of Hprod, and therefore Ereq in a 30°C environment...
October 16, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036016/exercise-preserves-physical-function-in-prostate-cancer-patients-with-bone-metastases
#9
Daniel A Galvão, Dennis R Taaffe, Nigel Spry, Prue Cormie, David Joseph, Suzanne K Chambers, Raphael Chee, Carolyn Peddle-McIntyre, Nicolas H Hart, Freerk T Baumann, James Denham, Michael Baker, Robert U Newton
PURPOSE: The presence of bone metastases has excluded participation of cancer patients in exercise interventions and is a relative contraindication to supervised exercise in the community setting due to concerns of fragility fracture. We examined the efficacy and safety of a modular multi-modal exercise program in prostate cancer patients with bone metastases. METHODS: Between 2012 and 2015, 57 prostate cancer patients (70.0±8.4 years; BMI 28.7±4.0 kg/m) with bone metastases (pelvis 75...
October 14, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023359/menstrual-disruption-with-exercise-is-not-linked-to-an-energy-availability-threshold
#10
Jay L Lieberman, Mary Jane De Souza, David A Wagstaff, Nancy I Williams
INTRODUCTION: Chronic reductions in energy availability (EA) suppress reproductive function. A particular calculation of EA quantifies the dietary energy remaining after exercise for all physiological functions. Reductions in LH pulse frequency have been demonstrated when EA using this calculation is < 30 kcal/ kg ffm·d. PURPOSE: We determined whether menstrual disturbances (MD) are induced when EA is < 30 kcal/ kg ffm·d. METHODS: Thirty-five sedentary, ovulatory women 18-24 yr (weight= 59...
October 10, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023358/wrist-acceleration-cut-points-for-moderate-to-vigorous-physical-activity-in-youth
#11
Christiana M T van Loo, Anthony D Okely, Marijka J Batterham, Trina Hinkley, Ulf Ekelund, Søren Brage, John J Reilly, Stewart G Trost, Rachel A Jones, Xanne Janssen, Dylan P Cliff
PURPOSE: To examine the validity of wrist acceleration cut-points for classifying moderate (MPA), vigorous (VPA) and moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA) physical activity. METHODS: Fifty-seven children (5-12y) completed 15 semi-structured activities. Three sets of wrist cut-points (>192mg, >250mg, >314mg), previously developed using Euclidian norm minus one (ENMO192+), GENEActiv software (GENEA250+) and Bandpass Filtered followed by Euclidian Norm (BFEN314+), were evaluated against indirect calorimetry...
October 10, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016393/biomechanical-implications-of-training-volume-and-intensity-in-aging-runners
#12
Max R Paquette, Paul DeVita, D S Blaise Williams
Running speed is slower in middle-aged compared to younger runners due to reduced ankle but not hip and knee kinetic output. Running-specific training helps attenuate age-related declines in measures of endurance, muscle strength and gait speed. Considering the adaptability of the human body in response to imposed stresses, maintaining training volume and intensity may play a role in modifying running biomechanics in middle-aged runners. PURPOSE: To compare running biomechanics between young and middle-aged runners when controlling for the confounding effects of training volume and intensity...
October 9, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016392/increased-walking-s-additive-and-no-substitution-effect-on-total-physical-activity
#13
Bumjoon Kang, Anne V Moudon, Philip M Hurvitz, Brian E Saelens
PURPOSE: We assessed the associations between a change in time spent walking and a change in total physical activity (PA) time within an urban living adult sample, to test for additive or substitution effects. METHODS: Participants living in the greater Seattle area were assessed in 2008-2009 and again 1-2 years later (2010-2011). At each time point, they wore accelerometers and GPS units and recorded trips and locations in a travel diary for 7 consecutive days...
October 9, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991038/exercise-prescription-and-adherence-for-breast-cancer-one-size-does-not-fitt-all
#14
Amy A Kirkham, Alis Bonsignore, Kelcey A Bland, Donald C McKenzie, Karen A Gelmon, Cheri L Van Patten, Kristin L Campbell
PURPOSE: To prospectively assess adherence to oncologist-referred, exercise programming consistent with current recommendations for cancer survivors among women with early breast cancer across the trajectory of adjuvant treatment. METHODS: Sixty-eight women participated in supervised, hour-long, moderate-intensity, aerobic and resistance exercise 3x/week during adjuvant chemotherapy ± radiation, with a step-down in frequency for 20 additional weeks. Adherence to exercise frequency (i...
October 5, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991037/mechanisms-of-fatigue-and-recovery-in-upper-versus-lower-limbs-in-men
#15
Gianluca Vernillo, John Temesi, Matthieu Martin, Guillaume Y Millet
PURPOSE: To compare the mechanisms of fatigue and recovery between upper and lower limbs in the same subjects. METHODS: Twelve healthy young males performed a 2-min sustained maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) of the knee extensors (KE) and on another day a 2-min MVC of the elbow flexors (EF). Neuromuscular function evaluations were performed with both transcranial magnetic and peripheral stimulations before (PRE), at the end of the 2-min MVCs (POSTimm), and 5 more times within 8 min of recovery...
October 5, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991036/no-effect-of-%C3%AE-alanine-on-muscle-function-and-kayak-performance
#16
Signe Refsgaard Bech, Tobias Schmidt Nielsen, Martin Hald, Jarl Pors Jakobsen, Nikolai Baastrup Nordsborg
PURPOSE: It was investigated if β-alanine supplementation counteracts muscular fatigue development or improves athletic performance. METHODS: Elite kayak rowers (10 males and 7 females) were supplemented with either 80 mg/kg body mass/day β-alanine or placebo for 8 weeks. Muscular fatigue development was investigated by applying a 2 min elbow flexor maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Electromyography (EMG) was recorded continuously and voluntary activation (VA) was determined 30, 60, 90 and 115 s into the 2 min MVC...
October 5, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991040/associations-of-muscle-mass-and-strength-with-all-cause-mortality-among-us-older-adults
#17
Ran Li, Jin Xia, Xi Zhang, Wambui Grace Gathirua-Mwangi, Jianjun Guo, Yufeng Li, Steve McKenzie, Yiqing Song
INTRODUCTION: Recent studies suggested that muscle mass and muscle strength may independently or synergistically affect aging-related health outcomes in older adults; however, prospective data on mortality in the general population are sparse. METHODS: We aimed to prospectively examine individual and joint associations of low muscle mass and low muscle strength with all-cause mortality in a nationally representative sample. This study included 4,449 participants aged 50 years and older from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2002 with public-use 2011 linked mortality files...
October 4, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991039/heavy-load-lifting-acute-response-in-breast-cancer-survivors-at-risk-for-lymphedema
#18
Kira Bloomquist, Peter Oturai, Megan L Steele, Lis Adamsen, Tom Møller, Karl Bang Christensen, Bent Ejlertsen, Sandra C Hayes
PURPOSE: Despite a paucity of evidence, prevention guidelines typically advise avoidance of heavy lifting in an effort to protect against breast cancer-related lymphedema. This study compared acute responses in arm swelling and related symptoms after low- and heavy-load resistance exercise among women at risk of lymphedema while receiving adjuvant taxane-based chemotherapy. METHODS: This is a randomized, cross-over equivalence trial. Women receiving adjuvant taxane-based chemotherapy for breast cancer who had undergone axillary lymph node dissection (n=21) participated in low- (60-65% 1 repetition maximum (RM), two sets of 15-20 repetitions) and heavy-load (85-90% 1RM, three sets of 5-8 repetition) upper-extremity resistance exercise separated by a one-week wash-out period...
October 4, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991046/does-a-prolonged-work-day-in-the-heat-impair-heat-loss-on-the-next-day-in-young-men
#19
Sean R Notley, Robert D Meade, Brian J Friesen, Andrew W DʼSouza, Glen P Kenny
PURPOSE: Heat strain is known to be exacerbated on the second of consecutive work days. We therefore evaluated whether prolonged work in the heat would impair whole-body heat loss capacity on the next day. METHODS: To evaluate this possibility, we assessed changes in whole-body heat exchange and heat storage in eight young (26 years (SD 4)) males during heat stress tests performed on the same day prior to (Day 1), and on the day following (Day 2), a prolonged work simulation...
October 3, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991045/caffeine-ingestion-attenuates-fatigue-induced-loss-of-muscle-torque-complexity
#20
Jamie Pethick, Samantha L Winter, Mark Burnley
The temporal structure, or complexity, of muscle torque output decreases with neuromuscular fatigue. The role of central fatigue in this process is unclear. PURPOSE: We tested the hypothesis that caffeine administration would attenuate the fatigue-induced loss of torque complexity. METHODS: Eleven healthy participants performed intermittent isometric contractions of the knee extensors to task failure at a target torque of 50% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), with a 60% duty factor (6 s contraction, 4 s rest), 60 min after ingesting 6 mg·kg caffeine or a placebo...
October 3, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
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