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Malaria Journal

Thilini C Weeraratne, Sinnathambi N Surendran, Catherine Walton, S H P Parakrama Karunaratne
BACKGROUND: Although Sri Lanka is considered as a malaria-free nation, the threat of re-emergence of outbreaks still remains due to the high prevalence and abundance of malaria vectors. Analysis of population genetic structure of malaria vectors is considered to be one of the vital components in implementing successful vector control programmes. The present study was conducted to determine the population genetic structure of three abundant malaria vectors; Anopheles subpictus sensu lato (s...
July 20, 2018: Malaria Journal
Gabriela Arévalo-Pinzón, María González-González, Carlos Fernando Suárez, Hernando Curtidor, Javier Carabias-Sánchez, Antonio Muro, Joshua LaBaer, Manuel Alfonso Patarroyo, Manuel Fuentes
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium vivax is the most widespread malarial species, causing significant morbidity worldwide. Knowledge is limited regarding the molecular mechanism of invasion due to the lack of a continuous in vitro culture system for these species. Since protein-protein and host-cell interactions play an essential role in the microorganism's invasion and replication, elucidating protein function during invasion is critical when developing more effective control methods. Nucleic acid programmable protein array (NAPPA) has thus become a suitable technology for studying protein-protein and host-protein interactions since producing proteins through the in vitro transcription/translation (IVTT) method overcomes most of the drawbacks encountered to date, such as heterologous protein production, stability and purification...
July 17, 2018: Malaria Journal
Naowarat Saralamba, Mayfong Mayxay, Paul N Newton, Frank Smithuis, Francois Nosten, Laypaw Archasuksan, Sasithon Pukrittayakamee, Nicholas J White, Nicholas P J Day, Arjen M Dondorp, Mallika Imwong
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium malariae is characterized by its long asymptomatic persistence in the human host. The epidemiology of P. malariae is incompletely understood and is hampered by the limited knowledge of genetic polymorphisms. Previous reports from Africa have shown heterogeneity within the P. malariae circumsporozoite protein (pmcsp) gene. However, comparative studies from Asian countries are lacking. Here, the genetic polymorphisms in pmcsp of Asian isolates have been characterized...
July 16, 2018: Malaria Journal
Sophie H Allcock, Elizabeth H Young, Manjinder S Sandhu
BACKGROUND: Achieving vector control targets is a key step towards malaria elimination. Because of variations in reporting of progress towards vector control targets in 2013, the coverage of these vector control interventions in Namibia was assessed. METHODS: Data on 9846 households, representing 41,314 people, collected in the 2013 nationally-representative Namibia Demographic and Health Survey were used to explore the coverage of two vector control methods: indoor residual spraying (IRS) and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs)...
July 16, 2018: Malaria Journal
Michelle V D Ferreira, José L F Vieira, Eduardo D Almeida, Juan G B Rivera, Margarete S M Gomes, André M de Siqueira
BACKGROUND: A fixed-dose combination of mefloquine with artesunate was evaluated in cases of falciparum malaria in the Brazilian Amazon basin with acceptable efficacy, safety and tolerability. However, there are no data on the pharmacokinetics of mefloquine in this coformulation in Brazil, which is valuable to evaluate whether Plasmodium is exposed to an effective concentration of the drug. METHODS: A prospective, single-arm study was conducted in male patients with slide-confirmed infection by Plasmodium falciparum using two tablets of a fixed-dose combination of artesunate (100 mg) and mefloquine base (200 mg) once daily and over 3 consecutive days...
July 16, 2018: Malaria Journal
Henk van den Berg, Michèle van Vugt, Alinune N Kabaghe, Mackenzie Nkalapa, Rowlands Kaotcha, Zinenani Truwah, Tumaini Malenga, Asante Kadama, Saidon Banda, Tinashe Tizifa, Steven Gowelo, Monicah M Mburu, Kamija S Phiri, Willem Takken, Robert S McCann
BACKGROUND: Increased engagement of communities has been emphasized in global plans for malaria control and elimination. Three interventions to reinforce and complement national malaria control recommendations were developed and applied within the context of a broad-based development initiative, targeting a rural population surrounding a wildlife reserve. The interventions, which were part of a 2-year research trial, and assigned to the village level, were implemented through trained local volunteers, or 'health animators', who educated the community and facilitated collective action...
July 16, 2018: Malaria Journal
Siuhelem Rocha Silva, Anne Cristine Gomes Almeida, George Allan Villarouco da Silva, Rajendranath Ramasawmy, Stefanie Costa Pinto Lopes, André Machado Siqueira, Gabriel Luíz Costa, Taís Nóbrega Sousa, José Luiz Fernandes Vieira, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães Lacerda, Wuelton Marcelo Monteiro, Gisely Cardoso de Melo
BACKGROUND: The resistance of Plasmodium vivax to chloroquine has become an obstacle to control strategies based on the use of anti-malarials. The current study investigated the association between P. vivax CQ-resistance in vivo with copy number variation and mutations in the promoter region in pvcrt-o and pvmdr1 genes. METHODS: The study included patients with P. vivax that received supervised treatment with chloroquine and primaquine. Recurrences were actively recorded during this period...
July 16, 2018: Malaria Journal
Jonathan N Hogarh, Thomas P Agyekum, Crentsil Kofi Bempah, Emmanuel D J Owusu-Ansah, Silas W Avicor, Gordon A Awandare, Julius N Fobil, Kwasi Obiri-Danso
BACKGROUND: Malaria is an infectious disease that causes many deaths in sub-Saharan Africa. In resource-poor malaria endemic communities, mosquito coils are commonly applied in households to repel the vector mosquito that transmits malaria parasites. In applying these coils, users have mainly been interested in the environmental health benefits potentially derived from repelling the mosquito, while oblivious of the environmental health risks that may be associated with exposure to emissions from the use of mosquito coil...
July 16, 2018: Malaria Journal
Augustina Frimpong, Kwadwo Asamoah Kusi, Bernard Tornyigah, Michael Fokuo Ofori, Wilfred Ndifon
BACKGROUND: Asymptomatic Plasmodium infections are characterized by the absence of clinical disease and the ability to restrict parasite replication. Increasing levels of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in Plasmodium falciparum infections have been associated with the risk of developing clinical disease, suggesting that individuals with asymptomatic infections may have reduced Treg frequency. However, the relationship between Tregs, cellular activation and parasite control in asymptomatic malaria remains unclear...
July 13, 2018: Malaria Journal
Ana María Vásquez, Lina Zuluaga, Alberto Tobón, Maritza Posada, Gabriel Vélez, Iveth J González, Ana Campillo, Xavier Ding
BACKGROUND: Pregnant women frequently show low-density Plasmodium infections that require more sensitive methods for accurate diagnosis and early treatment of malaria. This is particularly relevant in low-malaria transmission areas, where intermittent preventive treatment is not recommended. Molecular methods, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are highly sensitive, but require sophisticated equipment and advanced training. Instead, loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) provides an opportunity for molecular detection of malaria infections in remote endemic areas, outside a reference laboratory...
July 13, 2018: Malaria Journal
Celine I Mandara, Reginald A Kavishe, Samuel Gesase, Janneth Mghamba, Esther Ngadaya, Peter Mmbuji, Sigsbert Mkude, Renata Mandike, Ritha Njau, Ally Mohamed, Martha M Lemnge, Marian Warsame, Deus S Ishengoma
BACKGROUND: Artemether-lumefantrine (AL) is the recommended first-line artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in most of the malaria-endemic countries, including Tanzania. Recently, dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) has been recommended as the alternative anti-malarial to ensure effective case management in Tanzania. This study assessed the parasite clearance rate and efficacy of AL and DP among patients aged 6 months to 10 years with uncomplicated falciparum malaria in two sites with different malaria transmission intensity...
July 11, 2018: Malaria Journal
Kyaw Myo Tun, Atthanee Jeeyapant, Aung Hpone Myint, Zwe Thiha Kyaw, Mehul Dhorda, Mavuto Mukaka, Phaik Yeong Cheah, Mallika Imwong, Thaung Hlaing, Thar Htun Kyaw, Elizabeth A Ashley, Arjen Dondorp, Nicholas J White, Nicholas P J Day, Frank Smithuis
BACKGROUND: Artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum has emerged and spread in Southeast Asia. In areas where resistance is established longer courses of artemisinin-based combination therapy have improved cure rates. METHODS: The standard 3-day course of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) was compared with an extended 5-day regimen for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Kayin state in South-East Myanmar, an area of emerging artemisinin resistance...
July 11, 2018: Malaria Journal
Andrés Noé, Sazid Ibna Zaman, Mosiqure Rahman, Anjan Kumar Saha, M M Aktaruzzaman, Richard James Maude
BACKGROUND: Malaria claims hundreds of thousands of lives each year, most of them children. A "malaria-free world" is the World Health Organization's vision, but elimination from the southeast Asian Region is hampered by factors including anti-malarial resistance and systematic underreporting. Malaria is a significant public health problem in Bangladesh and while there have been recent gains in control, there is large spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the disease burden...
July 11, 2018: Malaria Journal
Ngoc Minh Pham, Walter Karlen, Hans-Peter Beck, Emmanuel Delamarche
Malaria, together with HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and hepatitis are the four most deadly infectious diseases globally. Progress in eliminating malaria has saved millions of lives, but also creates new challenges in detecting the 'last parasite'. Effective and accurate detection of malaria infections, both in symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals are needed. In this review, the current progress in developing new diagnostic tools to fight malaria is presented. An ideal rapid test for malaria elimination is envisioned with examples to demonstrate how innovative technologies can assist the global defeat against this disease...
July 11, 2018: Malaria Journal
Christine F Markwalter, Lwiindi Mudenda, Mindy Leelawong, Danielle W Kimmel, Armin Nourani, Saidon Mbambara, Philip E Thuma, David W Wright
BACKGROUND: Rapid diagnostic tests based on histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2) detection are the primary tools used to detect Plasmodium falciparum malaria infections. Recent conflicting reports call into question whether α-HRP2 antibodies are present in human host circulation and if resulting immune complexes could interfere with HRP2 detection on malaria RDTs. This study sought to determine the prevalence of immune-complexed HRP2 in a low-transmission region of Southern Zambia. METHODS: An ELISA was used to quantify HRP2 in patient sample DBS extracts before and after heat-based immune complex dissociation...
July 9, 2018: Malaria Journal
Chris Stone, Kevin Gross
BACKGROUND: Insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) have played a large role in reducing the burden of malaria. There is concern however regarding the potential of the mass distributions and use of ITNs to select for insecticide and behavioural resistance in mosquito populations. A key feature of the vectorial capacity of the major sub-Saharan African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (s.s.) is its tendency to feed almost exclusively on humans. Here, an evolutionary model is used to investigate the potential for ITNs to select for increased zoophily in this highly anthropophilic species and how this is influenced by ecological and operational conditions...
July 9, 2018: Malaria Journal
Munyaradzi Tambo, Joyce R Auala, Hugh J Sturrock, Immo Kleinschmidt, Ronnie Bock, Jennifer L Smith, Roland Gosling, Davis R Mumbengegwi
BACKGROUND: As malaria transmission decreases, the proportion of infections that are asymptomatic at any given time increases. This poses a challenge for diagnosis as routinely used rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) miss asymptomatic malaria cases with low parasite densities due to poor sensitivity. Yet, asymptomatic infections can contribute to onward transmission of malaria and therefore act as infectious reservoirs and perpetuate malaria transmission. This study compared the performance of RDTs to loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) in the diagnosis of malaria during reactive active case detection surveillance...
July 9, 2018: Malaria Journal
Jorge A H Arroz, Baltazar Candrinho, Sílvia Pedro, Guidion Mathe, Mariana da Silva, Sérgio Tsabete, Luis Ismael, Inês Juleca, Marta Chande, Fernando Bambo, Olinda Munguande, Sérgio Julane, Figueiredo Mussambala, Eunice Alfai, Olimpia Muianga, Hermelgildo Matsimbe, Pablo Varela, Christine Latif, Chandana Mendis, Melanie Lopez, Gagik Karapetyan, Marcy Erskine
BACKGROUND: In 2016/2017, Mozambique conducted a countrywide long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) universal coverage campaign (UCC). This paper aims to describe the planning and implementation process of the campaign in Mozambique. METHODS: A cross-sectional and descriptive design was used for reporting the planning and implementation process of the UCC. The UCC used a collaborative approach, involving institutional and non-institutional actors, namely: National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP), provincial and district health authorities, community members and civil society partners...
July 9, 2018: Malaria Journal
Jason P Mooney, Aissata Barry, Bronner P Gonçalves, Alfred B Tiono, Shehu S Awandu, Lynn Grignard, Chris J Drakeley, Christian Bottomley, Teun Bousema, Eleanor M Riley
BACKGROUND: The haemolysis associated with clinical episodes of malaria results in the liberation of haem, which activates the enzyme haem oxygenase-1 (HO-1). HO-1 has been shown to reduce neutrophil function and increase susceptibility to invasive bacterial disease. However, the majority of community-associated malaria infections are subclinical, often termed "asymptomatic" and the consequences of low-grade haemolysis during subclinical malaria infection are unknown. STUDY DESIGN AND RESULTS: As part of an ongoing study of subclinical malaria in Burkina Faso, 23 children with subclinical Plasmodium falciparum infections (determined by qPCR) were compared with 21 village-matched uninfected control children...
July 6, 2018: Malaria Journal
Ekpereonne Esu, Nicole Berens-Riha, Michael Pritsch, Nuria Nwachuku, Thomas Loescher, Martin Meremikwu
BACKGROUND: The spread of SP resistance may compromise the effectiveness of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (MiP) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) across Africa. However, there is no recommended alternative medicine for IPTp or alternative strategy for prevention of MiP. This poses problems for the prevention of MiP. This study investigated, whether screening with a rapid diagnostic test for malaria at routine antenatal clinic attendances and treatment of only those who are positive (intermittent screening and treatment) with artemether-lumefantrine is as effective and safe as IPTp-SP in pregnant women...
July 6, 2018: Malaria Journal
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