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Malaria Journal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623926/perennial-transmission-of-malaria-in-the-low-altitude-areas-of-baringo-county-kenya
#1
Collince J Omondi, Daniel Onguru, Lucy Kamau, Mark Nanyingi, George Ong'amo, Benson Estambale
BACKGROUND: Malaria causes the greatest public health burden in sub-Saharan Africa where high mortality occurs mainly in children under 5 years of age. Traditionally, malaria has been reported mainly in the lowlands endemic regions of western Kenya, while the highlands of the Rift Valley have been relatively free except for the sporadic epidemics in some areas. Baringo County is located in the Kenyan highlands. The county generally experiences seasonal transmission of malaria. A few hotspots which experience continuous malaria transmission in the county do however exist...
June 17, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619120/g6pd-deficiency-alleles-in-a-malaria-endemic-region-in-the-western-brazilian-amazon
#2
Jamille G Dombrowski, Rodrigo M Souza, Jonathan Curry, Laura Hinton, Natercia R M Silva, Lynn Grignard, Ligia A Gonçalves, Ana Rita Gomes, Sabrina Epiphanio, Chris Drakeley, Jim Huggett, Taane G Clark, Susana Campino, Claudio R F Marinho
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium vivax parasites are the predominant cause of malaria infections in the Brazilian Amazon. Infected individuals are treated with primaquine, which can induce haemolytic anaemia in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient individuals and may lead to severe and fatal complications. This X-linked disorder is distributed globally and is caused by allelic variants with a geographical distribution that closely reflects populations exposed historically to endemic malaria...
June 15, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619076/effectiveness-and-equity-of-the-tanzania-national-voucher-scheme-for-mosquito-nets-over-10%C3%A2-years-of-implementation
#3
Karen Kramer, Renata Mandike, Rose Nathan, Ally Mohamed, Matthew Lynch, Nick Brown, Ally Mnzava, Wilhelmina Rimisho, Christian Lengeler
BACKGROUND: The Tanzania National Voucher Scheme (TNVS) was a public private partnership managed by the Ministry of Health that provided pregnant women and infants with highly subsidized (long-lasting) insecticide-treated nets between 2004 and 2014. It was implemented in the context of the National Insecticide Treated Nets (NATNETS) Programme and was the main keep up strategy for vulnerable populations. CASE DESCRIPTION: The programme design was adjusted considerably over time to incorporate new evidence, shifting public health policies, and changing donor priorities...
June 15, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619071/new-adenovirus-based-vaccine-vectors-targeting-pfs25-elicit-antibodies-that-inhibit-plasmodium-falciparum-transmission
#4
Kathleen A McGuire, Kazutoyo Miura, Christopher M Wiethoff, Kim C Williamson
BACKGROUND: An effective malaria transmission-blocking vaccine (TBV) would be a major advance in the current efforts to eliminate and, ultimately, eradicate malaria. Antibodies against Plasmodium falciparum surface protein, Pfs25, are known to block parasite development in the mosquito vector. However, in initial clinical trials the limited immunogenicity of recombinant Pfs25 protein-in-adjuvant vaccines has been a challenge. METHODS: Novel human adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) vectors were used in heterologous prime boost vaccination strategies to augment the immune response against Pfs25...
June 15, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619033/social-representations-of-malaria-in-the-guna-indigenous-population-of-comarca-guna-de-madungandi-panama
#5
Lorenzo Cáceres, José E Calzada, Amanda Gabster, Josue Young, Ricardo Márquez, Rolando Torres, Margarita Griffith
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study was to recognize the social representation of the Guna indigenous population by identifying cultural elements related to malaria, in order to create an intercultural approach to any health intervention to control and prevent the disease. METHODS: This qualitative study has an anthropological focus that used participant observation, informal conversations, focus groups, interviews, in-depth interviews with key actors. Analyses included review, classification and categorization of interviews...
June 15, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615026/engaging-the-private-sector-in-malaria-surveillance-a-review-of-strategies-and-recommendations-for-elimination-settings
#6
Adam Bennett, Anton L V Avanceña, Jennifer Wegbreit, Chris Cotter, Kathryn Roberts, Roly Gosling
BACKGROUND: In malaria elimination settings, all malaria cases must be identified, documented and investigated. To facilitate complete and timely reporting of all malaria cases and effective case management and follow-up, engagement with private providers is essential, particularly in settings where the private sector is a major source of healthcare. However, research on the role and performance of the private sector in malaria diagnosis, case management and reporting in malaria elimination settings is limited...
June 14, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615016/ex-vivo-susceptibility-and-genotyping-of-plasmodium-falciparum-isolates-from-pikine-senegal
#7
Aminata Mbaye, Amy Gaye, Baba Dieye, Yaye D Ndiaye, Amy K Bei, Muna Affara, Awa B Deme, Mamadou S Yade, Khadim Diongue, Ibrahima M Ndiaye, Tolla Ndiaye, Mouhamed Sy, Ngayo Sy, Ousmane Koita, Donald J Krogstad, Sarah Volkman, Davis Nwakanma, Daouda Ndiaye
BACKGROUND: The monitoring of Plasmodium falciparum sensitivity to anti-malarial drugs is a necessity for effective case management of malaria. This species is characterized by a strong resistance to anti-malarial drugs. In Senegal, the first cases of chloroquine resistance were reported in the Dakar region in 1988 with nearly 7% population prevalence, reaching 47% by 1990. It is in this context that sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine temporarily replaced chloroquine as first line treatment in 2003, pending the introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapy in 2006...
June 14, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610579/reported-community-level-indoor-residual-spray-coverage-from-two-stage-cluster-surveys-in-sub-saharan-africa
#8
David A Larsen, Lauren Borrill, Ryan Patel, Lauren Fregosi
BACKGROUND: Malaria is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in malaria-endemic areas. Indoor residual spray is an effective intervention to control malaria, but high community-level coverage is needed to maximize its impact. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using thirty-four two-stage cluster surveys (e.g., demographic and health surveys) and lot quality assurance sampling, indoor residual spray was estimated at the community level (i.e. enumeration-area) across sub-Saharan Africa since 2010...
June 13, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606149/malaria-research-in-malawi-from-1984-to-2016-a-literature-review-and-bibliometric-analysis
#9
REVIEW
Chikondi A Mwendera, Christiaan de Jager, Herbert Longwe, Charles Hongoro, Clifford M Mutero, Kamija S Phiri
BACKGROUND: Malaria research can play a vital role in addressing the malaria burden in Malawi. An organized approach in addressing malaria in Malawi started in 1984 by the establishment of the first National Malaria Control Programme and research was recognized to be significant. This study aimed to assess the type and amount of malaria research conducted in Malawi from 1984 to 2016 and its related source of funding. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted in the Medline/PubMed database for Malawian publications and approved malaria studies from two Ethical Committees were examined...
June 12, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606143/effectiveness-of-reactive-case-detection-for-malaria-elimination-in-three-archetypical-transmission-settings-a-modelling-study
#10
Jaline Gerardin, Caitlin A Bever, Daniel Bridenbecker, Busiku Hamainza, Kafula Silumbe, John M Miller, Thomas P Eisele, Philip A Eckhoff, Edward A Wenger
BACKGROUND: Reactive case detection could be a powerful tool in malaria elimination, as it selectively targets transmission pockets. However, field operations have yet to demonstrate under which conditions, if any, reactive case detection is best poised to push a region to elimination. This study uses mathematical modelling to assess how baseline transmission intensity and local interconnectedness affect the impact of reactive activities in the context of other possible intervention packages...
June 12, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606087/suppression-of-experimental-cerebral-malaria-by-disruption-of-malate-quinone-oxidoreductase
#11
Mamoru Niikura, Keisuke Komatsuya, Shin-Ichi Inoue, Risa Matsuda, Hiroko Asahi, Daniel Ken Inaoka, Kiyoshi Kita, Fumie Kobayashi
BACKGROUND: Aspartate, which is converted from oxaloacetate (OAA) by aspartate aminotransferase, is considered an important precursor for purine salvage and pyrimidine de novo biosynthesis, and is thus indispensable for the growth of Plasmodium parasites at the asexual blood stages. OAA can be produced in malaria parasites via two routes: (i) from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) by phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) in the cytosol, or (ii) from fumarate by consecutive reactions catalyzed by fumarate hydratase (FH) and malate:quinone oxidoreductase (MQO) in the mitochondria of malaria parasites...
June 12, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599666/access-to-and-use-of-long-lasting-insecticidal-nets-and-factors-associated-with-non-use-among-communities-in-malaria-endemic-areas-of-al-hudaydah-governorate-in-the-tihama-region-west-of-yemen
#12
Samira M A Al-Eryani, Mohammed A K Mahdy, Abdulsalam M Al-Mekhlafi, Rashad Abdul-Ghani
BACKGROUND: Universal coverage of the targeted malaria-endemic areas with long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) is implemented as one of the key interventions for malaria control and elimination in Yemen. In 2013, through a mass campaign, LLINs were distributed to the targeted communities in Al Hudaydah governorate. This study aimed to assess the ownership of, access to, and use of LLINs. It also aimed to identify factors associated with not using LLINs in malaria-endemic areas of Al Hudaydah in the Tihama region, west of Yemen...
June 9, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599650/the-role-of-extracellular-vesicles-in-malaria-biology-and-pathogenesis
#13
REVIEW
Natalia Guimaraes Sampaio, Lesley Cheng, Emily M Eriksson
In the past decade, research on the functions of extracellular vesicles in malaria has expanded dramatically. Investigations into the various vesicle types, from both host and parasite origin, has revealed important roles for extracellular vesicles in disease pathogenesis and susceptibility, as well as cell-cell communication and immune responses. Here, work relating to extracellular vesicles in malaria is reviewed, and the areas that remain unknown and require further investigations are highlighted.
June 9, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595603/current-and-cumulative-malaria-infections-in-a-setting-embarking-on-elimination-amhara-ethiopia
#14
Woyneshet G Yalew, Sampa Pal, Pooja Bansil, Rebecca Dabbs, Kevin Tetteh, Caterina Guinovart, Michael Kalnoky, Belendia A Serda, Berhane H Tesfay, Belay B Beyene, Catherine Seneviratne, Megan Littrell, Lindsay Yokobe, Gregory S Noland, Gonzalo J Domingo, Asefaw Getachew, Chris Drakeley, Richard W Steketee
BACKGROUND: Since 2005, Ethiopia has aggressively scaled up malaria prevention and case management. As a result, the number of malaria cases and deaths has significantly declined. In order to track progress towards the elimination of malaria in Amhara Region, coverage of malaria control tools and current malaria transmission need to be documented. METHODS: A cross-sectional household survey oversampling children under 5 years of age was conducted during the dry season in 2013...
June 8, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595600/extremely-low-plasmodium-prevalence-in-wild-plovers-and-coursers-from-cape-verde-and-madagascar
#15
Josué Martínez-de la Puente, Luke J Eberhart-Phillips, M Cristina Carmona-Isunza, Sama Zefania, María José Navarro, Oliver Kruger, Joseph Ivan Hoffman, Tamás Székely, Jordi Figuerola
BACKGROUND: Relatively little is known about the prevalence of blood parasites in shorebirds, especially those breeding in the tropics. The prevalence of blood parasites of the genera Plasmodium, Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon was assessed in blood samples from Kentish plovers and cream-coloured coursers in Cape Verde, and samples of Kittlitz's plovers, Madagascar plovers and white-fronted plovers in Madagascar. RESULTS: Only two of these samples were positive for Plasmodium: a Kittlitz's plover was infected by a generalist lineage of Plasmodium that has already been reported in Europe and Africa, while in a white-fronted plover direct sequencing revealed a previously un-described Plasmodium lineage...
June 8, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592293/plasmobase-a-comparative-database-of-predicted-domain-architectures-for-plasmodium-genomes
#16
Juliana Bernardes, Catherine Vaquero, Alessandra Carbone
BACKGROUND: With the availability of complete genome sequences of both human and non-human Plasmodium parasites, it is now possible to use comparative genomics to look for orthology across Plasmodium species and for species specific genes. This comparative analyses could provide important clues for the development of new strategies to prevent and treat malaria in humans, however, the number of functionally annotated proteins is still low for all Plasmodium species. In the context of genomes that are hard to annotate because of sequence divergence, such as Plasmodium, domain co-occurrence becomes particularly important to trust predictions...
June 7, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592250/community-based-intermittent-mass-testing-and-treatment-for-malaria-in-an-area-of-high-transmission-intensity-western-kenya-study-design-and-methodology-for-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Aaron M Samuels, Nobert Awino, Wycliffe Odongo, Benard Abong'o, John Gimnig, Kephas Otieno, Ya Ping Shi, Vincent Were, Denise Roth Allen, Florence Were, Tony Sang, David Obor, John Williamson, Mary J Hamel, S Patrick Kachur, Laurence Slutsker, Kim A Lindblade, Simon Kariuki, Meghna Desai
Most human Plasmodium infections in western Kenya are asymptomatic and are believed to contribute importantly to malaria transmission. Elimination of asymptomatic infections requires active treatment approaches, such as mass testing and treatment (MTaT) or mass drug administration (MDA), as infected persons do not seek care for their infection. Evaluations of community-based approaches that are designed to reduce malaria transmission require careful attention to study design to ensure that important effects can be measured accurately...
June 7, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587669/ivermectin-treated-cattle-reduces-blood-digestion-egg-production-and-survival-of-a-free-living-population-of-anopheles-arabiensis-under-semi-field-condition-in-south-eastern-tanzania
#18
Issa N Lyimo, Stella T Kessy, Kasian F Mbina, Ally A Daraja, Ladslaus L Mnyone
BACKGROUND: Anopheles arabiensis feed on cattle and contributes to residual transmission of malaria in areas with high coverage of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying in East Africa. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of ivermectin-treated cattle as a complementary vector control tool against population of An. arabiensis under the semi-field conditions in south-eastern Tanzania. METHODS: The free-living population of An. arabiensis was allowed to forage on untreated or ivermectin-treated cattle in alternating nights within the semi-field system in south-eastern Tanzania...
June 6, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587615/genome-wide-scans-for-the-identification-of-plasmodium-vivax-genes-under-positive-selection
#19
Hai-Mo Shen, Shen-Bo Chen, Yue Wang, Bin Xu, Eniola Michael Abe, Jun-Hu Chen
BACKGROUND: The current trend of Plasmodium vivax cases imported from Southeast Asia into China has sharply increased recently, especially from the China-Myanmar border (CMB) area. High recombination rates of P. vivax populations associated with varied transmission intensity might cause distinct local selective pressures. The information on the genetic variability of P. vivax in this area is scant. Hence, this study assessed the genetic diversity of P. vivax genome sequence in CMB area and aimed to provide information on the positive selection of new gene loci...
June 6, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583133/comparative-physical-genome-mapping-of-malaria-vectors-anopheles-sinensis-and-anopheles-gambiae
#20
Yun Wei, Biao Cheng, Guoding Zhu, Danyu Shen, Jiangtao Liang, Cong Wang, Jing Wang, Jianxia Tang, Jun Cao, Igor V Sharakhov, Ai Xia
BACKGROUND: Anopheles sinensis is a dominant natural vector of Plasmodium vivax in China, Taiwan, Japan, and Korea. Recent genome sequencing of An. sinensis provides important insights into the genomic basis of vectorial capacity. However, the lack of a physical genome map with chromosome assignment and orientation of sequencing scaffolds hinders comparative analyses with other genomes to infer evolutionary changes relevant to the vector capacity. RESULTS: Here, a physical genome map for An...
June 5, 2017: Malaria Journal
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