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Malaria Journal

Pedro Berzosa, Aida de Lucio, María Romay-Barja, Zaida Herrador, Vicenta González, Luz García, Amalia Fernández-Martínez, Maria Santana-Morales, Policarpo Ncogo, Basilio Valladares, Matilde Riloha, Agustín Benito
BACKGROUND: Malaria in Equatorial Guinea remains a major public health problem. The country is a holo-endemic area with a year-round transmission pattern. In 2016, the prevalence of malaria was 12.09% and malaria caused 15% of deaths among children under 5 years. In the Continental Region, 95.2% of malaria infections were Plasmodium falciparum, 9.5% Plasmodium vivax, and eight cases mixed infection in 2011. The main strategy for malaria control is quick and accurate diagnosis followed by effective treatment...
September 17, 2018: Malaria Journal
Kinley Wangdi, Sara E Canavati, Thang Duc Ngo, Long Khanh Tran, Thu Minh Nguyen, Duong Thanh Tran, Nicholas J Martin, Archie C A Clements
BACKGROUND: Viet Nam has made tremendous progress towards reducing mortality and morbidity associated with malaria in recent years. Despite the success in malaria control, there has been a recent increase in cases in some provinces. In order to understand the changing malaria dynamics in Viet Nam and measure progress towards elimination, the aim of this study was to describe and quantify spatial and temporal trends of malaria by species at district level across the country. METHODS: Malaria case reports at the Viet Nam National Institute of Malariology, Parasitology, and Entomology were reviewed for the period of January 2009 to December 2015...
September 17, 2018: Malaria Journal
Helena Lamptey, Michael Fokuo Ofori, Kwadwo Asamoah Kusi, Bright Adu, Eunice Owusu-Yeboa, Eric Kyei-Baafour, Andrea Twumwaa Arku, Samuel Bosomprah, Michael Alifrangis, Isabella A Quakyi
BACKGROUND: The gametocyte stage of Plasmodium falciparum is considered an important target for disrupting malaria transmission. Indications are that various demographic groups, such as children and pregnant women may differ in risk of harbouring gametocytes, which may be crucial for targeted control. In this study, the relationship between the prevalence and multiplicity of P. falciparum, asexual parasite infections and gametocytaemia was assessed in three different demographic groups in an area of southern Ghana with low malaria endemicity...
September 17, 2018: Malaria Journal
Stanley Ndwigah, Andy Stergachis, Kennedy Abuga, Hannington Mugo, Isaac Kibwage
BACKGROUND: Malaria is a major health problem in sub-Saharan Africa where over 90% of the world's malaria cases occur. Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is recommended by the World Health Organization as first-line and second-line treatments for uncomplicated falciparum malaria. However, there are a growing number of reports of sub-standard and falsified anti-malarial medicines in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Embu County, Kenya on the quality of anti-malarial medicines available in public and private facilities...
September 15, 2018: Malaria Journal
Jetsumon Sattabongkot, Chayanut Suansomjit, Wang Nguitragool, Jeeraphat Sirichaisinthop, Saradee Warit, Montip Tiensuwan, Sureemas Buates
BACKGROUND: Asymptomatic infections with sub-microscopic Plasmodium serve as a silent reservoir of disease, critical to sustaining a low level of remanent malaria in the population. These infections must be effectively identified and targeted for elimination. The sensitivity of light microscopy, the traditional method used for diagnosing Plasmodium infections, is frequently insufficient for detecting asymptomatic infections due to the low density of parasitaemia. The objective of this study was to explore the current prevalence of asymptomatic sub-microscopic Plasmodium carriages to evaluate the parasite reservoir amongst residents from 7 hamlets in Tak Province in northwestern Thailand using a highly sensitive molecular method...
September 12, 2018: Malaria Journal
Rafael Saavedra-Langer, Jorge Marapara, Andree Valle-Campos, Salomón Durand, Maria E Vásquez-Chasnamote, Hermann Silva, Viviana Pinedo-Cancino
BACKGROUND: Malaria in Peru is concentrated in the Amazon region, especially in Loreto, and transmission is focused in rural and peri-urban communities. The government has approved a malaria elimination plan with a community approach and seeks to reduce the risk of transmission through preventive interventions, but asymptomatic and low-parasite-density infections are challenges for disease control and elimination. IgG antibodies play a critical role in combating infection through their ability to reduce parasitaemia and clinical symptoms...
September 11, 2018: Malaria Journal
Kacey C Ernst, Erika Barrett, Elizabeth Hoswell, Mary H Hayden
Workshops with academic, national and local government, and community stakeholders were held in Kenya (2017) and Indonesia (2018) to understand the role and perceptions of women in vector control and to identify strategies for accelerating involvement of women in sustained support for vector control interventions at multiple levels/sectors.
September 10, 2018: Malaria Journal
Emmanuel W Kaindoa, Marceline Finda, Jepchirchir Kiplagat, Gustav Mkandawile, Anna Nyoni, Maureen Coetzee, Fredros O Okumu
Following publication of the original article [1], the author flagged that the clause "and competing household priorities" was missing from the second sentence of the conclusion section of the Abstract; while this clause was in the Conclusion section of the main article text.
September 10, 2018: Malaria Journal
Krongkan Srimuang, Olivo Miotto, Pharath Lim, Rick M Fairhurst, Dominic P Kwiatkowski, Charles J Woodrow, Mallika Imwong
Following publication of the original article [1], one of the authors has highlighted an xml-related discrepancy concerning the author group titled 'Additional Tracking Resistance to Artemisinin Collaboration authors (TRAC Group Authorship)', listed under the Acknowledgements section.
September 10, 2018: Malaria Journal
Marie Louise Varela, Babacar Mbengue, Aissata Basse, Cheikh Loucoubar, Inès Vigan-Womas, Alioune Dièye, Aissatou Toure, Ronald Perraut
BACKGROUND: Serological markers are potentially useful tools for monitoring the progress of malaria control programs, but a better understanding of antibody response dynamics is necessary. The use of a magnetic bead-based immunoassay (MBA) is advantageous compared to ELISA, due to its multiplexing capacity, but limited information is available on the standardization and validation of this assay. METHODS: Several parameters for multiplex testing of antibodies to Plasmodium antigens were analysed using a set of 4 antigens and 98 sera from Senegalese rural asymptomatic and urban symptomatic individuals...
September 6, 2018: Malaria Journal
Daniel Getacher Feleke, Daniel Gebretsadik, Angesom Gebreweld
BACKGROUND: Malaria is one of the major public health problems worldwide. In Ethiopia, there is a significant decline in disease burden; however, the overall trend of malaria prevalence is not studied or well-documented in different localities. Hence, the initiation of this study was to analyse the 5-year trends of malaria prevalence in Ataye, North Shoa, Ethiopia. METHODS: A retrospective laboratory record review was conducted in Ataye Hospital, North-Shoa, Ethiopia...
September 5, 2018: Malaria Journal
Kavitha Saravu, Chaitanya Tellapragada, Shrivathsa Kulavalli, Wilbin Xavier, Shashikiran Umakanth, Gouthami Brahmarouphu, Navyasree Kola Srinivas, Jagadish Puralae Channabasavaiah, Anzil Bava, Abdul Vahab Saadi, Vasudev Guddattu, Kapaettu Satyamoorthy, Krishnamurthy Bhat
BACKGROUND: Radical cure of Plasmodium vivax malaria requires treatment with a blood schizonticide and a hypnozoitocide (primaquine) to eradicate the dormant liver stages. There has been uncertainty about the operational effectiveness and optimum dosing of the currently recommended 14-day primaquine (PQ) course. METHODS: A two centre, randomized, open-label, two arm study was conducted in South India. Patients were randomized to receive either high dose (0.5 mg base/kg body weight) or conventional dose (0...
September 3, 2018: Malaria Journal
Richard M Hoglund, Ronnatrai Ruengweerayut, Kesara Na-Bangchang
BACKGROUND: Low mefloquine exposure has been shown to contribute to treatment failure in patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria following a 3-day artesunate-mefloquine combination. The present study aimed to develop a population pharmacokinetic model for mefloquine based on whole blood concentration-time profiles of this target population for further dose optimization. METHODS: A total of 129 Burmese patients aged above 15 years who presented with typical symptoms of malaria and had a blood smear positive for Plasmodium falciparum were included in the study...
September 3, 2018: Malaria Journal
Gustavo Fontecha, Rosa E Mejía, Engels Banegas, Maria Paz Ade, Lisandro Mendoza, Bryan Ortiz, Isaac Sabillón, Gerardo Alvarado, Gabriela Matamoros, Alejandra Pinto
BACKGROUND: Malaria remains a public health problem in some countries of Central America. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are one of the most useful tools to assist in the diagnosis of malaria in remote areas. Since its introduction, a wide variety of RDTs have been developed for the detection of different parasite antigens. PfHRP2 is the most targeted antigen for the detection of Plasmodium falciparum infections. Genetic mutations and gene deletions are important factors influencing or affecting the performance of rapid diagnostic tests...
August 31, 2018: Malaria Journal
Ross G Douglas, Miriam Reinig, Matthew Neale, Friedrich Frischknecht
BACKGROUND: Anti-malarial compounds have not yet been identified that target the first obligatory step of infection in humans: the migration of Plasmodium sporozoites in the host dermis. This movement is essential to find and invade a blood vessel in order to be passively transported to the liver. Here, an imaging screening pipeline was established to screen for compounds capable of inhibiting extracellular sporozoites. METHODS: Sporozoites expressing the green fluorescent protein were isolated from infected Anopheles mosquitoes, incubated with compounds from two libraries (MMV Malaria Box and a FDA-approved library) and imaged...
August 31, 2018: Malaria Journal
Beza Ramasindrazana, Steven M Goodman, Najla Dsouli, Yann Gomard, Erwan Lagadec, Milijaona Randrianarivelojosia, Koussay Dellagi, Pablo Tortosa
BACKGROUND: Bats are home to diverse haemosporidian parasites namely Plasmodium and Plasmodium-related. While information is available at a worldwide level, haemosporidian infection in bats from Madagascar is still scarce and recent changes in the taxonomy of the island's bat fauna, particularly the description of several new species, require a reassessment of previously described patterns, including blood parasite ecology and vectorial transmission. METHODS: A sample representing seven of the nine known bat families and 31 of the 46 currently recognized taxa from Madagascar and collected in the western and central portions of the island were screened by PCR for the presence of Polychromophilus...
August 31, 2018: Malaria Journal
Benjamin D Menze, Murielle J Wondji, William Tchapga, Micareme Tchoupo, Jacob M Riveron, Charles S Wondji
BACKGROUND: Malaria vectors are increasingly developing resistance to insecticides across Africa. The impact of such resistance on the continued effectiveness of insecticide-based interventions remains unclear due to poor characterization of vector populations. This study reports the characterization of malaria vectors at Mibellon, a selected site in Cameroon for experimental hut study, including species composition, Plasmodium infection rate, resistance profiles and mechanisms. METHODS: Indoor resting blood-fed Anopheles mosquitoes were collected from houses at Mibellon in 2017 and forced to lay eggs to generate F1 adult mosquitoes...
August 30, 2018: Malaria Journal
Francois Kiemde, Marc Christian Tahita, Massa Dit Achille Bonko, Petra F Mens, Halidou Tinto, Michael Boele van Hensbroek, Henk D F H Schallig
BACKGROUND: Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are nowadays widely used in malaria endemic countries as an alternative to microscopy for the diagnosis of malaria. However, quality control of test performance and execution in the field are important in order to ensure proper use and adequate diagnosis of malaria. The current study compared the performance of a histidine-rich protein 2-based RDT used at peripheral health facilities level in real life conditions with that performed at central reference laboratory level with strict adherence to manufacturer instructions...
August 30, 2018: Malaria Journal
Jun Feng, Li Zhang, Fang Huang, Jian-Hai Yin, Hong Tu, Zhi-Gui Xia, Shui-Sen Zhou, Ning Xiao, Xiao-Nong Zhou
BACKGROUND: Malaria was once one of the most serious public health problems in China. However, the disease burden has sharply declined and epidemic areas have shrunk after the implementation of an integrated malaria control and elimination strategy, especially since 2000. In this review, the lessons were distilled from the Chinese national malaria elimination programme and further efforts to mitigate the challenges of malaria resurgence are being discussed. METHODS: A retrospective evaluation was performed to assess the changes in malaria epidemic patterns from 1950 to 2017 at national level...
August 29, 2018: Malaria Journal
Ariadna Martín-Díaz, José Miguel Rubio, Juan María Herrero-Martínez, Manolo Lizasoain, José Manuel Ruiz-Giardin, Jerónimo Jaqueti, Juan Cuadros, Gerardo Rojo-Marcos, Pablo Martín-Rabadán, María Calderón, Carolina Campelo, María Velasco, Ana Pérez-Ayala
BACKGROUND: Malaria is currently the most important human parasitic disease in the world responsible for high morbidity and mortality. Appropriate diagnostic methods are essential for early detection. Microscopy examination remains the gold standard, although molecular techniques have higher sensitivity and are very useful in cases of low parasitaemia and mixed infections. The objective of this study was to evaluate a new commercial molecular diagnostic technique. METHODS: A prospective, observational, multicentre study was performed between January 2015 and April 2017...
August 29, 2018: Malaria Journal
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