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Malaria Journal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783991/admission-eeg-findings-in-diverse-paediatric-cerebral-malaria-populations-predict-outcomes
#1
Douglas G Postels, Xiaoting Wu, Chenxi Li, Peter W Kaplan, Karl B Seydel, Terrie E Taylor, Youssef A Kousa, Richard Idro, Robert Opoka, Chandy C John, Gretchen L Birbeck
BACKGROUND: Electroencephalography at hospital presentation may offer important insights regarding prognosis that can inform understanding of cerebral malaria (CM) pathophysiology and potentially guide patient selection and risk stratification for future clinical trials. Electroencephalogram (EEG) findings in children with CM in Uganda and Malawi were compared and associations between admission EEG findings and outcome across this diverse population were assessed. Demographic, clinical and admission EEG data from Ugandan and Malawian children admitted from 2009 to 2012 with CM were gathered, and survivors assessed for neurological abnormalities at discharge...
May 22, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784001/appropriateness-of-malaria-diagnosis-and-treatment-for-fever-episodes-according-to-patient-history-and-anti-malarial-blood-measurement-a-cross-sectional-survey-from-tanzania
#2
Joanna Gallay, Dominic Mosha, Erick Lutahakana, Festo Mazuguni, Martin Zuakulu, Laurent Arthur Decosterd, Blaise Genton, Emilie Pothin
BACKGROUND: Monitoring the impact of case management strategies at large scale is essential to evaluate the public health benefit they confer. The use of methodologies relying on objective and standardized endpoints, such as drug levels in the blood, should be encouraged. Population drug use, diagnosis and treatment appropriateness in case of fever according to patient history and anti-malarials blood concentration was evaluated. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey took place between May and August 2015 in three regions of Tanzania with different levels of malaria endemicity...
May 21, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776369/prevention-and-treatment-of-malaria-in-pregnancy-what-do-pregnant-women-and-health-care-workers-in-east-india-know-and-do-about-it
#3
Lora Sabin, Evan M S Hecht, Mohamad I Brooks, Mrigendra P Singh, Kojo Yeboah-Antwi, Abanish Rizal, Blair J Wylie, Philip A Bondzie, Matthew Banos, Jordan Tuchman, Neeru Singh, Davidson H Hamer
BACKGROUND: Limited qualitative research has been performed in India to investigate views and behaviours of pregnant women regarding malaria despite the threat of malaria-related adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. To address this gap, a comprehensive study on malaria prevention and treatment attitudes, knowledge and behaviour among pregnant women in India was conducted. METHODS: Pregnant women and healthcare workers (HCWs), encompassing clinic-based providers, traditional birth attendants, and auxiliary nurse-midwives were enrolled for in-depth interviews (IDIs) at 7 hospital sites and nearby communities in Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh States...
May 18, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776367/malaria-determining-risk-factors-at-the-household-level-in-two-rural-villages-of-mainland-equatorial-guinea
#4
Mónica Guerra, Bruno de Sousa, Nicolas Ndong-Mabale, Pedro Berzosa, Ana Paula Arez
BACKGROUND: After the introduction of an artemisinin-based combination therapy, the reduction of prevalence of malaria infections has shown a remarkable progress during the last decade. However due to the lack of a consistent malaria control programme and socioeconomic inequalities, Plasmodium infection is still one of the major cause of disease in Equatorial Guinea, namely in the rural communities. This study explored the associated risk factors of malaria transmission at the microeconomic level (households) in two rural villages of mainland Equatorial Guinea...
May 18, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776361/emergence-of-knock-down-resistance-in-the-anopheles-gambiae-complex-in-the-upper-river-region-the-gambia-and-its-relationship-with-malaria-infection-in-children
#5
Anne L Wilson, Margaret Pinder, John Bradley, Martin J Donnelly, Majidah Hamid-Adiamoh, Lamin B S Jarju, Musa Jawara, David Jeffries, Ballah Kandeh, Emily J Rippon, Kolawole Salami, Umberto D'Alessandro, Steven W Lindsay
BACKGROUND: Insecticide resistance threatens malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa. Knockdown resistance to pyrethroids and organochlorines in Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) is commonly caused by mutations in the gene encoding a voltage-gated sodium channel which is the target site for the insecticide. The study aimed to examine risk factors for knockdown resistance in An. gambiae s.l. and its relationship with malaria infection in children in rural Gambia. Point mutations at the Vgsc-1014 locus, were measured in An...
May 18, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776359/evaluation-of-malaria-rapid-diagnostic-test-rdt-use-by-community-health-workers-a-longitudinal-study-in-western-kenya
#6
Matthew R Boyce, Diana Menya, Elizabeth L Turner, Jeremiah Laktabai, Wendy Prudhomme-O'Meara
BACKGROUND: Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are a simple, point-of-care technology that can improve the diagnosis and subsequent treatment of malaria. They are an increasingly common diagnostic tool, but concerns remain about their use by community health workers (CHWs). These concerns regard the long-term trends relating to infection prevention measures, the interpretation of test results and adherence to treatment protocols. This study assessed whether CHWs maintained their competency at conducting RDTs over a 12-month timeframe, and if this competency varied with specific CHW characteristics...
May 18, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776357/anopheles-arabiensis-in-sudan-a-noticeable-tolerance-to-urban-polluted-larval-habitats-associated-with-resistance-to-temephos
#7
Rasha S Azrag, Babiker H Mohammed
BACKGROUND: It has been documented that unplanned urbanization leads to the exposure of members of the Anopheles vectors to a range of water pollution in urban settings. Many surveys from African and Asian countries reported the presence of Anopheles larvae in polluted urban habitats. The present study documents an obvious tolerance of the melanic and normal forms of Anopheles arabiensis to urban polluted larval habitats accompanied by resistance to Temephos larvicide. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was carried out to inspect apparently polluted An...
May 18, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769128/the-impact-of-the-scale-up-of-malaria-rapid-diagnostic-tests-on-the-routine-clinical-diagnosis-procedures-for-febrile-illness-a-series-of-repeated-cross-sectional-studies-in-papua-new-guinea
#8
Justin Pulford, Serah Kurumop, Ivo Mueller, Peter M Siba, Manuel W Hetzel
BACKGROUND: This paper examines the impact of the scale-up of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) on routine clinical diagnosis procedures for febrile illness in primary healthcare settings in Papua New Guinea. METHODS: Repeat, cross-sectional surveys in randomly selected primary healthcare services were conducted. Surveys included passive observation of consecutive febrile case management cases and were completed immediately prior to RDT scale-up (2011) and at 12- (2012) and 60-months (2016) post scale-up...
May 16, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769075/microclimate-variables-of-the-ambient-environment-deliver-the-actual-estimates-of-the-extrinsic-incubation-period-of-plasmodium-vivax-and-plasmodium-falciparum-a-study-from-a-malaria-endemic-urban-setting-chennai-in-india
#9
Shalu Thomas, Sangamithra Ravishankaran, N A Johnson Amala Justin, Aswin Asokan, T Maria Jusler Kalsingh, Manu Thomas Mathai, Neena Valecha, Jacqui Montgomery, Matthew B Thomas, Alex Eapen
BACKGROUND: Environmental factors such as temperature, relative humidity and their daily variation influence a range of mosquito life history traits and hence, malaria transmission. The standard way of characterizing environmental factors with meteorological station data need not be the actual microclimates experienced by mosquitoes within local transmission settings. METHODS: A year-long study was conducted in Chennai, India to characterize local temperature and relative humidity (RH)...
May 16, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769072/provider-and-patient-perceptions-of-malaria-rapid-diagnostic-test-use-in-nigeria-a-cross-sectional-evaluation
#10
Olugbenga A Mokuolu, Olufemi O Ajumobi, Godwin N Ntadom, Olanrewaju T Adedoyin, Alero A Roberts, Chimere O Agomo, Kate U Edozieh, Henrietta U Okafor, Robinson D Wammanda, Friday A Odey, Ibrahim K Maikore, Olatayo O Abikoye, Adekunle D Alabi, Chiomah Amajoh, Bala M Audu
BACKGROUND: Nigeria commenced a phased programmatic deployment of rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) at the primary health care (PHC) facility levels since 2011. Despite various efforts, the national testing rate for malaria is still very low. The uptake of RDT has been variable. This study was undertaken to determine the provider and patient perceptions to RDT use at the PHC level in Nigeria with their implications for improving uptake and compliance. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 120 randomly selected PHCs across six states, across the six-geopolitical zones of Nigeria in January 2013...
May 16, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764451/phenotypic-and-genotypic-characterization-of-thai-isolates-of-plasmodium-falciparum-after-an-artemisinin-resistance-containment-project
#11
Thunyapit Thita, Pimrat Jadsri, Jarupatr Thamkhantho, Toon Ruang-Areerate, Nantana Suwandittakul, Naruemon Sitthichot, Kittiya Mahotorn, Peerapan Tan-Ariya, Mathirut Mungthin
BACKGROUND: In Thailand, artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) has been used to treat uncomplicated falciparum malaria since 1995. Unfortunately, artemisinin resistance has been reported from Thailand and other Southeast Asian countries since 2003. Malarone® , a combination of atovaquone-proguanil (ATQ-PG), has been used to cease artemisinin pressure in some areas along Thai-Cambodia border, as part of an artemisinin resistance containment project since 2009. This study aimed to determine genotypes and phenotypes of Plasmodium falciparum isolates collected from the Thai-Cambodia border after the artemisinin resistance containment project compared with those collected before...
May 15, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764439/a-survey-on-outcomes-of-accidental-atovaquone-proguanil-exposure-in-pregnancy
#12
Kathrine R Tan, Jessica K Fairley, Mengxi Wang, Julie R Gutman
BACKGROUND: Malaria chemoprophylaxis options in pregnancy are limited, and atovaquone-proguanil (AP) is not recommended because of insufficient safety evidence. An anonymous, internet-based survey was disseminated to describe outcomes of pregnancies accidentally exposed to AP. Outcomes of interest included miscarriage (defined as pregnancy loss before 20 weeks), stillbirth (defined as pregnancy loss at or after 20 weeks), preterm birth or live birth prior to 37 weeks, and the presence of congenital anomalies...
May 15, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764438/larvicidal-activity-of-zanthoxylum-acanthopodium-essential-oil-against-the-malaria-mosquitoes-anopheles-anthropophagus-and-anopheles-sinensis
#13
Qi He, Wenxia Wang, Liang Zhu
BACKGROUND: Zanthoxylum acanthopodium has insecticidal effect in Chinese traditional medicine. In this study, the essential oil from the dried Zanthoxylum plant was used as a larvicidal compound against the malaria mosquitoes, Anopheles anthropophagus and Anopheles sinensis. METHODS: Compounds in the Zanthoxylum essential oil were investigated by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). The larvicidal bioassays of the whole oil, as well as the main compounds in the oil (estragole and eucalyptol) were performed using WHO method...
May 15, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764433/detection-of-anopheles-rivulorum-like-a-member-of-the-anopheles-funestus-group-in-south-africa
#14
Joel Mouatcho, Anthony J Cornel, Yael Dahan-Moss, Lizette L Koekemoer, Maureen Coetzee, Leo Braack
BACKGROUND: The Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) and Anopheles funestus s.l. species complexes contain the most important malaria vectors in Africa. Within the An. funestus group of at least 11 African species, the vector status of all but the nominal species An. funestus appears poorly investigated, although evidence exists that Anopheles rivulorum and Anopheles vaneedeni may play minor roles. A new species, An. rivulorum-like, was described from Burkina Faso in 2000 and subsequently also found in Cameroon and Zambia...
May 15, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764426/outcome-of-capacity-building-intervention-for-malaria-vector-surveillance-control-and-research-in-nigerian-higher-institutions
#15
Adedayo O Oduola, Abiodun Obembe, Olukayode J Adelaja, Adeniyi K Adeneye, Joel Akilah, Taiwo S Awolola
BACKGROUND: Despite the availability of effective malaria vector control intervention tools, implementation of control programmes in Nigeria is challenged by inadequate entomological surveillance data. This study was designed to assess and build the existing capacity for malaria vector surveillance, control and research (MVSC&R) in Nigerian institutions. METHODS: Application call to select qualified candidates for the capacity building (CB) intervention training programme was advertised in a widely read newspaper and online platforms of national and international professional bodies...
May 15, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764422/hmmibd-software-to-infer-pairwise-identity-by-descent-between-haploid-genotypes
#16
Stephen F Schaffner, Aimee R Taylor, Wesley Wong, Dyann F Wirth, Daniel E Neafsey
BACKGROUND: A number of recent malaria studies have used identity by descent (IBD) to study epidemiological processes relevant to malaria control. In this paper, a software package, hmmIBD, is introduced for estimating pairwise IBD between haploid genomes, such as those of the malaria parasite, sampled from one or two populations. Source code is freely available. METHODS: The performance of hmmIBD was verified using simulated data and benchmarked against an existing method for detecting IBD within populations...
May 15, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764419/pyronaridine-artesunate-and-artemether-lumefantrine-for-the-treatment-of-uncomplicated-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-in-kenyan-children-a-randomized-controlled-non-inferiority-trial
#17
Johanna M Roth, Patrick Sawa, Nicodemus Makio, George Omweri, Victor Osoti, Selpha Okach, Felix Choy, Henk D F H Schallig, Pètra Mens
BACKGROUND: Pyronaridine-artesunate is a novel artemisinin-based combination therapy. The efficacy and safety of pyronaridine-artesunate were compared with artemether-lumefantrine for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in children. METHODS: This phase III open-label randomized controlled non-inferiority trial was conducted in Western Kenya. Children aged 6 months to ≤ 12 years with a bodyweight > 5 kg and microscopically confirmed P...
May 15, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747626/differential-plasma-microvesicle-and-brain-profiles-of-microrna-in-experimental-cerebral-malaria
#18
Amy Cohen, Anna Zinger, Natalia Tiberti, Georges E R Grau, Valery Combes
BACKGROUND: Cerebral malaria (CM) is a fatal complication of Plasmodium infection, mostly affecting children under the age of five in the sub-Saharan African region. CM pathogenesis remains incompletely understood, although sequestered infected red blood cells, inflammatory cells aggregating in the cerebral blood vessels, and the microvesicles (MV) that they release in the circulation, have been implicated. Plasma MV numbers increase in CM patients and in the murine model, where blocking their release, genetically or pharmacologically, protects against brain pathology, suggesting a role of MV in CM neuropathogenesis...
May 11, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743114/igm-and-igg-against-plasmodium-falciparum-lysate-as-surrogates-of-malaria-exposure-and-protection-during-pregnancy
#19
Alfredo Mayor, Carlota Dobaño, Augusto Nhabomba, Caterina Guinovart, Alfons Jiménez, Maria Nelia Manaca, Ruth Aguilar, Arnoldo Barbosa, Mauricio H Rodríguez, Pau Cisteró, Lazaro M Quimice, Clara Menéndez, John J Aponte, Jaume Ordi, Chetan E Chitnis, Pedro L Alonso
BACKGROUND: Difficulties to disentangle the protective versus exposure role of anti-malarial antibodies hamper the identification of clinically-relevant immune targets. Here, factors affecting maternal IgG and IgMs against Plasmodium falciparum antigens, as well as their relationship with parasite infection and clinical outcomes, were assessed in mothers and their children. Antibody responses among 207 Mozambican pregnant women at delivery against MSP119 , EBA175, AMA1, DBLα and parasite lysate (3D7, R29 and E8B parasite lines), as well as the surface of infected erythrocytes, were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and flow cytometry...
May 10, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743113/high-production-of-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-by-maternal-blood-mononuclear-cells-is-associated-with-reduced-maternal-malaria-but-increased-cord-blood-infection
#20
Carlota Dobaño, Tamara Berthoud, Maria Nelia Manaca, Augusto Nhabomba, Caterina Guinovart, Ruth Aguilar, Arnoldo Barbosa, Penny Groves, Mauricio H Rodríguez, Alfons Jimenez, Lazaro M Quimice, John J Aponte, Jaume Ordi, Denise L Doolan, Alfredo Mayor, Pedro L Alonso
BACKGROUND: Increased susceptibility to malaria during pregnancy is not completely understood. Cellular immune responses mediate both pathology and immunity but the effector responses involved in these processes have not been fully characterized. Maternal and fetal cytokine and chemokine responses to malaria at delivery, and their association with pregnancy and childhood outcomes, were investigated in 174 samples from a mother and child cohort from Mozambique. Peripheral and cord mononuclear cells were stimulated with Plasmodium falciparum lysate and secretion of IL-12p70, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-10, IL-8, IL-6, IL-4, IL-5, IL-1β, TNF, TNF-β was quantified in culture supernatants by multiplex flow cytometry while cellular mRNA expression of IFN-γ, TNF, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-13 was measured by quantitative PCR...
May 10, 2018: Malaria Journal
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