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Dhananjay Radhakrishnan Subramaniam, J Paul Willging, Ephraim J Gutmark, Liran Oren
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to perform computational simulations of airflow within an anatomically accurate model of an adult trachea in different tracheostomy tube designs. We hypothesized that tracheal airflow in patients is significantly influenced by the geometry and size of these devices. METHODS: The three-dimensional (3D) geometry of the trachea was reconstructed using computed tomography scans for an adult with no history of lung disease. 3D models of four cuffed tube designs, namely Tracoe, Portex, and Shiley Proximal and Distal tracheostomy tubes were generated using geometric modeling software...
October 16, 2018: Laryngoscope
Aaron C Moberly, Kara J Vasil, Taylor L Wucinich, Natalie Safdar, Lauren Boyce, Christina Roup, Rachael Frush Holt, Oliver F Adunka, Irina Castellanos, Valeriy Shafiro, Derek M Houston, David B Pisoni
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Cochlear implants (CIs) restore auditory sensation to patients with moderate-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss. However, the benefits to speech recognition vary considerably among patients. Advancing age contributes to this variability in postlingual adult CI users. Similarly, older individuals with normal hearing (NH) perform more poorly on tasks of recognition of spectrally degraded speech. The overarching hypothesis of this study was that the detrimental effects of advancing age on speech recognition can be attributed both to declines in auditory spectral resolution as well as declines in cognitive functions...
October 16, 2018: Laryngoscope
Alexandra S Ortiz, Alexandria Lawton, Elizabeth Rives, Gerry Gutierrez, Gregory R Dion
OBJECTIVE: Patients with globus, the sensation of something stuck in the throat, are evaluated by otolaryngologists, gastroenterologists, and speech pathologists and often undergo multiple tests and interventions. We hypothesize that a videofluoroscopic swallow study (VFSS) is useful to characterize globus etiology and correlate subjective globus location to atypical VFSS findings. METHOD: Retrospective chart review of all patients undergoing VFSS over a 24-month period with a primary complaint of globus...
October 16, 2018: Laryngoscope
Solomon Husain, Babak Sadoughi, Niv Mor, Lucian Sulica
OBJECTIVE: To clarify the time course of recovery in patients with iatrogenic vocal fold paralysis. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. METHODS: Medical records for all patients with iatrogenic vocal fold paralysis over a 10-year period were reviewed to obtain demographic and clinical information, including onset of disease and recovery of vocal function. Stroboscopic exams of patients who recovered voice were reviewed blindly to assess return of vocal fold motion...
October 16, 2018: Laryngoscope
Daniel C Sukato, Daniel P Ballard, Jason M Abramowitz, Richard M Rosenfeld, Stefan Mlot
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review is to compare the perioperative outcomes of robotic versus conventional neck dissection in patients with head and neck malignancy. METHODS: An electronic search of PubMed, Web of Science, and EMBASE databases was conducted. We included studies with direct comparisons of robotic and open neck dissections and performed dual, independent data extraction for primary outcomes of nodal yield, recurrence rate, subjective cosmetic assessment, operative time, length of stay, and rates of perioperative complications...
October 16, 2018: Laryngoscope
Edward C Kuan, Karam W Badran, Frederick Yoo, Naveen D Bhandarkar, Yarah M Haidar, Tjoson Tjoa, William B Armstrong, James N Palmer, Nithin D Adappa, Marilene B Wang, Maie A St John
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To describe rates of complications and mortality within 30 days of open anterior skull base surgery using a large, multi-institutional outcomes database. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: The study included patients who underwent open anterior skull base surgery as listed in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Project database from 2007 through 2014. RESULTS: A total of 336 open anterior skull base surgeries were identified...
October 16, 2018: Laryngoscope
Liana Puscas
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the association between the Otolaryngology Training Examination (OTE) taken during residency and the passage rate of first-time examinees on the American Board of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Written Qualifying Examination (WQE). METHODS: Retrospective cohort study using a de-identified database containing information on examinees who took the WQE in 2007 through 2014, and examinees who took the OTE exam 2005 through 2014...
October 16, 2018: Laryngoscope
Alvin deTorres, Rafal T Olszewski, Ivan A Lopez, Akira Ishiyama, Fred H Linthicum, Michael Hoa
Supporting cells (SCs) provide structure and maintain an environment that allows hair cells to receive and transmit signals in the auditory pathway. After insult to hair cells and ganglion cells, SCs respond by marking unsalvageable cells for death and maintain structural integrity. Although the histopathology after cochlear implantation has been described regarding hair cells and neural structures, surviving SCs in the implanted ear have not. We present a patient whose posthumous examination of an implanted cochlea demonstrated SC survival...
October 16, 2018: Laryngoscope
Jennifer C Fuller, Shekhar K Gadkaree, Patricia A Levesque, Robin W Lindsay
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the utility of peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF) as a measure of nasal airflow and functional septorhinoplasty (FSRP) outcomes. METHODS: Patients with nasal obstruction were administered Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation (NOSE) questionnaire and PNIF testing between January 2015 and 2018. Surgical patients repeated these tests at 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 months postoperatively. Patient demographics and operative techniques were recorded. RESULTS: A total of 610 patients were evaluated for nasal obstruction with mean (standard deviation [SD]) NOSE score of 61...
October 16, 2018: Laryngoscope
Ameer Ghodke, Douglas R Farquhar, Robert A Buckmire, Rupali N Shah
OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: To qualitatively and quantitatively assess the effect of discrete head postures/maneuvers during flexible laryngoscopy on visualization of specific anatomical structures within the laryngopharynx. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, observational study. METHODS: Flexible laryngoscopy was performed on 18 sequential patients. Videos of the laryngopharynx were captured during the neutral head position and five discrete maneuvers: maximal sniffing, head extension, right turn, left turn, and chin down...
October 16, 2018: Laryngoscope
Kyeong Ah Kim, Joo Hyun Jung, Il Gyu Kang, Yun Sook Choi, Seon Tae Kim
OBJECTIVE: Rhinoviruses (RV), which are responsible for the majority of common colds, induce mucus overproduction, increased vascular permeability, and secondary bacterial infection. These symptoms are primarily caused by barrier function disruption, which is controlled by intercellular junctions. In this study, we investigated whether reactive oxygen species (ROS) are closely involved in tight junction disruption of primary human nasal epithelial (HNE) cells induced by infection of RV ...
October 16, 2018: Laryngoscope
Shigeyuki Mukudai, Nao Hiwatashi, Renjie Bing, Michael Garabedian, Ryan C Branski
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Direct glucocorticoid (GC) injection for vocal fold (VF) scarring has evolved as a therapeutic strategy, but the mechanisms underlying the antifibrotic effects remain unclear. GCs act via the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), which is phosphorylated at multiple serine residues in a hormone-dependent manner to affect bioactivity. We hypothesize that GCs regulate SMAD signaling via GR phosphorylation in vocal fold fibroblasts (VFFs). STUDY DESIGN: In vitro...
October 16, 2018: Laryngoscope
Bryan K Ward, Wei-Chieh Chao, Godwin Abiola, Kosuke Kawai, Yehia Ashry, Tali Rasooly, Dennis S Poe
OBJECTIVE: To determine the 12-month effectiveness of transnasal-transoral endoscopic surgical procedures for eliminating symptoms of patulous Eustachian tube dysfunction (PETD). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective chart review METHODS: Patients with medically refractory PETD underwent one of the following procedures: 1) shim (catheter) insertion, 2) calcium hydroxyapatite injection, 3) patulous Eustachian tube (ET) reconstruction, or 4) obliteration of the ET lumen. Time to recurrence of any PETD symptoms was recorded, and success was determined as complete symptom resolution at 12 months...
October 16, 2018: Laryngoscope
Sana H Siddiqui, Roshansa Singh, Emaad Siddiqui, Eric H Zhao, Jean Anderson Eloy, Soly Baredes, Richard Chan Woo Park
OBJECTIVES: Parotidectomies have become a common outpatient procedure, but their impact on postoperative complications as compared to inpatient procedures has not been evaluated in a multi-institutional study. STUDY DESIGN: The aim of this retrospective analysis was to evaluate the differences in outcomes using a standardized cohort of patients undergoing outpatient or inpatient parotidectomies. METHODS: The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was queried for parotidectomies between 2005 and 2014...
October 16, 2018: Laryngoscope
Zainab Farzal, Eugenie Du, Eunice Yim, Angela Mazul, Jose P Zevallos, Benjamin Y Huang, Trevor G Hackman
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether muscle invasion evident on pretreatment imaging in p16 + oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) correlates with recurrence. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review. METHODS: Two-hundred and seventy-six patients with p16 + OPSCC treated at a tertiary referral center from 2003 to 2015 were analyzed. All scans were reviewed by a dedicated neuroradiologist with subspecialty expertise in head and neck imaging...
October 16, 2018: Laryngoscope
Huiqian Yu, Dan Wang, Qingzhong Li
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To assess the somatosensory dysfunction of the auricle and periotic skin in patients undergoing otitis media surgery. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. METHODS: Symptoms of periotic somatosensory function after surgery were investigated in 100 patients (42 males, 58 females, mean age 41.39 years) who underwent otitis media surgery. Questionnaires on periotic somatosensory disturbance were answered after surgery at least over 1 year postoperatively...
October 16, 2018: Laryngoscope
Andrew M Vahabzadeh-Hagh, Pranati Pillutla, Zhaoyan Zhang, Dinesh K Chhetri
OBJECTIVES: Laryngeal function requires neuromuscular activation of the intrinsic laryngeal muscles (ILMs). Rapid activation of the ILMs occurs in cough, laughter, and voice-unvoiced-voiced segments in speech and singing. Abnormal activation is observed in hyperfunctional disorders such as vocal tremor and dystonia. In this study, we evaluate the dynamics of ILM contraction. STUDY/DESIGN: Basic science study in an in vivo canine model. METHODS: The following ILMs were stimulated: thyroarytenoid (TA), lateral cricoarytenoid/interarytenoid (LCA/IA), cricothyroid (CT), all laryngeal adductors (LCA/IA/TA), and the posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA)...
October 16, 2018: Laryngoscope
Eran Glikson, Uri Chavkin, Ory Madgar, Doron Sagiv, Gabriel Nakache, Arkadi Yakirevitch, Michael Wolf, Eran E Alon
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To describe the characteristics and severity of epistaxis in patients taking factor Xa inhibitors novel anticoagulants. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: A study of adult patients hospitalized due to spontaneous epistaxis under the treatment of warfarin, rivaroxaban, or apixaban between the years 2011 and 2017 was performed. A control group of patients under antiplatelet therapy (acetylsalicylic acid, clopidogrel) was included...
October 16, 2018: Laryngoscope
Yoshiyuki Iida, Tomoyuki Kamijo, Kimihide Kusafuka, Katsuhiro Omae, Yukio Nishiya, Noriko Hamaguchi, Kotaro Morita, Tetsuro Onitsuka
OBJECTIVE: Depth of invasion (DOI) in oral carcinoma has been integrated into the primary tumor categories in the current tumor-node-metastasis staging (8th edition). However, there is no standard modality to determine DOI preoperatively. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the accuracy of a preoperative measurement of DOI using ultrasonography (US) for superficial oral tongue carcinomas, and to correlate the values obtained with histologically determined DOI measurements. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the records of 56 patients with oral tongue carcinoma who underwent intraoral US preoperatively, followed by curative surgery at the Shizuoka Cancer Center Hospital in Japan...
October 16, 2018: Laryngoscope
D Gareth Evans, Andrew J Wallace, Claire Hartley, Simon R Freeman, Simon K Lloyd, Owen Thomas, Patrick Axon, Charlotte L Hammerbeck-Ward, Omar Pathmanaban, Scott A Rutherford, Mark Kellett, Roger Laitt, Andrew T King, Jemma Bischetsrieder, Jaishri Blakeley, Miriam J Smith
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Unilateral vestibular schwannoma (VS) occurs with a lifetime risk of around 1 in 1,000 and is due to inactivation of the NF2 gene, either somatically or from a constitutional mutation. It has been postulated that familial occurrence of unilateral VS occurs more frequently than by chance, but no causal mechanism has been confirmed. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective database analysis. METHODS: The likelihood of chance occurrence of unilateral VS, or occurring in the context of neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2), was assessed using national UK audit data and data from the national NF2 database...
October 16, 2018: Laryngoscope
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