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Lancet Infectious Diseases

Trevor Peter, Dennis Ellenberger, Andrea A Kim, Debrah Boeras, Tsehaynesh Messele, Teri Roberts, Wendy Stevens, Ilesh Jani, Alash'le Abimiku, Nathan Ford, Zachary Katz, John N Nkengasong
Scaling up access to HIV viral load testing for individuals undergoing antiretroviral therapy in low-resource settings is a global health priority, as emphasised by research showing the benefits of suppressed viral load for the individual and the whole population. Historically, large-scale diagnostic test implementation has been slow and incomplete because of service delivery and other challenges. Building on lessons from the past, in this Personal View we propose a new framework to accelerate viral load scale-up and ensure equitable access to this essential test...
October 20, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 18, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Laurence Armand-Lefevre, Etienne Ruppé, Antoine Andremont
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 14, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Maris S Arcilla, Jarne M van Hattem, Manon R Haverkate, Martin C J Bootsma, Perry J J van Genderen, Abraham Goorhuis, Martin P Grobusch, Astrid M Oude Lashof, Nicky Molhoek, Constance Schultsz, Ellen E Stobberingh, Henri A Verbrugh, Menno D de Jong, Damian C Melles, John Penders
BACKGROUND: International travel contributes to the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance. We investigated the acquisition of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) during international travel, with a focus on predictive factors for acquisition, duration of colonisation, and probability of onward transmission. METHODS: Within the prospective, multicentre COMBAT study, 2001 Dutch travellers and 215 non-travelling household members were enrolled...
October 14, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Anna Gomes, Andor W J M Glaudemans, Daan J Touw, Joost P van Melle, Tineke P Willems, Alexander H Maass, Ehsan Natour, Niek H J Prakken, Ronald J H Borra, Peter Paul van Geel, Riemer H J A Slart, Sander van Assen, Bhanu Sinha
Sensitivity and specificity of the modified Duke criteria for native valve endocarditis are both suboptimal, at approximately 80%. Diagnostic accuracy for intracardiac prosthetic material-related infection is even lower. Non-invasive imaging modalities could potentially improve diagnosis of infective endocarditis; however, their diagnostic value is unclear. We did a systematic literature review to critically appraise the evidence for the diagnostic performance of these imaging modalities, according to PRISMA and GRADE criteria...
October 13, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Helen S Marshall, Peter C Richmond, Johannes Beeslaar, Qin Jiang, Kathrin U Jansen, Maria Garcés-Sánchez, Federico Martinón-Torres, Leszek Szenborn, Jacek Wysocki, Joseph Eiden, Shannon L Harris, Thomas R Jones, Su-San Lee, John L Perez
BACKGROUND: Bivalent rLP2086 is a recombinant factor H binding protein-based vaccine approved in the USA for prevention of meningococcal serogroup B disease in 10-25-year-olds. We aimed to assess the persistence of bactericidal antibodies up to 4 years after a three-dose schedule of bivalent rLP2086. METHODS: We did this randomised, single-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial at 25 sites in Australia, Poland, and Spain. In stage 1 of the study (February, 2009-May, 2010), healthy adolescents (aged 11-18 years) were randomly assigned, via an interactive voice and web-response system with computer-generated sequential random numbers, to receive either ascending doses of vaccine (60 μg, 120 μg, and 200 μg) or placebo at months 0, 2, and 6...
October 10, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
David S Stephens
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 10, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Francisco Olea-Popelka, Adrian Muwonge, Alejandro Perera, Anna S Dean, Elizabeth Mumford, Elisabeth Erlacher-Vindel, Simona Forcella, Benjamin J Silk, Lucica Ditiu, Ahmed El Idrissi, Mario Raviglione, Ottorino Cosivi, Philip LoBue, Paula I Fujiwara
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is recognised as the primary cause of human tuberculosis worldwide. However, substantial evidence suggests that the burden of Mycobacterium bovis, the cause of bovine tuberculosis, might be underestimated in human beings as the cause of zoonotic tuberculosis. In 2013, results from a systematic review and meta-analysis of global zoonotic tuberculosis showed that the same challenges and concerns expressed 15 years ago remain valid. These challenges faced by people with zoonotic tuberculosis might not be proportional to the scientific attention and resources allocated in recent years to other diseases...
September 30, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Om Prakash Singh, Epco Hasker, Marleen Boelaert, Shyam Sundar
Visceral leishmaniasis is a serious public health problem on the Indian subcontinent, causing high morbidity and mortality. The governments in the region launched a visceral leishmaniasis elimination initiative in 2005. We review knowledge gaps and research priorities. Key challenges include low coverage of health services for those most at risk, drug resistance, the absence of a vaccine, and the complex biology of the sandfly-human host transmission cycle. Vector control is an essential component, but innovation in this field is insufficient...
September 28, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Brooke E Nichols, Charles A B Boucher, Marc van der Valk, Bart J A Rijnders, David A M C van de Vijver
BACKGROUND: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with tenofovir and emtricitabine prevents HIV infections among men who have sex with men (MSM). PrEP can be given on a daily or intermittent basis. Unfortunately, PrEP is not reimbursed in most European countries. Cost-effectiveness analyses of PrEP among MSM in Europe are absent but are key for decision makers to decide upon PrEP implementation. METHODS: We developed a deterministic mathematical model, calibrated to the well defined Dutch HIV epidemic among MSM, to predict the effect and cost-effectiveness of PrEP...
September 22, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Louis Niessen, Shabbar Jaffar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 22, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Louisa Degenhardt, Fiona Charlson, Jeff Stanaway, Sarah Larney, Lily T Alexander, Matthew Hickman, Benjamin Cowie, Wayne D Hall, John Strang, Harvey Whiteford, Theo Vos
BACKGROUND: Previous estimates of the burden of HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) among people who inject drugs have not included estimates of the burden attributable to the consequences of past injecting. We aimed to provide these estimates as part of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2013. METHODS: We modelled the burden of HBV and HCV (including cirrhosis and liver cancer burden) and HIV at the country, regional, and global level...
September 21, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Keith Sabin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 20, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Marcel Verweij, Philipp Lambach, Justin R Ortiz, Andreas Reis
There has been increased interest in the potential of maternal immunisation to protect maternal, fetal, and infant health. Maternal tetanus vaccination is part of routine antenatal care and immunisation campaigns in many countries, and it has played an important part in the reduction of maternal and neonatal tetanus. Additional vaccines that have been recommended for routine maternal immunisation include those for influenza and pertussis, and other vaccines are being developed. Maternal immunisation is controversial since regulators, professionals, and the public are often reluctant to accept pharmaceutical interventions during pregnancy...
September 20, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 20, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Marjo Renko, Niko Paalanne, Terhi Tapiainen, Matti Hinkkainen, Tytti Pokka, Sohvi Kinnula, Juha-Jaakko Sinikumpu, Matti Uhari, Willy Serlo
BACKGROUND: Surgical site infections (SSIs) are a pervasive problem in surgery. Sutures coated or impregnated with triclosan might reduce the occurrence of SSIs, but evidence of their efficacy is limited, especially in children. METHODS: We designed a randomised, double-blind, controlled trial in patients who underwent elective or daytime emergency surgery at Oulu University Hospital (Oulu, Finland). We included children younger than 18 years staying in the paediatric surgery and orthopaedics ward for any elective or emergency surgery during the daytime and with anticipated use of absorbing sutures...
September 19, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Felix J Hüttner, Markus K Diener
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 19, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Thalia Velho Barreto de Araújo, Laura Cunha Rodrigues, Ricardo Arraes de Alencar Ximenes, Demócrito de Barros Miranda-Filho, Ulisses Ramos Montarroyos, Ana Paula Lopes de Melo, Sandra Valongueiro, Maria de Fátima Pessoa Militão de Albuquerque, Wayner Vieira Souza, Cynthia Braga, Sinval Pinto Brandão Filho, Marli Tenório Cordeiro, Enrique Vazquez, Danielle Di Cavalcanti Souza Cruz, Cláudio Maierovitch Pessanha Henriques, Luciana Caroline Albuquerque Bezerra, Priscila Mayrelle da Silva Castanha, Rafael Dhalia, Ernesto Torres Azevedo Marques-Júnior, Celina Maria Turchi Martelli
BACKGROUND: The microcephaly epidemic, which started in Brazil in 2015, was declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by WHO in 2016. We report the preliminary results of a case-control study investigating the association between microcephaly and Zika virus infection during pregnancy. METHODS: We did this case-control study in eight public hospitals in Recife, Brazil. Cases were neonates with microcephaly. Two controls (neonates without microcephaly), matched by expected date of delivery and area of residence, were selected for each case...
September 15, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Patricia Brasil, Karin Nielsen-Saines
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 15, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Joanne G Wildenbeest, Ines Said, Bregje Jaeger, Reinier M van Hest, Diederik van de Beek, Dasja Pajkrt
Mycoplasma hominis is a commensal organism in the genitourinary tract that can cause life-threatening CNS infections in neonates after intrauterine infection or through vertical transmission during birth. We present a case of an 11-day-old neonate presenting with fever and supporting laboratory evidence of a CNS infection. No systemic maternal infection or maternal genitourinary tract infection occurred at the time of delivery. Empirical treatment was initiated, consisting of amoxicillin, cefotaxime, and aciclovir...
September 15, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
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