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Lancet Infectious Diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065756/corrections
#1
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 5, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063795/effect-of-new-tuberculosis-diagnostic-technologies-on-community-based-intensified-case-finding-a-multicentre-randomised-controlled-trial
#2
Gregory L Calligaro, Lynn S Zijenah, Jonathan G Peter, Grant Theron, Virginia Buser, Ruth McNerney, Wilbert Bara, Tsitsi Bandason, Ureshnie Govender, Michele Tomasicchio, Liezel Smith, Bongani M Mayosi, Keertan Dheda
BACKGROUND: Inadequate case detection results in high levels of undiagnosed tuberculosis in sub-Saharan Africa. Data for the effect of new diagnostic tools when used for community-based intensified case finding are not available, so we investigated whether the use of sputum Xpert-MTB/RIF and the Determine TB LAM urine test in two African communities could be effective. METHODS: In a pragmatic, randomised, parallel-group trial with individual randomisation stratified by country, we compared sputum Xpert-MTB/RIF, and if HIV-infected, the Determine TB LAM urine test (novel diagnostic group), with laboratory-based sputum smear microscopy (routine diagnostic group) for intensified case finding in communities with high tuberculosis and HIV prevalence in Cape Town, South Africa, and Harare, Zimbabwe...
January 4, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063794/it-takes-more-than-a-sensitive-test-to-find-more-tuberculosis-cases
#3
Anete Trajman, Frank Cobelens
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 4, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017560/responding-to-the-threat-of-urban-yellow-fever-outbreaks
#4
Annelies Wilder-Smith, Thomas P Monath
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 22, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017559/spread-of-yellow-fever-virus-outbreak-in-angola-and-the-democratic-republic-of-the-congo-2015-16-a-modelling-study
#5
Moritz U G Kraemer, Nuno R Faria, Robert C Reiner, Nick Golding, Birgit Nikolay, Stephanie Stasse, Michael A Johansson, Henrik Salje, Ousmane Faye, G R William Wint, Matthias Niedrig, Freya M Shearer, Sarah C Hill, Robin N Thompson, Donal Bisanzio, Nuno Taveira, Heinrich H Nax, Bary S R Pradelski, Elaine O Nsoesie, Nicholas R Murphy, Isaac I Bogoch, Kamran Khan, John S Brownstein, Andrew J Tatem, Tulio de Oliveira, David L Smith, Amadou A Sall, Oliver G Pybus, Simon I Hay, Simon Cauchemez
BACKGROUND: Since late 2015, an epidemic of yellow fever has caused more than 7334 suspected cases in Angola and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, including 393 deaths. We sought to understand the spatial spread of this outbreak to optimise the use of the limited available vaccine stock. METHODS: We jointly analysed datasets describing the epidemic of yellow fever, vector suitability, human demography, and mobility in central Africa to understand and predict the spread of yellow fever virus...
December 22, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017558/challenges-to-eliminate-rabies-virus-infection-in-china-by-2020
#6
LETTER
Ye Chen, Jin Tian, Ji-Long Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 22, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012945/effect-of-a-host-protein-based-assay-on-the-differentiation-of-bacterial-and-viral-infections-in-pre-school-children
#7
Susanna Esposito, Nicola Principi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 21, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012944/global-elimination-of-lymphatic-filariasis
#8
Martial L Ndeffo-Mbah, Alison P Galvani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 21, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012943/effectiveness-of-a-triple-drug-regimen-for-global-elimination-of-lymphatic-filariasis-a-modelling-study
#9
Michael A Irvine, Wilma A Stolk, Morgan E Smith, Swaminathan Subramanian, Brajendra K Singh, Gary J Weil, Edwin Michael, T Deirdre Hollingsworth
BACKGROUND: Lymphatic filariasis is targeted for elimination as a public health problem by 2020. The principal approach used by current programmes is annual mass drug administration with two pairs of drugs with a good safety profile. However, one dose of a triple-drug regimen (ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine, and albendazole) has been shown to clear the transmissible stage of the helminth completely in treated individuals. The aim of this study was to use modelling to assess the potential value of mass drug administration with the triple-drug regimen for accelerating elimination of lymphatic filariasis in different epidemiological settings...
December 21, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012942/a-host-protein-based-assay-to-differentiate-between-bacterial-and-viral-infections-in-preschool-children-opportunity-a-double-blind-multicentre-validation-study
#10
Chantal B van Houten, Joris A H de Groot, Adi Klein, Isaac Srugo, Irena Chistyakov, Wouter de Waal, Clemens B Meijssen, Wim Avis, Tom F W Wolfs, Yael Shachor-Meyouhas, Michal Stein, Elisabeth A M Sanders, Louis J Bont
BACKGROUND: A physician is frequently unable to distinguish bacterial from viral infections. ImmunoXpert is a novel assay combining three proteins: tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), interferon gamma induced protein-10 (IP-10), and C-reactive protein (CRP). We aimed to externally validate the diagnostic accuracy of this assay in differentiating between bacterial and viral infections and to compare this test with commonly used biomarkers. METHODS: In this prospective, double-blind, international, multicentre study, we recruited children aged 2-60 months with lower respiratory tract infection or clinical presentation of fever without source at four hospitals in the Netherlands and two hospitals in Israel...
December 21, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011234/epidemic-arboviral-diseases-priorities-for-research-and-public-health
#11
REVIEW
Annelies Wilder-Smith, Duane J Gubler, Scott C Weaver, Thomas P Monath, David L Heymann, Thomas W Scott
For decades, arboviral diseases were considered to be only minor contributors to global mortality and disability. As a result, low priority was given to arbovirus research investment and related public health infrastructure. The past five decades, however, have seen an unprecedented emergence of epidemic arboviral diseases (notably dengue, chikungunya, yellow fever, and Zika virus disease) resulting from the triad of the modern world: urbanisation, globalisation, and international mobility. The public health emergency of Zika virus, and the threat of global spread of yellow fever, combined with the resurgence of dengue and chikungunya, constitute a wake-up call for governments, academia, funders, and WHO to strengthen programmes and enhance research in aedes-transmitted diseases...
December 20, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007428/topical-azithromycin-for-the-prevention-of-lyme-borreliosis-a-randomised-placebo-controlled-phase-3-efficacy-trial
#12
Michael Schwameis, Thomas Kündig, Gustave Huber, Luzi von Bidder, Lorenz Meinel, Roland Weisser, Elisabeth Aberer, Georg Härter, Thomas Weinke, Tomas Jelinek, Gerd Fätkenheuer, Uwe Wollina, Gerd-Dieter Burchard, Roland Aschoff, Ruth Nischik, Gerhard Sattler, Georg Popp, Wolfgang Lotte, Dirk Wiechert, Gerald Eder, Olga Maus, Petra Staubach-Renz, Andrea Gräfe, Veronika Geigenberger, Ingomar Naudts, Michael Sebastian, Norbert Reider, Ridwan Weber, Marc Heckmann, Emil C Reisinger, Georg Klein, Johannes Wantzen, Bernd Jilma
BACKGROUND: Lyme borreliosis develops in 1-5% of individuals bitten by ticks, but with a diagnostic gap affecting up to 30% of patients, a broadly applicable pharmacological prevention strategy is needed. Topical azithromycin effectively eradicated Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from the skin in preclinical studies. We assessed its efficacy in human beings. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial done in 28 study sites in Germany and Austria, adults were equally assigned to receive topical 10% azithromycin or placebo twice daily for 3 consecutive days, within 72 h of a tick bite being confirmed...
December 19, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007427/prophylaxis-with-topical-azithromycin-against-lyme-borreliosis
#13
Eugene D Shapiro, Gary P Wormser
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 19, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988094/human-schistosomiasis-in-the-post-mass-drug-administration-era
#14
REVIEW
Francisca Mutapi, Rick Maizels, Alan Fenwick, Mark Woolhouse
Profound changes are occurring in the epidemiology of schistosomiasis, a neglected tropical disease caused by a chronic infection with parasitic helminths of the genus Schistosoma. Schistosomiasis currently affects 240 million people worldwide, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa. The advent and proliferation of mass drug administration (MDA) programmes using the drug praziquantel is resulting in substantial increases in the number of people, mainly children aged 6-14 years, being effectively treated, approaching the point where most people in endemic areas will receive one or more treatments during their lifetimes...
December 14, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979695/potential-of-marine-natural-products-against-drug-resistant-fungal-viral-and-parasitic-infections
#15
REVIEW
Usama Ramadan Abdelmohsen, Srikkanth Balasubramanian, Tobias A Oelschlaeger, Tanja Grkovic, Ngoc B Pham, Ronald J Quinn, Ute Hentschel
Antibiotics have revolutionised medicine in many aspects, and their discovery is considered a turning point in human history. However, the most serious consequence of the use of antibiotics is the concomitant development of resistance against them. The marine environment has proven to be a very rich source of diverse natural products with significant antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiparasitic, antitumour, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory activities. Many marine natural products (MNPs)-for example, neoechinulin B-have been found to be promising drug candidates to alleviate the mortality and morbidity rates caused by drug-resistant infections, and several MNP-based anti-infectives have already entered phase 1, 2, and 3 clinical trials, with six approved for usage by the US Food and Drug Administration and one by the EU...
December 12, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956163/invasive-pneumococcal-disease-in-children-aged-younger-than-5-years-in-india-a-surveillance-study
#16
Anand Manoharan, Vikas Manchanda, Sundaram Balasubramanian, Sanjay Lalwani, Meera Modak, Sushama Bai, Ajith Vijayan, Anita Shet, Savitha Nagaraj, Sunil Karande, Gita Nataraj, Vijay N Yewale, Shrikrishna A Joshi, Ranganathan N Iyer, Mathuram Santosham, Geoffrey D Kahn, Maria Deloria Knoll
BACKGROUND: Invasive pneumococcal disease continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children younger than 5 years of age in India. We aimed to provide nationally representative data for the pattern of disease due to Streptococcus pneumoniae, trends in the serotype of invasive pneumococci, and invasive pneumococci antimicrobial resistance patterns, in India. METHODS: In this prospective hospital-based and retrospective laboratory-based surveillance study, we prospectively enrolled children aged younger than 5 years with suspected or proven invasive pneumococcal disease from 18 hospitals or institutional centres and retrospectively included laboratory-confirmed pneumococcal isolates from ten sentinel laboratories, together representing 11 states in India...
December 9, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956162/the-unchecked-pneumococcal-reign-over-indian-children-aged-younger-than-5-years
#17
Jugesh Chhatwal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 9, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964822/mortality-in-children-diagnosed-with-tuberculosis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
Helen E Jenkins, Courtney M Yuen, Carly A Rodriguez, Ruvandhi R Nathavitharana, Megan M McLaughlin, Peter Donald, Ben J Marais, Mercedes C Becerra
BACKGROUND: Case fatality ratios in children with tuberculosis are poorly understood-particularly those among children with HIV and children not receiving tuberculosis treatment. We did a systematic review of published work to identify studies of population-representative samples of paediatric (ie, <15 years) tuberculosis cases. METHODS: We searched PubMed and Embase for reports published in English, French, Portuguese, or Spanish before Aug 12, 2016, that included terms related to tuberculosis, children, mortality, and population representativeness...
December 7, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964821/mortality-in-childhood-tuberculosis-has-there-been-progress
#19
Jeffrey R Starke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 7, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919643/transmission-of-multidrug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-shanghai-china-a-retrospective-observational-study-using-whole-genome-sequencing-and-epidemiological-investigation
#20
Chongguang Yang, Tao Luo, Xin Shen, Jie Wu, Mingyu Gan, Peng Xu, Zheyuan Wu, Senlin Lin, Jiyun Tian, Qingyun Liu, ZhengAn Yuan, Jian Mei, Kathryn DeRiemer, Qian Gao
BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistance is a substantial threat to global elimination of tuberculosis. Understanding transmission patterns is crucial for control of the disease. We used a genomic and epidemiological approach to assess recent transmission of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis and identify potential risk factors for transmission. METHODS: We did a population-based, retrospective study of patients who tested positive for tuberculosis between Jan 1, 2009, and Dec 31, 2012, in Shanghai, China...
December 2, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
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