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Lancet Infectious Diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919338/diagnostic-accuracy-of-xpert-mtb-rif-ultra-for-tuberculous-meningitis-in-hiv-infected-adults-a-prospective-cohort-study
#1
Nathan C Bahr, Edwin Nuwagira, Emily E Evans, Fiona V Cresswell, Philip V Bystrom, Adolf Byamukama, Sarah C Bridge, Ananta S Bangdiwala, David B Meya, Claudia M Denkinger, Conrad Muzoora, David R Boulware
BACKGROUND: WHO recommends Xpert MTB/RIF as initial diagnostic testing for tuberculous meningitis. However, diagnosis remains difficult, with Xpert sensitivity of about 50-70% and culture sensitivity of about 60%. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of the new Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra (Xpert Ultra) for tuberculous meningitis. METHODS: We prospectively obtained diagnostic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens during screening for a trial on the treatment of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis in Mbarara, Uganda...
September 14, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919337/xpert-mtb-rif-ultra-a-gamechanger-for-tuberculous-meningitis
#2
Margaret Khonga, Mark Patrick Nicol
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 14, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918082/corrections
#3
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 13, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916444/treating-malaria-new-drugs-for-a-new-era
#4
G Dennis Shanks, Jörg J Möhrle
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 12, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916443/aq-13-an-investigational-antimalarial-versus-artemether-plus-lumefantrine-for-the-treatment-of-uncomplicated-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-a-randomised-phase-2-non-inferiority-clinical-trial
#5
Ousmane A Koita, Lansana Sangaré, Haiyan D Miller, Aliou Sissako, Moctar Coulibaly, Trevor A Thompson, Saharé Fongoro, Youssouf Diarra, Mamadou Ba, Ababacar Maiga, Boubakar Diallo, David M Mushatt, Frances J Mather, Jeffrey G Shaffer, Asif H Anwar, Donald J Krogstad
BACKGROUND: Chloroquine was used for malaria treatment until resistant Plasmodium falciparum was identified. Because 4-aminoquinolines with modified side chains, such as AQ-13, are active against resistant parasites, we compared AQ-13 against artemether plus lumefantrine for treatment of uncomplicated P falciparum malaria. METHODS: We did a randomised, non-inferiority trial. We screened men (≥18 years) with uncomplicated malaria in Missira (northeast Mali) and Bamako (capital of Mali) for eligibility (≥2000 asexual P falciparum parasites per μL of blood)...
September 12, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864030/a-fatal-outbreak-of-st11-carbapenem-resistant-hypervirulent-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-a-chinese-hospital-a-molecular-epidemiological-study
#6
Danxia Gu, Ning Dong, Zhiwei Zheng, Di Lin, Man Huang, Lihua Wang, Edward Wai-Chi Chan, Lingbin Shu, Jiang Yu, Rong Zhang, Sheng Chen
BACKGROUND: Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae strains often cause life-threatening community-acquired infections in young and healthy hosts, but are usually sensitive to antibiotics. In this study, we investigated a fatal outbreak of ventilator-associated pneumonia caused by a new emerging hypervirulent K pneumoniae strain. METHODS: The outbreak occurred in the integrated intensive care unit of a new branch of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University (Hangzhou, China)...
August 29, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864029/global-deworming-moving-past-albendazole-and-mebendazole
#7
Peter J Hotez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 29, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864028/convergence-of-carbapenem-resistance-and-hypervirulence-in-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#8
Liang Chen, Barry N Kreiswirth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 29, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864027/efficacy-and-safety-of-tribendimidine-tribendimidine-plus-ivermectin-tribendimidine-plus-oxantel-pamoate-and-albendazole-plus-oxantel-pamoate-against-hookworm-and-concomitant-soil-transmitted-helminth-infections-in-tanzania-and-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire-a-randomised-controlled
#9
Wendelin Moser, Jean T Coulibaly, Said M Ali, Shaali M Ame, Amour K Amour, Richard B Yapi, Marco Albonico, Maxim Puchkov, Jörg Huwyler, Jan Hattendorf, Jennifer Keiser
BACKGROUND: Preventive chemotherapy is the current strategy to control soil-transmitted helminth infections (caused by Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, and Trichuris trichiura). But, to improve efficacy and avoid emerging resistance, new drugs are warranted. Tribendimidine has shown good anthelmintic efficacy and is therefore a frontrunner for monotherapy and combination chemotherapy. METHODS: We did a randomised, controlled, single-blinded, non-inferiority trial on Pemba Island, Tanzania, and in Côte d'Ivoire...
August 29, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847637/crp-tell-tale-biomarker-or-common-denominator
#10
Annemieke Geluk, Paul Corstjens
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 25, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847636/point-of-care-c-reactive-protein-based-tuberculosis-screening-for-people-living-with-hiv-a-diagnostic-accuracy-study
#11
Christina Yoon, Fred C Semitala, Elly Atuhumuza, Jane Katende, Sandra Mwebe, Lucy Asege, Derek T Armstrong, Alfred O Andama, David W Dowdy, J Luke Davis, Laurence Huang, Moses Kamya, Adithya Cattamanchi
BACKGROUND: Symptom-based screening for tuberculosis is recommended for all people living with HIV. This recommendation results in unnecessary Xpert MTB/RIF testing in many individuals living in tuberculosis-endemic areas and thus poor implementation of intensified case finding and tuberculosis preventive therapy. Novel approaches to tuberculosis screening are needed to help achieve global targets for tuberculosis elimination. We assessed the performance of C-reactive protein (CRP) measured with a point-of-care assay as a screening tool for active pulmonary tuberculosis...
August 25, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843579/a-fresh-look-at-an-old-problem
#12
Thomas M Zydowsky
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 23, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843578/estimates-of-the-global-regional-and-national-morbidity-mortality-and-aetiologies-of-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-in-195-countries-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#13
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors (GBD) Study 2015 provides an up-to-date analysis of the burden of lower respiratory tract infections (LRIs) in 195 countries. This study assesses cases, deaths, and aetiologies spanning the past 25 years and shows how the burden of LRI has changed in people of all ages. METHODS: We estimated LRI mortality by age, sex, geography, and year using a modelling platform shared across most causes of death in the GBD 2015 study called the Cause of Death Ensemble model...
August 23, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843577/measuring-progress-on-preventing-pneumonia-deaths-are-we-there-yet
#14
Cynthia G Whitney
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 23, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843576/effect-of-hsv-2-infection-on-subsequent-hiv-acquisition-an-updated-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Katharine J Looker, Jocelyn A R Elmes, Sami L Gottlieb, Joshua T Schiffer, Peter Vickerman, Katherine M E Turner, Marie-Claude Boily
BACKGROUND: HIV and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infections cause a substantial global disease burden and are epidemiologically correlated. Two previous systematic reviews of the association between HSV-2 and HIV found evidence that HSV-2 infection increases the risk of HIV acquisition, but these reviews are now more than a decade old. METHODS: For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched PubMed, MEDLINE, and Embase (from Jan 1, 2003, to May 25, 2017) to identify studies investigating the risk of HIV acquisition after exposure to HSV-2 infection, either at baseline (prevalent HSV-2 infection) or during follow-up (incident HSV-2 infection)...
August 23, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844634/infectious-causes-of-microcephaly-epidemiology-pathogenesis-diagnosis-and-management
#16
REVIEW
Delan Devakumar, Alasdair Bamford, Marcelo U Ferreira, Jonathan Broad, Richard E Rosch, Nora Groce, Judith Breuer, Marly A Cardoso, Andrew J Copp, Paula Alexandre, Laura C Rodrigues, Ibrahim Abubakar
Microcephaly is an important sign of neurological malformation and a predictor of future disability. The 2015-16 outbreak of Zika virus and congenital Zika infection brought the world's attention to links between Zika infection and microcephaly. However, Zika virus is only one of the infectious causes of microcephaly and, although the contexts in which they occur vary greatly, all are of concern. In this Review, we summarise important aspects of major congenital infections that can cause microcephaly, and describe the epidemiology, transmission, clinical features, pathogenesis, management, and long-term consequences of these infections...
August 22, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838639/effect-of-acute-zika-virus-infection-on-sperm-and-virus-clearance-in-body-fluids-a-prospective-observational-study
#17
Guillaume Joguet, Jean-Michel Mansuy, Giulia Matusali, Safouane Hamdi, Marie Walschaerts, Lynda Pavili, Stefanie Guyomard, Nadia Prisant, Pierre Lamarre, Nathalie Dejucq-Rainsford, Christophe Pasquier, Louis Bujan
BACKGROUND: Evidence of human sexual transmission during Zika virus emergence is a matter of concern, particularly in procreation, but to date, kinetics of seminal shedding and the effects of infection on human reproductive function have not been described. To investigate the effects of Zika virus infection on semen and clearance of Zika virus from semen and body fluids, we aimed to study a cohort of Zika virus-infected men. METHODS: This prospective observational study recruited men presenting with acute Zika virus infection at Pointe-à-Pitre University Hospital in Guadeloupe, French Caribbean, where a Zika virus outbreak occurred between April and November, 2016...
August 21, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838638/zika-virus-infection-in-semen-effect-on-human-reproduction
#18
Luisa Barzon, Enrico Lavezzo, Giorgio Palù
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 21, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827144/revisiting-jenner-s-mysteries-the-role-of-the-beaugency-lymph-in-the-evolutionary-path-of-ancient-smallpox-vaccines
#19
REVIEW
Clarissa R Damaso
In 1796, Edward Jenner developed the smallpox vaccine consisting of pustular material obtained from lesions on cows affected by so-called cow-pox. The disease, caused by cowpox virus, confers crossprotection against smallpox. However, historical evidence suggests that Jenner might have used vaccinia virus or even horsepox virus instead of cowpox virus. Mysteries surrounding the origin and nature of the smallpox vaccine persisted during the 19th century, a period of intense exchange of vaccine strains, including the Beaugency lymph...
August 18, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827143/tuberculosis-making-predictions-especially-about-the-future
#20
Anna M Mandalakas, Frank Cobelens
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 18, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
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