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Kidney International

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884399/cardiovascular-events-and-death-in-japanese-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#1
Kenichi Tanaka, Tsuyoshi Watanabe, Ayano Takeuchi, Yasuo Ohashi, Kosaku Nitta, Tadao Akizawa, Seiichi Matsuo, Enyu Imai, Hirofumi Makino, Akira Hishida
The incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is higher in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) than in the general population, and the risk of CVD increases with reductions in renal function. However, the incidence of CVD in Japanese patients with CKD has not been sufficiently investigated. To measure this we conducted the Chronic Kidney Disease Japan Cohort (CKD-JAC) Study over four years in 2,966 Japanese patients with CKD to examine the incidence of CVD and all-cause death. These patients had an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 10-59 ml/min/1...
November 21, 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865441/long-term-versus-short-term-dual-antiplatelet-therapy-was-similarly-associated-with-a-lower-risk-of-death-stroke-or-infarction-in-patients-with-acute-coronary-syndrome-regardless-of-underlying-kidney-disease
#2
Juan-Jesus Carrero, Christoph Varenhorst, Karin Jensevik, Karolina Szummer, Bo Lagerqvist, Marie Evans, Jonas Spaak, Claes Held, Stefan James, Tomas Jernberg
Scarce and conflicting evidence exists on whether clopidogrel is effective and whether dual antiplatelet treatment (DAPT) is safe in patients with acute coronary syndrome and chronic kidney disease (CKD). To study this, we performed an observational, prospective, multicenter cohort study of 36,001 patients of the SWEDEHEART registry. The exposure was DAPT prolonged after 3 months versus DAPT stopped at 3 months in consecutive patients with acute coronary syndrome and known serum creatinine. DAPT duration with clopidogrel and aspirin was assessed by dispensed tablets...
November 16, 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865440/hemoglobin-of-12-g-dl-and-above-is-not-associated-with-increased-cardiovascular-morbidity-in-children-on-hemodialysis
#3
Michelle N Rheault, Julia T Molony, Thomas Nevins, Charles A Herzog, Blanche M Chavers
In adults on chronic hemodialysis, achieving a hemoglobin concentration of 12g/dl and above with erythropoiesis stimulating agents leads to increased cardiovascular events and mortality, but this may not be true in children. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of pediatric patients (under 18) from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Clinical Performance Measures (CPM) project (2000 to 2008) merged with the United States Renal Data System. Hemoglobin was determined from the Clinical Performance Measures data, and beginning annually on January 1st of the next year, patients were followed for up to 1 year...
November 16, 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837947/recent-advances-in-our-understanding-of-recurrent%C3%A2-primary-glomerulonephritis-after-kidney%C3%A2-transplantation
#4
REVIEW
Fernando G Cosio, Daniel C Cattran
Recurrent glomerulonephritis (GN) is an important cause of kidney allograft failure, particularly in younger recipients. Approximately 15% of death-censored graft failures are due to recurrent GN, but this incidence is likely an underestimation of the magnitude of the problem. Overall, 18% to 22% of kidney allografts are lost due to GN, either recurrent or presumed de novo. The impact of recurrent GN on allograft survival was recognized from the earliest times in kidney transplantation. However, progress in this area has been slow, and our understanding of GN recurrence remains limited, in large part due to incomplete understanding of the pathogenesis of these diseases...
November 9, 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780585/purinergic-signaling-in-kidney-disease
#5
REVIEW
Robert I Menzies, Frederick W Tam, Robert J Unwin, Matthew A Bailey
Nucleotides are key subunits for nucleic acids and provide energy for intracellular metabolism. They can also be released from cells to act physiologically as extracellular messengers or pathologically as danger signals. Extracellular nucleotides stimulate membrane receptors in the P2 and P1 family. P2X are ATP-activated cation channels; P2Y and P1 are G-protein coupled receptors activated by ATP, ADP, UTP, and UDP in the case of P2 or adenosine for P1. Renal P2 receptors influence both vascular contractility and tubular function...
October 22, 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789056/transcription-factor-nrf2-hyperactivation-in-early-phase-renal-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-prevents-tubular-damage-progression
#6
Masahiro Nezu, Tomokazu Souma, Lei Yu, Takafumi Suzuki, Daisuke Saigusa, Sadayoshi Ito, Norio Suzuki, Masayuki Yamamoto
Acute kidney injury is a devastating disease with high morbidity in hospitalized patients and contributes to the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease. An underlying mechanism of acute kidney injury involves ischemia-reperfusion injury which, in turn, induces oxidative stress and provokes organ damage. Nrf2 is a master transcription factor that regulates the cellular response to oxidative stress. Here, we examined the role of Nrf2 in the progression of ischemia-reperfusion injury-induced kidney damage in mice using genetic and pharmacological approaches...
October 20, 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773427/progression-of-chronic-kidney-disease-too-much-cellular-talk-causes-damage
#7
Leslie Gewin, Roy Zent, Ambra Pozzi
Tubulointerstitial fibrosis, tubular atrophy, and peritubular capillary rarefaction are major hallmarks of chronic kidney disease. The tubulointerstitium consists of multiple cell components including tubular epithelial, mesenchymal (fibroblasts and pericytes), endothelial, and inflammatory cells. Crosstalk among these cell components is a key component in the pathogenesis of this complex disease. After severe or recurrent injury, the renal tubular epithelial cells undergo changes in structure and cell cycle that are accompanied by altered expression and production of cytokines...
October 20, 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773426/peritoneal-or-hemodialysis-for-the-frail-elderly-patient-the-choice-of-2-evils
#8
Edwina A Brown, Frederic O Finkelstein, Osasuyi U Iyasere, Alan S Kliger
Management of older people on dialysis requires focus on the wider aspects of aging as well as dialysis. Almost all frail and older patients receiving dialysis will default to in-center hemodialysis, although the availability of assisted peritoneal dialysis enables dialysis at home. As with any disease management decision, patients approaching end-stage renal disease need all the appropriate facts about their prognosis, the natural history of their disease without dialysis, and the resulting outcomes and complications of the different dialysis modalities...
October 20, 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773425/unravelling-the-immunopathological-mechanisms-of-heavy-chain-deposition-disease-with-implications-for-clinical-management
#9
Frank Bridoux, Vincent Javaugue, Sébastien Bender, Fannie Leroy, Pierre Aucouturier, Céline Debiais-Delpech, Jean-Michel Goujon, Nathalie Quellard, Amélie Bonaud, Marie Clavel, Patrick Trouillas, Florent Di Meo, Jean-Marc Gombert, Jean-Paul Fermand, Arnaud Jaccard, Michel Cogné, Guy Touchard, Christophe Sirac
Randall-type heavy chain deposition disease (HCDD) is a rare disorder characterized by tissue deposition of a truncated monoclonal immunoglobulin heavy chain lacking the first constant domain. Pathophysiological mechanisms are unclear and management remains to be defined. Here we retrospectively studied 15 patients with biopsy-proven HCDD of whom 14 presented with stage 3 or higher chronic kidney disease, with nephrotic syndrome in 9. Renal lesions were characterized by nodular glomerulosclerosis, with linear peritubular and glomerular deposits of γ-heavy chain in 12 patients or α-heavy chain in 3 patients, without concurrent light chain staining...
October 20, 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27745702/il-4-il-13-mediated-polarization-of-renal-macrophages-dendritic-cells-to-an-m2a-phenotype-is-essential-for-recovery-from-acute-kidney-injury
#10
Ming-Zhi Zhang, Xin Wang, Yinqiu Wang, Aolei Niu, Suwan Wang, Chenhang Zou, Raymond C Harris
Cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 play important roles in polarization of macrophages/dendritic cells to an M2 phenotype, which is important for recovery from acute kidney injury. Both IL-4 and IL-13 activate JAK3/STAT6 signaling. In mice with diphtheria toxin receptor expression in proximal tubules (selective injury model), a relatively selective JAK3 inhibitor, tofacitinib, led to more severe kidney injury, delayed recovery from acute kidney injury, increased inflammatory M1 phenotype markers and decreased reparative M2 phenotype markers of macrophages/dendritic cells, and development of more severe renal fibrosis after diphtheria toxin administration...
October 10, 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27745701/serum-a08-c1q-antibodies-are-associated-with-disease-activity-and-prognosis-in-chinese-patients-with-lupus-nephritis
#11
Yun Pang, Ying Tan, Yongzhe Li, Jianchun Zhang, Yongbing Guo, Zhiling Guo, Chengying Zhang, Feng Yu, Ming-Hui Zhao
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by overproduction of numerous autoantibodies. Many studies have sought to identify such biomarkers to distinguish patients with active lupus nephritis from SLE patients without renal involvement. Because antibodies to complement C1q appear to be prevalent in patients with active lupus nephritis, we analyzed the frequency of antigenic epitopes of C1q and their clinical significance in a large multicenter study of Chinese patients. The lupus cohort consisted of 210 patients with active lupus nephritis as a discovery cohort, 130 active patients as a validation cohort along with 130 SLE patients without clinical renal involvement, and 100 healthy controls...
October 10, 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692806/human-vascular-progenitor-cells-derived-from-renal-arteries-are-endothelial-like-and-assist-in-the-repair-of-injured-renal-capillary-networks
#12
Paul Pang, Molly Abbott, Steven L Chang, Malyun Abdi, Nikita Chauhan, Murti Mistri, Joshua Ghofrani, Quynh-Anh Fucci, Colleen Walker, Corey Leonardi, Samuel Grady, Arvin Halim, Ryan Hoffman, Tzongshi Lu, Huixia Cao, Stefan G Tullius, Sayeed Malek, Sanjaya Kumar, Graeme Steele, Adam Kibel, Benjamin S Freedman, Sushrut S Waikar, Andrew M Siedlecki
Vascular progenitor cells show promise for the treatment of microvasculature endothelial injury. We investigated the function of renal artery progenitor cells derived from radical nephrectomy patients, in animal models of acute ischemic and hyperperfusion injuries. Present in human adventitia, CD34positive/CD105negative cells were clonal and expressed transcription factors Sox2/Oct4 as well as surface markers CXCR4 (CD184)/KDR(CD309) consistent with endothelial progenitor cells. Termed renal artery-derived vascular progenitor cells (RAPC), injected cells were associated with decreased serum creatinine after ischemia/reperfusion, reduced albuminuria after hyperperfusion, and improved blood flow in both models...
September 29, 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692817/an-overview-of-renal-metabolomics
#13
Sahir Kalim, Eugene P Rhee
The high-throughput, high-resolution phenotyping enabled by metabolomics has been applied increasingly to a variety of questions in nephrology research. This article provides an overview of current metabolomics methodologies and nomenclature, citing specific considerations in sample preparation, metabolite measurement, and data analysis that investigators should understand when examining the literature or designing a study. Furthermore, we review several notable findings that have emerged in the literature that both highlight some of the limitations of current profiling approaches, as well as outline specific strengths unique to metabolomics...
September 28, 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692816/from-bench-to-pet-shop-to-bedside-the-environment-and-immune-function-in-mice
#14
A Richard Kitching, Joshua D Ooi
The generation of inbred mouse strains in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, coupled with the later establishment of specific pathogen-free animal research facilities created a powerful biological platform for exploration of the immune system in health and disease. Studies in this setting have been responsible for huge advances in our understanding of immunobiology and disease, including immune-mediated kidney disease. However, whereas this reductionist and relatively standardized approach allows us to make sense of complex disease biology, it takes place in controlled environments that clearly differ from those that we humans encounter in everyday life...
September 28, 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692815/targeted-disruption-of-cd40-in-a-genetically-hypertensive-rat-model-attenuates-renal-fibrosis-and-proteinuria-independent-of-blood-pressure
#15
Steven T Haller, Sivarajan Kumarasamy, David A Folt, Leah M Wuescher, Stanislaw Stepkowski, Manish Karamchandani, Harshal Waghulde, Blair Mell, Muhammad Chaudhry, Kyle Maxwell, Siddhi Upadhyaya, Christopher A Drummond, Jiang Tian, Wanda E Filipiak, Thomas L Saunders, Joseph I Shapiro, Bina Joe, Christopher J Cooper
High blood pressure is a common cause of chronic kidney disease. Because CD40, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family, has been linked to the progression of kidney disease in ischemic nephropathy, we studied the role of Cd40 in the development of hypertensive renal disease. The Cd40 gene was mutated in the Dahl S genetically hypertensive rat with renal disease by targeted-gene disruption using zinc-finger nuclease technology. These rats were then given low (0.3%) and high (2%) salt diets and compared...
September 28, 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692564/release-of-extracellular-dna-influences-renal-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-by-platelet-activation-and-formation-of-neutrophil-extracellular-traps
#16
Marcel P B Jansen, Diba Emal, Gwendoline J D Teske, Mark C Dessing, Sandrine Florquin, Joris J T H Roelofs
Acute kidney injury is often the result of ischemia reperfusion injury, which leads to activation of coagulation and inflammation, resulting in necrosis of renal tubular epithelial cells. Platelets play a central role in coagulation and inflammatory processes, and it has been shown that platelet activation exacerbates acute kidney injury. However, the mechanism of platelet activation during ischemia reperfusion injury and how platelet activation leads to tissue injury are largely unknown. Here we found that renal ischemia reperfusion injury in mice leads to increased platelet activation in immediate proximity of necrotic cell casts...
September 27, 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692563/low-dose-hydralazine-prevents-fibrosis-in-a-murine-model-of-acute-kidney-injury-to-chronic-kidney-disease-progression
#17
Björn Tampe, Ulrike Steinle, Désirée Tampe, Julienne L Carstens, Peter Korsten, Elisabeth M Zeisberg, Gerhard A Müller, Raghu Kalluri, Michael Zeisberg
Acute kidney injury (AKI) and progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD) are intrinsically tied syndromes. In this regard, the acutely injured kidney often does not achieve its full regenerative capacity and AKI directly transitions into progressive CKD associated with tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Underlying mechanisms of such AKI-to-CKD progression are still incompletely understood and specific therapeutic interventions are still elusive. Because epigenetic modifications play a role in maintaining tissue fibrosis, we used a murine model of ischemia-reperfusion injury to determine whether aberrant promoter methylation of RASAL1 contributes causally to the switch between physiological regeneration and tubulointerstitial fibrogenesis, a hallmark of AKI-to-CKD progression...
September 27, 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692562/rhein-reverses-klotho-repression-via-promoter-demethylation-and-protects-against-kidney-and-bone-injuries-in-mice-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#18
Qin Zhang, Lin Liu, Wenjun Lin, Shasha Yin, Aiping Duan, Zhihong Liu, Wangsen Cao
Rhein is an anthraquinone compound isolated from the medicinal plant rhubarb and mainly used in the clinical treatment of diabetic nephropathy. Rhein exhibits various renoprotective functions, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully determined. However, its renoprotective properties recapitulate the role of Klotho, a renal-specific antiaging protein critical for maintaining kidney homeostasis. Here we explored the connections between rhein renoprotection and Klotho in a mouse model of adenine-induced chronic kidney disease...
September 27, 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692561/renal-perfusion-in-sepsis-from-macro-to-microcirculation
#19
Emiel Hendrik Post, John A Kellum, Rinaldo Bellomo, Jean-Louis Vincent
The pathogenesis of sepsis-associated acute kidney injury is complex and likely involves perfusion alterations, a dysregulated inflammatory response, and bioenergetic derangements. Although global renal hypoperfusion has been the main target of therapeutic interventions, its role in the development of renal dysfunction in sepsis is controversial. The implications of renal hypoperfusion during sepsis probably extend beyond a simple decrease in glomerular filtration pressure, and targeting microvascular perfusion deficits to maintain tubular epithelial integrity and function may be equally important...
September 27, 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678159/regardless-of-etiology-progressive-renal-disease-causes-ultrastructural-and-functional-alterations-of-peritubular-capillaries
#20
Janka Bábíčková, Barbara M Klinkhammer, Eva M Buhl, Sonja Djudjaj, Mareike Hoss, Felix Heymann, Frank Tacke, Jürgen Floege, Jan U Becker, Peter Boor
Progressive renal diseases are associated with rarefaction of peritubular capillaries, but the ultrastructural and functional alterations of the microvasculature are not well described. To study this, we analyzed different time points during progressive kidney damage and fibrosis in 3 murine models of different disease etiologies. These models were unilateral ureteral obstruction, unilateral ischemia-reperfusion injury, and Col4a3-deficient mice, we analyzed ultrastructural alterations in patient biopsy specimens...
September 24, 2016: Kidney International
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