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Journal of Sleep Research

Juana Lamote de Grignon Pérez, Jonathan Gershuny, Russell Foster, Maarten De Vos
It is often stated that sleep deprivation is on the rise, with work suggested as a main cause. However, the evidence for increasing sleep deprivation comes from surveys using habitual sleep questions. An alternative source of information regarding sleep behaviour is time-use studies. This paper investigates changes in sleep time in the UK using the two British time-use studies that allow measuring "time in bed not asleep" separately from "actual sleep time". Based upon the studies presented here, people in the UK sleep today 43 min more than they did in the 1970s because they go to bed earlier (~30 min) and they wake up later (~15 min)...
September 10, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
John R Best, Ryan S Falck, Glenn J Landry, Teresa Liu-Ambrose
Sleep quality and physical activity (PA) appear to be interrelated; thus, by promoting one behaviour, it may be possible to improve the other in older adults. Examination of the within-person day-to-day variation in PA and sleep quality could potentially elucidate the directionality of the association of these behaviours. We measured sleep quality (i.e. fragmentation, efficiency, duration and latency) and moderate-to-vigorous PA using the MotionWatch8© over 14 consecutive days and nights in community-dwelling adults (n = 152; age range 53-101 years)...
September 9, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
Ron Oliven, Guy Cohen, Mostafa Somri, Alan R Schwartz, Arie Oliven
Upper airway patency to airflow and the occurrence of obstructive sleep apnea involve a complex interplay between pharyngeal anatomy and synergic co-activation of peri-pharyngeal muscles. In previous studies we observed large differences in the response to sleep-associated flow limitation between the genioglossus and other (non-GG) peri-pharyngeal muscles. We hypothesized that similar differences are present also during wakefulness. In the present study we compared the response to inspiratory loading of the genioglossus electromyogram and four other peri-pharyngeal muscles...
August 30, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
Ilona Merikanto, Siddheshwar Utge, Jari Lahti, Liisa Kuula, Tommi Makkonen, Marius Lahti-Pulkkinen, Kati Heinonen, Katri Räikkönen, Sture Andersson, Timo Strandberg, Anu-Katriina Pesonen
Schizophrenia has been associated with disturbed sleep, even before the onset of the disorder, and also in non-schizophrenic first-order relatives. This may point to an underlying genetic influence. Here we examine whether weighted polygenic risk scores (PRS) for schizophrenia are associated with sleep spindle activity in healthy adolescents. Our sample comes from a community-based cohort of 157 non-schizophrenic adolescents (57% girls) having both genetic data and an overnight sleep EEG measurement available...
August 29, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
Teresa Shirlaw, Brett Duce, Jasmina Milosavljevic, Kevin Hanssen, Craig Hukins
In treating obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), the use of oronasal masks with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has been reported to increase pressure levels and reduce compliance. These reports come mostly from large observational studies. In this study, we examined the impact that oronasal masks have on 95th centile pressures, the residual apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and compliance compared with nasal masks. A randomised crossover design was implemented. Participants already established on CPAP were randomly allocated to a nasal mask or oronasal mask with auto-titrating positive airway pressure (APAP) for 2 weeks...
August 29, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
Quan D Mai, Terrence D Hill, Luis Vila-Henninger, Michael A Grandner
For nearly half a century, jobs have become increasingly characterized by employment insecurity. We examined the implications for sleep disturbance with cross-sectional data from the European Working Conditions Survey (2010). A group of 24,553 workers between the ages of 25 and 65 years in 31 European countries were asked to indicate whether they suffered from "insomnia or general sleep difficulties" in the past 12 months. We employed logistic regression to model the association between employment insecurity and sleep disturbance for all countries combined and each individual country...
August 29, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
Katarina Lazic, Jelena Ciric, Jasna Saponjic
On the basis of our previous studies and the important role of the thalamo-cortical network in states of unconsciousness, such as anaesthesia and sleep, and in sleep spindles generation, we investigated sleep spindles (SS) and high-voltage sleep spindle (HVS) dynamics during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep following different types of general anaesthesia in both physiological controls and in a rat model of Parkinson's disease (PD) cholinopathy, to follow the impact of anaesthesia on post-anaesthesia sleep at the thalamo-cortical level through an altered sleep spindle dynamics...
August 23, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
Senning Zheng, Juan Feng, Rongmao Lin, Youwei Yan, Renchuan Zhang, Huiyuan Huang, Junjing Wang, Ruiwang Huang
Sleep-related attentional bias is thought to play a role in the maintenance of insomnia. However, this concept has been questioned by several studies that did not show the presence of sleep-related attentional bias in clinical insomnia or poor sleepers. Our goal in the present study was to test whether the mood state of individuals with insomnia affects the presence of sleep-related attentional bias. To this end, 31 individuals with insomnia and 34 good sleepers were randomly assigned to a negative mood-inducing condition or a control condition...
August 23, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
Kati Pettersson, Kiti Müller, Aino Tietäväinen, Kristian Gould, Edward Haeggström
Prolonged time awake increases the need to sleep. Sleep pressure increases sleepiness, impairs human alertness and performance and increases the probability of human errors and accidents. Human performance and alertness during waking hours are influenced by homeostatic sleep drive and the circadian rhythm. Cognitive functions, especially attentional ones, are vulnerable to circadian rhythm and increasing sleep drive. A reliable, objective and practical metrics for estimating sleepiness could therefore be valuable...
August 21, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
Iuliana Hartescu, Kevin Morgan
Both very low and very high levels of regular physical activity have been associated with degraded sleep quality. Cross-national variations in habitual physical activity levels, therefore, may contribute to cross-national differences in insomnia prevalence. The present study assesses and compares the extent to which weekly durations of moderate-intensity physical activity contribute to insomnia risk. Demographic, sleep, physical activity and general health profiles were obtained from a convenience sample of 9,238 adults drawn from five countries (South Africa, Australia, China, South Korea and the UK) using social media...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
Brandy Solheim, Alexander Olsen, Håvard Kallestad, Knut Langsrud, Bjørn Bjorvatn, Michael Gradisar, Trond Sand
Difficult early morning awakening is one of the defining symptoms of delayed sleep-wake phase disorder. It is accompanied by low cognitive arousal and drowsiness resulting in difficulty concentrating and focusing attention upon awakening. We designed the current study to quantitate cognitive performance (i.e. omissions, commissions, reaction time [average and variability]) and cognitive domains (i.e. focused attention, sustained attention, impulsivity and vigilance) with Conners' Continuous Performance Test II during both habitual and conventional (00:00-07:00 hr) sleep-wake schedule in young adult patients with delayed sleep-wake phase disorder (n = 20, mean age = 24...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
Sarah F Schoch, Maren J Cordi, Michael Schredl, Björn Rasch
Collecting dream reports typically requires waking subjects up from their sleep-a method that has been used to study the relationship between dreams and memory consolidation. However, it is unclear whether these awakenings influence sleep-associated memory consolidation processes. Furthermore, it is unclear how the incorporation of the learning task into dreams is related to memory consolidation. In this study we compared memory performance in a word-picture association learning task after a night with and without awakenings in 22 young and healthy participants...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
Andreas Gerhardsson, Torbjörn Åkerstedt, John Axelsson, Håkan Fischer, Mats Lekander, Johanna Schwarz
The emotional dysregulation and impaired working memory found after sleep loss can have severe implications for our daily functioning. Considering the intertwined relationship between emotion and cognition in stimuli processing, there could be further implications of sleep deprivation in high-complex emotional situations. Although studied separately, this interaction between emotion and cognitive processes has been neglected in sleep research. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of 1 night of sleep deprivation on emotional working memory...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
Erin J Wamsley, Robert Stickgold
Sleep following learning benefits memory. One model attributes this effect to the iterative "reactivation" of memory traces in the sleeping brain, demonstrated in animal models. Although technical limitations prohibit using the same methods to observe memory reactivation in the human brain, the study of mental activity during sleep provides an alternative method of observing memory activation during sleep. In fact, the content of dream experience may reflect the process of memory reactivation and consolidation in the sleeping brain...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
Basheer Y Khassawneh, Christina J Bathgate, Sheila C Tsai, Jack D Edinger
Given the recent evidence on the association between hyperarousal in insomnia disorder and neurocognitive deficits, we aimed to examine the effect of short sleep duration on neurocognitive reaction time tests in insomnia disorder sufferers. We recruited subjects with insomnia disorder (n = 35, mean age = 40.6 years) who scored ≥29 on a Hyperarousal Scale, and a group of controls (n = 54, mean age = 31.5 years) who had no sleep disorders and scored <26 on the Hyperarousal Scale. Participants completed two in-home polysomnograms and four daytime trials of neurocognitive tests, including simple reaction time, choice reaction time, big circle-little circle, rapid visual information processing, attention switching task, and spatial working memory tests...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
Matthew D Weaver, Céline Vetter, Shantha M W Rajaratnam, Conor S O'Brien, Salim Qadri, Ruth M Benca, Ann E Rogers, Eileen B Leary, James K Walsh, Charles A Czeisler, Laura K Barger
The objective of the study was to determine if sleep disorder, depression or anxiety screening status was associated with safety outcomes in a diverse population of hospital workers. A sample of shift workers at four hospitals participated in a prospective cohort study. Participants were screened for five sleep disorders, depression and anxiety at baseline, then completed prospective monthly surveys for the next 6 months to capture motor vehicle crashes, near-miss crashes, occupational exposures and medical errors...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
Natasja Lammers, Ashton Curry-Hyde, Anne J Smith, Peter R Eastwood, Leon M Straker, David Champion, Nigel McArdle
Restless legs syndrome has been associated with serum iron deficiency in clinical studies. However, studies investigating this relationship have had inconsistent results and there are no studies in young adults. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between serum measures of iron stores and restless legs syndrome in young adults in the community. Participants in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study answered questions on restless legs syndrome (n = 1,100, 54% female) at age 22 years, and provided serum measures of iron stores (ferritin and transferrin saturation) at ages 17 and 22 years...
July 31, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
Jordan Maccora, Jessica E Manousakis, Clare Anderson
Pupillary instability reflects alterations in autonomic nervous system activity and has been shown to reflect change in alertness. However, the extent to which it can predict subsequent performance impairment and alertness failure is not clear. Eighteen healthy young adults (group age = 21.44 ± 3.24 years, 10 men) underwent 40 hr of continuous wakefulness, completing an 11-min Pupillographic Sleepiness Test (PST), the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale and a 10-min Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT) every 2 hr...
July 31, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
Ashley F Curtis, Mary Beth Miller, Jeff Boissoneault, Michael Robinson, Roland Staud, Richard B Berry, Christina S McCrae
Sleep diary and actigraphy assessments of insomnia symptoms in patients with fibromyalgia (FM) are often discrepant. We examined whether opioid dose and age interact in predicting magnitude or direction of discrepancies. Participants (N = 199, M = 51.5 years, SD = 11.7) with FM and insomnia completed 14 days of diaries and actigraphy. Multiple regressions determined whether average opioid dose and its interaction with age predicted magnitude or direction of diary/actigraphy discrepancies in sleep onset latency (SOL), wake after sleep onset (WASO) and sleep efficiency (SE), controlling for sex, use of sleep medication, evening pain and total sleep time...
July 31, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
Christopher J Gordon, Kirsty L Dodds, Nathaniel S Marshall, Christopher B Miller, Chloe E Taylor, Craig L Philips
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 31, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
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