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Journal of Sleep Research

Ningning Zhou, Chuanwen Zhao, Ting Yang, Sha Du, Meng Yu, Heyong Shen
Many studies have used behavioural experiments to show an attentional bias towards sleep-related stimuli in people with insomnia disorder. A measurement of event-related potential is needed to investigate the cognitive processing mechanism of the attentional process. The present study used the emotional Stroop paradigm and event-related potentials to measure attentional bias towards sleep-negative, sleep-positive and sleep-unrelated neutral words. The study comprised 16 participants with insomnia disorder and 15 participants who were good sleepers...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
Christine Barner, Mareike Altgassen, Jan Born, Susanne Diekelmann
Sleep consolidates newly encoded memories, particularly those memories that are relevant for future behaviour. This study explored whether sleep facilitates the successful execution of relatively complex plans in the future. We applied the Dresden Breakfast Task, in which subjects are instructed to prepare a virtual breakfast comprising several tasks (e.g. table-setting, preparing eggs). After forming a detailed plan how to realize these tasks, the sleep group (n = 17) spent a night of sleep at home, monitored by polysomnography, and the wake group (n = 19) spent a normal day awake, monitored by actigraphy...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
Dan Denis, Christopher C French, Melanie N Schneider, Alice M Gregory
Research suggests that poor sleep quality is related to the occurrence of sleep paralysis, although the precise relationship between these two variables is unknown. This association has generated interest due to the related possibility that improving sleep quality could help to combat episodes of sleep paralysis. To date, studies examining the association between sleep quality and sleep paralysis have typically measured sleep quality using general measures such as the global score of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
Frank J van Schalkwijk, Cornelia Sauter, Kerstin Hoedlmoser, Dominik P J Heib, Gerhard Klösch, Doris Moser, Georg Gruber, Peter Anderer, Josef Zeitlhofer, Manuel Schabus
Many studies investigating sleep and memory consolidation have evaluated full-night sleep rather than alternative sleep periods such as daytime naps. This multi-centre study followed up on, and was compared with, an earlier full-night study (Schabus et al., 2004) investigating the relevance of daytime naps for the consolidation of declarative and procedural memory. Seventy-six participants were randomly assigned to a nap or wake group, and performed a declarative word-pair association or procedural mirror-tracing task...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
Alana D Steffen, Chinglin Lai, Terri E Weaver
Our objective was to define responder criteria using an anchor-based approach for frequency of cataplexy attacks and excessive daytime sleepiness in patients with narcolepsy undergoing sodium oxybate treatment. We used pooled data from two randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicentre 4- and 8-week trials of sodium oxybate for narcolepsy with cataplexy and analysed using receiver operator characteristics analysis. The percentage change in frequency of weekly cataplexy attacks and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale outcomes were compared with Clinical Global Impression of Change ratings, used as the anchor to define true response...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
Colin A Espie, Pedro Farias Machado, Jenna R Carl, Simon D Kyle, John Cape, A Niroshan Siriwardena, Annemarie I Luik
The Sleep Condition Indicator (SCI) is an eight-item rating scale that was developed to screen for insomnia disorder based on DSM-5 criteria. It has been shown previously to have good psychometric properties among several language translations. We developed age- and sex-referenced values for the SCI to assist the evaluation of insomnia in everyday clinical practice. A random sample of 200 000 individuals (58% women, mean age: 31 ± 13 years) was selected from those who had completed the SCI via several internet platforms...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
Bjørn Bjorvatn, Narvini Rajakulendren, Sverre Lehmann, Ståle Pallesen
The objective was to investigate symptoms of depression and anxiety in relation to the presence and severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) among patients referred with suspicion of OSA. The sample comprised 3770 consecutive patients with a mean age of 49.1 years; 69.7% were male. OSA was diagnosed and categorized based on a standard respiratory polygraphic sleep study using a type 3 portable monitor. Patients completed the validated Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) prior to the sleep study. In addition, they answered questions about whether they were currently in treatment for mental disorders and whether they had been diagnosed previously with depression...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
Wilson J Brown, Allison K Wilkerson, Stephen J Boyd, Daniel Dewey, Franklin Mesa, Brian E Bunnell
The present review examines the relations between sleep disturbance and anxiety in children and adolescents. The review begins with a detailed discussion of normative developmental trends in sleep, and the relation between sleep quality and emotion dysregulation in children. The extant literature on sleep disturbance in clinically anxious children with a focus on subjective versus objective measures of sleep is then summarized in detail. Finally, a review of the reciprocal relationship between sleep and emotion regulation is provided...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
Carl D Smith, Adam D Cooper, Donna J Merullo, Bruce S Cohen, Kristin J Heaton, Pedro J Claro, Tracey Smith
Sleep restriction degrades cognitive and motor performance, which can adversely impact job performance and increase the risk of accidents. Military personnel are prone to operating under sleep restriction, and previous work suggests that military marksmanship may be negatively affected under such conditions. Results of these studies, however, are mixed and have often incorporated additional stressors (e.g. energy restriction) beyond sleep restriction. Moreover, few studies have investigated how the degree of difficulty of a marksmanship task impacts performance following sleep restriction...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
Eva Hennecke, David Elmenhorst, Franco Mendolia, Matthias Putzke, Andreas Bauer, Daniel Aeschbach, Eva-Maria Elmenhorst
Sleep structure is highly stable within individuals but different between individuals. The present study investigated robustness of the individual sleep structure to extended total sleep deprivation. Seventeen healthy men spent a baseline night (23:00-07:00 hours), 58 h of sleep deprivation and a 14-h recovery night (17:00-07:00 hours) in the laboratory. Intraclass correlation coefficients showed that the agreement between baseline and recovery with respect to the proportion of the different sleep stages increased as a function of recovery sleep duration...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
Ester Tió, Carles Gaig, Maria Giner-Soriano, Odile Romero, Maria-José Jurado, Gemma Sansa, Montse Pujol, Oscar Sans, Ion Álvarez-Guerrico, Nuria Caballol, Marta Jimenez, Juan-Luis Becerra, Antonio Escartin, Carmen Monasterio, Albert Molins, Antoni Bove, Jaume Viña, Alex Iranzo, Roser Cambrodi, Gonzalo Calvo, Rosa Morros, Joan Santamaria
Previous studies have estimated an overall prevalence for narcolepsy between 15 and 70 cases per 100 000 inhabitants. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of narcolepsy in Catalunya (Catalonia), a north-east region of Spain (7 424 754 inhabitants), on 31 December 2014 by identifying all living subjects diagnosed with narcolepsy. First, we identified patients diagnosed by one of the 13 sleep, paediatric or neurological departments that perform tests regularly to diagnose narcolepsy. In a second phase, we searched for additional patients with narcolepsy in a clinical database of the primary health-care system...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
Cindie Slightam, Katja Petrowski, Andrea L Jamison, Marius Keller, Franziska Bertram, Sunyoung Kim, Walton T Roth
Sleep disturbance is commonly reported by participants with post-traumatic stress disorder, but objective evidence of poor sleep is often absent. Here we compared self-report and actigraphic evaluations of sleep between veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder and controls. Participants reported their sleep retrospectively for the month before the recording night and on the recording night. On the recording night, they wore an Actiwatch-64 and were instructed to press the marker button upon getting into bed, each time they awoke, and at their final awakening...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
Michelle Carr, Kadia Saint-Onge, Cloé Blanchette-Carrière, Tyna Paquette, Tore Nielsen
A recent study reported that individuals recalling frequent idiopathic nightmares (NM) produced more perseveration errors on a verbal fluency task than did control participants (CTL), while not differing in overall verbal fluency. Elevated scores on perseveration errors, an index of executive dysfunction, suggest a cognitive inhibitory control deficit in NM participants. The present study sought to replicate these results using a French-speaking cohort and French language verbal fluency tasks. A phonetic verbal fluency task using three stimulus letters (P, R, V) and a semantic verbal fluency task using two stimulus categories (female and male French first names) were administered to 23 participants with frequent recall of NM (≥2 NM per week, mean age = 24...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
Christer Ahlström, Anna Anund, Carina Fors, Torbjörn Åkerstedt
Driver sleepiness studies are often carried out with alert drivers during daytime and sleep-deprived drivers during night-time. This design results in a mixture of different factors (e.g. circadian effects, homeostatic effects, light conditions) that may confound the results. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of light conditions on driver sleepiness. Thirty young male drivers (23.6 ± 1.7 years old) participated in a driving simulator experiment where they drove on a rural road. A 2 × 2 design was used with the conditions daylight versus darkness, and daytime (full sleep) versus night-time (sleep deprived)...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
Chloe Dafkin, Andrew Green, Benita Olivier, Warrick Mckinon, Samantha Kerr
An evening state of spinal hyperexcitability has been proposed to be a possible cause of evening increases in restless legs syndrome symptoms. Thus, the objective of the current study was to assess the circadian variation in spinal excitability in patients with restless legs syndrome based on flexor withdrawal reflex and crossed extensor reflex responses. The reflexes were elicited on 12 participants with restless legs syndrome and 12 healthy control participants in the evening (PM) and the morning (AM). Reflex response magnitudes were measured electromyographically and kinematically...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
Eve Reynaud, Marie-Françoise Vecchierini, Barbara Heude, Marie-Aline Charles, Sabine Plancoulaine
This is the first systematic review of the literature on sleep and its relation to cognition and behaviour in preschool-aged children. In comparison with the literature focused on school-aged children, knowledge involving preschoolers is rather sparse. A total of 26 studies was included in this review, which revealed a high degree of heterogeneity regarding the type and means of measuring sleep variables and behavioural and cognitive variables, as well as the statistical methods employed. Amongst the 13 articles with the largest sample sizes (top 50% of the included studies, 12 different populations), 12 found that a higher quantity or quality of sleep was associated with better behavioural and/or cognitive outcomes...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
Harriet A L Harrex, Sheila A Skeaff, Katherine E Black, Brittany K Davison, Jillian J Haszard, Kim Meredith-Jones, Robin Quigg, Pouya Saeedi, Lee Stoner, Jyh E Wong, Paula M L Skidmore
It is well documented that short sleep duration is associated with excess body weight and poor food intake in children. It has been suggested that sleep timing behaviour may also be an important predictor of weight and other related behaviours, independent of sleep duration; however, there is a lack of research investigating these relationships. The present study investigated sleep timing in association with diet and physical activity levels in 439 children aged 9-11 years old from New Zealand. Sleep and physical activity data were collected using accelerometry, and food choice using a short food-frequency questionnaire...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
Taotao Ru, Qingwei Chen, Jianing You, Guofu Zhou
This study examines whether the benefits of a short midday nap on habitual nappers' mental performance depend on the cognitive domain and the task difficulty. Eighteen healthy college students with the long-term habit of a midday nap (13:00-14:00 hours) participated in a nap-deprivation study. On two separate days with at least 3 days in between, participants either took a nap or remained awake, and were subsequently tested on a simple sustained attention task (Psychomotor Vigilance Test), two more complex attention tasks (Go/No-Go and Flanker task) and one working memory task (2-back)...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
Johanna M Boardman, Bei Bei, Alix Mellor, Clare Anderson, Tracey L Sletten, Sean P A Drummond
We aimed to investigate whether self-monitoring of performance is altered during 60 h of total sleep deprivation, following 2 nights of recovery sleep, and by task difficulty and/or subjective sleepiness. Forty adults (22 females, aged 19-39 years) underwent a 5-day protocol, with a well-rested day, 66 h total sleep deprivation (last test session at 60 h), and 2 nights of 8 h recovery sleep. An arithmetic task (MATH) with three difficulty levels assessed working memory. The Psychomotor Vigilance Task assessed sustained attention...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
Thomas C Erren, J Valerie Groß, Philip Lewis
Sleep deficiency is a major public health concern. Since epidemiological studies play an important role in public health evaluations, this theoretical paper pursues answers to the question: 'How can we compute sleep deficiency as informative measures of exposures or doses in observational research?' Starting from the social jetlag concept and based on the chronodisruption rationale, we illustrate and discuss five approaches (one established and four untested, each with unique strengths and limitations) to quantify sleep deficiency by focusing on the timing and duration of sleep...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
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