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Journal of Neurotrauma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665182/systemic-administration-of-exosomes-released-from-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-attenuates-apoptosis-inflammation-and-promotes-angiogenesis-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats
#1
Jiang-Hu Huang, Xiao-Ming Yin, Yang Xu, Chun-Cai Xu, Xi Lin, Fu-Biao Ye, Yong Cao, Fei-Yue Lin
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is one of the most common devastating injuries, which causes permanent disabilities such as paralysis and loss of movement or sensation. The precise pathogenic mechanisms of the disease remain unclear, and, as of yet, there is no effective cure. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) show promise as an effective therapy in the experimental models of SCI. MSCs secrete various factors that can modulate a hostile environment, which is called the paracrine effect. Among these paracrine molecules, exosome is considered to be the most valuable therapeutic factor...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614998/a-season-of-american-football-is-not-associated-with-changes-in-plasma-tau
#2
Jonathan M Oliver, Margaret T Jones, Anthony J Anzalone, K Michele Kirk, David A Gable, Justin T Repshas, Torie A Johnson, Kina Höglund, Kaj Blennow, Henrik Zetterberg
American football athletes are routinely exposed to sub-concussive impacts over the course of the season. This study sought to examine the effect of a season of American football on plasma tau, a potential marker of axonal damage. Nineteen National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) football athletes underwent serial blood sampling over the course of the 2014-2015 season at those times in which the number and magnitude of head impacts likely changed. Non-contact sport controls (NCAA men's swim athletes; n = 19) provided a single plasma sample for comparison...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605971/impaired-baroreflex-function-during-orthostatic-challenge-in-patients-after-spinal-cord-injury
#3
Katarina Ondrusova, Jana Svacinova, Michal Javorka, Jan Novak, Marie Novakova, Zuzana Novakova
The level of spinal cord injury (SCI) affects baroreflex regulation of blood pressure. While a parasympathetic cardiac chronotropic effect is preserved, baroreflex response could be impaired by sympathetic dysfunction under the SCI level. This study was aimed to evaluate the baroreflex function in SCI patients by the analysis of causal interaction between systolic blood pressure (SBP) and inter-beat intervals (IBI). Blood pressure was continuously recorded in 13 cervical SCI patients (CSCI), nine thoracic SCI (ThSCI) and 13 able-bodied controls (Con) during two phases: sitting (PS) and orthostatic challenge (PO)...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599600/transcriptional-changes-in-the-mouse-retina-after-ocular-blast-injury-a-role-for-the-immune-system
#4
Felix L Struebing, Rebecca King, Ying Li, Micah A Chrenek, Polina N Lyuboslavsky, Curran S Sidhu, P Michael Iuvone, Eldon E Geisert
Ocular blast injury is a major medical concern for soldiers and explosion victims due to poor visual outcomes. To define the changes in gene expression following a blast injury to the eye, we examined retinal ribonucleic acid (RNA) expression in 54 mouse strains 5 days after a single 50-psi overpressure air wave blast injury. We observe that almost 40% of genes are differentially expressed with a false discovery rate (FDR) of <0.001, even though the nominal changes in RNA expression are rather small. Moreover, we find through machine learning approaches that genetic networks related to the innate and acquired immune system are activated...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594313/protection-against-tbi-induced-neuronal-death-with-post-treatment-with-a-selective-calpain-2-inhibitor-in-mice
#5
Yubin Wang, Yan Liu, Dulce Lopez, Moses Lee, Sujay Dayal, Alexander Hurtado, Xiaoning Bi, Michel Baudry
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability worldwide. The calcium-dependent protease, calpain, has been shown to be involved in TBI-induced neuronal death. However, whereas various calpain inhibitors have been tested in several animal models of TBI, there has not been any clinical trial testing the efficacy of calpain inhibitors in human TBI. One important reason for this could be the lack of knowledge regarding the differential functions of the two major calpain isoforms in the brain, calpain-1 and calpain-2...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816089/medusa-s-head-the-complement-system-in-traumatic-brain-and-spinal-cord-injury
#6
Francesco Roselli, Ebru Karasu, Clara Volpe, Markus Huber-Lang
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and Spinal cord injury (SCI) are critical medical conditions and public health problem for which limited therapeutic options are available. Complement cascade is activated after TBI and SCI and the resulting effects have been investigated in gene-knockout and pharmacological models. Multiple experimental studies support a net detrimental role of C3 and C5 activation in the early stages of TBI and SCI. Less firm experimental evidence suggests that, downstream of C3/C5, effector mechanisms including the generation of MAC and direct damage to membranes and neutrophils infiltration may bring about the direct damage of CNS tissue and the enhancement of neuroinflammation...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665173/serial-assessment-of-gray-matter-abnormalities-after-sport-related-concussion
#7
Lezlie Y España, Ryan M Lee, Josef M Ling, Andreas Jeromin, Andrew R Mayer, Timothy B Meier
There is an urgent need to characterize the acute physiological effects of sport-related concussion (SRC). We investigated the effects of SRC on gray matter structure and diffusion metrics in collegiate athletes at 1.64 (T1; n = 33), 8.33 (T2; n = 30), and 32.15 days (T3; n = 36) post-concussion, with healthy collegiate contact-sport athletes serving as controls (HA; n = 46). Plasma levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were assessed in a subset of athletes. We hypothesized that acute SRC would be associated with increased fractional anisotropy (FA), decreased mean diffusivity (MD), and increased GFAP relative to noninjured HA, without acute differences in gray matter volume or cortical thickness...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462685/effect-of-heat-exposure-on-cognition-in-persons-with-tetraplegia
#8
John P Handrakis, Zhen Ni Guan, John W Nulty, Oriana Tascione, Dwindally Rosado-Rivera, Daniel White, Charlene Bang, Ann M Spungen, William A Bauman
Individuals with cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) have impaired thermoregulatory mechanisms attributed to interruption of motor, sensory, and autonomic neuropathways. To determine the effects of heat exposure on core body temperature (Tcore) and cognitive performance in persons with tetraplegia, 8 individuals with chronic tetraplegia (C3-C7, American Spinal Cord Injury Association Impairment Scale A-B) and 9 able-bodied controls were acclimated to 27°C at baseline (BL) before being exposed to 35°C for up to 120 min (Heat Challenge)...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482744/accelerated-long-term-forgetting-is-not-epilepsy-specific-evidence-from-childhood-traumatic-brain-injury
#9
Suncica Lah, Carly Black, Michael B Gascoigne, Chloe Gott, Adrienne Epps, Louise Parry
Accelerated long-term forgetting (ALF) is characterized by adequate recall after short, but not long delays. ALF is not detected by standardized neuropsychological memory tests. Currently, the prevailing conceptualization of ALF is of a temporal lobe seizure-related phenomenon. Nevertheless, Mayes and colleagues (2003) proposed that ALF may occur when any of the components of the brain network involved in long-term memory formation, or their interaction, is disrupted. This disruption does not have to be caused by temporal lobe seizures for ALF to occur...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795657/body-system-effects-of-a-multi-modal-training-program-targeting-chronic-motor-complete-thoracic-spinal-cord-injury
#10
Katie Gant, Kathleen Nagle, Rachel Cowan, Edelle Field-Fote, Mark Nash, Jochen Kressler, Christine K Thomas, Mabelin Castellanos, Eva Widerstrom-Noga, Kimberly D Anderson
The safety and efficacy of pharmacologic and cellular transplantation strategies are currently being evaluated in people with spinal cord injury. In studies of people with chronic spinal cord injuries, it is thought that functional recovery will be best achieved when drug or cell therapies are combined with rehabilitation protocols. However, any functional recovery due to the therapy may be confounded by the conditioned state of the body and by training-induced effects on neuroplasticity. For this reason, we sought to investigate the effects of a multi-modal training program on several body systems...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795616/the-effects-of-glial-cell-line-derived-neurotrophic-factor-after-spinal-cord-injury
#11
Konstantin Rosich, Bishoy Hanna, Rami K Ibrahim, Daniel Joseph Hellenbrand, Amgad Hanna
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating condition affecting 270,000 people in the United States. The use of growth factors is a potential treatment for reducing secondary damage, promoting axon growth and restoring some of the lost function after SCI. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is an important growth factor, because it can affect both neurons and support cells. Here, we give an in depth review of the previously published literature where GDNF was used to treat SCI. The effects of GDNF have been shown to decrease lesion size, improve allodynia, and regenerate axons in the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683592/functional-outcomes-in-individuals-undergoing-very-early-5%C3%A2-h-and-early-5-24%C3%A2-h-surgical-decompression-in-traumatic-cervical-spinal-cord-injury-analysis-of-neurological-improvement-from-the-austrian-spinal-cord-injury-study
#12
Georg Mattiassich, Maria Gollwitzer, Franz Gaderer, Martina Blocher, Michael Osti, Markkus Lill, Reinhold Ortmaier, Thomas Haider, Wolfgang Hitzl, Herbert Resch, Stephanie Aschauer-Wallner
Our study aim was to assess the neurological outcomes of surgical decompression and stabilization within 5 and 24 h after injury. We performed a multi-center, retrospective cohort study in adolescents and adults 15-85 years of age presenting cervical spinal cord injury (CSCI) at one of 6 Austrian trauma centers participating in the Austrian Spinal Cord Injury Study (ASCIS). Neurological outcomes were measured using the American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS) grade according to the International Standards For Neurological Classification Of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI) form after at least 6 months of follow-up (FU)...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614970/effect-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-drainage-on-brain-tissue-oxygenation-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#13
Omar S Akbik, Mark Krasberg, Edwin M Nemoto, Howard Yonas
The effectiveness of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage in lowering high intracranial pressure (ICP) is well established in severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Recently, however, the use of external ventricular drains (EVDs) and ICP monitors in TBI has come under question. The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the effect of CSF drainage on brain tissue oxygenation (PbtO2). Using a multi-modality monitoring system, we continuously monitored PbtO2 and parenchymal ICP during CSF drainage events via a ventriculostomy in 40 patients with severe TBI...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26161914/cerebral-vasoactivity-and-oxygenation-with-oxygen-carrier-m101-in-rats
#14
Paula Moon-Massat, Saad Habib-E-Rasul Mullah, Rania Abutarboush, Biswajit K Saha, Georgina Pappas, Ashraful Haque, Charles Auker, Richard M McCarron, Francoise Arnaud, Anke Scultetus
The severity of traumatic brain injury (TBI) may be reduced if oxygen can be rapidly provided to the injured brain. This study evaluated if the oxygen-carrier M101 causes vasoconstricton of pial vasculature in healthy rats (Experiment 1) and if M101 improves brain tissue oxygen (PbtO2) in rats with controlled cortical impact (CCI)-TBI (Experiment 2). M101 (12.5 mL/kg intravenous [IV] over 2 h) caused a mild (9 mm Hg) increase in the mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) of healthy rats without constriction of cerebral pial arterioles...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791891/the-economic-burden-of-urinary-tract-infection-and-pressure-ulceration-in-acute-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury-admissions-evidence-for-comparative-economics-and-decision-analytics-from-a-matched-case-control-study
#15
Barry White, Nicolas Dea, John Street, Christiana L Cheng, Carly S Rivers, Najmedden Attabib, Brian K Kwon, Charles G Fisher, Marcel F Dvorak
Secondary complications of spinal cord injury (SCI) are a burden to afflicted individuals and the rest of society. However, there is limited evidence of the economic burden or cost of complications in SCI populations in Canada, which is necessary for comparative economic analyses and decision analytic modeling of possible solutions to these common health problems. Comparative economic analyses can inform resource allocation decisions, but the outputs are only as good as the inputs. In this article, new evidence of the excess or incremental costs of urinary tract infection (UTI) and pressure ulceration (PU) in acute traumatic SCI from an exploratory case series analysis of admissions to a Level I specialized Canadian spine facility (2008-2013) is presented...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661222/expression-of-caspase-signaling-components-in-the-outer-membranes-of-chronic-subdural-hematomas
#16
Koji Osuka, Yasuo Watanabe, Nobuteru Usuda, Masahiro Aoyama, Kenichiro Iwami, Mikinobu Takeuchi, Takeya Watabe, Masakazu Takayasu
Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is fundamentally treatable through surgery, although CSDH recurs in some cases. We have observed several cases of spontaneous resolution of CSDH outer membranes, including in trabecular CSDH, after trepanation surgery. In this study, we examined the expression of molecules involved in caspase signaling in CSDH outer membranes. Eight patients whose outer membranes were obtained successfully during trepanation surgery were included in this study. The expression of Fas; Fas-associated death domain (FADD); tumor necrosis factor receptor type 1-associated death domain (TRADD); receptor-interacting protein (RIP); caspases 3, 7, 8, and 9; poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP); DNA fragmentation factor 45 (DFF45) and β-actin was examined by Western blot analysis...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683586/vitronectin-regulates-the-fibrinolytic-system-during-the-repair-of-cerebral-cortex-in-stab-wounded-mice
#17
Kei Hashimoto, Natsumi Ikeda, Mari Nakashima, Hiroko Ikeshima-Kataoka, Yasunori Miyamoto
Vitronectin (VN), one of the serum proteins, is known to be involved in the regulation of blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, and cell migration. It has been proposed that the regulation of fibrinolysis by VN promotes the blood-brain barrier (BBB) recovery from brain injuries such as traumatic injury and subarachnoid hemorrhage. The effects of VN on fibrinolysis in the injured brain remain unclear, however. We examined the effects of VN on the fibrinolytic system in the stab-wounded cerebral cortex of VN-knockout (KO) mice...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594285/cognitive-event-related-potentials-during-the-sub-acute-phase-of-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-and-their-relationship-to-outcome
#18
Solveig L Hauger, Kjell Olafsen, Caroline Schnakers, Nada Andelic, Kristian Bernhard Nilsen, Eirik Helseth, Ingrid Funderud, Stein Andersson, Anne-Kristine Schanke, Marianne Løvstad
Predicting outcome in the early phase after severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI) is a major clinical challenge, particularly identifying patients with potential for good cognitive outcome. The current single-center prospective study aimed to explore presence and normalization of electroencephalography (EEG)-based event-related potentials (ERPs) in the early phase followings TBI, and their relationship to functional and cognitive outcome 6 months post-injury. Fourteen adult patients (eight males) with sTBI were recruited from the neurointensive care unit (mean age = 38...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699381/prospective-assessment-of-acute-blood-markers-of-brain-injury-in-sport-related-concussion
#19
Timothy B Meier, Lindsay D Nelson, Daniel L Huber, Jeffrey J Bazarian, Ronald L Hayes, Michael A McCrea
There is a pressing need to identify objective biomarkers for the assessment of sport-related concussion (SRC) to reduce the reliance on clinical judgment for the management of these injuries. The goal of the current study was to prospectively establish the acute effects of SRC on serum levels of S100 calcium-binding protein beta (S100B), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1). Collegiate and high school football players were enrolled and provided blood at pre-season...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683591/the-ketone-metabolite-%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-attenuates-oxidative-stress-in-spinal-cord-injury-by-suppression-of-class-i-histone-deacetylases
#20
Ganggang Kong, Zucheng Huang, Wei Ji, Xiaomeng Wang, Junhao Liu, Xiuhua Wu, Zhiping Huang, Rong Li, Qingan Zhu
The ketone metabolite β-hydroxybutyrate (βOHB), is reported to be neuroprotective after spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. The present study aims to investigate effects of βOHB on suppression of oxidative stress and inhibition of class I histone deacetylases (HDACs) in in vivo and in vitro models. Rats were fed with ketogenic diet (KD) or standard diet (SD) for 3 weeks. A C5 hemi-contusion injury was applied to these animals on the 14th day of experiment, and spinal cord samples were harvested on the 1st, 3rd and 7th days after SCI, respectively...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
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