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Journal of Neurotrauma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635523/long-term-paired-associative-stimulation-enhances-motor-output-of-the-tetraplegic-hand
#1
Aleksandra Tolmacheva, Sarianna Savolainen, Erika Kirveskari, Pantelis Lioumis, Linda Kuusela, Nina Maria Brandstack, Aarne Ylinen, Jyrki Mäkelä, Anastasia Shulga
A large proportion of spinal cord injuries are incomplete. Even in clinically complete injuries, silent nonfunctional connections can be present. Therapeutic approaches that can strengthen transmission in weak neural connections to improve motor performance are needed. Our aim was to determine whether long-term delivery of paired associative stimulation (PAS, a combination of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS)) can enhance motor output in the hands of patients with chronic traumatic tetraplegia, and to compare this technique with long-term PNS...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627298/a-prospective-transcranial-doppler-ultrasound-based-evaluation-of-the-acute-and-cumulative-effects-of-sport-related-concussion-on-neurovascular-coupling-response-dynamics
#2
Alexander D Wright, Jonathan D Smirl, Kelsey Bryk, Paul van Donkelaar
Sport-related concussion has been shown to alter cerebral blood flow (CBF) both acutely and chronically, and may exert cumulative effects across multiple injuries. Such dysfunction may be mediated by trauma-induced deficits to CBF control mechanisms, though our understanding of these effects is limited, including dynamics of neurovascular coupling (NVC) responses (i.e. CBF responses to neurologic demand). 179 junior-level contact sport athletes completed preseason testing - 42 reported never having experienced a concussion (Hx-) while 31 had endured three or more (Hx3+)...
June 18, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627291/early-complications-morbidity-and-mortality-in-octo-and-nonagenarians-undergoing-posterior-intraoperative-spinal-navigation-based-c1-2-fusion-for-type-ii-odontoid-process-fractures
#3
Basem Ishak, Till Schneider, Valerie Gimmy, Andreas W Unterberg, Karl L Kiening
Type II odontoid fractures represent the most common cervical spine injury in the elderly. The decision for surgical treatment is still controversial, particularly with regard to the elevated perioperative risk attributed to frequent comorbidities and poor bone quality. Purpose of this study was to assess both short-term mortality and mid-term clinical and radiological outcome in the elderly. Between January 2007 and December 2015, 35 patients with type II odontoid process fractures who underwent posterior atlanto-axial instrumentation using a modified Goel-Harms technique were retrospectively analyzed and prospectively examined clinically and radiologically...
June 18, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462632/the-relationship-between-trans-lesional-conduction-motor-neuron-pool-excitability-and-motor-function-in-dogs-with-incomplete-recovery-from-severe-spinal-cord-injury
#4
Melissa J Lewis, James F Howard, Natasha J Olby
Spontaneous, acute, complete thoracolumbar spinal cord injury (TL-SCI) in dogs frequently results in permanent deficits modeling chronic paralysis in people. Recovery of walking without recovery of sensation has been interpreted in dogs as reflexive spinal walking. To evaluate this assumption, this study characterized the electrophysiological status of motor and sensory long tracts and local reflex circuitry in dogs with absent recovery of sensation after acute TL-SCI and correlated findings to gait scores...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447885/recovery-from-coma-post-cardiac-arrest-is-dependent-on-the-orexin-pathway
#5
Young-Jin Kang, Guilian Tian, Afsheen Bazrafkan, Maryam H Farahabadi, Matine Azadian, Hamidreza Abbasi, Brittany E Shamaoun, Oswald Steward, Yama Akbari
Cardiac arrest (CA) affects >550,000 people annually in the United States whereas 80-90% of survivors suffer from a comatose state. Arousal from coma is critical for recovery, but mechanisms of arousal are undefined. Orexin-A, a hypothalamic excitatory neuropeptide, has been linked to arousal deficits in various brain injuries. We investigated the orexinergic system's role in recovery from CA-related neurological impairments, including arousal deficits. Using an asphyxial CA and resuscitation model in rats, we examine neurological recovery post-resuscitation in conjunction with changes in orexin-A levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and orexin-expressing neurons...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614998/a-season-of-american-football-is-not-associated-with-changes-in-plasma-tau
#6
Jonathan Oliver, Margaret Jones, Anthony Anzalone, Michele Kirk, David Gable, Justin Repshas, Torie Johnson, Kina Hogland, Kaj Blennow, Henrik Zetterberg
American football athletes are routinely exposed to sub-concussive impacts over the course of the season. This study sought to examine the effect of a season of American football on plasma tau, a potential marker of axonal damage. Nineteen (n =19) National Collegiate Association (NCAA) American football athletes underwent serial blood sampling over the course of the 2014-2015 season at those times in which the number and magnitude of head impacts likely changed. Non-contact, sport-control, NCAA men's swim athletes (n=19) provided a single plasma sample for comparison...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614970/effect-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-drainage-on-brain-tissue-oxygenation-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#7
Omar S Akbik, Mark Krasberg, Edwin M Nemoto, Howard Yonas
The effectiveness of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage in lowering high intracranial pressure (ICP) is well established in severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, recently the use of external ventricular drains and intracranial pressure monitors in traumatic brain injury has come under question. The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the effect of CSF drainage on brain tissue oxygenation (PbtO2). Using a multimodality monitoring system, we continuously monitored brain tissue oxygenation (PbtO2) and parenchymal ICP during CSF drainage events via a ventriculostomy in 40 patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI)...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474538/t1r1-t1r3-taste-receptor-suppresses-granulocyte-mediated-neuroinflammation-after-spinal-cord-injury
#8
Jinxing Shi, Siyuan Wang, Qingfeng Ke, Jianhua Lin, Yuhui Zheng, Shiqiang Wu, Zida Huang, Wenping Lin
As an active and predominant blood leukocyte population, granulocytes infiltrate into injured spinal cord and produce pro-inflammatory mediators to aggravate neuroinflammation. In the current study, we identify the role of the T1R1/T1R3 receptor in granulocyte-mediated neuroinflammation in a rat spinal cord injury (SCI) model. We found that T1R1 and T1R3 were substantially expressed in both circulating and infiltrating granulocytes. In vitro stimulation of T1R1/T1R3 receptor with L-serine notably reduced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and several pro-inflammatory cytokines...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463644/reduced-sympathetic-stimulus-and-angiotensin-1-7-are-related-to-diastolic-dysfunction-in-spinal-cord-injured-subjects
#9
Roberto Schreiber, Layde R Paim, Guilherme de Rossi, José R Matos-Souza, Anselmo de A Costa E Silva, Cláudio D Nogueira, Eliza R Azevedo, Karina C Alonso, Zaira Palomino, Andrei C Sposito, Dulce E Casarini, José I Gorla, Alberto Cliquet, Wilson Nadruz
Chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) is often associated with reductions in left ventricular (LV) diastolic function. Impairments in sympathetic activity and activation of the renin-angiotensin system are reported in SCI individuals and may hypothetically be implicated in this association. Hence, the present study verified the relationship between these two neuro-hormonal and cardiac functional and structural characteristics in SCI individuals. Twenty-two men with SCI (injury level above T6 and no voluntary motion below the injury) and 11 able-bodied men were evaluated by clinical, hemodynamic, laboratory, and echocardiographic analysis and had plasmatic renin, angiotensin I (ANGI), angiotensin II (ANGII), angiotensin 1-7 (ANG1-7), and noradrenaline levels measured...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447873/employment-outcome-ten-years-after-moderate-to-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-a-prospective-cohort-study
#10
Erik Grauwmeijer, Majanka H Heijenbrok-Kal, Ian K Haitsma, Gerard M Ribbers
The objective of this prospective cohort study was to evaluate the probability of employment and predictors of employment in patients with moderate- to- severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) over 10-year follow-up. One hundred nine patients (18-67 years) were included with follow-up measurements 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months and 10 years post-TBI. Potential predictors of employment probability included patient characteristics, injury severity factors, functional outcome measured at discharge from the hospital with the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS), Barthel Index (BI), Functional Independence Measure (FIM), and the Functional Assessment Measure (FAM)...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388862/increased-expression-of-epileptiform-spike-wave-discharges-one-year-after-mild-moderate-or-severe-fluid-percussion-brain-injury-in-rats
#11
Thomas Sick, Joseph Wasserman, Amade Bregy, Justin Sick, W Dalton Dietrich, Helen M Bramlett
In this study, we describe increased expression of cortical epileptiform spike/wave discharges (SWD) in rats one year after mild, moderate, or severe fluid percussion traumatic brain injury (fpTBI). Groups of rats consisted of animals that had received mild, moderate, or severe fpTBI, or sham operation one year earlier than electrocorticography (ECoG) recordings. In addition, we included a group of age-matched naïve animals. ECoG was recorded from awake animals using epidural electrodes implanted on the injured hemisphere (right), sham-operated hemisphere (right), or right hemisphere in naïve animals...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381129/compression-decreases-anatomical-and-functional-recovery-and-alters-inflammation-after-contusive-spinal-cord-injury
#12
Michael B Orr, Jennifer Simkin, William M Bailey, Neha S Kadambi, Anna Leigh McVicar, Amy K Veldhorst, John C Gensel
Experimental models of spinal cord injury (SCI) typically utilize contusion or compression injuries. Clinically, however, SCI is heterogeneous and the primary injury mode may affect secondary injury progression and neuroprotective therapeutic efficacy. Specifically, immunomodulatory agents are of therapeutic interest because the activation state of SCI macrophages may facilitate pathology but also improve repair. It is unknown currently how the primary injury biomechanics affect macrophage activation. Therefore, to determine the effects of compression subsequent to spinal contusion, we examined recovery, secondary injury, and macrophage activation in C57/BL6 mice after SCI with or without a 20 sec compression at two contusion impact forces (50 and 75 kdyn)...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605971/impaired-baroreflex-function-during-orthostatic-challenge-in-patients-after-spinal-cord-injury
#13
Katarina Ondrusova, Jana Svacinova, Michal Javorka, Jan Novak, Marie Novakova, Zuzana Novakova
The level of spinal cord injury (SCI) affects baroreflex regulation of blood pressure (BP). While a parasympathetic cardiac chronotropic effect is preserved, baroreflex response could be impaired by sympathetic dysfunction under the SCI level. This study was aimed to evaluate the baroreflex function in SCI patients by the analysis of causal interaction between systolic blood pressure (SBP) and inter-beat intervals (IBI). BP was continuously recorded in 13 cervical SCI patients (CSCI), 9 thoracic SCI (ThSCI) and 13 able-bodied controls (Con) during two phases: sitting (PS) and orthostatic challenge (PO)...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599608/a-brain-electrical-activity-eeg-based-biomarker-of-functional-impairment-in-traumatic-head-injury-a-multisite-validation-trial
#14
Daniel Hanley, Leslie S Prichep, Neeraj Badjatia, Jeff Bazarian, RIchard P Chiacchierini, Kenneth C Curley, John S Garrett, Elizabeth B Jones, Rosanne Naunheim, Brian J O'Neil, John O'Neill, Wright David, J Stephen Huff
The potential clinical utility of a novel quantitative EEG-based Brain Function Index (BFI) as a measure of the presence and severity of functional brain injury was studied as part of an independent prospective validation trial. The BFI was derived using EEG features associated with functional brain impairment reflecting current consensus on the physiology of concussive injury. 720 adult patients (18-85 years) evaluated within 72 hours of sustaining a closed head injury were enrolled at 11 US Emergency Departments...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599602/spinal-cord-injury-causes-systolic-dysfunction-and-cardiomyocyte-atrophy
#15
Jordan W Squair, Kathryn M DeVeau, Kathryn A Harman, Malihe-Sadat Poormasjedi-Meibod, Brian Hayes, Jie Liu, David S K Magnuson, Andrei V Krassioukov, Christopher R West
Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) have been shown to exhibit systolic, and to a lesser extent, diastolic cardiac dysfunction. However, previous reports of cardiac dysfunction in this population are confounded by the changing loading conditions after SCI and as such, whether cardiac dysfunction per se is present is still unknown. Therefore, our aim was to establish if load-independent cardiac dysfunction is present after SCI, to understand the functional cardiac response to SCI, and to explore the changes within the cellular milieu of the myocardium...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599600/transcriptional-changes-in-the-mouse-retina-following-ocular-blast-injury-a-role-for-the-immune-system
#16
Felix L Struebing, Rebecca King, Ying Li, Micah A Chrenek, Polina N Lyuboslavsky, Curran S Sidhu, P Michael Iuvone, Eldon E Geisert
Ocular blast injury is a major medical concern for soldiers and explosion victims due to poor visual outcomes. To define the changes in gene expression following a blast injury to the eye, we examined retinal RNA expression in 54 mouse strains five days after a single 50psi overpressure air wave blast injury. We observe that almost 40% of genes are differentially expressed with a false discovery rate of <0.001, even though the nominal changes in RNA expression are rather small. Moreover, we find through machine learning approaches that genetic networks related to the innate and acquired immune system are activated...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595478/validating-multidimensional-outcome-assessment-using-the-tbi-common-data-elements-an-analysis-of-the-track-tbi-pilot-sample
#17
Lindsay D Nelson, Jana Ranson, Adam R Ferguson, Joseph Giacino, David O Okonkwo, Alex Valadka, Geoffrey Manley, Michael McCrea
The Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOSE) is often the primary outcome measure in clinical trials for traumatic brain injury (TBI). Although the GOSE's capture of global function outcome has several strengths, concerns have been raised about its limited ability to identify mild disability and failure to capture the full scope of problems patients exhibit after TBI. This analysis examined the convergence of disability ratings across a multidimensional set of outcome domains in the Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge in Traumatic Brain Injury (TRACK-TBI) Pilot study...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594315/forecasting-financial-resources-for-future-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury-care-using-simulation-modeling
#18
Henry Ahn, Rachel Lewis, Argelio Santos, Christiana L Cheng, Vanessa K Noonan, Marcel F Dvorak, Anoushka Singh, A Gary Linassi, Sean Christie, Michael Goytan, Derek Atkins
Survivors of traumatic spinal cord injury (tSCI) have intense healthcare needs during acute and rehabilitation care and often through rest of life. To prepare for a growing aging population, simulation modeling was used to forecast the change in healthcare financial resources and long-term patient outcomes between 2012 and 2032. The model was developed with data from acute and rehabilitation care facilities across Canada participating in the Access to Care and Timing project. Future population and tSCI incidence for 2012 and 2032 were predicted with data from Statistics Canada and the Canadian Institute for Health Information...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594313/protection-against-tbi-induced-neuronal-death-with-post-treatment-with-a-selective-calpain-2-inhibitor-in-mice
#19
Yubin Wang, Yan Liu, Dulce Lopez, Moses Lee, Sujay Dayal, Alexander Hurtado, Xiaoning Bi, Michel Baudry
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability worldwide. The calcium-dependent protease, calpain, has been shown to be involved in TBI-induced neurodegenerationneuronal death. However, while various calpain inhibitors have been tested in several animal models of TBI, there has not been any clinical trial testing the efficacy of calpain inhibitors in human TBI. One important reason for this could be the lack of knowledge regarding the differential functions of the two major calpain isoforms in the brain, calpain-1 and calpain-2...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594285/cognitive-event-related-potentials-during-the-sub-acute-phase-of-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-and-their-relationship-to-outcome
#20
Solveig L Hauger, Kjell Olafsen, Caroline Schnakers, Nada Andelic, Kristian Bernhard Nilsen, Eirik Helseth, Ingrid Funderud, Stein Andersson, Anne-Kristine Schanke, Marianne Løvstad
Predicting outcome in the early phase after severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI) is a major clinical challenge, particularly identifying patients with potential of good cognitive outcome. The current single center prospective study aimed to explore presence and normalization of electroencephalography (EEG)-based event related potentials (ERPs) in the early phase following sTBI, and their relationship to functional and cognitive outcome 6 months post-injury. Fourteen adult patients with sTBI were recruited from the neurointensive care unit (mean age=38...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
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