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Journal of Neurotrauma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931179/structural-and-functional-integrity-of-the-intraparietal-sulcus-in-moderate-and-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#1
Chandler Sours, Prashant Raghavan, Alexandre Medina de Jesus, Steven R Roys, Li Jiang, Jiachen Zhuo, Rao P Gullapalli
Severe and Moderate TBI (sTBI) often results in long-term cognitive deficits such as reduced processing speed and attention. The intraparietal sulcus (IPS) is a neocortical structure that plays a crucial role in the deeply interrelated processes of multisensory processing and top down attention. Therefore, we hypothesized that disruptions in the functional and structural connections of the IPS may play a role in the development of such deficits. To examine these connections we used resting state fMRI (rsfMRI) and diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) in a cohort of 27 sTBI patients (29...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931172/biomechanical-response-of-the-infant-head-to-shaking-an-experimental-investigation
#2
Carol Jenny, Gina Bertocci, Tsuguhiro Fukuda, Nagarajan Rangarajan, Tariq Shams
Controversy exists regarding whether violent shaking is harmful to infants in the absence of impact. In this study, our objective was to characterize the biomechanical response of the infant head during shaking through use of an instrumented anthropomorphic test device (commonly referred to as a 'crash test dummy' or infant surrogate) representing a human infant and having improved biofidelity. A series of tests were conducted to simulate violent shaking of an infant surrogate. The Aprica 2.5 infant surrogate represented a 5th percentile Japanese newborn...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931169/a-mouse-model-of-bilateral-cervical-contusion-compression-spinal-cord-injury
#3
Nicole Forgione, Mahmood Chamankhah, Michael Fehlings
Cervical spinal cord injury (cSCI) occurs in over half of all cases of traumatic SCI, yet we lack therapies that can generate significant functional recovery in these patients. The development of animal models of cSCI will aid in the pre-clinical assessment of therapies and in understanding basic pathophysiological mechanisms. Here we describe a clinically relevant model of cervical contusion-compression injury in the mouse. Using a modified aneurism clip we generated a bilateral, incomplete injury that mimics contusion-compression injuries most commonly seen in humans...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931151/regulation-of-mitochondrial-function-and-glutamatergic-system-are-the-target-of-guanosine-effect-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#4
Fernando Dobrachinski, Rogério da Rosa Gerbatin, Glaubia Sartori, Naiane Ferreira Marques, Ana Paula Pegoraro Zemolin, Luiz Fernando Almeida Silva, Jeferson Luis Franco, Luiz Fernando Freire Royes, Michele Rechia Fighera, Félix Alexandre Antunes Soares
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a highly complex multi-factorial disorder. Experimental trauma involves primary and secondary injury cascades that underlie delayed neuronal dysfunction and death. Mitochondrial dysfunction and glutamatergic excitotoxicity are the most important mechanisms of damage. In order to be successful, pharmacologic intervention requires a multifaceted approach. Guanosine (GUO) is known for its neuromodulator effects in different models of brain pathology, which regulates the glutamatergic system...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931146/d-cycloserine-restores-experience-dependent-neuroplasticity-after-tbi-in-the-developing-rat-brain
#5
Naomi Sulit Sta Maria, Maxine Lane Reger, Yan Cai, Mary Anne Tezheart Mercado Baquing, Floyd Buen, Aditya Ponnaluri, David Hovda, Neil G Harris, Christopher C Giza
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children can cause persisting cognitive and behavioral dysfunction and inevitably raises concerns about lost potential in these injured youths. Lateral fluid percussion injury (FPI) in weanling rats pathologically affects hippocampal NMDAR- and AMPAR-mediated glutamatergic neurotransmission subacutely, within the first post-injury week. FPI to weanling rats has also been shown to impair enriched-environment (EE) induced enhancement of Morris water maze (MWM) learning and memory in adulthood...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927083/measurement-of-peripheral-vision-reaction-time-identifies-white-matter-disruption-in-patients-with-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#6
Kyle B Womack, Christopher Paliotta, Jeremy F Strain, Johnson S Ho, Yosef S Skolnick, William W Lytton, L Christine Turtzo, Roderick McColl, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Peter Bergold
This study examined whether peripheral vision reaction time (PVRT) in patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) correlate with white matter abnormalities in centroaxial structures and impairments in neuropsychological testing. Within 24 hours after mTBI, crossed reaction times (CRT), uncrossed reaction times (URT) and crossed-uncrossed difference (CUD) were measured in 23 patients using a laptop computer that displayed visual stimuli predominantly to either the left or right visual field of the retina...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927072/natural-history-of-headache-five-years-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#7
Arthur Stacey, Sylvia Lucas, Sureyya Dikmen, Nancy Temkin, Kathleen Bell, Allen W Brown, Robert Brunner, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Thomas Watanabe, Alan Weintraub, Jeanne Hoffman
Headache is one of the most frequently reported symptoms following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Little is known about how these headaches change over time. We describe the natural history of headache in individuals with moderate to severe TBI over five years after injury. 316 patients were prospectively enrolled and followed at 3, 6, 12, and 60 months after injury. Individuals were 72% male, 73% White, 55% injured in motor vehicle crashes, with an average age of 42. Pre-injury headache was reported in 17% of individuals...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923323/mild-hypothermia-promotes-pericontusion-neuronal-sprouting-via-suppressing-socs3-expression-after-moderate-traumatic-brain-injury
#8
Cheng-Cheng Zhao, Chuan-Fang Wang, Wei-Ping Li, Yong Lin, Qi-Lin Tang, Jun-Feng Feng, Qing Mao, Guo-Yi Gao, Jiyao Jiang
Mild therapeutic hypothermia is a candidate for the treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, the role of mild hypothermia in neuronal sprouting after TBI remains obscure. We used a fluid percussion injury (FPI) model to assess the effect of mild hypothermia on pericontusion neuronal sprouting after TBI in rats. Male Sprague Dawley rats underwent FPI or sham surgery, and then followed by mild hypothermia treatment (33°C) or normothermia treatment (37°C) for 3 hours. All the rats were sacrificed at 7 days after FPI...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762660/time-dependent-effects-of-arginine-vasopressin-v1-receptor-inhibition-on-secondary-brain-damage-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#9
Sandro M Krieg, Raimund Trabold, Nikolaus Plesnila
Arginine-vasopressin (AVP) V1 receptors are known to mediate brain edema formation after traumatic brain injury (TBI). So far, however, AVP V1 receptors were only inhibited by genetic deletion or prior to trauma. Therefore, the current study aimed to determine the therapeutic window of AVP V1 receptor antagonization after TBI. Male C57BL/6 mice (n = 7 per group) were subjected to controlled cortical impact (CCI), and 500 ng of a selective peptide V1 receptor antagonist (V1880) were applied by intracerebroventricular injection 5 min, and 1, 3, and 6 h thereafter...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912253/sex-and-age-differences-in-epinephrine-mechanisms-and-outcomes-after-brain-injury
#10
William M Armstead, John Riley, Monica S Vavilala
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of injury related death in children, with boys and children under 4 years having particularly poor outcomes. Cerebral autoregulation is often impaired after TBI, contributing to poor outcome. Cerebral perfusion pressure can be normalized by use of vasoactive agents. The c-Jun-terminal kinase (JNK) isoform of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) produces hemodynamic impairment after TBI, but less is known about its role in histopathology. We investigated whether epinephrine (EPI) age and sex dependently protected cerebral autoregulation and limited histopathology after TBI and the role of JNK in that outcome...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912248/mean-arterial-blood-pressure-management-of-acute-spinal-cord-injured-patients-during-the-pre-hospital-and-early-admission-period
#11
Jin Wee Tee, Farhaan Altaf, Lise M Belanger, Tamir Ailon, John Street, Scott J Paquette, Michael C Boyd, Charles G Fisher, Marcel F Dvorak, Brian K Kwon
The optimization and maintenance of mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and the general avoidance of systemic hypotension for the first 5 to 7 days following acute traumatic SCI is considered to be important for minimizing secondary spinal cord ischemic damage. The characterization of hemodynamic parameters in the immediate post-injury stage prior to admission to a specialized spine unit has not been previously reported. Here we describe the blood pressure management of 40 acute tSCI patients in the early post-injury phases of care prior to their arrival in a specialized spinal injury high dependency unit (HDU), intensive care unit (ICU) or operating room (OR)...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912032/pain-input-impairs-recovery-after-spinal-cord-injury-treatment-with-lidocaine
#12
Joel D Turtle, Misty M Strain, Miriam Aceves, Yung-Jen Huang, Joshua A Reynolds, Michelle A Hook, James W Grau
More than 90% of spinal cord injuries are caused by traumatic accidents and are often associated with other tissue damage (polytrauma) that can provide a source of continued pain input during recovery. In a clinically relevant spinal cord contusion injury model, prior work has shown that noxious stimulation at an intensity that engages pain (C) fibers soon after injury augments secondary injury and impairs functional recovery. Noxious input increases the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 1β and 18), cellular signals associated with cell death (caspase 3 and 8), and physiological signs of hemorrhage...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786023/microstructural-integrity-of-hippocampal-subregions-is-impaired-after-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#13
Sandra E Leh, Clemens Schroeder, Jen-Kai Chen, M Mallar Chakravarty, Min Tae M Park, Bob Cheung, Sonja C Huntgeburth, Nadia Gosselin, Christoph Hock, Alain Ptito, Michael Petrides
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) affects a large number of individuals and diffusion tensor imaging can be used to investigate microstructural integrity of brain tissue after mTBI. However, results have varied considerably between studies and gray matter (GM) integrity has been largely neglected in these investigations. Given impaired working memory processing after mTBI and its possible association with Alzheimer's disease, we investigated hippocampal integrity and parcellated this structure into five subregions: subiculum, cornu ammonis (CA) 1, CA 2/3, CA 4/dentate gyrus, and stratum radiatum/lacunosum-moleculare...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785968/mild-traumatic-brain-injury-longitudinal-study-of-cognition-functional-status-and-post-traumatic-symptoms
#14
Sureyya Dikmen, Joan Machamer, Nancy Temkin
More than 75% of traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) seeking medical attention are mild, and outcome in that group is heterogeneous. Until sensitive and valid biomarkers are identified, methods are needed to classify mild TBI into more homogeneous subgroups. Four hundred twenty-one adults with mild TBI were divided into groups based on Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) 13-15 without computed tomography (CT) abnormalities, GCS 15 with CT abnormalities, and GCS 13-14 with CT abnormalities, and were compared with 120 trauma controls on 1-month and 1-year outcomes...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774844/the-estimated-verbal-gcs-subscore-in-intubated-traumatic-brain-injury-patients-is-it-really-better
#15
Katarina Cheng, Ribal Bassil, Raphael Carandang, Wiley Hall, Susanne Muehlschlegel
The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) has limited utility in intubated patients due to the inability to assign verbal subscores. The verbal subscore can be derived from the eye and motor subscores using a mathematical model, but the advantage of this method and its use in outcome prognostication in traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients remains unknown. We compared the validated "Core+CT"-IMPACT-model performance in 251 intubated TBI patients prospectively enrolled in the longitudinal OPTIMISM study between November 2009 and May 2015 when substituting the original motor GCS (mGCS) with the total estimated GCS (teGCS; with estimated verbal subscore)...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762655/traumatic-brain-injury-and-post-deployment-binge-drinking-among-male-and-female-army-active-duty-service-members-returning-from-operation-enduring-freedom-operation-iraqi-freedom
#16
Rachel Sayko Adams, John D Corrigan, Beth A Mohr, Thomas V Williams, Mary Jo Larson
This study examines whether the relationship between traumatic brain injury (TBI) and post-deployment binge drinking is independent of screening positive for mental health problems among male and female service members. Data are from the Substance Use and Psychological Injury Combat Study of Army members returning from deployment to Afghanistan or Iraq in fiscal years 2008-2011. The sample consists of 240,694 male and 26,406 female active duty members who completed initial and follow-up questionnaires. The initial questionnaire, completed at the end of deployment, included screens for TBI and mental health problems (post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, harmful thoughts)...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762653/resting-state-magnetoencephalography-reveals-different-patterns-of-aberrant-functional-connectivity-in-combat-related-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#17
Ming-Xiong Huang, Deborah L Harrington, Ashley Robb Swan, Annemarie Angeles Quinto, Sharon Nichols, Angela Drake, Tao Song, Mithun Diwakar, Charles W Huang, Victoria B Risbrough, Anders Dale, Hauke Bartsch, Scott Matthews, Jeffrey W Huang, Roland R Lee, Dewleen G Baker
Blast mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a leading cause of sustained impairment in military service members and veterans. However, the mechanism of persistent disability is not fully understood. The present study investigated disturbances in brain functioning in mTBI participants using a source-imaging-based approach to analyze functional connectivity (FC) from resting-state magnetoencephalography (rs-MEG). Study participants included 26 active-duty service members or veterans who had blast mTBI with persistent post-concussive symptoms, and 22 healthy control active-duty service members or veterans...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762651/a-clinically-relevant-closed-head-model-of-single-and-repeat-concussive-injury-in-the-adult-rat-using-a-controlled-cortical-impact-device
#18
Naseem Jamnia, Janice H Urban, Grace E Stutzmann, Sarah G Chiren, Emily Reisenbigler, Robert Marr, Daniel A Peterson, Dorothy A Kozlowski
Repeat concussions (RC) can result in significant long-term neurological consequences and increased risk for neurodegenerative disease compared with single concussion (SC). Mechanisms underlying this difference are poorly understood and best elucidated using an animal model. To the best of our knowledge, there is no closed-head model in the adult rat using a commercially available device. We developed a novel and clinically relevant closed-head injury (CHI) model of both SC and RC in the adult rat using a controlled cortical impact (CCI) device...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750571/cognitive-deficits-post-traumatic-brain-injury-and-their-association-with-injury-severity-and-gray-matter-volumes
#19
Abigail Livny, Anat Biegon, Tammar Kushnir, Sagi Harnof, Chen Hoffmann, Eyal Fruchter, Mark Weiser
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is known to have a substantial though highly variable impact on cognitive abilities. Due to the wide range of cognitive abilities among healthy individuals, an objective assessment of TBI-related cognitive loss requires an accurate measurement of pre-morbid cognitive performance. To address this problem, we recruited 50 adults who sustained a TBI and had performed a cognitive baseline assessment in adolescence as part of the aptitude tests mandated by the Israeli Defense Forces...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750484/phenelzine-protects-brain-mitochondrial-function-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-following-traumatic-brain-injury-by-scavenging-the-reactive-carbonyls-4-hydroxynonenal-and-acrolein-leading-to-cortical-histological-neuroprotection
#20
John E Cebak, Indrapal N Singh, Rachel L Hill, Juan A Wang, Edward D Hall
Lipid peroxidation (LP) is a key contributor to the pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Traditional antioxidant therapies are intended to scavenge the free radicals responsible for either initiation or propagation of LP. A more recently explored approach involves scavenging the terminal LP breakdown products that are highly reactive and neurotoxic carbonyl compounds, 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and acrolein (ACR), to prevent their covalent modification and rendering of cellular proteins nonfunctional leading to loss of ionic homeostasis, mitochondrial failure, and subsequent neuronal death...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
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