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Journal of Neurotrauma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100103/systematic-review-of-genetic-risk-factors-for-sustaining-a-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#1
William Panenka, Andrew Gardner, Michael Dretsch, Gogce Crynen, Fiona C Crawford, Grant L Iverson
INTRODUCTION: This systematic review examined the association between genetics and risk for sustaining a traumatic brain injury. METHODS: Articles published in English from 1980 to July 2016 obtained from the online databases PubMed, PsycINFO®, MEDLINE®, EMBASE, and Web of Science. RESULTS: 5,903 articles were identified, 77 underwent full-text screening, and six were included in this review. Five studies examined the risk of concussion associated with Apolipoprotein E alleles (APOE-ε2 ,ε3 ,ε4,), and polymorphisms of the APOE promoter (rs405509), Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF, rs6265), and Dopamine Receptor D2 (DRD2, rs1800497) were each considered in two studies...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931169/a-mouse-model-of-bilateral-cervical-contusion-compression-spinal-cord-injury
#2
Nicole Forgione, Mahmood Chamankhah, Michael G Fehlings
Cervical spinal cord injury (cSCI) occurs in over half of all cases of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI), yet we lack therapies that can generate significant functional recovery in these patients. The development of animal models of cSCI will aid in the pre-clinical assessment of therapies and in understanding basic pathophysiological mechanisms. Here, we describe a clinically relevant model of cervical contusion-compression injury in the mouse. Using a modified aneurysm clip, we generated a bilateral, incomplete injury that mimics contusion-compression injuries most commonly observed in humans...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927072/natural-history-of-headache-five-years-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#3
Arthur Stacey, Sylvia Lucas, Sureyya Dikmen, Nancy Temkin, Kathleen R Bell, Allen Brown, Robert Brunner, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Thomas K Watanabe, Alan Weintraub, Jeanne M Hoffman
Headache is one of the most frequently reported symptoms following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Little is known about how these headaches change over time. We describe the natural history of headache in individuals with moderate to severe TBI over 5 years after injury. A total of 316 patients were prospectively enrolled and followed at 3, 6, 12, and 60 months after injury. Individuals were 72% male, 73% white, and 55% injured in motor vehicle crashes, with an average age of 42. Pre-injury headache was reported in 17% of individuals...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27526567/high-intensity-locomotor-exercise-increases-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-in-individuals-with-incomplete-spinal-cord-injury
#4
Kristan A Leech, T George Hornby
High-intensity locomotor exercise is suggested to contribute to improved recovery of locomotor function after neurological injury. This may be secondary to exercise-intensity-dependent increases in neurotrophin expression demonstrated previously in control subjects. However, rigorous examination of intensity-dependent changes in neurotrophin levels is lacking in individuals with motor incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). Therefore, the primary aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of locomotor exercise intensity on peripheral levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in individuals with incomplete SCI...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095731/n-palmitoylethanolamine-oxazoline-pea-oxa-as-a-new-therapeutic-strategy-to-control-neuroinflammation-neuroprotective-effects-in-experimental-models-of-spinal-cord-and-brain-injury
#5
Daniela Impellizzeri, Marika Cordaro, Giuseppe Bruschetta, Rosalba Siracusa, Rosalia Crupi, Emanuela Esposito, Salvatore Cuzzocrea
Modulation of N-acylethanolamine-hydrolyzing acid amidase (NAAA) represents a potential alternative strategy in the treatment of neuroinflammation. Recent studies showed that pharmacological modulation of NAAA could be achieved with the oxazoline of palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) (PEA-OXA). The aim of this study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of PEA-OXA in the secondary neuro-inflammatory events induced by spinal and brain trauma in mice. Animals were subjected to spinal cord and brain injury models and PEA-OXA (10 mg/kg) administered both intraperitoneally and orally 1 h and 6 h after trauma...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093052/erk-nrf2-ho-1-pathway-mediated-mitophagy-alleviates-traumatic-brain-injury-induced-intestinal-mucosa-damage-and-epithelial-barrier-dysfunction
#6
Yinlong Liu, Zhongyuan Bao, Xiupeng Xu, Honglu Chao, Chao Lin, Zheng Li, Yan Liu, Xiaoming Wang, Yongping You, Ning Liu, Jing Ji
Gastrointestinal dysfunction is one of several physiologic complications in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). TBI can result in increased intestinal permeability due to apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells, which contain a large number of mitochondria for persisting barrier function. Autophagy of damaged mitochondria (mitophagy) controls the quality of the mitochondria and regulates cellular homeostasis. However, the exact mechanism of mitophagy that underlies the pathological changes induced by TBI is unknown...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088875/goldstein-et-al-s-secondary-analysis-of-progesterone-clinical-trial-for-tbi-can-only-reflect-the-same-trial-design-flaws-a-response-to-very-early-administration-of-progesterone-does-not-improve-neuropsychological-outcomes-in-subjects-with-moderate-to-severe
#7
Donald Stein, Iqbal Sayeed, Claudia Espinosa-Garcia, Fahim Atif, Elena G Sergeeva
In contrast to the conclusions of Goldstein et al., we argue that the failure of the Phase III trials for progesterone in TBI were due to a 6-fold overdosing with the test drug along with too short a course of treatment. These can and should be considered serious flaws in the design of the trials.
January 15, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28085565/resting-state-functional-connectivity-alterations-associated-with-six-month-outcomes-in-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#8
Eva M Palacios, Esther L Yuh, Yi-Shin Chang, John K Yue, David M Schnyer, David O Okonkwo, Alex B Valadka, Wayne A Gordon, Andrew I R Maas, Mary Vassar, Geoffrey T Manley, Pratik Mukherjee
Brain lesions are subtle or absent in most patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and the standard clinical criteria are not reliable for predicting long-term outcome. This study investigates resting-state functional MRI (rsfMRI) to assess semiacute alterations in brain connectivity and its relationship with outcome measures assessed 6 months after injury. Seventy-five mTBI patients were recruited as part of the prospective multicenter Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge in TBI (TRACK-TBI) pilot study and compared with matched 47 healthy subjects...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084891/the-effect-of-concussion-or-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-on-academic-outcomes-a-systematic-review
#9
Adrian Rozbacher, Erin Selci, Jeff Leiter, Michael Ellis, Kelly Russell
Concussion often results in symptoms including difficulty concentrating, focusing and remembering that are typically managed with cognitive and physical rest. The school environment is often not conducive to cognitive rest and may lead to worsening or prolonged symptoms that can contribute to impaired academic performance. The objective was to identify and summarize literature concerning the effects of concussion or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) on academic outcomes. MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, and CINAHL were searched until June 1, 2016...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931151/regulation-of-mitochondrial-function-and-glutamatergic-system-are-the-target-of-guanosine-effect-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#10
Fernando Dobrachinski, Rogério da Rosa Gerbatin, Gláubia Sartori, Naiani Ferreira Marques, Ana Paula Zemolin, Luiz Fernando Almeida Silva, Jeferson Luis Franco, Luiz Fernando Freire Royes, Michele Rechia Fighera, Félix Alexandre Antunes Soares
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a highly complex multi-factorial disorder. Experimental trauma involves primary and secondary injury cascades that underlie delayed neuronal dysfunction and death. Mitochondrial dysfunction and glutamatergic excitotoxicity are the hallmark mechanisms of damage. Accordingly, a successful pharmacological intervention requires a multi-faceted approach. Guanosine (GUO) is known for its neuromodulator effects in various models of brain pathology, specifically those that involve the glutamatergic system...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927083/measurement-of-peripheral-vision-reaction-time-identifies-white-matter-disruption-in-patients-with-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#11
Kyle B Womack, Christopher Paliotta, Jeremy F Strain, Johnson S Ho, Yosef Skolnick, William W Lytton, L Christine Turtzo, Roderick McColl, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Peter J Bergold
This study examined whether peripheral vision reaction time (PVRT) in patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) correlated with white matter abnormalities in centroaxial structures and impairments in neuropsychological testing. Within 24 h after mTBI, crossed reaction times (CRT), uncrossed reaction times (URT), and crossed-uncrossed difference (CUD) were measured in 23 patients using a laptop computer that displayed visual stimuli predominantly to either the left or the right visual field of the retina...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923323/mild-hypothermia-promotes-pericontusion-neuronal-sprouting-via-suppressing-suppressor-of-cytokine-signaling-3-expression-after-moderate-traumatic-brain-injury
#12
Cheng-Cheng Zhao, Chuan-Fang Wang, Wei-Ping Li, Yong Lin, Qi-Lin Tang, Jun-Feng Feng, Qing Mao, Guo-Yi Gao, Ji-Yao Jiang
Mild therapeutic hypothermia is a candidate for the treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, the role of mild hypothermia in neuronal sprouting after TBI remains obscure. We used a fluid percussion injury (FPI) model to assess the effect of mild hypothermia on pericontusion neuronal sprouting after TBI in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent FPI or sham surgery, followed by mild hypothermia treatment (33°C) or normothermia treatment (37°C) for 3 h. All the rats were euthanized at 7 days after FPI...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912253/sex-and-age-differences-in-epinephrine-mechanisms-and-outcomes-after-brain-injury
#13
William M Armstead, John Riley, Monica S Vavilala
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of injury-related death in children, with boys and children <4 years of age having particularly poor outcomes. Cerebral autoregulation is often impaired after TBI, contributing to poor outcome. Cerebral perfusion pressure can be normalized by use of vasoactive agents. The c-Jun-terminal kinase (JNK) isoform of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) produces hemodynamic impairment after TBI, but less is known about its role in histopathology. We investigated whether epinephrine (EPI), age, and sex dependently protected cerebral autoregulation and limited histopathology after TBI, and sought to determine the role of JNK in that outcome...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912248/mean-arterial-blood-pressure-management-of-acute-traumatic-spinal-cord-injured-patients-during-the-pre-hospital-and-early-admission-period
#14
Jin W Tee, Farhaan Altaf, Lise Belanger, Tamir Ailon, John Street, Scott Paquette, Michael Boyd, Charles G Fisher, Marcel F Dvorak, Brian K Kwon
The optimization and maintenance of mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and the general avoidance of systemic hypotension for the first 5-7 days following acute traumatic spinal cord injury (tSCI) is considered to be important for minimizing secondary spinal cord ischemic damage. The characterization of hemodynamic parameters in the immediate post-injury stage prior to admission to a specialized spine unit has not been previously reported. Here we describe the blood pressure management of 40 acute tSCI patients in the early post-injury phases of care prior to their arrival in a specialized spinal injury high dependency unit (HDU), intensive care unit (ICU), or operating room (OR)...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901414/cognitive-deficits-and-inflammatory-response-resulting-from-mild-to-moderate-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rats-are-exacerbated-by-repeated-pre-exposure-to-an-innate-stress-stimulus
#15
Michaël Ogier, Amor Belmeguenai, Thomas Lieutaud, Béatrice Georges, Sandrine Bouvard, Emilie Carré, Frédéric Canini, Laurent Bezin
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is common in both military and civilian populations, and often results in neurobehavioral sequelae that impair quality of life in both patients and their families. Although individuals who are chronically exposed to stress are more likely to experience TBI, it is still unknown whether pre-injury stress influences the outcome after TBI. The present study tested whether behavioral and cognitive long-term outcome after TBI in rats is affected by prior exposure to an innate stress stimulus...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881040/a-single-dose-of-docosahexaenoic-acid-increases-the-functional-recovery-promoted-by-rehabilitation-after-cervical-spinal-cord-injury-in-the-rat
#16
Zhou-Hao Liu, Ping K Yip, John V Priestley, Adina T Michael-Titus
Task-specific rehabilitation has been shown to promote functional recovery after acute spinal cord injury (SCI). Recently, the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), has been shown to promote neuroplasticity after SCI. Here, we investigated whether the combination of a single bolus of DHA with rehabilitation can enhance the effect of DHA or rehabilitation therapy in adult injured spinal cord. We found enhanced functional improvement with DHA in combination with rehabilitation compared with either treatment alone in a rat cervical lateral hemisection SCI model...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875927/what-is-being-trained-how-divergent-forms-of-plasticity-compete-to-shape-locomotor-recovery-after-spinal-cord-injury
#17
J Russell Huie, Kazuhito Morioka, Jenny Haefeli, Adam R Ferguson
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating syndrome that produces dysfunction in motor and sensory systems, manifesting as chronic paralysis, sensory changes, and pain disorders. The multi-faceted and heterogeneous nature of SCI has made effective rehabilitative strategies challenging. Work over the last 40 years has aimed to overcome these obstacles by harnessing the intrinsic plasticity of the spinal cord to improve functional locomotor recovery. Intensive training after SCI facilitates lower extremity function and has shown promise as a tool for retraining the spinal cord by engaging innate locomotor circuitry in the lumbar cord...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869558/polynitroxylated-pegylated-hemoglobin-a-novel-small-volume-therapeutic-for-traumatic-brain-injury-resuscitation-comparison-to-whole-blood-and-dose-response-evaluation
#18
Erik C Brockman, Travis C Jackson, C Edward Dixon, Hülya Bayɪr, Robert S B Clark, Vincent Vagni, Keri Feldman, Catherine Byrd, Li Ma, Carleton Hsia, Patrick M Kochanek
Resuscitation with polynitroxylated pegylated hemoglobin (PNPH), a pegylated bovine hemoglobin decorated with nitroxides, eliminated the need for fluid administration, reduced intracranial pressure (ICP) and brain edema, and produced neuroprotection in vitro and in vivo versus Lactated Ringer's solution (LR) in experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI) plus hemorrhagic shock (HS). We hypothesized that resuscitation with PNPH would improve acute physiology versus whole blood after TBI+HS and would be safe and effective across a wide dosage range...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869534/training-to-improve-walking-after-pediatric-spinal-cord-injury-a-systematic-review-of-parameters-and-walking-outcomes
#19
Payal Gandhi, Katherine Chan, Mary C Verrier, Maureen Pakosh, Kristin E Musselman
Walking or locomotor training is often initiated following pediatric spinal cord injury (SCI). There is no synthesis of the literature on interventions targeting walking for pediatric SCI, although this would assist future clinical trials and interventions. To address this need, we completed a systematic review to summarize the who, what, when, and how of walking interventions in children with SCI. Participant characteristics, training parameters, and walking outcomes with training in pediatric SCI were identified and compared with training parameters and outcomes in adults with SCI...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863455/what-did-we-learn-from-the-animal-studies-of-body-weight-supported-treadmill-training-and-where-do-we-go-from-here
#20
Ray D de Leon, Christine J Dy
Body weight-supported treadmill training (BWSTT) developed from animal studies of spinal cord injury (SCI). Evidence that spinal cats (i.e., cats that have a complete surgical transection of the cord) could regain the ability to step on a moving treadmill indicated a vast potential for spinal circuits to generate walking without the brain. BWSTT represented a means to unlock that potential. As the technique was adapted as a rehabilitation intervention for humans with SCI, shortcomings in the translation to walking in the real world were exposed...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
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