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Journal of Neurotrauma

Koji Osuka, Yasuo Watanabe, Nobuteru Usuda, Masahiro Aoyama, Mikinobu Takeuchi, Masakazu Takayasu
Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is fundamentally treatable, although it sometimes recurs. We observed, however, several cases of spontaneous resolution of CSDH outer membranes, even in a trabecular type of CSDH, after a trepanation surgical procedure. In this study, we examined the expression of molecules of the autophagy signaling pathway in CSDH outer membranes. Eight patients whose outer membranes were obtained successfully during trepanation were included in this study. By Western blot analysis, we examined the expression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR); GβL; UNC-51-like kinase-1 (ULK1); Beclin-1; autophagy-related genes (Atg) 3, 5, 7, 12, 13, and 16L1β,α; the autophagy marker Light Chain3A/B (LC3A/B); and β-actin, which constitute the autophagy signaling pathway...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Suliang Chen, Mathew J Gallagher, Florence Hogg, Marios C Papadopoulos, Samira Saadoun
To guide management of patients with acute spinal cord injuries, we developed intraspinal pressure monitoring from the injury site. Here, we examine the complex fluctuations in the intraspinal pressure signal using network theory. We analyzed 7,097 hours of intraspinal pressure data from 58 patients with severe cord injuries. Intraspinal pressure signals were split into hourly windows. Each window was mapped into a visibility graph as follows: Vertical bars were drawn at 0.1 Hz representing signal amplitudes...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Xin Lin Tan, Mujun Sun, Rhys D Brady, Shijie Liu, Roxana Llanos, Steve Cheung, David K Wright, Pablo M Casillas-Espinosa, Maithili Sashindranath, Terence J O'Brien, Stuart J McDonald, Bradley J Turner, Sandy R Shultz
Initial studies have found some evidence for transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) abnormalities after traumatic brain injury (TBI), and the presence of protein inclusions consisting of TDP-43 are a pathological hallmark of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a condition associated with TBI. However, no study has characterized changes in TDP-43 phosphorylation, mislocalization, and fragmentation (i.e., abnormalities linked to hallmark TDP-43 pathology) after TBI, and how these relate to functional outcomes...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Frederick Adam Zeiler, Peter Smieleweski, Andrew Stevens, Marek Czosnyka, David Menon, Ari Ercole
The goal was to predict pressure reactivity index (PRx) using non-invasive transcranial Doppler (TCD) based indices of cerebrovascular reactivity, systolic flow index (Sx_a) and mean flow index (Mx_a). Continuous extended duration time series recordings of middle cerebral artery cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) were obtained using robotic TCD in parallel with direct intracranial pressure (ICP). PRx, Sx_a and Mx_a were derived from high frequency archived signals. Using time-series techniques, autoregressive integrative moving average (ARIMA) structure of PRx was determined and embedded in the following linear mixed effects (LME) models of PRx: PRx ~ Sx_a and PRx ~ Sx_a + Mx_a...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Franziska Riese, Sonja Steinmetz, Karl Rohn, Andrea Tipold
This study was performed to evaluate clinical biomarkers as prognostic values in dogs with traumatic brain injury (TBI) based on findings in human patients. Sodium-levels of 158 dogs with TBI and 169 patients with trauma without involvement of the head (EHT) were examined. TBI-patients with hypernatremia had a slightly higher risk to die (22.03 %) than dogs with normal sodium levels (19.76 %). However there was no significant correlation between sodium levels and outcome in TBI-patients (p= 0.6357). Dogs with sodium levels higher than 160 mmol/L were non-survivors...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Yujin Suto, Katsuhiro Nagata, Syed Ahmed, Christina Jacovides, Kevin D Browne, John Cognetti, Victoria E Johnson, Ryan Leone, Lewis J Kaplan, Douglas H Smith, Jose L Pascual
Progression of severe TBI is associated with worsening cerebral inflammation but it is unknown how a concomitant bone fracture (FX) affects this progression. Enoxaparin (ENX), a low molecular weight heparin often used for venous thromboembolic prophylaxis, decreases penumbral leukocyte (LEU) mobilization in isolated TBI and improves neurological recovery. We investigated if TBI accompanied by a FX worsens leukocyte mediated cerebral inflammation and if ENX alters this process. CD1 male mice underwent controlled cortical impact (CCI) or sham craniotomy with or without an open tibial fracture, and received either ENX (1mg/kg, 3 times/day) or saline for 2 days following injury...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
J Russell Huie, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, John K Yue, Marco Sorani, Ava Puccio, David O Okonkwo, Geoffrey T Manley, Adam R Ferguson
The complex and heterogeneous nature of traumatic brain injury (TBI) has rendered the identification of diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers elusive. A single acute biomarker may not be sufficient to categorize injury severity and/or predict outcome. Using multivariate dimension reduction analyses, we tested the sensitivity and specificity of a multianalyte panel of proteins as an ensemble biomarker for TBI. Serum was collected within 24 hours of injury in a cohort of 130 patients enrolled in the multicenter prospective Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge in Traumatic Brain Injury Pilot (TRACK-TBI Pilot) study and run on an array that measured 72 proteins...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Matthew Goodus, Andrew David Sauerbeck, Phillip G Popovich, Richard S Bruno, Dana M McTigue
Spinal cord injury (SCI) disrupts autonomic regulation of visceral organs. As a result, a leading cause of mortality in the SCI population is metabolic dysfunction, and an organ central to metabolic control is the liver. Our recent work showed that rodent SCI promotes Kupffer cell (hepatic macrophage) activation, pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and liver steatosis. These are symptoms of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome, and these pre-clinical data replicate aspects of post-SCI human metabolic dysfunction...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Ashley L Ware, Brian Biekman, Rebecca Hachey, Marianne C MacLeod, William Bird, Sudhir Pathak, Emily Clarke, Allison J Hricik, Ava Puccio, Kelly Glavin, Kristopher Pomiecko, Paolo Moretti, Sue R Beers, Harvey Levin, Walter Schneider, Elisabeth A Wilde
Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) is common in Veterans of the Iraq and Afghanistan era conflicts. However, the typical subtlety of neural alterations and absence of definitive biomarkers impede clinical detection on conventional imaging. This preliminary study examined the structure and functional correlates of executive control network (ECN) white matter in Veterans to investigate the clinical utility of using High Definition Fiber Tracking (HDFT) to detect chronic bTBI. Demographically similar male Veterans (N=38) with and without bTBI (ages 24 to 50 years) completed standardized neuropsychological testing and magnetic resonance imaging...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Naima Lajud, Arturo Díaz-Chávez, Hannah Radabaugh, Jeffrey P Cheng, Georgina Rojo-Soto, Juan Valdéz-Alarcón, Corina O Bondi, Anthony E Kline
Environmental enrichment (EE) confers motor and cognitive recovery in preclinical models of traumatic brain injury (TBI), and neurogenesis has been attributed to mediating the benefits. Whether that ascription is correct has not been fully investigated. Hence, the goal of the current study is to further clarify the possible role of learning-induced hippocampal neurogenesis on functional recovery after cortical impact or sham injury by utilizing two EE paradigms (i.e., early + continuous; initiated immediately after TBI and presented 24-hr/day, and delayed + abbreviated; initiated 4 days after TBI for 6-hr/day) and comparing them to one another as well as to standard (STD) housed controls...
July 27, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Hugh Hekierski, Philip Pastor, Victor Curvello, William M Armstead
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) contributes to morbidity in children, and boys are disproportionately represented. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is reduced and autoregulation is impaired after TBI, contributing to poor outcome. Cerebral Perfusion Pressure (CPP) is often normalized by use of vasoactive agents to increase mean arterial pressure (MAP). In prior studies of male and female newborn and juvenile pigs, we observed that phenylephrine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine demonstrated different sex and age dependent abilities to prevent impairment of cerebral autoregulation and limit histopathology after TBI, despite equivalent CPP values...
July 27, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Markus Hupp, Chiara Pavese, Lucas M Bachmann, René Koller, Martin Schubert
Outcome prediction after spinal cord injury (SCI) is essential for early counseling and orientation of the rehabilitative intervention. Moreover, prognostication of outcome is crucial to achieving meaningful stratification when conceiving clinical trials. Neurophysiological examinations are commonly employed for prognostication after SCI, but whether neurophysiology could improve the functional prognosis based on clinical predictors remains an open question. Data of 224 patients included in the European Multicenter Study about Spinal Cord Injury were analyzed with bootstrapping analysis and multivariate logistical regression to derive prediction models of complete functional recovery in the chronic stage after traumatic cervical SCI...
July 27, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Erin Lucas, Thomas Whyte, Jie Liu, Colin Russell, Wolfram Tetzlaff, Peter Alec Cripton
Although spinal cord deformation is thought to be a predictor of injury severity, few researchers have investigated dynamic cord deformation, in vivo, during impact. This is needed to establish correlations among impact parameters, internal cord deformation, and histological and functional outcomes. Relying on surface deformations alone may not sufficiently represent spinal cord deformation. The objective of this study was to develop a high-speed fluoroscopic method of tracking the surface and internal cord deformations of rat spinal cord during experimental cord injury...
July 27, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Qiang Zhao, Tao Yan, Linlin Li, Michael Chopp, Poornima Venkat, Yu Qian, Ran Li, Ruixia Wu, Wei Li, Mei Lu, Talan Zhang, Jieli Chen
Cardiovascular complications are common after TBI and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. In this study, we investigated the possible role of the immune system in mediating cardiac dysfunction post-TBI in mice. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were subjected to a TBI model of controlled cortical impact (CCI) with or without splenectomy (n=20/group). Splenectomy was performed immediately prior to induction of TBI. Cardiac function was measured using echocardiography prior to and after TBI. Neurological and cognitive functional tests and flow cytometry and immunostaining were performed...
July 26, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Rajesh K Aneja, Alicia Alcamo, Jessica L Cummings, Vincent A Vagni, Keri L Janesko-Feldman, Qingde Wang, C Edward Dixon, Timothy Billiar, Patrick M Kochanek
High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a prototypical danger-associated molecular pattern (DAMPs) molecule that is considered a late mediator of neuro-inflammation after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Prior studies have suggested that targeting HMGB1 may lead to neuroprotective effects, but none of these studies have reported cognitive outcomes. We hypothesized that loss of HMGB1 before and after TBI would markedly attenuate posttraumatic brain edema, blood-brain barrier permeability, improve functional deficits and long-term neuropathology versus control mice...
July 26, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 25, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Jake J Deines, Jianhong Chang, Karin Reuter-Rice
Outcomes can be challenging to predict in children with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI). Transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasound has become an increasingly useful modality in adult and pediatric TBI by measuring blood flow velocities within the Circle of Willis. In children with moderate to severe TBI multiple studies have correlated abnormal TCD measurements and poor outcomes. Additionally, TCD has shown value in assessing adults with mild brain injury. To date there are no studies that correlate TCD findings and outcomes in children with mild TBI...
July 25, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Orli Thau-Zuchman, Rita N Gomes, Simon C Dyall, Meirion Davies, John V Priestley, Martine Groenendijk, Martijn C De Wilde, Jordi L Tremoleda, Adina T Michael-Titus
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) leads to cellular loss, destabilization of membranes, disruption of synapses and altered brain connectivity, and increased risk of neurodegenerative disease. A significant and long-lasting decrease in phospholipids (PLs), essential membrane constituents, has recently been reported in plasma and brain tissue, in human and experimental TBI. We hypothesized that supporting PL synthesis post-injury could improve outcome post-TBI. We tested this hypothesis using a multi-nutrient combination designed to support the biosynthesis of PLs and available for clinical use...
July 25, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Saher Khalaf, Abdullah Shafique Ahmad, K V D Ranga Chamara, Sylvain Doré
Iron is postulated to contribute to secondary injury after brain trauma through various pathways including oxidative stress and inflammation. Therefore, one goal is to limit iron toxicity by either directly limiting iron activity, or limiting the secondary cascade mediated by iron, therefore rescuing the brain from damage after trauma. The N,N'-Di(2-hydroxybenzyl)ethylenediamine-N,N'-diacetic acid monohydrochloride (HBED) is a unique iron chelator that has the ability to cross the intact blood-brain barrier; it has a higher affinity to iron, and it has a longer half-life than most commonly used chelators...
July 25, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
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