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Journal of Neurotrauma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463176/neuroinflammation-after-traumatic-brain-injury-tbi-is-enhanced-in-activating-transcription-factor-3-atf3-mutant-mice
#1
Philip Foerstner, Rida Rehman, Sofia Anastasiadou, Melanie Haffner-Luntzer, Daniela Sinske, Anita Ignatius, Francesco Roselli, Bernd Knoell
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces a neuroinflammatory response resulting in astrocyte and microglia activation at the lesion site. This involves up-regulation of neuroinflammatory genes including chemokines and interleukins. However, so far there is lack of knowledge on transcription factors (TFs) modulating this TBI associated gene expression response. Herein we analyzed activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), a TF encoding a regeneration-associated gene (RAG) predominantly studied in peripheral nervous system (PNS) injury...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463164/apolipoprotein-e-apoe-%C3%AE%C2%B54-genotype-is-associated-with-elevated-psychiatric-distress-in-veterans-with-a-history-of-mild-to-moderate-traumatic-brain-injury
#2
Victoria C Merritt, Alexandra L Clark, Scott F Sorg, Nicole D Evangelista, Madeleine Werhane, Mark W Bondi, Dawn M Schiehser, Lisa Delano-Wood
Since few studies have examined the relationship between the APOE gene and clinical outcomes following military-related traumatic brain injury (TBI), we aimed to determine whether the ε4 allele of the APOE gene influences neuropsychiatric symptoms in Veterans with a history of mild to moderate TBI. Participants included 133 Veterans (TBI=79, military controls [MC]=54) who underwent APOE genotyping and were divided into ε4+ (TBI=18, MC=15) and ε4- (TBI=61, MC=39) groups. All participants underwent evaluation of psychological distress using the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and PTSD Checklist-Military Version (PCL-M)...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455634/early-predictors-of-global-functional-outcome-after-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury-a-systematic-review
#3
Andreane Richard-Denis, Marie Beauséjour, Cynthia Thompson, Bich-Han Nguyen, Jean-Marc Mac-Thiong
Accurately predicting functional recovery in an asset for all clinicians and decision makers involved in the care of patients with acute traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI). Unfortunately, there is a lack of information on the relative importance of significant predictors of global functional outcome. There is also a need for identifying functional predictors that can be timely optimized by the medical and rehabilitation teams throughout the hospitalizations phases. The main objective of this work was to systematically review and rate early factors that are consistently and independently associated with global functional outcome in individuals with TSCI...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455576/central-infusion-of-igf-1-increases-hippocampal-neurogenesis-and-improves-neurobehavioral-function-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#4
Shaun W Carlson, Kathryn E Saatman
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) produces neuronal dysfunction and cellular loss that can culminate in lasting impairments in cognitive and motor abilities. Therapeutic agents that promote repair and replenish neurons after TBI hold promise in improving recovery of function. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a neurotrophic factor capable of mediating neuroprotective and neuroplasticity mechanisms. Targeted overexpression of IGF-1 enhances the generation of hippocampal newborn neurons in brain-injured mice; however, the translational neurogenic potential of exogenously administered IGF-1 after TBI remains unknown...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444611/the-effect-of-goreisan-on-the-prevention-of-chronic-subdural-hematoma-recurrence-multicenter-randomized-controlled-study
#5
Kosuke Katayama, Naoya Matsuda, Kiyohide Kakuta, Masato Naraoka, Atsuhito Takemura, Seiko Hasegawa, Kenichi Akasaka, Norihito Shimamura, Katsuhiro Itoh, Kenichiro Asano, Konno Hiromu, Hiroki Ohkuma
The relatively high rate of postoperative recurrence in the treatment of chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is a significant problem. Goreisan is an herbal medicine that exhibits a hydragogue effect by inhibiting the expression of aquaporins, and its efficacy in preventing postoperative CSDH recurrence has been suggested by several case trials. This multicenter, prospective, randomized controlled trial was performed to investigate the preventative effect of goreisan on postoperative CSDH recurrence. Patients with symptomatic CSDH over 60 years old undergoing burr hole surgery were enrolled in this study...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439605/microglial-inflammasome-activation-in-penetrating-ballistic-like-brain-injury
#6
Stephanie W Lee, Shyam Gajavelli, Markus S Spurlock, Cody Andreoni, Juan Pablo de Rivero Vaccari, M Ross Bullock, Robert W Keane, W Dalton Dietrich
Penetrating traumatic brain injury (PTBI) is a significant cause of death and disability in the United States. Inflammasomes are one of the key regulators of the interleukin (IL)-1β mediated inflammatory responses after traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, the contribution of inflammasome signaling after PTBI has not been determined. In this study, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to sham procedures or penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI) and sacrificed at various time points. Tissues were assessed by immunoblot analysis for expression of IL-1β, IL-18 and components of the inflammasome: apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase-activation and recruitment domain (ASC), caspase-1, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3), and gasdermin-D (GSDMD)...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431051/intra-and-extra-cranial-injury-burden-as-drivers-of-impaired-cerebrovascular-reactivity-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#7
Frederick Adam Zeiler, Joseph Donnelly, Basil Nourallah, Eric Peter Thelin, Leanne Calviello, Peter Smieleweski, Marek Czosnyka, Ari Ercole, David Menon
Impaired cerebrovascular reactivity has been associated with outcome following traumatic brain injury (TBI), but it is unknown how it is affected by trauma severity. Thus, we aimed to explore the relationship between intra-cranial (IC) and extra-cranial (EC) injury burden and cerebrovascular reactivity in TBI patients. We retrospectively included critically ill TBI patients. IC injury burden included detailed lesion and computerized tomography (CT) scoring (ie. Marshall, Rotterdam, Helsinki and Stockholm Scores) on admission...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421977/chronic-alterations-in-systemic-immune-function-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#8
Rodney Ritzel, Sarah Doran, James Barrett, Rebecca Henry, Elise Ma, Alan Faden, David J Loane
There is a compelling link between severe brain trauma and immunosuppression in traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients. Although acute changes in the systemic immune compartment have been linked to outcome severity, the long-term consequences of TBI on systemic immune function is unknown. Here, adult male C57Bl/6 mice were subjected to moderate-level controlled cortical impact (CCI) or sham surgery and systemic immune function was evaluated at 1, 3, 7, 14, and 60 days post-injury. Bone marrow, blood, thymus, and spleen were examined by flow cytometry to assess changes in immune composition, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, phagocytic activity, and cytokine production...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421973/multimodal-characterization-of-the-late-effects-of-tbi-letbi-a-methodological-overview-of-the-letbi-project
#9
Brian L Edlow, C Dirk Keene, Daniel Perl, Diego Iacono, Rebecca Folkerth, William Stewart, Christine L MacDonald, Jean Augustinack, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Camilo Estrada, Elissa Flannery, Wayne Gordon, Tom Grabowski, Kelly Hansen, Jeanne Hoffman, Christopher Kroenke, Eric Larson, Patricia Lee, Azma Mareyam, Jennifer A McNab, Jeanne McPhee, Allison L Moreau, Anne Renz, KatieRose Richmire, Allison Stevens, Cheuk Y Tang, Lee S Tirrell, Emily Trittschuh, Andre van der Kouwe, Ani Varjabedian, Lawrence L Wald, Ona Wu, Anastasia Yendiki, Liza Young, Lilla Zollei, Bruce Fischl, Paul K Crane, Kristen Dams-O'Connor
Epidemiological studies suggest that a single moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with an increased risk of neurodegenerative disease, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease (AD and PD). Histopathological studies describe complex neurodegenerative pathologies in individuals exposed to single moderate-to-severe TBI or repetitive mild TBI, including chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). However, the clinicopathological links between TBI and post-traumatic neurodegenerative diseases such as AD, PD, and CTE remain poorly understood...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421971/sideline-concussion-assessment-the-king-devick-test-in-canadian-professional-football
#10
Dhiren Naidu, Martin Mrazik, Carley Borza, Tara Kobitowich
Reasons for Study: Sideline assessment tools are an important component of concussion evaluations. To date there has been little data evaluating the clinical utility of these tests in professional football. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical utility of the King-Devick Test (KD) in evaluating concussions in professional football players. Baseline data was collected over 2 consecutive seasons in the Canadian Football League as part of a comprehensive medical baseline evaluation. A pilot study with the KD began in 2015 with 306 participants and the next year (2016) there were 917 participants...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421963/making-football-safer-assessing-the-current-nfl-policy-on-the-type-of-helmets-allowed-on-the-playing-field
#11
Raymond Colello, Ian Alexander Colello, Duaa AbdelHameid, Kellen G Cresswell, Randall Merchant, Ethan Beckett
In an effort to reduce concussions in football, a helmet safety-rating system was developed in 2011 that rated helmets based on their ability to reduce g-forces experienced by the head across a range of impact forces measured on the playing field. Although this was considered a major step in making the game safer, the NFL continues to allow players the right to choose what helmet to wear during play. This prompted us to ask: what helmets do NFL players wear and does this helmet policy make the game safer? Accordingly, we identified the helmets worn by nearly 1000 players on Weeks 13 and 1 of the 2015-2016 and 2016-2017 seasons, respectively...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415612/valproic-acid-treatment-decreases-serum-gfap-and-uch-l1-level-in-swine-subjected-to-traumatic-brain-injury
#12
Frederick Kofi Korley, Vahagn C Nikolian, Aaron M Williams, Isabel S Dennahy, Michael Weykamp, Hasan B Alam
The primary aim of this study was to examine the effects of valproic acid (VPA) treatment on serum glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and neurofilament light chain (NF-L) levels. To achieve this aim, we obtained serum samples from: (1) ten Yorkshire swine subjected to controlled cortical impact (CCI) TBI + polytrauma and randomized to receive either normal saline (NS) + VPA (n=5) or NS alone (n=5) and (2) five additional swine subjected to CCI TBI without polytrauma and treated with VPA. GFAP and NF-L levels were measured in samples obtained from baseline until 10 days post-injury using a digital immunoassay from Quanterix Corporation...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415608/functional-status-examination-in-patients-with-moderate-to-severe-traumatic-brain-injuries
#13
Joan Machamer, Nancy Temkin, Geoffrey Manley, Sureyya Dikmen
The assessment of functional status after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is important. The Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) and its revised version Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE) have been used most frequently in TBI research but there are concerns about the sensitivity of these measures. The current study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Functional Status Examination (FSE) using a sample of 448 moderately to severely injured subjects with traumatic brain injury (TBI). The FSE is significantly related to other measures of functional status including the GOSE, Short Form Health Survey and EuroQol Checklist(p < ...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409390/survival-analysis-based-human-head-injury-risk-curves-focus-on-skull-fracture
#14
Narayan Yoganandan, Anjishnu Banerjee
Head contact-induced loads can result in skull fractures and/or brain injuries. While skull fractures have been produced from post mortem human cadaver surrogates (PMHS), injury probability curves describing their structural responses have not been developed. The objectives of this study were to develop skull fracture-based injury risk curves and describe human tolerances using survival analysis. Published PMHS data in this journal were used. Mean age, stature, and weight of 12 PMHS were: 66.6±2.3 years, 1...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409384/circular-rna-expression-alteration-in-exosomes-from-the-brain-extracellular-space-after-traumatic-brain-injury-in-mice
#15
Ruiting Zhao, Ju Zhou, Xinlong Dong, Chongwen Bi, Rongcai Jiang, Jingfei Dong, Ye Tian, Hengjie Yuan, Jian-Ning Zhang
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has high morbidity and mortality rates. The mechanisms underlying the TBI are unclear and may include the change in biological material in exosomes. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are enriched and stable in exosomes, which can function as microRNA (miRNA) sponges to regulate gene expression levels. Therefore, we speculated that circRNAs in exosomes might play an important role in regulating gene expression after TBI and then regulate specific signaling pathways, which may protect the brain...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402167/differential-adaptations-of-the-musculoskeletal-system-following-spinal-cord-contusion-and-transection-in-rats
#16
Ching-Yi Lin, Charlie Androjna, Richard Rozic, Bich Tram Nguyen, Brett Parsons, Ronald J Midura, Yu-Shang Lee
Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes impaired neuronal function with associated deficits in the musculoskeletal system, which can lead to permanent disability. Here, the impact of SCI on in vivo musculoskeletal adaptation was determined by studying deficits in locomotor function and analyzing changes that occur in the muscle and bone compartments within the rat hind-limb following contusion or transection SCI. Analyses of locomotor patterns, as assessed via the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) rating scale, revealed that transection animals showed significant deficits, while the contusion group had moderate deficits, as compared to naïve groups...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397783/estimating-pressure-reactivity-index-using-non-invasive-doppler-based-systolic-flow-index
#17
Frederick Adam Zeiler, Peter Smieleweski, Joseph Donnelly, Marek Czosnyka, David Menon, Ari Ercole
To derive models that estimate pressure reactivity index (PRx) using non-invasive transcranial Doppler (TCD) based systolic flow index (Sx_a) and mean flow index (Mx_a), both based on mean arterial pressure, in traumatic brain injury (TBI). Using a retrospective database of 347 TBI patients with ICP and TCD time series recordings we derived PRx, Sx_a and Mx_a. We first derived the autocorrelative structure of PRx based on: A. autoregressive integrative moving average (ARIMA) modelling in representative patients, and B...
February 3, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390943/trpm4-induces-astrocyte-swelling-but-not-death-after-diffuse-traumatic-brain-injury
#18
Karen Gorse, Mary Kate Lantzy, Eun D Lee, Audrey D Lafrenaye
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a prevalent disease with significant costs. Although progress has been made in understanding the complex pathobiology of focal lesions associated with TBI, questions remain regarding the diffuse responses to injury. Expression of the transient receptor potential melastatin 4 (Trpm4) channel, is linked to cytotoxic edema during hemorrhagic contusion expansion. However, little is known about Trpm4 following diffuse TBI. To explore Trpm4 expression in diffuse TBI, rats were subjected to a diffuse central fluid percussion injury (CFPI) and survived for 1...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385890/unique-sensory-and-motor-behavior-in-thy1-gfp-m-mice-before-and-after-spinal-cord-injury
#19
Timothy D Faw, Jessica K Lerch, Tyler T Thaxton, Rochelle J Deibert, Lesley C Fisher, D Michele Basso
Sensorimotor recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) is of utmost importance to injured individuals and will rely on improved understanding of SCI pathology and recovery. Novel transgenic mouse lines facilitate discovery, but must be understood to be effective. The purpose of this study was to characterize the sensory and motor behavior of a common transgenic mouse line (Thy1-GFP-M) before and after SCI. Thy1-GFP-M positive (TG+) mice and their transgene negative littermates (TG-) were acquired from two sources (in-house colony n=32, Jackson Laboratories n=4)...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373948/tbi-disrupts-pain-signaling-in-the-brainstem-and-spinal-cord
#20
Karen-Amanda Irvine, Peyman Sahbaie, De-Yong Liang, David Clark
Chronic pain is a common consequence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) that can increase a patient's suffering and pose a significant challenge to rehabilitative efforts. Unfortunately, the mechanisms linking TBI to pain are poorly understood and specific treatments for TBI-related pain are still lacking. Our lab has shown that TBI causes pain sensitization in areas distant to the site of primary injury, and that changes in spinal gene expression may underlie this sensitization1, 2. The aim of this study was to examine the roles that pain modulatory pathways descending from the brainstem play in pain after TBI...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
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