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Journal of Neurotrauma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895451/risk-factors-for-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-and-subsequent-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-and-mental-health-disorders-among-united-states-army-soldiers
#1
Dennis E Scofield, Susan P Proctor, Joseph R Kardouni, Owen T Hill, Craig J McKinnon
The purpose of this study was to determine the association of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) with subsequent post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and mental health disorders (MHD), and the intervening role of acute stress disorder (ASD). This matched case-control study utilized the Total Army Injury and Health Outcomes Database (TAIHOD) to analyze soldiers' (n = 1,261,297) medical encounter data between 2002 and 2011. International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes were used to identify: mTBI (following Centers for Disease Control [CDC] surveillance definition for mTBI), MHD (ICD-9 codes for depression and anxiety, excluding PTSD), PTSD (ICD-9 309...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599602/spinal-cord-injury-causes-systolic-dysfunction-and-cardiomyocyte-atrophy
#2
Jordan W Squair, Kathryn M DeVeau, Kathryn A Harman, Malihe-Sadat Poormasjedi-Meibod, Brian Hayes, Jie Liu, David S K Magnuson, Andrei V Krassioukov, Christopher R West
Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) have been shown to exhibit systolic, and to a lesser extent, diastolic cardiac dysfunction. However, previous reports of cardiac dysfunction in this population are confounded by the changing loading conditions after SCI and as such, whether cardiac dysfunction per se is present is still unknown. Therefore, our aim was to establish if load-independent cardiac dysfunction is present after SCI, to understand the functional cardiac response to SCI, and to explore the changes within the cellular milieu of the myocardium...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020866/cause-and-timing-of-death-and-sub-group-differential-effects-of-erythropoietin-in-the-epo-tbi-study
#3
Markus Benedict Skrifvars, Craig French, Michael Bailey, Jeffrey Presneill, Alistair Nichol, Lorraine Little, Jacques Duranteau, Olivier Huet, Samir Haddad, Yaseen Arabi, Colin McArthur, D James Cooper, Rinaldo Bellomo
The EPO-TBI study randomised 606 patients with moderate or severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) to be treated with weekly epoetin alfa (EPO) or placebo. Six-month mortality was lower in EPO treated patients in an analysis adjusting for TBI severity. Knowledge of possible differential effects by TBI injury subtype and acute neurosurgical treatment as well as timing and cause of death (COD) will facilitate the design of future interventional TBI trials. We defined COD as cerebral (brain death, cerebral death with withdrawal or death during maximal care) and non-cerebral (death following withdrawal or during maximal care due to a non-cerebral cause)...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020853/blood-based-protein-biomarkers-for-the-management-of-traumatic-brain-injuries-in-adults-presenting-with-mild-head-injury-to-emergency-departments-a-living-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
Stefania Mondello, Abayomi Sorinola, Endre Czeiter, Zoltán Vámos, Krisztina Amrein, Anneliese Synnot, Emma L Donoghue, János Sándor, Kevin K W Wang, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Ewout W Steyerberg, David Menon, Andrew Maas, Andras Buki
Accurate diagnosis of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is critical to effective management and intervention, but can be challenging in patients with mild TBI. A substantial number of studies have reported the use of circulating biomarkers as signatures for TBI, capable of improving diagnostic accuracy and clinical decision-making beyond current practice standards. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to comprehensively and critically evaluate the existing body of evidence for the use of blood protein biomarkers (S100B, GFAP, NSE, UCH-L1, Tau and Neurofilament proteins) for diagnosis of intracranial lesions on CT following mild TBI...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020848/concussion-alters-the-functional-brain-processes-of-visual-attention-and-working-memory
#5
Priyanka Shah-Basak, Charline Urbain, Simeon Wong, Leodante Da Costa, Elizabeth W Pang, Benjamin Dunkley, Margot Taylor
Millions of North Americans suffer a concussion or a mild traumatic brain injury annually and are at risk of cognitive, emotional and physical sequelae. While fMRI studies have provided an initial framework for examining functional deficits induced by concussion, particularly working memory and attention, the temporal dynamics underlying these deficits are not well understood. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG), a modality with millisecond temporal resolution, in conjunction with a 1-back visual working memory (VWM) paradigm using scenes from everyday life to characterize spatiotemporal functional differences at specific VWM stages, in adults who did or did not suffer a recent concussion...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020847/neurolipids-and-microrna-changes-in-blood-following-blast-traumatic-brain-injury-in-mice-an-exploratory-study
#6
Venkata Siva Sai Sujith Sajja, Anna Jablonska, Norman J Haughey, Jeff W M Bulte, Robert D Stevens, Joseph Long, Piotr Walczak, Miroslaw Janowski
At present, accurate and reliable biomarkers to ascertain the presence, severity, or prognosis of blast traumatic brain injury (bTBI) are lacking. There is an urgent need to establish accurate and reliable biomarkers capable of mbTBI detection. Currently, there are no studies that identify changes in miRNA and lipids at varied severities of bTBI. Various biological components such as lipids, circulating mRNA, and miRNA, could potentially be detected using advanced techniques such as next-generation sequencing and mass spectroscopy...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017409/acute-clinical-predictors-of-symptom-recovery-in-emergency-department-patients-with-uncomplicated-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-mtbi-or-non-tbi-injuries
#7
Lindsay D Nelson, Robyn E Furger, Jana Ranson, Sergey Tarima, Thomas A Hammeke, Christopher Randolph, William B Barr, Kevin K Guskiewicz, Christopher M Olsen, E Brooke Lerner, Michael McCrea
There is a subset of patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) that report persistent symptoms that impair their functioning and quality of life. Being able to predict which patients will experience prolonged symptom recovery would help clinicians target resources for clinical follow-up to those most in need and would facilitate research to develop precision medicine treatments for mTBI. The purpose of this study was to investigate the predictors of symptom recovery in a prospective sample of emergency department trauma patients with either mTBI or non-mTBI injuries...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017388/pathophysiological-bases-of-comorbidity-tbi-and-ptsd
#8
Gary B Kaplan, Kimberly A Leite-Morris, Lei Wang, Kendra K Rumbika, Stephen C Heinrichs, Xiang Zeng, Liquan Wu, Danielle T Arena, Yang D Teng
The high rates of TBI and PTSD diagnoses encountered in recent years by the U.S. Veterans Affairs Healthcare System have increased public awareness and research investigation into these conditions. In this review, we analyze the neural mechanisms underlying the TBI/PTSD comorbidity. TBI and PTSD present with common neuropsychiatric symptoms including anxiety, irritability, insomnia, personality changes and memory problems and this overlap complicates diagnostic differentiation. Interestingly, both TBI and PTSD can be produced by overlapping pathophysiological changes that disrupt neural connections termed the "connectome"...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990457/age-at-first-exposure-to-repetitive-head-impacts-is-associated-with-smaller-thalamic-volumes-in-former-professional-american-football-players
#9
Vivian Schultz, Robert A Stern, Yorghos Tripodis, Julie M Stamm, Pawel Wrobel, Christian Lepage, Isabelle Weir, Jeffrey P Guenette, Alicia Chua, Michael L Alosco, Christine M Baugh, Nathan G Fritts, Brett Martin, Christine Chaisson, Michael J Coleman, Alexander P Lin, Ofer Pasternak, Martha E Shenton, Inga Katharina Koerte
Thalamic atrophy has been associated with exposure to repetitive head impacts (RHI) in professional fighters. The aim of this study is to investigate whether or not age at first exposure (AFE) to RHI is associated with thalamic volume in symptomatic former National Football League (NFL) players at risk for chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Eighty-six symptomatic former NFL players (mean age=54.9±7.9 years) were included. T1-weighted data were acquired on a 3T MRI and thalamic volumes were derived using FreeSurfer...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978285/elucidating-pro-inflammatory-cytokine-responses-following-traumatic-brain-injury-in-a-human-stem-cell-model
#10
Eric Peter Thelin, Claire E Hall, Kunal Gupta, Keri Carpenter, Siddharthan Chandran, Peter John Hutchinson, Rickie Patani, Adel Helmy
Cytokine mediated inflammation likely plays an important role in secondary pathology following traumatic brain injury (TBI). The aim of this study was to elucidate secondary cytokine responses in an in vitro enriched (>80%) human stem cell-derived neuronal model. We exposed neuronal cultures to pre-determined and clinically relevant pathophysiological levels of Tumor Necrosis Factor- (TNF), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), shown to be present in the inflammatory aftermath of TBI. Data from this reductionist human model were then compared to our in vivo data...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974151/the-relationship-between-lesion-severity-characterized-by-diffusion-tensor-imaging-and-motor-function-in-chronic-canine-spinal-cord-injury
#11
Melissa Lewis, Pew-Thian Yap, Susan McCullough, Natasha Olby
Lesion heterogeneity amongst chronically paralyzed dogs after acute, complete thoracolumbar spinal cord injury (TLSCI) is poorly described. We hypothesized that lesion severity quantified by Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) is associated with hind limb motor function. Our objectives were to quantify lesion severity with fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD) and tractography and investigate associations with motor function. Twenty-two dogs with complete TLSCI in the chronic stage were enrolled and compared to 6 control dogs...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969486/prognostic-value-of-s-100%C3%A3-protein-for-prediction-of-post-concussion-symptoms-following-a-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
Eric Mercier, Pier-Alexandre Tardif, Peter Cameron, Brice Lionel Batomen Kuimi, Marcel Émond, Lynne Moore, Biswadev Mitra, Jérôme Frenette, Elaine de Guise, Marie-Christine Ouellet, Martine Bordeleau, Natalie Le Sage
This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine the prognostic value of S-100β protein to identify patients with post-concussion symptoms following a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). A search strategy was submitted to seven databases from their inception to October 2016. Individual patient data were requested. Cohort studies evaluating the association between S-100β protein level and post-concussion symptoms assessed at least seven days after the mTBI were considered. Outcomes were dichotomised as persistent (>= 3 months) or early (>= 7 days < 3 months)...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967329/post-injury-treatment-with-nim811-promotes-recovery-of-function-in-adult-female-rats-following-spinal-cord-contusion-a-dose-response-study
#13
Joe E Springer, Nishant Visavadiya, Patrick G Sullivan, Edward D Hall
Mitochondrial homeostasis is essential for maintaining cellular function and survival in the central nervous system (CNS). Mitochondrial function is significantly compromised following spinal cord injury (SCI) and is associated with accumulation of high levels of calcium, increased production of free radicals, oxidative damage, and eventually mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT). The formation of the mPT pore (mPTP) and subsequent mPT state are considered to be end stage events in the decline of mitochondrial integrity, and strategies that inhibit mPT can limit mitochondrial demise...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967326/cerebral-blood-flow-after-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-associations-between-symptoms-and-post-injury-perfusion
#14
Jaclyn A Stephens, Peiying Liu, Hanzang Lu, Stacy J Suskauer
Arterial spin labeling (ASL) has emerged as a technique for assessing mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), as it can non-invasively evaluate cerebrovascular physiology. To date, there is substantial variability in methodology and findings of ASL studies of mTBI. While both increased and decreased perfusion are reported after mTBI, more consistency is emerging when perfusion is examined with regard to symptomology. We evaluated 15 teenage athletes 2 and 6 weeks after sports-related concussion (SRC group) using pseudo-continuous ASL...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967295/predictive-value-of-leakage-signs-for-pure-brain-contusional-hematoma-expansion
#15
Kimihiko Orito, Masaru Hirohata, Yukihiko Nakamura, Masafumi Yamamoto, Nobuyuki Takeshige, Takachika Aoki, Gohsuke Hattori, Kiyohiko Sakata, Yasuharu Takeuchi, Hideaki Uzu, Osamu Takasu, Toshi Abe, Yusuke Uchiyama, Motohiro Morioka
BACKGROUND: Hematoma expansion is an important consideration in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, no precise methods are available for predicting the expansion of TBI-related hematoma. We aimed to establish a more sensitive predictor for contusional hematoma expansion based on the presence of leakage signs on computed tomography angiography (CTA). METHODS: Thirty-three patients with pure contusion were included in the analysis (age: 64.1 ± 20...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967294/an-autonomic-neuroprosthesis-non-invasive-electrical-spinal-cord-stimulation-restores-autonomic-cardiovascular-function-in-individuals-with-spinal-cord-injury
#16
Aaron A Phillips, Jordan W Squair, Dimitry Sayenko, Victor Reggie Edgerton, Yury Gerasimenko, Andrei V Krassioukov
Despite autonomic dysfunction after spinal cord injury being the major cause of death and top health priority, the clinical management options for these conditions are limited to drugs with delayed onset and non-pharmacological interventions with equivocal effectiveness. We tested the capacity of electrical stimulation, applied transcutaneously over the spinal cord, to manage autonomic dysfunction in the form of orthostatic hypotension after spinal cord injury. We assessed beat-by-beat blood pressure (BP), stroke volume and cardiac contractility (dP/dt; Finometer), as well as cerebral blood flow (transcranial Doppler) in five individuals with motor complete spinal cord injury (four cervical, one thoracic) during an orthostatic challenge with and without transcutaneous electrical stimulation applied at the TVII level...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726590/a-method-of-managing-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-in-the-absence-of-intracranial-pressure-monitoring-the-imaging-and-clinical-examination-protocol
#17
Randall M Chesnut, Nancy Temkin, Sureyya Dikmen, Carlos Rondina, Walter Videtta, Gustavo Petroni, Silvia Lujan, Victor Alanis, Antonio Falcao, Gustavo de la Fuenta, Luis Gonzalez, Manuel Jibaja, Arturo Lavarden, Freddy Sandi, Roberto Mérida, Ricardo Romero, Jim Pridgeon, Jason Barber, Joan Machamer, Kelley Chaddock
The imaging and clinical examination (ICE) algorithm used in the Benchmark Evidence from South American Trials: Treatment of Intracranial Pressure (BEST TRIP) randomized controlled trial is the only prospectively investigated clinical protocol for traumatic brain injury management without intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring. As the default literature standard, it warrants careful evaluation. We present the ICE protocol in detail and analyze the demographics, outcome, treatment intensity, frequency of intervention usage, and related adverse events in the ICE-protocol cohort...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699412/pressure-autoregulation-measurement-techniques-in-adult-traumatic-brain-injury-part-ii-a-scoping-review-of-continuous-methods
#18
Frederick A Zeiler, Joseph Donnelly, Leanne Calviello, Peter Smielewski, David K Menon, Marek Czosnyka
A scoping review of the literature was performed systematically on commonly described continuous autoregulation measurement techniques in adult traumatic brain injury (TBI) to provide an overview of methodology and comprehensive reference library of the available literature for each technique. Five separate small systematic reviews were conducted for each of the continuous techniques: pressure reactivity index (PRx), laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF), near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) techniques, brain tissue oxygen tension (PbtO2), and thermal diffusion (TD) techniques...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648106/pressure-autoregulation-measurement-techniques-in-adult-traumatic-brain-injury-part-i-a-scoping-review-of-intermittent-semi-intermittent-methods
#19
Frederick A Zeiler, Joseph Donnelly, Leanne Calviello, David K Menon, Peter Smielewski, Marek Czosnyka
The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic, scoping review of commonly described intermittent/semi-intermittent autoregulation measurement techniques in adult traumatic brain injury (TBI). Nine separate systematic reviews were conducted for each intermittent technique: computed tomographic perfusion (CTP)/Xenon-CT (Xe-CT), positron emission tomography (PET), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), arteriovenous difference in oxygen (AVDO2) technique, thigh cuff deflation technique (TCDT), transient hyperemic response test (THRT), orthostatic hypotension test (OHT), mean flow index (Mx), and transfer function autoregulation index (TF-ARI)...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741437/traumatic-brain-injury-in-a-community-based-cohort-of-homeless-and-vulnerably-housed-individuals
#20
Toby Schmitt, Allen E Thornton, Iris Rawtaer, Alasdair M Barr, Kristina M Gicas, Donna J Lang, A Talia Vertinsky, Alexander Rauscher, Ric M Procyshyn, Tari Buchanan, Alex Cheng, Sarah MacKay, Olga Leonova, Verena Langheimer, Thalia S Field, Manraj K Heran, Fidel Vila-Rodriguez, Tiffany A O'Connor, G William MacEwan, William G Honer, William J Panenka
We characterized traumatic brain injury (TBI) and studied its associations with mental and physical health in a community cohort of homeless and vulnerably housed individuals. Detailed mental and physical health structured interviews, neuropsychological testing, and multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed on 283 participants. Two TBI participant groups were defined for primary analyses: those with a self-reported history of TBI and those with MRI confirmation of TBI. By self-report, 174 participants (61...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
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