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Journal of Neurotrauma

Uttam K Bodanapally, Krystal Archer-Arroyo, David Dreizin, Kathirkamanathan Shanmuganathan, Gary Schwartzbauer, Guang Li, Thorsten R Fleiter
High energy monochromatic (190keV) images may be more reliable than standard 120 kV Images for detecting intracranial hemorrhages. We aimed to retrospectively compare virtual high monochromatic (190 keV) and standard 120 kV images from dual-energy CT (DECT) for the diagnosis of intracranial hemorrhages in traumatic brain injury (TBI). We analyzed admission CT studies in 100 trauma patients. Three radiologists independently reviewed four image sets: 120 kV, and 190 keV (thin-1mm and thick-5mm section) images for the presence of various types of intracranial hemorrhages...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Nanhua Zhang, Eloise E Kaizar, Megan E Narad, Brad G Kurowski, Keith Owen Yeates, H Gerry Taylor, Shari L Wade
A series of five randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) conducted between 2002 and 2015 support the potential efficacy of online family problem-solving treatment (OFPST) in improving both child and parent/family outcomes after pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, small sample sizes and heterogeneity across individual studies have precluded examination of potentially important moderators. We jointly analyzed individual participant data (IPD) from these five RCTs, involving 359 children between the ages of 5 and 18 years, to confirm the role of previously identified moderators (child's age and pre-treatment symptom levels, parental education) and to examine other potential moderators (race, sex, IQ), using IPD meta-analysis...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Atsushi Kodani, Takahiro Kikuchi, Chihiro Tohda
Chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) is difficult to cure, even by several approaches effective at the acute or subacute phase. We focused on skeletal muscle atrophy as a detrimental factor in chronic SCI and explored drugs that protect against muscle atrophy and activate secretion of axonal growth factors from skeletal muscle. We found that acteoside induced the secretion of axonal growth factors from skeletal muscle cells and proliferation of these cells. Intramuscular injection of acteoside in mice with chronic SCI recovered skeletal muscle weight reduction and motor function impairment...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Wei-Ji Weng, Chun Yang, Xian-Jian Huang, Yong-Ming Zhang, Jin-Fang Liu, Jie-Min Yao, Zi-Heng Zhang, Xue-Song Wu, Tao Mei, Chuan-Dong Zhang, Jun Jia, Xiao-Feng Shi, Qing Mao, Jun-Feng Feng, Guo-Yi Gao, Ji-Yao Jiang
A prospective observational study collected temperature data from 51 patients in 11 neurosurgical centers and follow-up outcome information at 6 months in 49 patients. Brain temperature (Tbr ) was measured directly by an intraventricular temperature sensor. Axillary temperature (Tax ) and rectal temperature (Tre ) were measured by electric thermometers. Tbr was 0.4 to 1.5°C higher than body temperature. Tre correlated well with the Tbr (coefficient: 0.7378; p < 0.05). Among all patients, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores on admission were significantly lower in the patients with post-operatively extreme peak temperature (Tpeak , < 37°C or >39°C in first 24 h) and major temperature variation (Tvari > 1°C in first 12 h; p < 0...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Zhenhui Huang, Gao Yarong, Yasushi Shimoda, Kazutada Watanabe, Yaobo Liu
NB-3 (contactin-6) is a member of the contactin family and has a wide range of roles during central nervous system development and disease. Here, we found that NB-3 was simultaneously induced in the serotonergic raphespinal tract (sRST) axons and in the scar-forming cells after spinal cord injury (SCI). Regrowth of sRST axons was promoted in vivo by blocking NB-3 expression in either sRST axons or scar-forming cells when post-traumatic axons of the sRST tried to penetrate the glial scar. NB-3 deficiency promoted synapse reformation between sRST regenerative axons and motor neurons and enhanced the potential for electrical activity of muscle contraction and motor coordination...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Brian L Brooks, Vickie Plourde, Miriam H Beauchamp, Ken Tang, Keith Owen Yeates, Michelle Keightley, Peter Anderson, Naddley Désiré, Nick Barrowman, Roger Zemek
A significant proportion of children and adolescents report psychological distress following concussion, but little is known about the predictors of these problems. The purpose of this study was to examine predictive factors of psychological distress following pediatric concussion. It was hypothesized that the presence of pre-injury psychological distress would be the strongest predictor of psychological distress post-concussion, with other demographic and acute injury factors adding incrementally to prediction...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Fidel Hernandez, David B Camarillo
We investigated whether humans could sustain high head rotational velocities without brain injury. Rotational velocity has long been implicated for predicting concussion risk, and has recently been used to develop the rotational velocity-based Brain Injury Criterion (BrIC). To assess the efficacy of rotational velocity and BrIC for predicting concussion risk, we instrumented 9 male subjects with sensor-laden mouthguards and measured six-degree-of-freedom head accelerations for 27 rapid voluntary head rotations...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Elisabeth A Wilde, Ashley L Ware, Xiaoqi Li, Trevor C Wu, Stephen R McCauley, Amanda Barnes, Mary R Newsome, Brian D Biekman, Jill V Hunter, Zili D Chu, Harvey S Levin
To address controversy surrounding the most appropriate comparison group for mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) research, mTBI patients 12-30 years of age were compared with an extracranial orthopedic injury (OI) patient group and an uninjured, typically developing (TD) participant group with comparable demographic backgrounds. Injured participants underwent subacute (within 96 h) and late (3 months) diffusion tensor imaging (DTI); TD controls underwent DTI once. Group differences in fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) of commonly studied white matter tracts were assessed...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Bizhan Aarabi, Joshua Olexa, Timothy Chryssikos, Samuel M Galvagno, David S Hersh, Aaron Wessell, Charles Sansur, Gary Schwartzbauer, Kenneth Crandall, Kathirkamanathan Shanmuganathan, J Marc Simard, Harry Mushlin, Mathew Kole, Elizabeth Le, Nathan Pratt, Gregory Cannarsa, Cara D Lomangino, Maureen Scarboro, Carla Aresco, Brian Curry
Although decompressive surgery following traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI) is recommended, adequate surgical decompression is rarely verified via imaging. We utilized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to analyze the rate of spinal cord decompression after surgery. Pre-operative (within 8 h of injury) and post-operative (within 48 h of injury) MRI images of 184 motor complete patients (American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale [AIS] grade A = 119, AIS grade B = 65) were reviewed to verify spinal cord decompression...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Diana M Norden, Timothy D Faw, Daniel B McKim, Rochelle J Deibert, Lesley C Fisher, John F Sheridan, Jonathan P Godbout, D Michele Basso
Spinal cord injury (SCI) produces a toxic inflammatory microenvironment that negatively affects plasticity and recovery. Recently, we showed glial activation and peripheral myeloid cell infiltration extending beyond the epicenter through the remote lumbar cord after thoracic SCI. The presence and role of infiltrating monocytes is important, especially in the lumbar cord where locomotor central pattern generators are housed. Therefore, we compared the inflammatory profile of resident microglia and peripheral myeloid cells after SCI...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Ashley L Ware, Brian Biekman, Rebecca Hachey, Marianne MacLeod, William Bird, Sudhir Pathak, Emily Clarke, Allison Borrasso, Ava M Puccio, Kelly Glavin, Kristopher Pomiecko, Paolo Moretti, Sue R Beers, Harvey S Levin, Walter Schneider, David O Okonkwo, Elisabeth A Wilde
Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) is common in veterans of the Iraq- and Afghanistan-era conflicts. However, the typical subtlety of neural alterations and absence of definitive biomarkers impede clinical detection on conventional imaging. This preliminary study examined the structure and functional correlates of executive control network (ECN) white matter in veterans to investigate the clinical utility of using high-definition fiber tracking (HDFT) to detect chronic bTBI. Demographically similar male veterans (N = 38) with and without bTBI (ages 24 to 50 years) completed standardized neuropsychological testing and magnetic resonance imaging...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Renata M Knoll, Katherine L Reinshagen, Samuel R Barber, Iman Ghanad, Randel Swanson, Douglas H Smith, Kalil G Abdullah, David H Jung, Aaron K Remenschneider, Elliott D Kozin
Brain injuries are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Auditory and vestibular dysfunction may occur following trauma to the temporal bone (TB), including the lateral skull base. The porcine model is a commonly used large animal model for investigating brain injury. Reports detailing porcine TB anatomy based on high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) imaging, however, are limited. Herein, we employ HRCT to evaluate and describe the bony anatomy of the porcine TB and lateral skull base...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Jolanta Zieba, Maciej Walczak, Oleg Gordiienko, Jonathan A Gerstenhaber, George M Smith, Barbara Krynska
Myelomeningocele (MMC) is a devastating congenital neural tube defect, which results in the exposure of spinal cord to the intrauterine environment leading to secondary spinal cord injury and severe impairment. Though, the mechanisms underlying the secondary pathogenesis are clinically relevant, the exact cause of in utero acquired spinal cord damage remains unclear. The objective of this study was to determine whether the Hyaluronic acid (HA) concentration in amniotic fluid (AF) in the retinoic acid-induced model of MMC is different from that in normal controls and whether these differences could have an impact on the viscosity of AF...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Andrea Jimena Santamaria, Francisco D Benavides, Kyle Padgett, Luis Guada, Yohjan Nunez-Gomez, Juan Solano, James Guest
Neuroimaging facilitates the translation of animal preclinical research to human application. The large porcine spinal cord is useful for testing invasive interventions. Ideally, the safety and efficacy of a delayed intervention is tested in pigs that have recovered sufficiently after SCI to allow either deterioration or improvement of function to be detected. We set out to create moderate severity T9 injuries in Yucatan minipigs by conducting a bridging study adapting methods previously developed in infant piglets...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Edith N Botchway, Celia Godfrey, Vicki Anderson, Christian L Nicholas, Cathy Catroppa
Sleep-wake disturbances (SWD) are frequent following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in childhood. However, outcomes of SWD following transition into young adulthood remain unknown. This study investigated prevalence and factors associated with subjective sleep quality, insomnia, and excessive daytime sleepiness in young adults with a history of childhood TBI. Participants included 54 young adults with mild (n = 14), moderate (n = 27), and severe (n = 13) TBI (age: mean = 27.7, SD = 3.3), and 13 typically developing controls (TDC) (age: mean = 25...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Volodymyr Gerzanich, Jesse A Stokum, Svetlana Ivanova, Seung Kyoon Woo, Orest Tsymbalyuk, Amit Sharma, Fatih Akkentli, Ziyan Imran, Bizhan Aarabi, Juan Sahuquillo, J Marc Simard
In severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), contusions often are worsened by contusion expansion or hemorrhagic progression of contusion (HPC), which may double the original contusion volume and worsen outcome. In humans and rodents with contusion-TBI, sulfonylurea receptor 1 (SUR1) is upregulated in microvessels and astrocytes, and in rodent models, blockade of SUR1 with glibenclamide reduces HPC. SUR1 does not function by itself, but must co-assemble with either KIR6.2 or transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 4 (TRPM4) to form KATP (SUR1-KIR6...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Derek R Verley, Daniel Torolira, Brittany A Hessell, Richard L Sutton, Neil G Harris
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in well-known, significant alterations in structural and functional connectivity. Although this is especially likely to occur in areas of pathology, deficits in function to and from remotely connected brain areas, or diaschisis, also occur as a consequence to local deficits. As a result, consideration of the network wiring of the brain may be required to design the most efficacious rehabilitation therapy to target specific functional networks to improve outcome. In this work, we model remote connections after controlled cortical impact injury (CCI) in the rat through the effect of callosal deafferentation to the opposite, contralesional cortex...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Frederick A Zeiler, Joseph Donnelly, Leanne Calviello, Jennifer K Lee, Peter Smielewski, Ken Brady, Dong-Joo Kim, Marek Czosnyka
The purpose of this study was to provide validation of intracranial pressure (ICP) derived continuous indices of cerebrovascular reactivity against the lower limit of autoregulation (LLA). Utilizing an intracranial hypertension model within white New Zealand rabbits, ICP, transcranial Doppler (TCD), laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF), and arterial blood pressure were recorded. Data were retrospectively analyzed in a cohort of 12 rabbits with adequate signals for interrogating the LLA. We derived continuous indices of cerebrovascular reactivity: PRx (correlation between ICP and mean arterial pressure [MAP]), PAx (correlation between pulse amplitude of ICP [AMP] and MAP), and Lx (correlation between LDF-based cerebral blood flow [CBF] and cerebral perfusion pressure [CPP])...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Lin Sun, Man Li, Xun Ma, Li Zhang, Junlai Song, Cong Lv, Yajun He
High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) could function as an early trigger for pro-inflammatory activation after spinal cord injury (SCI). Spinal cord edema contributes to inflammatory response mechanisms and a poor clinical prognosis after SCI, for which efficient therapies targeting the specific molecules involved remain limited. This study was designed to evaluate the roles of HMGB1 on the regulation of early spinal cord edema, astrocyte activation, and aquaporin-4 (AQP4) expression in a rat SCI model. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats underwent laminectomy at T10, and the SCI model was induced by a heavy falling object...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Eve M Valera, Aihua Cao, Ofer Pasternak, Martha E Shenton, Marek Kubicki, Nikos Makris, Noor Adra
A large proportion (range of 44-75%) of women who experience intimate-partner violence (IPV) have been shown to sustain repetitive mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBIs) from their abusers. Further, despite requests for research on TBI-related health outcomes, there are currently only a handful of studies addressing this issue and only one prior imaging study that has investigated the neural correlates of IPV-related TBIs. In response, we examined specific regions of white matter microstructure in 20 women with histories of IPV...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
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