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Journal of Neurotrauma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212411/geriatric-traumatic-brain-injury-epidemiology-outcomes-knowledge-gaps-and-future-directions
#1
Raquel C Gardner, Kristen Dams-O'Connor, Molly Rose Morrissey, Geoffrey Manley
This review of the literature on traumatic brain injury (TBI) in older adults focuses on incident TBI sustained in older adulthood ("geriatric TBI") rather than on the separate, but related, topic of older adults with a history of earlier-life TBI. We describe the epidemiology of geriatric TBI, the impact of comorbidities and pre-injury function on TBI risk and outcomes, diagnostic testing, management issues, outcomes, and critical directions for future research. The highest incidence of TBI-related emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and deaths occur in older adults...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212405/a-description-of-a-new-continuous-physiologic-index-in-tbi-using-the-correlation-between-pulse-amplitude-of-icp-and-cerebral-perfusion-pressure
#2
Frederick Adam Zeiler, Joseph Donnelly, David Menon, Peter Smieleweski, Peter John Hutchinson, Marek Czosnyka
To describe a new continuous index of physiologic measurement in a TBI population, the moving correlation coefficient between intracranial pressure (ICP) pulse amplitude (AMP) and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), which we refer to as RAC. We use patient examples of sustained intracranial hypertension, systemic arterial hypotension and plateau waves, as well as the retrospective analysis of 358 non-decompressive craniectomy (DC) traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients with high frequency ICP and ABP data, to explore the relationships of this new index, RAC, with AMP, ICP, CPP, RAP, pressure reactivity index (PRx) and pulse amplitude index (PAx)...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207908/a-scoping-review-of-pain-in-children-following-traumatic-brain-injury-is-there-more-than-headache
#3
Vivian Kwan, Mai Vo, Melanie Noel, Keith Owen Yeates
AIM: Headache is a common source of pain in children following traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, relatively little is known about non-headache pain in this pediatric population. The present review seeks to map the extant literature to determine the prevalence, characteristics, and impact of non-headache pain in children following TBI of all severities. RESULTS: Of 109 studies published on pain in children following a TBI, 95 (87%) were focused exclusively on headache pain and only 14 (13%) reported on non-headache pain or overall pain, with half (n = 7) in the form of case studies...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205096/anatomical-and-functional-changes-to-the-colonic-neuromuscular-compartment-after-experimental-spinal-cord-injury
#4
Amanda White, Gregory M Holmes
A profound reduction in colorectal transit time accompanies spinal cord injury (SCI), yet the colonic alterations after SCI have yet to be fully understood. The loss of descending supraspinal input to lumbosacral neural circuits innervating the colon is recognized as one causal mechanism. However, remodeling of the colonic enteric nervous system/smooth muscle junction in response to inflammation is recognized as one factor leading to colonic dysmotility in other pathophysiological models. We investigated the alterations to the neuromuscular junction in rats with experimental high-thoracic (T3) SCI...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205090/rapamycin-exacerbates-cardiovascular-dysfunction-after-complete-high-thoracic-spinal-cord-injury
#5
Khalid C Eldahan, David H Cox, Jenna L Gollihue, Samir P Patel, Alexander G Rabchevsky
Autonomic dysreflexia (AD) is a potentially life-threatening syndrome in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) above the T6 spinal level that is characterized by episodic hypertension in response to noxious stimuli below the lesion. Maladaptive intraspinal plasticity is thought to contribute to the temporal development of AD, and experimental approaches that reduce such plasticity mitigate the severity of AD. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has gained interest as a mediator of plasticity, regeneration and nociceptor hypersensitivity in the injured spinal cord...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187031/minocycline-plus-n-acetylcysteine-reduce-behavioral-deficits-and-improve-histology-with-a-clinically-useful-time-window
#6
Michael Sangobowale, Natalia M Grin'kina, Kristen Whitney, Elena Nikulina, Karrah St Laurent-Arriot, Johnson S Ho, Narek Bazyan, Peter Bergold
There are presently no drugs to treat traumatic brain injury (TBI). A major problem in developing therapeutics is that drugs to treat TBI lack sufficient potency when dosed within a clinically relevant time window. Previous studies have shown that minocycline (MINO, 45mg/kg) plus N-acetylcysteine (NAC, 150mg/kg) synergistically improved cognition and memory, modulated inflammation and prevented loss of oligodendrocytes that remyelinated damaged white matter when first dosed 1 hour (h) after controlled cortical impact (CCI) in rats...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187028/rat-model-of-brain-injury-to-occupants-of-vehicles-targeted-by-land-mines-mitigation-by-elastomeric-frame-designs
#7
Flaubert Tchantchou, Adam C Puche, Ulrich Leiste, William Fourney, Thomas A Blanpied, Gary Fiskum
Many victims of blast traumatic brain injury (TBI) are occupants of vehicles targeted by land mines. A rat model of under-vehicle blast TBI was used to test the hypothesis that the neuropathology and altered behavior that ensue are mitigated by vehicle designs that dramatically reduce blast-induced acceleration (G force). Male rats were restrained on an aluminum platform that was accelerated vertically at up to 2850G, in response to detonation of an explosive positioned under a second platform in contact with the top via different energy-absorbing structures...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179667/high-fidelity-measures-of-whole-brain-functional-connectivity-and-white-matter-integrity-mediate-relationships-between-tbi-and-ptsd-symptoms
#8
Evan Moss Gordon, Randall Scheibel, Laura Zambrano-Vazquez, Meilin Jia-Richards, Geoffrey J May, Eric C Meyer, Steven M Nelson
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) disrupts brain communication and increases risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, mechanisms by which TBI-related disruption of brain communication confers PTSD risk have not been successfully elucidated in humans. This may be in part because fMRI, the most common technique for measuring brain function, is unreliable for characterizing individual patients. However, this unreliability can be overcome with sufficient within-individual data. Here, we examined whether relationships could be observed between TBI, structural and functional brain connectivity, and PTSD severity by collecting ~3...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179648/sex-differences-in-thermal-stress-and-inflammatory-responses-to-minocycline-administration-in-rats-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#9
Anna N Taylor, Delia L Tio, Afshin Paydar, Richard L Sutton
Persistent inflammation, mediated in part by increases in cytokines, is a hallmark of traumatlc brain injury (TBI). Minocycline has been shown to inhibit post-TBI neuroinflammation in male rats and mice, but has not been tested in females. Here we studied sex differences in thermal, stress and inflammatory responses to TBI and minocycline. Female rats were ovariectomized under isoflurane anesthesia at 33-36 days of age. At 45-55 days of age male and female rats were implanted intraperitoneally (i.p.) with calibrated transmitters for monitoring body temperature...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179629/spinal-cord-injury-disrupts-resting-state-networks-in-the-human-brain
#10
Ammar Hawasli, Jerrel Rutlin, Jarod L Roland, Rory Murphy, Sheng-Kwei Song, Eric Leuthardt, Joshua Shimony, Wilson Z Ray
Despite 253,000 spinal cord injury (SCI) patients in America, little is known about how SCI affects brain networks. Spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides only structural information with no insight into functional connectivity. Resting-state functional MRI (RS-fMRI) quantifies network connectivity through the identification of resting-state networks (RSNs) and allows detection of functionally-relevant changes during disease. Given the robust network of spinal cord afferents to the brain, we hypothesized SCI produces meaningful changes in brain RSNs...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179622/traumatic-brain-injury-impairs-myogenic-constriction-of-cerebral-arteries-role-of-mitochondria-derived-h2o2-and-trpv4-dependent-activation-of-bkca-channels
#11
Nikolett Szarka, Mallikarjuna R Pabbidi, Krisztina Amrein, Endre Czeiter, Gergely Berta, Krisztina Pohoczky, Zsuzsanna Helyes, Zoltan Ungvari, Akos Koller, Andras Buki, Peter Toth
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) impairs autoregulation of cerebral blood flow, which contributes to the development of secondary brain injury increasing mortality of patients. Impairment of pressure-induced myogenic constriction of cerebral arteries plays a critical role in autoregulatory dysfunction; however, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms are not well understood. To determine the role of mitochondria-derived H2O2 and large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (BKCa) in myogenic autoregulatory dysfunction, middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) were isolated from rats with severe weight drop-impact acceleration brain injury (24 h post-impact)...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179621/erythropoietin-attenuates-the-brain-edema-response-following-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury
#12
Jonas Blixt, Eli Gunnarson, Michael Wanecek
Erythropoietin (EPO) has neuroprotective effects in multiple CNS injury models; however EPO's effects on traumatic brain edema are elusive. To explore EPO as an intervention in traumatic brain edema male SD-rats were subjected to blunt, controlled traumatic brain injury (TBI). Animals were randomized to EPO 5000IU/kg or saline (control group) intraperitoneally within 30 minutes after trauma and once daily for 4 consecutive days. Brain MRI, immunohistofluorescence, immunohistochemistry and quantitative protein analysis were performed at day 1 and 4 post trauma...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179620/a-novel-method-for-quantifying-human-in-situ-whole-brain-deformation-under-rotational-loading-using-sonomicrometry
#13
Ahmed Alshareef, J Sebastian Giudice, Jason Forman, Robert S Salzar, Matthew B Panzer
Traumatic brain injuries are one of the least understood injuries to the body. Finite element (FE) models of the brain have been crucial for understanding concussion and for developing injury mitigation systems; however, the experimental brain deformation data currently used to validate these models are limited. The objective of this study was to develop a methodology for the investigation of in situ three-dimensional brain deformation during pure rotational loading of the head, using sonomicrometry. Sonomicrometry uses ultrasonic pulses to measure the dynamic distances between piezoelectric crystals implanted in any sound-transmitting media...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160147/impact-of-complete-spinal-cord-injury-on-healing-of-skin-ulcers-in-mouse-models
#14
Suneel Kumar, Martin L Yarmush, Biraja C Dash, Henry C Hsia, Francois Berthiaume
Pressure ulcers (PUs) are common debilitating complications of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) and tend to occur in soft tissues around bony prominences. There is, however, little known about the impact of SCI on skin wound healing due to the lack of suitable animal models for studies in controlled experimental settings. Herein we describe a reproducible and clinically relevant mouse model of PUs in the context of complete SCI. Adult male mice (BALB/c) were subjected to thoracic (T9-T10) complete SCI. Immediately after, a skin fold on the back of the mice was lifted and sandwiched between two magnetic discs held in place for 12 hours, thus creating an ischemic area that developed into a PU over the following days...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160145/the-graded-and-redefined-assessment-of-strength-sensibility-and-prehension-grassp-version-2-provides-interval-measure-properties
#15
Inge-Marie Velstra, Carolina Saskia Fellinghauer, Rainer Frank Abel, Sukhvinder Kalsi-Ryan, Rüdiger Rupp, Armin Curt
The GRASSP is a valid, reliable and responsive outcome measure to evaluate upper limb function in individuals with tetraplegia. GRASSP generates ordinal total scores; thus, applicability as an interval level measurement requires testing of its measurement properties. Therefore, this study examined the metric characteristics with Rasch analysis to derive interval level scales of the respective GRASSP subtests. The GRASSP was recorded within 10 days, at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after cervical spinal cord injury (SCI)...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160143/some-autonomic-deficits-of-acute-or-chronic-cervical-spinal-contusion-reversed-by-interim-brainstem-stimulation
#16
Alberto A Vitores, Stephanie S Sloley, Catalina Martinez, Melissa M Carballosa-Gautam, Ian D Hentall
Prolonged electrical stimulation of the hindbrain's nucleus raphe magnus (NRM) or its major midbrain input region, the periaqueductal gray (PAG), was previously found in rats to promote recovery from sensory-motor and histological deficits of acute thoracic spinal cord injury (SCI). Here, some visceral deficits of acute and chronic midline cervical (C5) contusion are similarly examined. Cranially implanted wireless stimulators delivered intermittent 8 Hz, 30-70 µA cathodal pulse trains to a brainstem microelectrode...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160141/effects-of-mild-blast-traumatic-brain-injury-on-cerebral-vascular-histopathological-and-behavioral-outcomes-in-rats
#17
Uylissa A Rodriguez, Yaping Zeng, Donald James Deyo, Margaret O Parsley, Bridget E Hawkins, Donald S Prough, Douglas DeWitt
To determine the effects of mild blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI), several groups of rats were subjected to blast injury or sham injury in a compressed air-driven shock tube. The effects of bTBI on relative cerebral perfusion (laser Doppler flowmetry, LDF), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) cerebral vascular resistance were measured for two hrs post-bTBI. Dilator responses to reduced intravascular pressure were measured in isolated middle cerebral arterial (MCA) segments, ex vivo, 30 and 60 min post-bTBI...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054135/alterations-in-the-timing-of-huperzine-a-cerebral-pharmacodynamics-in-the-acute-traumatic-brain-injury-setting
#18
Ugur Damar, Roman Gersner, Joshua T Johnstone, Kush Kapur, Stephen Collins, Steven Schachter, Alexander Rotenberg
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) may affect the pharmacodynamics of centrally acting drugs. Paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (ppTMS) is a safe and noninvasive measure of cortical gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated cortical inhibition. Huperzine A (HupA) is a naturally occurring acetylcholinesterase inhibitor with newly discovered potent GABA-mediated antiepileptic capacity, which is reliably detected by ppTMS. To test whether TBI alters cerebral HupA pharmacodynamics, we exposed rats to fluid percussion injury (FPI) and tested whether ppTMS metrics of cortical inhibition differ in magnitude and temporal pattern in injured rats...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967294/an-autonomic-neuroprosthesis-noninvasive-electrical-spinal-cord-stimulation-restores-autonomic-cardiovascular-function-in-individuals-with-spinal-cord-injury
#19
Aaron A Phillips, Jordan W Squair, Dimitry G Sayenko, V Reggie Edgerton, Yury Gerasimenko, Andrei V Krassioukov
Despite autonomic dysfunction after spinal cord injury (SCI) being the major cause of death and a top health priority, the clinical management options for these conditions are limited to drugs with delayed onset and nonpharmacological interventions with equivocal effectiveness. We tested the capacity of electrical stimulation, applied transcutaneously over the spinal cord, to manage autonomic dysfunction in the form of orthostatic hypotension after SCI. We assessed beat-by-beat blood pressure (BP), stroke volume, and cardiac contractility (dP/dt; Finometer), as well as cerebral blood flow (transcranial Doppler) in 5 individuals with motor-complete SCI (4 cervical, 1 thoracic) during an orthostatic challenge with and without transcutaneous electrical stimulation applied at the TVII level...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149810/exacerbation-of-acute-traumatic-brain-injury-by-circulating-extracellular-vesicles
#20
Isla Hazleton, Abi Yates, Ashley Dale, Jay Roodselaar, Naveed Akbar, Marc Ruitenberg, Daniel C Anthony, Yvonne Couch
Inflammatory lesions in the brain activate a systemic acute phase response (APR), which is dependent on the release of extracellular vesicles (EVs) into the circulation. The resulting APR is responsible for regulating leukocyte mobilization and subsequent recruitment to the brain. Factors that either exacerbate or inhibit the APR will also exacerbate or inhibit CNS inflammation as a consequence, and have the potential to influence ongoing secondary damage. Here, we were interested to discover how the circulating EV population changes after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and how manipulation of the circulating EV pool impacts on the outcome of TBI...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
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