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Journal of Neurotrauma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181857/subconcussive-impact-dependent-increase-in-plasma-s100%C3%AE-levels-in-collegiate-football-players
#1
Keisuke Kawata, Leah H Rubin, Masahiro Takahagi, Jong Lee, Thomas Sim, Victor Szwanki, Al Bellamy, Ryan Tierney, Dianne Langford
The current study investigates whether repetitive subconcussive impacts cause changes in plasma S100β levels, and further to test the associations between S100β changes and frequency/magnitude of impacts sustained. This prospective study of 22 Division-I collegiate football players included baseline and pre-season practices [1 helmet-only and 4 full-gear]. Blood samples were obtained and assessed for S100β levels at baseline and pre-post practices; symptom scores were assessed at each time point. An accelerometer-embedded mouthguard was employed to measure number of impacts (hits), peak linear acceleration (PLA), and peak rotational acceleration (PRA)...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177265/social-competence-at-2-years-following-child-traumatic-brain-injury
#2
Vicki Anderson, Miriam Helen Beauchamp, Keith Owen Yeates, Louise Crossley, Nicholas Peter Ryan, Stephen J C Hearps, Cathy Catroppa
Children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) are at risk of social impairment, but research is yet to document the trajectory of these skills post-injury and factors that may predict social problems. The study addressed these gaps in knowledge, reporting on findings from a prospective, longitudinal follow-up study which investigated social outcomes post injury and explored factors contributing to these outcomes at 2 years post-injury. The sample included 113 children, 74 with TBI and 39 typically developing (TD) controls...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173745/characterization-of-chronic-axonal-degeneration-using-diffusion-tensor-imaging-in-canine-spinal-cord-injury-a-quantitative-analysis-of-dti-parameters-according-to-histopathological-differences
#3
Hakyoung Yoon, Jaehwan Kim, Won-Jin Moon, Sang-Soep Nahm, Jun Zhao, Hyoung-Moon Kim, Kidong Eom
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is more sensitive than conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the identification of axonal degeneration. However, no study to date has used DTI to evaluate the severity of axonal degeneration in canine spinal cord injury. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize multi-grade axonal degeneration (mild, moderate, and severe) in a canine model of spinal cord compression injury using DTI. MRI data were obtained from six normal dogs and five dogs with lumbar spinal cord injury 78 days after spinal cord injury (L1-L3) using a 3T MRI scanner...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173736/the-alternative-receptor-for-complement-component-5a-c5ar2-conveys-neuroprotection-in-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury
#4
Patrick Biggins, Faith Brennan, Stephen Taylor, Trent Woodruff, Marc Ruitenberg
This study investigated the role of the secondary receptor for complement activation fragment C5a, C5aR2, in secondary inflammatory pathology following contusive spinal cord injury (SCI) in mice. <i>C5ar2<sup>-/-</sup></i> mice exhibited decreased intraparenchymal TNFα and IL-6 acutely after injury but these reductions did not translate into improved outcomes. We show that loss of C5aR2 leads to increased lesion volumes, reduced myelin sparing and significantly worsened recovery from SCI in <i>C5ar2<sup>-/-</sup></i> animals compared to wild-type (WT) controls...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158951/neuronal-biomarker-ubiquitin-c-terminal-hydrolase-uch-l1-detects-traumatic-intracranial-lesions-on-ct-in-children-and-youth-with-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#5
Linda Papa, Manoj K Mittal, Jose Ramirez, Salvatore Silvestri, Philip Giordano, Carolina F Braga, Ciara Natasha S Tan, Neema J Ameli, Marco Lopez, Crystal A Haeussler, Diego Mendez Giordano, Mark R Zonfrillo
: This study examined the performance of serum Ubiquitin C-terminal Hydrolase (UCH-L1) in detecting traumatic intracranial lesions on CT scan (+CT) in children and youth with mild and moderate TBI (MMTBI) and assessed its performance in trauma control patients without head trauma. This prospective cohort study enrolled children and youth presenting to three Level 1 Trauma Centers following blunt head trauma and a GCS 9-15 as well as trauma control patients with GCS 15 that did not have blunt head trauma...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152648/changes-in-apparent-fibre-density-and-track-weighted-imaging-metrics-in-white-matter-following-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury
#6
David Wright, Leigh Johnston, Jeff Kershaw, Roger Ordidge, Terence John O'Brien, Sandy Richard Shultz
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been assessed with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), a commonly used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) marker for white matter integrity. However, as the DTI model only fits a single fibre orientation, results can become confounded in regions of 'crossing' white matter fibres. In contrast, constrained spherical deconvolution estimates a fibre orientation distribution directly from high angular resolution diffusion weighted images. Consequently, constrained spherical deconvolution-based measures such as apparent fibre density and track-weighted imaging metrics (including tract density imaging, average pathlength mapping, and mean curvature), may be more sensitive than DTI metrics to white matter injury following TBI...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145813/alteration-in-long-non-coding-rna-expression-after-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rats
#7
Chuan-Fang Wang, Cheng-Cheng Zhao, Wei-Ji Weng, Jin Lei, Yong Lin, Qing Mao, Guo-Yi Gao, Jun-Feng Feng, Ji-Yao Jiang
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes a primary insult and initiates a secondary injury cascade. The mechanisms underlying the secondary injury are multifactorial and may include the aberrant expression of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) post-TBI. Here, lncRNA microarray analysis was performed to profile the altered lncRNAs in the rat hippocampus after TBI. A total of 271 lncRNA probe sets and 1046 mRNA probe sets were differentially expressed after TBI. Gene ontology analysis showed that the main components of the most significantly changed categories were inflammation, DNA transcription, apoptosis and necroptosis...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129730/functional-outcome-prediction-after-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury-based-on-acute-clinical-factors
#8
Ludovic Kaminski, Virginie Cordemans, Edouard Cernat, Kouamé Innocent M'Bra, Jean-Marc Mac-Thiong
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating condition that affects patient on a personal as well as on a societal level. The objective of the study is to improve the prediction of long-term functional outcome following SCI based on the acute clinical findings. 76 patients with acute traumatic SCI were prospectively enrolled in a cohort study in a single level I trauma center. Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM) at 1 year after the trauma was the primary outcome. Potential predictors of functional outcome were recorded during the acute hospitalization: age, sex, level and type of injury, comorbidities, American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Impairment Scale (AIS), ASIA Motor Score (AMS), ASIA Light Touch score (LT), ASIA Pin Prick score (PP), Injury Severity Score (ISS), Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and delay from trauma to surgery...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998205/2015-parapan-american-games-autonomic-function-but-not-physical-activity-is-associated-with-vascular-cognitive-impairment-in-spinal-cord-injury
#9
Aaron A Phillips, Jordan R Squair, Katharine D Currie, Yu-Chieh Tzeng, Philip N Ainslie, Andrei V Krassioukov
Autonomic dysfunction and diminished capacity for physical exercise are commonly implicated in the 3- to 4-fold increased risk of cerebrovascular disease after spinal cord injury (SCI). We assessed cerebrovascular function (transcranial Doppler; neurovascular coupling [NVC], and cerebral pressure-flow regulation) in elite national level wheelchair rugby players (n = 23), normally active SCI individuals (n = 12), and able-bodied controls (n = 13). Cognitive (Stroop test) and autonomic function (postural change) also were evaluated...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27937140/evaluation-of-whole-brain-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-spinal-cord-injury-a-large-scale-network-analysis-using-network-based-statistic
#10
Mayank Kaushal, Akinwunmi Oni-Orisan, Gang Chen, Wenjun Li, Jack Leschke, B Douglas Ward, Benjamin Kalinosky, Matthew D Budde, Brian D Schmit, Shi-Jiang Li, Vaishnavi Muqeet, Shekar N Kurpad
Large-scale network analysis characterizes the brain as a complex network of nodes and edges to evaluate functional connectivity patterns. The utility of graph-based techniques has been demonstrated in an increasing number of resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) studies in the normal and diseased brain. However, to our knowledge, graph theory has not been used to study the reorganization pattern of resting-state brain networks in patients with traumatic complete spinal cord injury (SCI). In the present analysis, we applied a graph-theoretical approach to explore changes to global brain network architecture as a result of SCI...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125935/atraumatic-spine-distraction-induces-metabolic-distress-in-spinal-motor-neurons
#11
Jennifer Elizabeth Bell, Jennifer L Seifert, Eileen Nicole Shimizu, Daniel J Sucato, Mario Romero-Ortega
Correction forces during spine deformity surgery including distraction, impart significant stresses to the spinal cord, which may result in permanent injury. Intraoperative neuromonitoring (IONM) is commonly used by surgeons to recognize possible damage to the spinal cord in cases of evident traumatic or vascular damage to the spinal cord. However, mild insult to the spinal cord, which does not result in obvious trauma or electrophysiological changes, present a major clinical challenge as the mechanisms of this type of spinal cord injury (SCI) remain largely unknown, and thus preventive strategies are lacking...
January 26, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998237/paralympic-medicine-the-road-to-rio
#12
Aaron A Phillips, Jordan W Squair, Andrei V Krassioukov
Over the past 10 years, our team has attended numerous Paralympic games and International Paralympic Committee (IPC)-sanctioned events where we have accumulated the largest data set to date from elite athletes with spinal cord injury (SCI). This empirical evidence has allowed us to address critical questions related to health and athletic performance in these incredibly medically complex individuals. Namely, does autonomic function influence performance? Can we account for this with the present sport classification? How can we prevent the doping practice of self-inducing life-threatening episodes of hypertension to improve performance (termed "boosting")? How does extremely high participation in routine upper-body wheelchair exercise impact cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease risk? Is it possible to improve the sport classification to level the playing field between athletes with and without autonomic dysfunction? Herein, we will narratively address these questions, and provide our perspective on future directions and recommendations moving forward...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959745/driving-after-concussion-is-it-safe-to-drive-after-symptoms-resolve
#13
Julianne D Schmidt, Nicole L Hoffman, Maud Ranchet, L Stephen Miller, Phillip D Tomporowski, Abiodun E Akinwuntan, Hannes Devos
Post-concussion impairments may result in unsafe driving performance, but little research is available to guide consensus on when concussed individuals should return to driving. The purpose of this study was to compare driving performance between individuals with and without a concussion and to explore relationships between neuropsychological and driving performance. Fourteen participants with concussion (age 20.2 ± 0.9 years old) and 14 non-concussed age- and driving experience-matched controls (age 20...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114873/cogniphobia-in-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#14
Noah D Silverberg, Grant L Iverson, William Panenka
Cogniphobia refers to avoidance of mental exertion due to a fear of developing or exacerbating a headache. Headaches are very common after mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) and often become chronic. Cogniphobia is hypothesized to contribute to poor cognitive test performance and persistent disability in some patients with MTBI. Eighty patients with MTBI and post-traumatic headaches were recruited from specialty outpatient clinics. They completed a battery of questionnaires (including a cogniphobia scale) and neuropsychological tests (the National Institutes of Health Toolbox Cognition Battery and the Medical Symptom Validity Test) at 2-3 months post injury, in a cross-sectional design...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931146/d-cycloserine-restores-experience-dependent-neuroplasticity-after-traumatic-brain-injury-in-the-developing-rat-brain
#15
Naomi S Sta Maria, Maxine L Reger, Yan Cai, Mary Anne T Baquing, Floyd Buen, Aditya Ponnaluri, David A Hovda, Neil G Harris, Christopher C Giza
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children can cause persisting cognitive and behavioral dysfunction, and inevitably raises concerns about lost potential in these injured youth. Lateral fluid percussion injury (FPI) in weanling rats pathologically affects hippocampal N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)- and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR)-mediated glutamatergic neurotransmission subacutely within the first post-injury week. FPI to weanling rats has also been shown to impair enriched-environment (EE) induced enhancement of Morris water maze (MWM) learning and memory in adulthood...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889957/acute-or-delayed-treatment-with-anatabine-improves-spatial-memory-and-reduces-pathological-sequelae-at-late-time-points-after-repetitive-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#16
Scott Ferguson, Benoit Mouzon, Daniel Paris, Destinee Aponte, Laila Abdullah, William Stewart, Michael Mullan, Fiona Crawford
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has chronic and long-term consequences for which there are currently no approved pharmacological treatments. We have previously characterized the chronic neurobehavioral and pathological sequelae of a mouse model of repetitive mild TBI (r-mTBI) through to 2 years post-TBI. Despite the mild nature of the initial insult, secondary injury processes are initiated that involve neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative pathways persisting and progressing for weeks and months post-injury and providing a potential window of opportunity for therapeutic intervention...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958774/early-stage-hyperoxia-is-associated-with-favorable-neurological-outcomes-and-survival-after-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-a-post-hoc-analysis-of-the-brain-hypothermia-study
#17
Motoki Fujita, Yasutaka Oda, Susumu Yamashita, Kotaro Kaneda, Tadashi Kaneko, Eiichi Suehiro, Kenji Dohi, Yasuhiro Kuroda, Hitoshi Kobata, Ryosuke Tsuruta, Tsuyoshi Maekawa
The effects of hyperoxia on the neurological outcomes of patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) are still controversial. We examined whether the partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2) and hyperoxia were associated with neurological outcomes and survival by conducting post-hoc analyses of the Brain Hypothermia (B-HYPO) study, a multi-center randomized controlled trial of mild therapeutic hypothermia for severe TBI. The differences in PaO2 and PaO2/fraction of inspiratory oxygen (P/F) ratio on the 1st day of admission were compared between patients with favorable (n = 64) and unfavorable (n = 65) neurological outcomes and between survivors (n = 90) and deceased patients (n = 39)...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931172/biomechanical-response-of-the-infant-head-to-shaking-an-experimental-investigation
#18
Carole A Jenny, Gina Bertocci, Tsuguhiro Fukuda, Nagarajan Rangarajan, Tariq Shams
Controversy exists regarding whether violent shaking is harmful to infants in the absence of impact. In this study, our objective was to characterize the biomechanical response of the infant head during shaking through use of an instrumented anthropomorphic test device (commonly referred to as a "crash test dummy" or surrogate) representing a human infant and having improved biofidelity. A series of tests were conducted to simulate violent shaking of an infant surrogate. The Aprica 2.5 infant surrogate represented a 5th percentile Japanese newborn...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100103/systematic-review-of-genetic-risk-factors-for-sustaining-a-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#19
William Panenka, Andrew Gardner, Michael Dretsch, Gogce Crynen, Fiona C Crawford, Grant L Iverson
INTRODUCTION: This systematic review examined the association between genetics and risk for sustaining a traumatic brain injury. METHODS: Articles published in English from 1980 to July 2016 obtained from the online databases PubMed, PsycINFO®, MEDLINE®, EMBASE, and Web of Science. RESULTS: 5,903 articles were identified, 77 underwent full-text screening, and six were included in this review. Five studies examined the risk of concussion associated with Apolipoprotein E alleles (APOE-ε2 ,ε3 ,ε4,), and polymorphisms of the APOE promoter (rs405509), Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF, rs6265), and Dopamine Receptor D2 (DRD2, rs1800497) were each considered in two studies...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931169/a-mouse-model-of-bilateral-cervical-contusion-compression-spinal-cord-injury
#20
Nicole Forgione, Mahmood Chamankhah, Michael G Fehlings
Cervical spinal cord injury (cSCI) occurs in over half of all cases of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI), yet we lack therapies that can generate significant functional recovery in these patients. The development of animal models of cSCI will aid in the pre-clinical assessment of therapies and in understanding basic pathophysiological mechanisms. Here, we describe a clinically relevant model of cervical contusion-compression injury in the mouse. Using a modified aneurysm clip, we generated a bilateral, incomplete injury that mimics contusion-compression injuries most commonly observed in humans...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
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