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Journal of Neurotrauma

Patrick M Kochanek, Travis C Jackson, Ruchi Jha, Robert S B Clark, David O Okonkwo, Hulya Bayir, Samuel M Poloyac, Amy K Wagner, Philip E Empey, Yvette P Conley, Michael J Bell, Anthony E Kline, Corina O Bondi, Dennis William Simon, Shaun W Carlson, Ava M Puccio, Christopher M Horvat, Alicia Au, Jonathan Elmer, Amery Treble-Barna, Milos Ikonomovic, Lori Shutter, D Lansing Taylor, Andrew M Stern, Steven H Graham, Valerian E Kagan, Edwin K Jackson, Stephen R Wisniewski, C Edward Dixon
New neuroprotective therapies for severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) have not translated from pre-clinical to clinical success. Numerous explanations have been suggested in both the pre-clinical and clinical arenas. Coverage of TBI in the lay press has reinvigorated interest creating a golden age of TBI research with innovative strategies to circumvent roadblocks. We discuss the need for more robust therapies. We present concepts for traditional and novel approaches to defining therapeutic targets. We review lessons learned from the ongoing work of the pre-clinical drug and biomarker screening consortium Operation Brain Trauma Therapy and suggest ways to further enhance pre-clinical consortia...
December 6, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Matthias Walter, Kathleen Christison, Jean-Jacques J M Wyndaele, Michael Kennelly, Thomas M Kessler, Vanessa K Noonan, Nader Fallah, Andrei V Krassioukov
December 6, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Karmarcha K Martin, Shangrila Parvin, Sandra M Garraway
Previously, we showed that noxious stimulation of the tail produces numerous detrimental effects after spinal cord injury (SCI), including an earlier onset and increased magnitude of mechanical hypersensitivity. Expanding on these observations, this study sought to determine whether localized peripheral inflammation similarly impacts the expression of mechanical hypersensitivity after SCI. Adult rats received a moderate contusion injury at thoracic level (Tl0) or sham surgery, and were administered complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) or vehicle in one hind paw 24 hours later...
December 6, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Stefania Ferraro, Anna Nigri, Simone Nava, Cristina Rosazza, D Sattin, Davide Sebastiano Rossi, Luca Porcu, Maria Grazia Bruzzone, Giorgio Marotta, Riccardo Benti, Alberto Redolfi, Matilde Leonardi, Ludovico D'Incerti
In disorder of consciousness (DOC) patients, corpus callosum (CC) and subcortical white matter (SWM) integrity were showed to discriminate between diagnostic categories. The aims of the study were: 1) to clarify the link between the integrity of CC and of SWM and the clinical status in DOC patients, disentangling the role played by the different brain injuries (traumatic or hemorrhagic brain injury); 2) to investigate the relationship between the CC integrity and the brain metabolism. We assessed the diagnostic accuracy of the CC and SWM integrity, using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI), in a sample of DOC individuals, well-balanced for diagnosis and etiology...
December 6, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Tahira Wangnoo, Ashli A Owen-Smith, Gerald Zavorsky
While there is increasing evidence on the long-term risks associated with concussions, the association between hopelessness, suicidal ideation, suicidal planning and suicidal attempts in high school aged adolescents has not yet been explored. The current study aims to estimate the association between concussions and suicidal behaviors in Utah high school students. We analyzed the 2013 Utah Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), a state, representative survey of 2,195 9th through 12th grade high school students...
December 6, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Clark Ryan-Gonzalez, Nathan Kimbrel, Eric C Meyer, Evan M Gordon, Bryann B DeBeer, Suzy Bird Gulliver, Timothy R Elliott, Sandra Mosissette
The relationship between traumatic brain injury (TBI) and PTSD has been difficult to disentangle, in part due to the commonality of incidents that can cause both conditions, as well as high rates of comorbidity between the two conditions. Inconsistent findings may be related to different study characteristics and types of mTBI sustained (e.g., blast, non-blast). The objective of this study was to determine the association of blast-vs. non-blast related TBIs with long-term PTSD symptoms after controlling for demographic variables and trauma exposure...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Andrew D Gaudet, Laura K Fonken, Monica T Ayala, Heather M D'Angelo, Elana J Smith, Emily M Bateman, Wolfgang E Schleicher, Steven F Maier, Linda Watkins
Spinal cord injury (SCI) dysregulates metabolic homeostasis. Metabolic homeostasis is optimized across the day by the circadian system. Despite the prevalence of metabolic pathologies after SCI, post-SCI circadian regulation of metabolism remains under-studied. Here, we hypothesized that SCI in rats would disrupt circadian regulation of key metabolic organs, leading to metabolic dysregulation. Female and male Sprague-Dawley rats received moderate thoracic (T)-9 contusion SCI (or sham surgery). First, SCI disrupted diurnal rhythms in two metabolic behaviors: fecal production and food intake rhythms were ablated acutely...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Jordan W Squair, Raveena Dhaliwal, Jacquelyn J Cragg, Rebecca Charbonneau, Christopher Grant, Aaron A Phillips
Small-scale studies indicate that spinal cord injury (SCI) may lead to significant gastrointestinal and bladder dysfunction. However, how the prevalence of chronic disease related to these dysfunctions compares to non-SCI individuals and whether there are robust relationships to level and severity of injury are still unclear. Here, our goal was to provide high-level evidence on the association between bladder and gastrointestinal dysfunction and SCI using population-level data from the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) and the SCI Community Survey...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Rui Cao, Chenchu Zhang, Vladimir Mitkin, Miles Lankford, Jun Li, Zhiyi Zuo, Craig Meyer, Christopher Goyne, Stephen Ahlers, James R Stone, Song Hu
Blast traumatic brain injury (bTBI) is a leading contributor to combat-related injuries and death. Although substantial emphasis has been placed on blast-induced neuronal and axonal injuries, co-existing dysfunctions in the cerebral vasculature, particularly the microvasculature, remain poorly understood. Here, we studied blast-induced cerebrovascular dysfunctions in a rat model of bTBI (blast overpressure: 187.8±18.3 kPa). Using photoacoustic microscopy, we quantified changes in cerebral hemodynamics and metabolism-including blood perfusion, oxygenation, flow, oxygen extraction fraction, and the metabolic rate of oxygen-4 hours post-injury...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Tsen-Hsuan Lin, Peng Sun, Mitchell Hallman, Fay C Hwang, Mihael Wallendorf, Wilson Z Ray, William M Spees, Sheng-Kwei Song
Neuroimaging plays an important role in assessing axonal pathology after traumatic spinal cord injury. However, coexisting inflammation confounds imaging assessment of the severity of axonal injury. Herein, we applied diffusion basis spectrum imaging (DBSI) to quantitatively differentiate and quantify underlying pathologies in traumatic spinal cord injury at 3 days post-injury. Results reveal that DBSI was capable of detecting and differentiating axonal injury, demyelination, and inflammation-associated edema and cell infiltration in contusion injured spinal cords...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Iftakher Hossain, Mehrbod Mohammadian, Riikka Sk Takala, Olli Tenovuo, Linnéa Lagerstedt, Henna Maria Ala-Seppälä, Janek Frantzén, Mark Van Gils, Peter John Hutchinson, Ari J Katila, Henna-Riikka Maanpää, David Menon, Virginia Newcombe, Jussi Tallus, Kevin Hrusovsky, David Wilson, Kaj Blennow, Jean-Charles Sanchez, Henrik Zetterberg, Jussi P Posti
To correlate the early levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and neurofilament light protein (NF-L) with outcome in patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). 107 patients with mTBI [Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) ≥13] having the blood samples for GFAP and NF-L available within 24 hrs from arrival were included. Patients with mTBI were divided into computed tomography (CT)-positive and CT-negative groups. Glasgow Outcome Scale extended (GOSE) was used to assess the outcome. Outcomes were defined as complete (GOSE 8) vs...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Noah D Silverberg, Paul Martin, William Panenka
Most patients with primary headache disorders identify environmental stimuli (e.g., visual glare), situational factors (e.g., stress), physiological states (e.g., hormones), or activities (e.g., exercise) as triggers that elicit or worsen headache episodes. Headache triggers have not been previously studied in post-traumatic headache (PTH). The present study explored the frequency of headache triggers and their avoidance in PTH. Participants with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) were recruited from outpatient specialty clinics and completed questionnaires at or soon after their initial clinic visit...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Chandler Walker, Colin M E Fry, Junmei Wang, Xiaolong Du, Kirstin Zuzzio, Nai-Kui Liu, Melissa Walker, Xiao-Ming Xu
Spinal cord injury (SCI) afflicts hundreds of thousands of Americans, and most SCI (~80%) occurs in males. In experimental animal models, however, many studies used females. Funding agencies like the National Institutes of Health recommend that new proposed studies should include both genders due to variations in gender response to injuries, diseases, and treatments. However, cost and considerations for some animal models, such as SCI, affect investigators in adapting to this recommendation. Research has increased comparing gender effects in various disease and injury models, including SCI...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Logan E Miller, Jillian E Urban, Mireille E Kelley, Alexander K Powers, Christopher T Whitlow, Joseph A Maldjian, Steven Rowson, Joel D Stitzel
During normal participation in the sport, football players are exposed to repetitive subconcussive head impacts, or impacts that do not result in signs and symptoms of concussion. To better understand the effects of repetitive subconcussive impacts, the biomechanics of on-field head impacts and resulting brain deformation needs to be well-characterized. The current study evaluates local brain response to typical youth football head impacts using the atlas-based brain model (ABM), an anatomically-accurate brain finite element (FE) model...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Donald J Noble, Karmarcha K Martin, Shangrila Parvin, Sandra M Garraway
Respiratory complications frequently accompany spinal cord injury (SCI), and slowed breathing has been shown to mitigate pain sensitivity. It is possible that elevated respiratory rates (RRs) signal the emergence of chronic pain after SCI. We previously validated the use of remote electric field sensors to non-invasively track breathing in freely behaving rodents. Here, we examined spontaneous (resting) and stimulus-evoked RRs as potential indices of mechanical hypersensitivity following SCI. Adult male Long-Evans rats received a lower thoracic hemisection or contusion SCI, or sham surgery, and underwent weekly assessments of mechanical and thermal sensitivity using the von Frey and Hargreaves tests, respectively...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Lital Magid, Sami Heymann, Merav Elgali, Liat Avram, Yoram Cohen, Sigal Liraz-Zaltsman, Raphael Mechoulam, Esther Shohami
Cannabis is one of the most widely used plant drugs in the world today. In spite of the large number of scientific reports on medical marijuana there still exists much controversy surrounding its use and the potential for abuse due to the undesirable psychotropic effects. However, recent developments in medicinal chemistry of novel non-psychoactive synthetic cannabinoids have indicated that it is possible to separate some of the therapeutic effects from the psychoactivity. We have previously shown that treatment with the endocannabinoid 2-AG that binds to both CB1 and CB2 receptors 1 hr after traumatic brain injury in mice attenuates neurological deficits, edema formation, infarct volume, blood-brain barrier permeability, neuronal cell loss at the CA3 hippocampal region and neuroinflammation...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Christof Wutte, Barbara Klein, Johannes Becker, Orpheus Mach, Stephanie Panzer, Martin Strowitzki, Doris Maier, Lukas Grassner
The optimal timing of surgical intervention following spinal cord injury (SCI) remains under debate. Recent studies indicate a potential neurological and functional benefit of early surgery (< 8 hours) after cervical SCI. For thoracolumbar SCI syndromes, fewer studies exist. Bladder and bowel dysfunction are highly relevant for these patients and impair their quality of life. Hence, we performed a retrospective study on patients with thoracolumbar SCI who were operated at our institution and who met inclusion as well as exclusion criteria (n=58 patients)...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Gian-Gabriel Palaci Garcia, Mariel S Lavieri, Ruiwei Jiang, Thomas McAllister, Michael McCrea, Steven P Broglio
Kutcher and Giza suggested incorporating levels of certainty in concussion diagnosis decisions. These guidelines were based on clinical experience rather than objective data. Therefore, we combined data-driven optimization with predictive modeling to identify which athletes are Unlikely to have concussion and classify remaining athletes as Possible, Probable, or Definite concussion by diagnostic certainty. We developed and validated our framework using data from the Concussion Assessment, Research, and Education (CARE) Consortium...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Hailong Song, Mei Chen, Chen Chen, Jiankun Cui, Catherine E Johnson, Jianlin Cheng, Xiaowan Wang, Russell Swerdlow, Ralph DePalma, Weiming Xia, Zezong Gu
Service members during military actions or combat training are frequently exposed to primary blasts by weaponry. Most studies have investigated moderate or severe brain injuries from blasts generating overpressures over 100-kPa, while understanding the pathophysiology of low-intensity blast (LIB)-induced mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) leading to neurological deficits remains elusive. Our recent studies, using an open-field LIB-induced mTBI mouse model with an peak overpressure at 46.6-kPa, demonstrated behavioral impairments and brain nanoscale damages, notably mitochondrial and axonal ultrastructural changes...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Ruchira M Jha, Shashvat M Desai, Benjamin E Zusman, Theresa A Koleck, Ava M Puccio, David O Okonkwo, Seo-Young Park, Lori Shutter, Patrick M Kochanek, Yvette P Conley
Sulfonylurea-receptor-1(SUR1) and its associated Transient-Receptor-Potential cation channel subfamily-M(TRPM4) channel are key contributors to cerebral edema and intracranial hypertension in traumatic brain injury (TBI) and other neurological disorders. Channel inhibition by glyburide is clinically promising. ABCC8 (encoding SUR1) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are reported as predictors of raised intracranial-pressure (ICP). This project evaluated whether TRPM4 SNPs predicted ICP and TBI outcome. DNA was extracted from 435 consecutively enrolled severe-TBI patients...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
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