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Journal of Neurotrauma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447895/compensatory-function-of-the-diaphragm-following-high-cervical-hemisection-in-the-rat
#1
Kun-Ze Lee, Shih-Hui Hsu
Unilateral high cervical spinal hemisection (i.e., C2Hx) interrupts the respiratory bulbospinal pathway and results in paralysis of the hemidiaphragm. The ipsilateral diaphragmatic activity can partially recover over weeks to months; however, its contribution to the tidal volume generation is less than 20 %. Accordingly, we hypothesized that the contralateral diaphragm exert a compensatory function to maintain the essential ventilation following cervical spinal cord hemisection. The cardiorespiratory pattern and bilateral diaphragm electromyogram (EMG) were measured in urethane-anesthetized and spontaneously breathing adult rats at 1 day, 2 or 8 weeks post-C2Hx or C2 laminectomy...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447885/recovery-from-coma-post-cardiac-arrest-is-dependent-on-the-orexin-pathway
#2
Young-Jin Kang, Guilian Tian, Afsheen Bazrafkan, Maryam H Farahabadi, Matine Azadian, Hamidreza Abbasi, Brittany Shamaoun, Oswald Steward, Yama Akbari
Cardiac arrest affects >550,000 people annually in the USA while 80-90% of survivors suffer from a comatose state. Arousal from coma is critical for recovery but mechanisms of arousal are undefined. Orexin-A, a hypothalamic excitatory neuropeptide, has been linked to arousal deficits in various brain injuries. We investigated the orexinergic system's role in recovery from cardiac arrest-related neurological impairments, including arousal deficits. Using an asphyxial cardiac arrest and resuscitation model in rats, we examine neurological recovery post-resuscitation in conjunction with changes in orexin-A levels in cerebrospinal fluid and orexin-expressing neurons...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447875/forward-to-the-special-issue-on-locomotor-rehabilitation-after-spinal-cord-injury
#3
David S K Magnuson, W Dalton Dietrich
N/A.
April 27, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447873/employment-outcome-ten-years-after-moderate-to-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-a-prospective-cohort-study
#4
Erik Grauwmeijer, Majanka Heijenbrok-Kal, Iain Haitsma, Gerard Ribbers
The objective of this prospective cohort study was to evaluate the probability of employment and predictors of employment in patients with moderate to severe Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) over 10 years follow-up. 113 patients (18-67 years) were included with follow-up measurements 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 36 months and ten years after TBI. Potential predictors of employment probability included patient characteristics, injury severity factors, functional outcome measured at discharge from the hospital with the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS), Barthel Index (BI), Functional Independence Measure (FIM), and the Functional Assessment Measure (FAM)...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447870/does-specialized-inpatient-rehabilitation-affect-whether-or-not-people-with-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury-return-home
#5
Christiana L Cheng, Tova Plashkes, Tian Shen, Nader Fallah, Suzanne Humphreys, Colleen O'Connell, A Gary Linassi, Chester Ho, Christine Short, Karen Ethans, Rebecca Charbonneau, Jérôme Paquet, Vanessa K Noonan
Return to living at home is an important patient-reported outcome following traumatic spinal cord injury (tSCI). Specialized inpatient rehabilitation assists such patients in maximizing function and independence. Our project aim was to describe those patients receiving specialized rehabilitation after tSCI in Canada, and to determine if such rehabilitation improved the likelihood of returning home. This cohort study utilized data from RHSCIR to identify patients with tSCI discharged from 1 of 18 participating acute specialized spine facilities between 2011-2015 to either 1 of 13 participating specialized rehabilitation facilities, or another discharge destination...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181857/subconcussive-impact-dependent-increase-in-plasma-s100%C3%AE-levels-in-collegiate-football-players
#6
Keisuke Kawata, Leah H Rubin, Masahiro Takahagi, Jong Hyun Lee, Thomas Sim, Victor Szwanki, Al Bellamy, Ryan Tierney, Dianne Langford
The current study investigates whether repetitive subconcussive impacts cause changes in plasma S100β levels, and also tests the associations between S100β changes and frequency/magnitude of impacts sustained. This prospective study of 22 Division-I collegiate football players included baseline and pre-season practices (one helmet-only and four full-gear). Blood samples were obtained and assessed for S100β levels at baseline and pre- to post-practices; symptom scores were assessed at each time-point. An accelerometer-embedded mouthguard was employed to measure the number of impacts (hits), peak linear acceleration (PLA), and peak rotational acceleration (PRA)...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437223/exercise-and-peripheral-nerve-grafts-as-a-strategy-to-promote-regeneration-after-acute-or-chronic-spinal-cord-injury
#7
Catherine C Theisen, Rahul Sachdeva, Scarlett Austin, Danielle Kulich, Victoria Kranz, John D Houle
Therapeutic interventions after spinal cord injury (SCI) routinely are designed to address multiple aspects of the primary and/or secondary damage that occurs. Exercise has a demonstrated efficacy for post-SCI complications such as cardiovascular dysfunction, neuropathic pain, and chronic inflammation, yet there is little understanding of the mechanisms by which improvements might result from this non-invasive approach. Here we review several of our observations of molecular and cellular changes within the injured spinal cord following acute or delayed exercise regimens that illustrate the potential for positive effects on neuroprotection and rehabilitation...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325100/lateral-ventricle-attenuates-underlying-traumatic-axonal-injury-after-closed-head-injury-in-the-mouse
#8
James Bouley, Nils Henninger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 26, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323524/comparison-of-two-predictive-models-for-short-term-mortality-in-patients-after-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#9
Klara Kesmarky, Cecile Delhumeau, Marie Zenobi, Bernhard Walder
The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and the Abbreviated Injury Score of the head region (HAIS) are validated prognostic factors in traumatic brain injury (TBI). The aim of this study was to compare the prognostic performance of an alternative predictive model including motor GCS, pupillary reactivity, age, HAIS, and presence of multi-trauma for short-term mortality with a reference predictive model including motor GCS, pupil reaction, and age (IMPACT core model). A secondary analysis of a prospective epidemiological cohort study in Switzerland including patients after severe TBI (HAIS >3) with the outcome death at 14 days was performed...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323516/does-normobaric-hyperoxia-cause-oxidative-stress-in-the-injured-brain-a-microdialysis-study-using-8-iso-prostaglandin-f2%C3%AE-as-a-biomarker
#10
Marian Vidal-Jorge, Angela Sánchez-Guerrero, Gemma Mur-Bonet, Lidia Castro, Andreea Rădoi, Marilyn Riveiro, Natalia Fernández-Prado, Jacinto Baena, Maria-Antonia Poca, Juan Sahuquillo
Significant controversy exists regarding the potential clinical benefit of normobaric hyperoxia (NBO) in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). This study consisted of two aims: 1) to assess whether NBO improves brain oxygenation and metabolism and 2) to determine whether this therapy may increase the risk of oxidative stress (OxS), using 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) as a biomarker. Thirty-one patients with a median admission Glasgow Coma Scale score of 4 (min: 3, max: 12) were monitored with cerebral microdialysis and brain tissue oxygen sensors and treated with fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) of 1...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322619/raising-the-bar-for-traumatic-brain-injury-biomarker-research-methods-make-a-difference
#11
Linda Papa, Kevin K W Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 26, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288551/repetitive-closed-head-impact-model-of-engineered-rotational-acceleration-induces-long-term-cognitive-impairments-with-persistent-astrogliosis-and-microgliosis-in-mice
#12
Huazhen Chen, Abhishek Desai, Hee-Yong Kim
Repeated mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI) has been identified by epidemiology as a high-risk factor for dementia at a later stage in life. Animal models to replicate complex features of human rmTBI and/or to evaluate long-term effects on brain function have not been established. In this study, we used a novel closed-head impact model of engineered rotational acceleration (CHIMERA) to investigate the long-term neuropathological and cognitive functional consequences of rmTBI. Adult C57BL/6 male mice were subjected to CHIMERA for 3 consecutive days 24 h apart...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249552/hypertension-induced-enhanced-myogenic-constriction-of-cerebral-arteries-is-preserved-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#13
Nikolett Szarka, Krisztina Amrein, Peter Horvath, Ivan Ivic, Endre Czeiter, Andras Buki, Akos Koller, Peter Toth
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) was shown to impair pressure-induced myogenic response of cerebral arteries, which is associated with vascular and neural dysfunction and increased mortality of TBI patients. Hypertension was shown to enhance myogenic tone of cerebral arteries via increased vascular production of 20-hydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (HETE). This adaptive mechanism protects brain tissue from pressure/volume overload; however, it can also lead to increased susceptibility to cerebral ischemia. Although both effects may potentiate the detrimental vascular consequences of TBI, it is not known how hypertension modulates the effect of TBI on myogenic responses of cerebral vessels...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177265/social-competence-at-two-years-after-child-traumatic-brain-injury
#14
Vicki Anderson, Miriam H Beauchamp, Keith Owen Yeates, Louise Crossley, Nicholas Ryan, Stephen J C Hearps, Cathy Catroppa
Children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) are at risk for social impairment, but research has yet to document the trajectory of these skills post-injury and factors that may predict social problems. This study addressed these gaps in knowledge, reporting on findings from a prospective, longitudinal follow-up study that investigated social outcomes post-injury and explored factors contributing to these outcomes at two years post-injury. The sample included 113 children, 74 with TBI and 39 typically developing (TD) controls...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173736/the-alternative-receptor-for-complement-component-5a-c5ar2-conveys-neuroprotection-in-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury
#15
Patrick J C Biggins, Faith H Brennan, Stephen M Taylor, Trent M Woodruff, Marc J Ruitenberg
This study investigated the role of the alternative receptor for complement activation fragment C5a, C5aR2, in secondary inflammatory pathology after contusive spinal cord injury (SCI) in mice. C5ar2(-/-) mice exhibited decreased intraparenchymal tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6 acutely post-injury, but these reductions did not translate into improved outcomes. We show that loss of C5aR2 leads to increased lesion volumes, reduced myelin sparing, and significantly worsened recovery from SCI in C5ar2(-/-) animals compared to wild-type (WT) controls...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228060/resuscitation-with-lyophilized-plasma-is-safe-and-improves-neurological-recovery-in-a-long-term-survival-model-of-swine-subjected-to-traumatic-brain-injury-hemorrhagic-shock-and-polytrauma
#16
Patrick E Georgoff, Vahagn C Nikolian, Ihab Halaweish, Kiril Chtraklin, Peter J Bruhn, Hassan Eidy, Monica Rasmussen, Yongqing Li, Ashok Srinivasan, Hasan B Alam
We have shown previously that fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and lyophilized plasma (LP) decrease brain lesion size and improve neurological recovery in a swine model of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hemorrhagic shock (HS). In this study, we examine whether these findings can be validated in a clinically relevant model of severe TBI, HS, and polytrauma. Female Yorkshire swine were subjected to TBI (controlled cortical impact), hemorrhage (40% volume), grade III liver and splenic injuries, rib fracture, and rectus abdominis crush...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158951/neuronal-biomarker-ubiquitin-c-terminal-hydrolase-detects-traumatic-intracranial-lesions-on-computed-tomography-in-children-and-youth-with-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#17
Linda Papa, Manoj K Mittal, Jose Ramirez, Salvatore Silvestri, Philip Giordano, Carolina F Braga, Ciara N Tan, Neema J Ameli, Marco A Lopez, Crystal A Haeussler, Diego Mendez Giordano, Mark R Zonfrillo
This study examined the performance of serum ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase (UCH-L1) in detecting traumatic intracranial lesions on computed tomography (CT) scan (+CT) in children and youth with mild and moderate TBI (mmTBI) and assessed its performance in trauma control patients without head trauma. This prospective cohort study enrolled children and youth presenting to three level 1 trauma centers after blunt head trauma and a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 9-15 as well as trauma control patients with GCS 15 that did not have blunt head trauma...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152648/changes-in-apparent-fiber-density-and-track-weighted-imaging-metrics-in-white-matter-following-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury
#18
David K Wright, Leigh A Johnston, Jeff Kershaw, Roger Ordidge, Terence J O'Brien, Sandy R Shultz
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been assessed with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), a commonly used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) marker for white matter integrity. However, given that the DTI model only fits a single fiber orientation, results can become confounded in regions of "crossing" white matter fibers. In contrast, constrained spherical deconvolution estimates a fiber orientation distribution directly from high angular resolution diffusion-weighted images. Consequently, constrained spherical deconvolution-based measures, such as apparent fiber density (AFD) and track-weighted imaging (TWI) metrics (including tract density imaging, average pathlength mapping, and mean curvature), may be more sensitive than DTI metrics to white matter injury post-TBI...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288544/dynamic-range-of-motion-hindlimb-stretching-disrupts-locomotor-function-in-rats-with-moderate-subacute-spinal-cord-injuries
#19
Anastasia Keller, Kathlene Rees, Daniella Prince, Johnny Morehouse, Alice Shum-Siu, David Magnuson
Joint contractures and spasticity are two common secondary complications of a severe spinal cord injury (SCI), which can significantly reduce quality of life, and stretching is one of the top strategies for rehabilitation of these complications. We have previously shown that a daily static stretching protocol administered to rats at either acute or chronic time points after a moderate or moderate-severe T10 SCI significantly disrupts their hindlimb locomotor function. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of dynamic range of motion (ROM) stretching on the locomotor function of rats with SCI as an alternative to static stretching...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398177/editorial-outcome-trends-following-u-s-military-concussive-injury
#20
Harvey Levin
EDITORIAL.
April 11, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
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