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Journal of the National Cancer Institute

Anna Wallerstedt, Peter Strom, Henrik Gronberg, Tobias Nordstrom, Martin Eklund
Background: Studies have shown that 5α-reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs) decrease the risk for low-grade prostate cancer (PC), but results are conflicting concerning high-grade PCs. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the association between 5-ARI treatment for lower urinary tract symptoms and the risk for PC. Methods: This is a population-based prospective study on all men age 40 years and older with at least one prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test in Stockholm County from January 2007 until December 2015...
March 14, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Stella Koutros, Petra Lenz, Stephen M Hewitt, Masatoshi Kida, Michael Jones, Alan R Schned, Dalsu Baris, Ruth Pfeiffer, Molly Schwenn, Alison Johnson, Margaret R Karagas, Montserrat Garcia-Closas, Nathaniel Rothman, Lee E Moore, Debra T Silverman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 14, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Ian Thompson, Phyllis Goodman, Catherine Tangen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 14, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Jean-Philippe Foy, Catherine Durdux, Philippe Giraud, Jean-Emmanuel Bibault
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 12, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Nathan I Cherny, Urani Dafni, Jan Bogaerts, Nicola J Latino, George Pentheroudakis, Jean-Yves Douillard, Josep Tabernero, Christoph Zielinski, Martine J Piccart, Elisabeth G E de Vries
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 12, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Catherine M Olsen, Nirmala Pandeya, Bridie S Thompson, Jean Claude Dusingize, Penelope M Webb, Adele C Green, Rachel E Neale, David C Whiteman
Background: Risk stratification can improve the efficacy and cost-efficiency of screening programs for early detection of cancer. We sought to derive a risk stratification tool for melanoma that was suitable for the general population using only self-reported information. Methods: We used melanoma risk factor information collected at baseline from QSKIN, a prospective cohort study of Queensland adults age 40 to 69 years at recruitment (n = 41 954). We examined two separate outcomes: 1) invasive melanomas and 2) all melanomas (invasive + in situ) obtained through data linkage to the cancer registry...
March 11, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Joseph M Unger, Dawn L Hershman, Cathee Till, Catherine M Tangen, William E Barlow, Scott D Ramsey, Phyllis J Goodman, Ian M Thompson
Background: Investigators have used administrative claims to better understand cancer outcomes when a research question cannot feasibly be examined within a study. The Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) showed that seven years of finasteride reduced prostate cancer (PC) risk by 25% in men age 55 years or older. However, it was unclear whether the observed reduction in PC for finasteride participants would be maintained after finasteride discontinuation. Methods: We examined PC diagnoses identified by PCPT study records and Medicare claims (finasteride = 9423, placebo = 9457)...
March 9, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Jonathan M Samet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 6, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Danxia Yu, Wei Zheng, Mattias Johansson, Qing Lan, Yikyung Park, Emily White, Charles E Matthews, Norie Sawada, Yu-Tang Gao, Kim Robien, Rashmi Sinha, Arnulf Langhammer, Rudolf Kaaks, Edward L Giovannucci, Linda M Liao, Yong-Bing Xiang, DeAnn Lazovich, Ulrike Peters, Xuehong Zhang, Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Walter C Willett, Shoichiro Tsugane, Yumie Takata, Stephanie A Smith-Warner, William Blot, Xiao-Ou Shu
Background: The obesity-lung cancer association remains controversial. Concerns over confounding by smoking and reverse causation persist. The influence of obesity type and effect modifications by race/ethnicity and tumor histology are largely unexplored. Methods: We examined associations of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-hip ratio (WHR) with lung cancer risk among 1.6 million Americans, Europeans, and Asians. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) with adjustment for potential confounders...
March 6, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Thibo Billiet, Iris Elens, Charlotte Sleurs, Anne Uyttebroeck, Rudi D'Hooge, Jurgen Lemiere, Sabine Deprez
Background: This study aimed to assess functional and structural brain connectivity in adult childhood leukemia survivors and the link with cognitive functioning and previously identified risk factors such as intrathecal methotrexate dose and age at start of therapy. Methods: Thirty-one nonirradiated adult childhood leukemia survivors and 35 controls underwent cognitive testing and multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (resting state functional MRI, T1-weighted, diffusion-weighted, and myelin water imaging [MWI])...
March 5, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Pauline Depuydt, Valentina Boeva, Toby D Hocking, Robrecht Cannoodt, Inge M Ambros, Peter F Ambros, Shahab Asgharzadeh, Edward F Attiyeh, Valérie Combaret, Raffaella Defferrari, Matthias Fischer, Barbara Hero, Michael D Hogarty, Meredith S Irwin, Jan Koster, Susan Kreissman, Ruth Ladenstein, Eve Lapouble, Geneviève Laureys, Wendy B London, Katia Mazzocco, Akira Nakagawara, Rosa Noguera, Miki Ohira, Julie R Park, Ulrike Pötschger, Jessica Theissen, Gian Paolo Tonini, Dominique Valteau-Couanet, Luigi Varesio, Rogier Versteeg, Frank Speleman, John M Maris, Gudrun Schleiermacher, Katleen De Preter
Background: Neuroblastoma is characterized by substantial clinical heterogeneity. Despite intensive treatment, the survival rates of high-risk neuroblastoma patients are still disappointingly low. Somatic chromosomal copy number aberrations have been shown to be associated with patient outcome, particularly in low- and intermediate-risk neuroblastoma patients. To improve outcome prediction in high-risk neuroblastoma, we aimed to design a prognostic classification method based on copy number aberrations...
March 5, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Mei Wang, Johan Lindberg, Daniel Klevebring, Christer Nilsson, Sören Lehmann, Henrik Grönberg, Mattias Rantalainen
Background: Recent progress in sequencing technologies allows us to explore comprehensive genomic and transcriptomic information to improve the current European LeukemiaNet (ELN) system of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Methods: We compared the prognostic value of traditional demographic and cytogenetic risk factors, genomic data in the form of somatic aberrations of 25 AML-relevant genes, and whole-transcriptome expression profiling (RNA sequencing) in 267 intensively treated AML patients (Clinseq-AML)...
March 1, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Saul Shiffman, Joe G Gitchell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 28, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Ahmed El Kaffas, Azza Al-Mahrouki, Amr Hashim, Niki Law, Anoja Giles, Gregory J Czarnota
Background: High-dose radiotherapy (>8-10 Gy) causes rapid endothelial cell death via acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase)-induced ceramide production, resulting in biologically significant enhancement of tumor responses. To further augment or solicit similar effects at low radiation doses, we used genetic and chemical approaches to evaluate mechano-acoustic activation of the ASMase-ceramide pathway by ultrasound-stimulated microbubbles (USMB). Methods: Experiments were carried out in wild-type and acid sphingomyelinase (asmase) knockout mice implanted with fibrosarcoma xenografts...
February 28, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Maeve A Lowery, Winston Wong, Emmet J Jordan, Jonathan W Lee, Yelena Kemel, Joseph Vijai, Diana Mandelker, Ahmet Zehir, Marinela Capanu, Erin Salo-Mullen, Angela G Arnold, Kenneth H Yu, Anna M Varghese, David P Kelsen, Robin Brenner, Erica Kaufmann, Vignesh Ravichandran, Semanti Mukherjee, Michael F Berger, David M Hyman, David S Klimstra, Ghassan K Abou-Alfa, Catherine Tjan, Christina Covington, Hannah Maynard, Peter J Allen, Gokce Askan, Steven D Leach, Christine A Iacobuzio-Donahue, Mark E Robson, Kenneth Offit, Zsofia K Stadler, Eileen M O'Reilly
Background: Identification of pathogenic germline alterations (PGAs) has important clinical and therapeutic implications in pancreas cancer. We performed comprehensive germline testing (GT) in an unselected prospective cohort of patients with exocrine pancreatic neoplasms with genotype and phenotype association to facilitate identification of prognostic and/or predictive biomarkers and examine potential therapeutic implications. Methods: Six hundred fifteen unselected patients with exocrine pancreatic neoplasms were prospectively consented for somatic tumor and matched sample profiling for 410-468 genes...
February 28, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Britta Weigelt, Rui Bi, Rahul Kumar, Pedro Blecua, Diana L Mandelker, Felipe C Geyer, Fresia Pareja, Paul A James, Fergus J Couch, Diana M Eccles, Fiona Blows, Paul Pharoah, Anqi Li, Pier Selenica, Raymond S Lim, Gowtham Jayakumaran, Nic Waddell, Ronglai Shen, Larry Norton, Hannah Y Wen, Simon N Powell, Nadeem Riaz, Mark E Robson, Jorge S Reis-Filho, Georgia Chenevix-Trench
Pathogenic germline variants in ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), a gene that plays a role in DNA damage response and cell cycle checkpoints, confer an increased breast cancer (BC) risk. Here, we investigated the phenotypic characteristics and landscape of somatic genetic alterations in 24 BCs from ATM germline mutation carriers by whole-exome and targeted sequencing. ATM-associated BCs were consistently hormone receptor positive and largely displayed minimal immune infiltrate. Although 79.2% of these tumors exhibited loss of heterozygosity of the ATM wild-type allele, none displayed high activity of mutational signature 3 associated with defective homologous recombination DNA (HRD) repair...
February 28, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
John P Pierce, Eric C Leas, Tarik Benmarhnia, David R Strong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 28, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Angela R Bradbury, Linda J Patrick-Miller, Brian L Egleston, Michael J Hall, Susan M Domchek, Mary B Daly, Pamela Ganschow, Generosa Grana, Olufunmilayo I Olopade, Dominique Fetzer, Amanda Brandt, Rachelle Chambers, Dana F Clark, Andrea Forman, Rikki Gaber, Cassandra Gulden, Janice Horte, Jessica M Long, Terra Lucas, Shreshtha Madaan, Kristin Mattie, Danielle McKenna, Susan Montgomery, Sarah Nielsen, Jacquelyn Powers, Kim Rainey, Christina Rybak, Michelle Savage, Christina Seelaus, Jessica Stoll, Jill E Stopfer, Xinxin Shirley Yao
Background: Germline genetic testing is standard practice in oncology. Outcomes of telephone disclosure of a wide range of cancer genetic test results, including multigene panel testing (MGPT) are unknown. Methods: Patients undergoing cancer genetic testing were recruited to a multicenter, randomized, noninferiority trial (NCT01736345) comparing telephone disclosure (TD) of genetic test results with usual care, in-person disclosure (IPD) after tiered-binned in-person pretest counseling...
February 27, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Mitchell H Gail, Ruth M Pfeiffer
Background: Incorporation of polygenic risk scores and mammographic density into models to predict breast cancer incidence can increase discriminatory accuracy (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC]) from 0.6 for models based only on epidemiologic factors to 0.7. It is timely to assess what impact these improvements will have on individual counseling and on public health prevention and screening strategies, and to determine what further improvements are needed. Methods: We studied various clinical and public health applications using a log-normal distribution of risk...
February 27, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Huma Q Rana, Rebecca Gelman, Holly LaDuca, Rachel McFarland, Emily Dalton, Jennifer Thompson, Virginia Speare, Jill S Dolinsky, Elizabeth C Chao, Judy E Garber
Background: Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) has traditionally been identified by single-gene testing (SGT) of TP53 triggered by clinical criteria, but the widespread use of multigene panel tests (MGPTs) has upended this paradigm. We sought to compare the personal and family cancer histories of TP53-positive result (TP53+) carriers who were identified by either MGPT or SGT. Methods: Of 44 310 individuals who underwent testing of TP53 in a single clinical diagnostic laboratory between 2010 and 2014, 44 086 (40 885 MGPT and 3201 SGT) met study eligibility criteria...
February 26, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
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